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Commission of the European Communities

The computation of shakedown limits


for structural components subjected to variable
thermal loading Brussels diagrams

Report
EUR 12686 EN

Commission of the European Communities

B,

The computation of shakedown limits


for structural components subjected to variable
thermal loading Brussels diagrams
A.R.S. Ponter, S. Karadeniz, K.F. Carter
University of Leicester
Department of Engineering
University Road
Leicester LE1 7RH
United Kingdom

Contract No RAP-054-UK

Final report

This work was performed under the


Commission of the European Communities
for the Working Group 'Codes and standards'
Activity Group 2: 'Structural analysis'
within the Fast Reactor Coordinating Committee

PARI. F^P.
Directorate-General
Science, Research and Development

1990

L* ,

l U l i *.

N.C./EUR

UR
EUR 12686 EN

Published by the
COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
Directorate-General
Telecommunications, Information Industries and Innovation
L-2920 Luxembourg

LEGAL NOTICE
Neither the Commission of the European Communities nor any person acting
on behalf of the Commission is responsible for the use which might be made of
the following information

Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication

Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1990


ISBN 92-826-1340-2

Catalogue number: CD-NA-12686-EN-C


ECSC-EEC-EAEC, Brussels Luxembourg, 1990
Printed in Belgium

C O N T E N T S
Page

Notations and some definitions

Foreword and Executive Summary

VIII

PART I
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

8.
9.
10.

- SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

Introduction
The general problem and associated Brussels diagram
Typical Brussels diagrams
Example 1 - Pure type A. The Bree problem (figure 4)
Example 2 - Type A : General case. Torispherical shell
with through thickness temperature gradient
(Figure 5)
Example 3 - Transitional A/B. Bree probelm with thermal
transients (Figure 6)
Examples 4 and 5 - Type B : Thermal gradients along a shell
surface. Cylindrical tube with axial temperature
gradient (Figure 7), and circular plate with
radial temperature gradients (Figure 8)
Example 6 - Type B : Moving temperature gradients.
Cylindrical tube subjected to axial load and a
traversing temperature discontinuity (Figure 9)
Structure of the-report
Conclusions
References

PART II

- THE INFLUENCE OF TRANSIENT THERMAL LOADING ON THE


BREE PLATE

3
5
8
11
12
12

14
18
20
20
22

25

1. Introduction
2. An upper-bound approach to calculations of ratchet boundaries
3. The transient Bree problem
4. Solutions to the Bree plate
5. Conclusions
Appendix
Tables
References

27
29
34
38
53
56
58
61

PART III - THE PLASTIC RATCHETTING OF THIN CYLINDRICAL SHELLS


SUBJECTED TO AXISYMMETRIC THERMAL AND MECHANICAL LOADING

63

1. Introduction
2. Finite element technique
3. Variation of temperature along the length of a tube

III

65
68
71

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

The effects of strain hardening upon the ratchet boundaries


Experiments on thin cylinders subject to axially moving
temperature front (7)
Other types of thermal loading of cylinders
Tube subjected to a band of pressure and axially moving
temperature fronts
Conclusions
References

PART IV
1.
2.
3.
'4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

- INTERACTION DIAGRAMS FOR AXISYMMETRIC GEOMETRIES

Introduction
EECS-3
Cylindrical shells
Baylac tests
Case 2 - The Bree problem
Case 7 - Cylindrical tube with variable thickness and
variable through-thickness temperature gradient
Conical tubes
Spheroidal and composite shapes
Case 4 - Cylindrical tube with spherical cap of same
thickness
Case 5 - Cylindrical tube with spherical cap of half thickness
ASME standard torispherical head
Case 6 - Cylinder to cone to cylinder (continuous angle)
Case 9 - Cylinder to cylinder by spheroidal sections
(continuous angle)
Conclusions
Tables
References

