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INDEX

ABCX model, 47
Abrams, Lynn, 18
adaptive energy, 33
Air Ministry, 130, 132
Air Transport Auxiliary, 136
alcohol, 23, 26, 28, 36, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64,
65, 66, 68, 69, 72, 129, 130, 148, 151
abuse, 23, 34, 42, 59, 61, 62, 67, 69, 71
poisoning, 62
women and, 59, 63
Alcoholics Anonymous, 61, 63, 69
Alexander, Franz, 116
Allbutt, Thomas Clifford, British physician,
19
allergy, 26, 27, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165,
166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173
Allport, Alan, 146
American Academy of Allergy, 166
American Psychosomatic Society, 164
anaphylaxis, 27, 173
Anderson, John, Sir, 152
Applied Psychology Research Unit, Cambridge, 179
armed forces, 15, 25, 32, 125, 129, 130, 132,
136, 139, 141, 156
Armstrong, David, 111, 193, 196
Assinder, Frank, 145
Atkin, Isaac, Russian-born psychiatrist and
asylum superintendent, 138
attempted suicide, 28, 66, 191, 193, 196, 198,
201, 203, 204, 205
parasuicide, 192, 196
self-poisoning, 192, 196, 197, 198, 200,
201, 202, 203
automation, 24, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96,
97, 98, 100, 101, 105, 106, 107
automatos, 91

Bagrit, Sir Leon, industrialist, 92, 94


Ballard, S. I., 136, 137, 138, 139, 140
Bartlett, Frederic C., Cambridge psychologist, 130, 179, 181, 182, 183, 185, 189
BBC, 92
Beard, George M., American doctor, 19, 188
Benedek, Therese, Hungarian psychiatrist,
15, 38, 42, 50
Benzedrine, 130, 195
Berger, Herbert, New York physician, 69
Beveridge, William, Sir, 152
Bevin, Ernest, Minister of Reconstruction,
38
Bion, Wilfred, 194
Birley, James, L., British physician, Chief
Medical Officer to the RAF, 128, 129
Blacker, C. P., Dr, 156
Black, Sir Douglas, 119
Blitz, the, 34
Blunt, Maggie, publicity officer in Slough,
157
Bomber Command, 132, 136
Bowlby, John, child psychiatrist, 32, 199
British Army of Occupation of the Rhine, 40
British Expeditionary Force, 147
British Legion, 39
British Library Sound Archive, 75
British Medical Association, 114, 115
British Medical Journal, 100
Brittain, Vera, 127
Browne, R. C., Professor of Industrial Health,
99, 100
Brown, Felix, Emergency Medical Service
psychiatrist, 138
Brylcreem boys, 135
Burt, Cyril, psychologist, 39, 181

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Stress in Post-War Britain 194585

Cambridge Evacuation Survey, 32


Cambridge Psychology Laboratory, 179, 181
cancer, 41, 42, 173
Cannon, Walter B., American physiologist,
19, 60, 95, 129, 132, 145, 175, 176
Carstairs, G. M., 195
Cartland, Barbara, Welfare Office, 39
Cecil, Lord David, 135
Chadwick, Edwin, 194
Chaplin, Charlie, 92
Chief Inspector of Factories, 103
Chiesman, Sir Walter, 113
Christian community, 42
Churchill, Winston, 38
Civil Resettlement Units, 157
Civil Service, 24, 109, 112, 113, 114, 115,
116, 117, 123, 180
Civil Service Department (CSD), 114, 115
C. & J. Clark, Somerset shoe manufacturer,
103, 106
Clarke, T. Wood, New York allergist, 162,
163, 173
class, 18, 21, 22, 25, 26, 72, 74, 76, 82, 109,
111, 112, 115, 117, 126, 142, 145, 155
Cochrane, Archibald, 184
Cold War (194791), 15, 43, 98
Collings, J. S. Australian doctor, 152
Collins, Henry, sociologist, 162
Colmes, Abraham, Boston physician, 163
Commissioners in Lunacy, 46
Committee on Industrial Psychology, 181
Computer Automation, 91
Confederation of British Industry, 179
Control Automation, 91, 99
Co-operative Society, 96
Cooper, Cary, 70, 176
coping mechanism, 59, 65
Cox, Tom, British psychologist, 60, 186
Coyne, J. C., 43
Craik, Kenneth, 179
Curle, Adam, 194
cutaneous psychiatry, 165