APPENDIX - EXTENDED UPPER-BOUND SHAKEDOWN THEORY AND FINITE


ELEMENT METHOD FOR AXISYMMETRIC THIN SHELLS
1. Introduction
2. Upper-bound theory
3. Upper-bound method for axisymmetric shell elements
4. Extended upper-bound method
5. Computational method
6. Thermo-elastic stress due to an arbitrary axial temperature
distribution along a cylindrical tube
References
Figures

IV

76
82
85
90
95
98
99
101
102
107
107
115
119
125
128
133
133
137
139
141
143
144
155

157
159
159
162
168
170
173
176
177

Notation

and Some Definitions

x = (x, y, z ) , t

Space and time

O, e

Uniaxial stress and strain

ij' e i j ^ij

Cartesian components of stress, strain and


strain rate

P
P
ij ^ij

Plastic component of strain and strain rate

XL

Plastic strain components (see Fig. 2 of


Appendix)

ac

c
ij ^ij
C

f*T

Ae^j = J

Plastic component of strain rate in upper


bound theorem and corresponding stress
C

ijdt

Accumulated strain over cycle, compatible


with displacement increment

P, P

Primary load

Scalar load parameter

XL PL

to yield
stress
oy
Limit
load
value of

Pij Pij

and

Au c ^

P , corresponding

Residual stress field; satisfies equilibrium


equations within body and zero surface
tractions on surface Sp

P
Ojj

^ 0
oj
ap

Elastic stress field corresponding to


primary load P
Elastic stress field corresponding to
temperature distribution 0
Primary stress, uniform stress corresponding
to load XP

op = Qp/Qy

Nondimensional primary stress

Oy

Yield stress

Oy

Mean yield stress defined by equation (7) of


Part IV

0, A0

Temperature, temperature difference

Scalar temperature parameter

0max

Maximum temperature during cycle

Reference temperature

0O

Uniform initial temperature of structure

c , 6 C , c f

Lower temperature; constant, initial and


final in temperature transients of Part II

JJ, fl-L, 8jjf

Higher temperature; constant, initial and


final in temperature transients of Part II

at

Maximum effective thermo-elastic stress in


cycle

*
A6

-e
o

EaA6
2a y

Defined in Fig. (8) of Part III


Non-dimensional thermal stress, equals
crt/Oy for Bree problem
Knock-down factor,

= k EaA0/2, i.e.

k = 1 for Bree problem


E

Elastic modulus

Slope of plastic portion of stress-strain


curve

= E/K

Poisson's ratio

Eor
S
P
R

C o - e f f i c iof
e n tthe
of Brussels
thermal Diagrams,
e x p a n s i o n Elastic
Regions
(E), Shakedown (S), Reverse Plasticity (P)
and Ratchetting (R)

Ax

Movement length along cylinder of


temperature front

Ax = Ax//Rh

Non-dimensional form of

Ax

Radius of cylindrical shell

Shell thickness

r0, rlf v2

Radii of curvature of axisymmetric shell,


defined in Fig. (1) of the Appendix

Surface of body

Sp

Surface area where primary load

is

applied
Su

Surface area where displacements prescribed

Volume of body

Vs

Volume where shakedown conditions apply

Vp

Volume where reverse plasticity conditions


apply

VI

hth
B =

F =

KT

Pch

3 = [3(1 - v )/R h z ] '*

Biot number measures the relative resistances


to heat transfer of the surface compared with
the shell thickness, where h t = surface heat
transfer coefficient, h = shell thickness and
K = thermal conductivity
Fourier number, non-dimensional transient
time, where T = transient time in thermal
shock, p = material density and c = thermal
capacity
Characteristic parameter