Department of Scientific and Industrial


Research, 92, 93, 97, 98, 99, 105
depression, 23, 45, 47, 59, 63, 65, 70, 81, 96,
118, 123, 131, 132, 137, 164, 170, 172,
175, 192, 197, 203
diathesis-stress model, 48
divorce rate, 36
Doll, Richard, 145, 155
domestic stress, 24, 49, 50, 51, 64, 202
Draper, George, American pioneer of Constitutional Medicine, 130, 148
Dunbar, Helen Flanders, psychosomatic
theorist, 164
Dunkirk, 43
duodenal ulcer, 65, 130, 146, 149, 151, 154,
155, 156, 158
Edwards, Griffith, British psychiatrist, 60, 65,
67
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), 159
Elton, Lord, British historian, 16
Emergency Medical Service, 138, 152
employment, 17, 23, 24, 55, 64, 68, 69, 76,
79, 81, 86, 94, 96, 122, 146, 147, 148,
150, 156, 157, 176, 177, 178, 179, 182,
183, 187, 189, 190
Environmental Health Committee, MRC,
179, 185
Ergonomics Research Society, 93

Copyright

Fairbairn, W. Ronald, Scottish psychiatrist,


132, 133
Family Discussion Bureau, Institute of Marital Studies, 201
family life, 16, 22, 23, 32, 33, 34, 38, 41, 52,
57, 77, 112, 122, 140
Family Welfare Association, 201
Farmer, Eric, 181, 182, 183, 186
Faulkner, Joan, 187
Feingold Association of the United States,
169
Feingold, Ben, San Francisco allergist, 160,
169
feminism,
second wave, 16
DArcy Hart, Phillip, 184
Festival of Britain, 1951, 16, 157
Davies, Daniel T., physician, 147
demands-control-support model (DCS), Field, Geoffrey, American historian, 38
Finch, Janet, 41
121, 122
Department of Employment, 179, 181

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Index
First World War (the Great War 191418),
35, 38, 110, 113, 127, 128, 130, 131,
141, 147, 156
flying stress, 20, 25, 26, 128, 129, 130, 131,
132, 133, 135, 138
aeroneurosis, 128
Folkman, Susan, 120, 192
food allergy, 160, 161, 162, 166, 172, 173
Ford, Henry, 89, 92, 97, 102, 103, 105, 179,
184, 185
Fordism, 90, 91, 102
Foulkes, S. H., 194
Freeman, John, allergist, 162
Freud, Anna, psychoanalyst, 32
Freud, Sigmund, 129, 164
Friedan, Betty, 126, 141
Friedman, Meyer, cardiologist, 71, 109, 142,
155
Fry, John, post-war pioneer of general-practice-based research, 65, 149
Fulton Committee (Committee on the Civil
Service), 113
Fulton, Lord John, 113
The Fulton Report, 114, 115
Funkenstein, Daniel H., 134, 193

249

Hayward, Rhodri, 195, 196, 206


Head, Henry, 181
Health and Safety at Work Act (1974), 87
Health and Safety Commission, 180
Health and Safety Executive, 85, 87, 119, 175
Heim, Alice, Cambridge, 182
Heller, Joseph, American novelist, 29
Henderson, David K., psychiatrist, 155, 200
high modernity, 20
Hill, Austin Bradford, 111
Hill, John, 110
Hill, Reuben, 31, 37, 47, 50, 57
Home Office, 181
Howell, C. A. Hinds, Major, 148
Hunnybun, Noel K., Senior PSW in Childrens Department, Tavistock Institute,
198
Hurst, Sir Arthur, gastronenterologist, 148,
151, 154

Copyright

IBM sorting machine, 170


IgE (Immunoglobulin E), 27, 173
immigration, 17
Industrial Fatigue Research Board, 110
Industrial Health Research Board, 110, 179
industrial medicine, 68, 69, 90
Gardell, Bertil, Professor of Work Psychol- Industrial Welfare Society, 93
ogy, Stockholm University, 118, 121
Industrial Working Party for the Boot and
Gavron, Hannah, 141
Shoe Industry, 101
Gay, Leslie N., allergist, 164
Institute of Production Engineers, 92
gender, 16, 21, 22, 25, 26, 32, 59, 61, 66, 72, International Classification of Diseases
73, 117, 127, 135, 136, 143, 149, 193,
(ICD), 8th Revision, 115
204, 205
Irvine, Elizabeth, 201
General Register Office, 150
Isaacs, Susan, child educationalist, 32
Gilbreth, Frank Bunker, 101
Isherwood, Christopher, 157
Glatt, Max, German-born neurologist, 60,
Jack, Raymond, 198
61, 63, 64
James, Nora, writer, 38
Goffman, Erving, 52
Jellinek, Elvin Morton, American biostatistiGreer, Germaine, 127
cian and physician, 60
Grinker, Roy R., American psychiatrist, 31,
Jessup,
Gilbert, 179, 180, 181, 187
37, 125, 126, 134, 142, 193
Johnson, Amy, female aviator, 136
Grout, Gerald C., Michigan allergist, 163
Joint Shop Stewards Committee, 103
Halewood, Merseyside, 102, 104
Jones, Francis Avery, 145, 155
Halliday, James Lorimer, Regional Medical Joseph Rowntree Steering Group on AlcoOfficer, Scottish psychiatrist, 80, 111,
holism, 61, 65
130, 154
Kahn, Robert, 116
Hambling, John, physician, 154

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Kanner, A. K., 43, 48


Karasek, Robert, American researcher, 118
Kardiner, Abram, American psychoanalyst,
131
Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, 118
Kaufman, William, Connecticut physiologist and physician, 168
Kerner, Fred, Canadian journalist, 141
Kessel, Neil, British psychiatrist, 28, 196,
198, 200, 202, 203
Klein, Viola, sociologist, 94, 112, 141
Korean War (19503), 15
Kreeger, Irving, 197
Kreitman, Norman, 196
Lampton, Joe, 151
The Lancet, 112, 154
Lazarus, Richard, American psychologist, 19,
31, 43, 47, 73, 120, 126, 134, 176, 185,
186, 192
Lee, Elizabeth, 200
Leighton, Ronald, 127
Leney, Fannie Lou, Oklahoma paediatric
allergist, 163
Levi, Lennart, 186
Lewis, Aubrey, 156, 199
Logan, William, Chief Medical Statistician
for the General Register Office, 66, 150
London Co-operative Party, 93
London School of Economics, 198
London School of Hygiene and Tropical
Medicine, 119

Maudsley Psychiatric Hospital, 62


McCulloch, J. Wallace, 200, 202
mechanization, 24, 93, 153
Medical Advisory Service to the Civil Service, 114
Medical Factory Inspectors, 181
Medical Research Council (MRC), 80, 110,
119, 145, 155, 179, 180, 181, 183, 184,
185, 186, 187, 189, 190
Social and Applied Psychology Unit,
Sheffield, 186
Menninger, William C. Brigadier General,
American psychiatrist, 139
menopause, 39, 64, 118, 140
Mental After Care Association, 198
mental health, 17, 21, 24, 26, 29, 45, 51, 57,
58, 62, 72, 73, 76, 78, 84, 86, 87, 90, 92,
94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 100, 101, 104, 112,
114, 117, 118, 123, 134, 138, 141, 159,
160, 161, 164, 176, 179, 186, 189, 193,
194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 203, 205
Mental Health Act (1983), 62
mental illness, 23, 27, 28, 46, 48, 49, 50, 52,
53, 56, 57, 58, 59, 65, 70, 71, 72, 112,
121, 127, 128, 130, 140, 160, 162, 164,
172, 173, 174, 176, 178, 195, 198, 199,
204, 205
mental stress, 36, 46, 180
Mercier, Charles Arthur, British physician,
19
Metropolitan-Vickers Electrical Company,
99
Meyer, Adolf, 60, 193
Micale, Mark, 72
micro-motion study, 102
Millard, Charles, 28
Miller, H. G., 136, 137, 138, 139
MIND, 59
Ministry of Health, 61, 62, 152, 181
Ministry of Labour, 181, 182
Ministry of Labour Gazette, 96
Modern Times, film, 92, 98
modernity, 19, 20, 90, 92, 107, 188
Moran, Lord, physician to Winston Churchill, 132
Morris, Jerry, 111, 112, 147, 148
Motion Study Department, 106
Munro, Alistair, 199

Copyright
Mackarness, Richard, British psychiatrist,
159, 160, 174
MacNalty, Sir Arthur, Chief Medical Officer,
16
Main, Thomas Forrest, army psychiatrist, 39,
194
Marchant, Sir James, philanthropist, 16
Marmot, Sir Michael, epidemiologist, 109,
110, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123
marriage, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 45, 50, 53, 63,
138, 170, 201, 202, 203
companionate, 41
Marriage Guidance Council, 39
Marshall, Judi, 70
Mass Observation Archives, 18

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Index

251

Munro, David, Secretary of IHRB, 181


Murrell, Hywel, 179, 184, 185, 186
Myers, Charles, 181
Myerson, Abraham, 148
Myrdal, Alva, sociologist, 94, 112, 141

psychological illness, 15, 59, 66, 72, 79, 136,


189
psychosocial, 28, 67, 80, 89, 93, 106, 120,
121, 130, 186, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195,
196, 197, 205
social constellation, 191, 202
National Council for the Rehabilitation of
psychosomatic medicine, 60, 115, 116, 145,
Industrial Workers (NCRIW), 81
146, 149, 153, 164
National Health Service, 16, 17, 26, 41, 48,
psychotherapy, 86, 165, 166, 174
61, 65, 73, 74, 119, 145, 146, 152, 153,
Puckey, Sir Walter, industrialist, 92
154, 157, 158, 191
National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Rabinbach, Anson, 92, 102
119
Randolph, Theron, 166, 167, 168, 169
National Hospital of Nervous Diseases, 128 randomly-controlled trials (RCTs), 162
National Institute of Industrial Psychology, Regimental Associations, 39
110, 181
Reid, D. D., Squadron Leader and statistiNational Production Advisory Council, 105
cian, 119, 120, 133
National Service, 158
Richmond, Miss, Welfare Officer for Hunter
nervous dyspepsia, 65, 70, 130, 132, 139,
and Sons, 78, 79, 80, 81, 85
145, 146
Rickman, John, psychoanalyst, 154, 194
North, Maurice, British writer, 34
Rinkel, Herbert, 166
Nuffield Provincial Hospital Trust, 152
Robertson, Fyfe, reporter, 153

Copyright

Rockefeller Foundation, 148


Roffey Park Institute, rehabilitation centre,
69, 80, 81
Rose, Geoffrey, epidemiologist, 119, 120
Rosen, George, 195
Rosenman, Ray, cardiologist, 71, 109, 142,
155
Ross, W. Donald, 69
Rowe, Albert H., California allergist, 164,
167
Park Prewett Hospital, Basingstoke, 159
Royal
Air Force, 25, 128, 129, 130, 131, 135,
Pearce, Trevor, 194
136,
157
Pearl Assurance, 81
Royal Army Service Corps, 33
Picture Post, 153
Royal Flying Corps, 131
Pinch, Trevor, sociologist, 162
Pinsent, R. J. F. H, Dr, Chairman of research Royal Navy Reserve, 35
committee of College of General Practi- Ruesch, Jurgen, 197
Rutherford, Edie, Sheffield housewife and
tioners, 150
clerk, 157
Poor Law Institute, 51
Oakley, Ann, 127
occupational health, 24, 60, 90, 114, 115, 184
occupational stress, 24, 26, 70, 109, 110, 126,
175, 176, 177, 189
Office for Health Economics, 70
Olympic Games, Austerity Games, London
(1948), 16, 157
ONeill, Desmond, psychiatrist, 150, 151

Poovey, Mary, 194


Post, Felix, 199
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 127,
193
psychiatric epidemiology, 28, 60, 191, 194,
195, 196, 205
Psychiatric Social Worker (PSW), 192, 198,
200, 201, 202, 203

781 Stress in Post-War Britain final.indd 251

Salvation Army, 39
Sandiford, H. A., Brigadier, director of army
psychiatry, 157
Sapolsky, Robert, 120
Schafer, C., 43
Schilling, Richard, 184
schizophrenia, 49, 137, 199

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scientific management, 102, 105, 107


Sclare, A. B., psychiatrist, 64
Second World War (193945), 15, 17, 20,
22, 23, 25, 27, 29, 31, 43, 45, 49, 50, 60,
72, 73, 77, 78, 80, 90, 91, 102, 110, 111,
119, 125, 126, 127, 130, 131, 132, 135,
141, 145, 146, 149, 151, 158, 162, 172,
181, 189, 194, 200
Section of Occupational Medicine of the
Royal Society of Medicine, 111, 114
Selye, Hans, Hungarian-born scientist, 19,
22, 28, 29, 31, 33, 35, 36, 60, 73, 95,
110, 116, 133, 145, 148, 169, 176, 185,
186, 192
shell shock, 24, 79, 127, 128, 129, 131, 135,
156
combat stress, 21, 24, 127, 128, 130, 131,
133, 135
stress of battle, 19, 126
Shepherd, Michael, psychiatrist, 67, 195
shock, 23, 38, 46, 49, 51, 130, 138
sickness absence, 20, 24, 25, 27, 68, 69, 70,
80, 94, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114,
115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 121, 122, 123,
126, 130, 140, 154
The Sickness Absence Report, 115
Slater, Elliot, 203
smoking, 23, 26, 33, 35, 40, 42, 80, 111, 120,
129, 147, 149, 158
the social, 25, 27, 28, 36, 38, 52, 60, 61, 62,
63, 64, 70, 71, 79, 111, 112, 120, 121,
178, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197,
198, 199, 201, 203, 204, 205, 206
social gradient, 109, 119
Social Medicine Research Unit, MRC, 111
social psychiatry, 191, 196
Social Psychiatry Research Unit, MRC, 199
Social Science Research Council, 93
Society for Clinical Ecology, 169
American Academy of Environmental
Medicine, 169
Society for Psychosomatic Research, 133,
150, 154
Society for Science and the Public, 91
Society for the Promotion of Scientific Management, 102
Spain, Will C., 166
specific adaptation syndrome, 171

Spencer, Herbert, nineteenth-century philosopher, 194


Spiegel, John P., American psychiatrist, 31,
37, 125, 142, 193
Spitfire women, 136
Spring-Rice, Margery, 74
Standard Rate, 103
Standard Time, 102
Steedman, Carolyn, 18
Stengel, Erwin, 196
Stewart, I. McD. G., physician, 138, 198
stigma, 23, 52, 56, 64, 65, 67, 71, 78, 158, 178
Storr, Anthony, 199
stress illnesses
arthritis, 19, 148
diabetes, 19, 121, 173, 195
heart disease, 19, 20, 70, 119, 121, 122,
142, 173
peptic ulceration, 19, 26, 65, 111, 119,
145, 146, 147, 148, 149
stress research, 47, 48, 57, 58, 115, 181, 187
stress symptoms
anxiety, 19, 20, 21, 23, 29, 32, 33, 36, 37,
39, 41, 42, 43, 59, 60, 64, 65, 70, 75,
76, 90, 92, 97, 99, 100, 107, 123, 126,
129, 131, 132, 134, 135, 137, 140,
141, 147, 148, 153, 154, 155, 156,
158, 164, 170, 175, 176, 177, 178,
186, 189, 203
fatigue, 19, 20, 81, 99, 100, 103, 104, 106,
126, 128, 129, 130, 132, 134, 137,
140, 142, 168, 176, 177, 180, 181,
182, 183
indigestion, 19, 23, 26, 145, 149, 151,
153, 155, 156, 158
sleeplessness, 19, 129
worry, 19, 23, 32, 35, 36, 40, 41, 46, 49,
51, 53, 56, 60, 64, 75, 78, 79, 80, 146,
148, 155, 158
Summerfield, Penny, 41
Summers, Julie, 37, 38
Sutherland, J. D., psychiatrist, 98
swinging sixties, 18
Symonds, Charles, P., neurologist, 131, 132,
133
Szasz, Thomas, 205

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Index
Tavistock Institute of Human Relations, 194,
198, 201
Taylor, Frederick Winslow, 101
Taylorism, 101, 102
Taylor, Stephen, medical politician, 112, 126,
152
Thatcher, Margaret, 71
Theorell, Thores, Swedish researcher, 118
Thomson, Sir Daniel, Chief Medical Advisor
to the Civil Service, 24, 109, 110, 112,
113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120,
122
Tidy, Sir Henry, physician, 147
Time and Motion Study, 24, 90, 102, 103,
104, 105, 106, 107
Timms, Noel, 201, 204
Titmuss, Richard, 111, 147, 148, 152, 153,
156, 199
Tobacco Workers Union, 100
Toffler, Alvin, left-wing American writer, 22,
107
Tompkins, V. H., psychiatrist, 133
Townswomens Guild, 39
Trades Union Congress, 115, 177, 179
Transfer (Detroit) Automation, 91
transitional generation, 17
Transport House, London, 105
Trist, Eric, 110

253

Valium, 84, 86, 87

Walton, H. J., psychiatrist, 66


War Office, 19, 129, 157
War Office Committee of Enquiry into ShellShock, 19
Watts, C. A. H., GP, 65
Webster, Charles, 194
welfare state, 76, 77
Whitehall II study, 109, 118, 119, 120, 121,
122, 123
Whitehall I study, 119, 120
Williams, Denis J., Wing Commander, 132
Wilson, A. Macbeth, physician, 147
Wilson, Harold, Labour Party leader, 113
Winnicott, Donald, paediatrician and psychoanalyst, 32
Wittkower, Erich, 164
Wolff, Harold G., New York neurologist, 19,
60, 169, 170, 171, 193
Womens Auxiliary Air Force, 128, 135, 136
Womens Institute, 39
Womens Royal Naval Service, 136
Woodside, Moya, 203
Woolf, Harold G., psychiatrist, 98
Woollard, Frank, mechanical engineer, 93
Work Measurement Research Unit, University of Birmingham, 105
World Health Organization, 60, 61, 92, 93,
unemployment, 26, 70, 76, 96, 97, 119, 130,
94, 95, 96, 97, 99
147, 152, 177
Younghusband, Eileen, 198, 199
US Army Air Force, 125
US Womens Army, 136
Zeller, Michael, 166

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