- VII -

FOREHORD AND EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The Commission of the European Communities is assisted in its


actions regarding fast breeder reactors by the Fast Reactor Coordinating Committee which has set up the Safety Working Group and the
Working Group Codes and Standards (WGCS). The latter's mandate is to
harmonise the codes, standards and regulations used in the EC member
states for
the
design,
material selection, construction and
inspection of LMFBR components.
The present report is the final report of CEC study contract N
RAP-054-UK performed
under WGCS/Activity Group 2 : Structural
Analysis.
It corresponds to one of the priority themes of WGCS/AG2,
namely the development of simplified methods for the design. The
final report issued in December 1987 was updated and revised for this
publication.
LMFBR structures are characterised by low primary stresses (due
to dead weight and internal pressure) and
variable secondary
(thermal) stresses of high amplitude.
For certain combinations of
geometry, material properties and loading, ratchetting may occur
whereby the strains undergo an increment at each cycle of the applied
thermal loading until either failure occurs, or the strain becomes
limited by material hardening after the accumulation of unacceptably
large strains. Ruling out this phenomenon at the design stage is an
important task of the designer. This task is made very easy by the
Brussels diagrams presented in this report.
The Brussels diagram
for a given geometry and a given type of loading shows four regions
in the plane amplitude of the cyclic thermal stress versus magnitude
of the primary stress :
-

Elastic behaviour from the beginning.

Shakedown : after the first cycles in which plastic strains


occur a residual stress field is built up and only elastic
strains appear thereafter.

Reverse plasticity : in a limited volume plastic strains occur


but they do not grow cyclically due to the constraint offered
by the remaining shaked-down region.

Ratchetting.

- VIII

The report presents the theory on which Brussels diagrams are


based. It is the upper bound shakedown theory, specialised for
axisymmetric shell elements and in which the upper bound is minimised
by linear programming techniques.
This theory is extended to the
reverse plasticity region and has been implemented in two finite
element axisymmetric shell programs which calculate a sequence of
points on the ratchetting boundary.
Three classes of problems are
discussed :
-

The uniaxial transient Bree problem.


The cylindrical tube subjected to axial load and stationary or
moving temperature discontinuity.
A range of Brussels diagrams for axisymmetric geometries and
thermal loadings typical of LMFBRs.

The discussion includes comparisons with some experiments and


considerations on the sensitivity of the diagrams to the material
assumptions.
Using this methodology it is possible to construct an Atlas of
Brussels diagrams covering the whole range of structural geometries
and temperature histories that may be encountered in LMFBR design
problems. The present work, does not cover the creep range which will
be treated in another report.

L.H. Larsson
CEC/DGXII-D1

IX

Part I

Summary and conclusions


A.R.S. Ponter

1.

INTRODUCTION
The design of liquid metal cooled fast reactors poses a range of new

problems for the structural designer.

Although the level of stress due

to dead weight and liquid pressure is low, usually less than 0.25 of the
yield stress, the occurrance of periodic thermal transients can induce
substantial thermal stresses which, in the most severe conditions, can
exceed twice the yield stress.
involved.

There are two broad classes of phenomena

Turbulent mixing of hot and cooler liquid sodium above the

reactor core can cause rapid temperature fluctuations of a moderate magnitude (less than 70C) over a short time scale.

Major peaks and troughs

at a fixed material point in the above core structure are separated by time
intervals of the order of seconds.

The main concern in this case is the

possibility of thermal fatigue in the form of thermal stripping, but the


thermal stresses are not sufficiently large to induce structural distortions, provided the temperature remains below the creep range.

The second

class of phenomena are associated with the thermal transients which occur
when the reactor trips.

It is expected that the number of such trips will

be relatively small, perhaps as many as 2000 during the lifetime of the


structure.

The concern here is not so much low cycle fatigue but the

possibility that components will suffer increments of plastic strain and


displacement, which will accumulate to an unacceptable level of distortion.
The broad features of this phenomenon, which is referred to as "shakedown"
when it does not occur and "ratchetting" when it does occur, has been known
and understood for some time through the work of Miller [1], Parkes [2],
Bree [3] and Gokfeld and Cherniavsky [4].

But the solutions to specific

problems which these authors discuss have proved to be an incomplete picture of the range of circumstances which can occur in fast reactors.

In

the late 1970's it was appreciated that a more systematic approach to the

problem was required which could place in the hands of the designer
sufficient information to allow him to quickly assess whether a particular
circumstance was likely to cause ratchetting.

At the same time, it had

become clear that the generation of step by step finite element solutions
to specific problems failed to provide any general insight into the
behaviour of thermally loaded structures.

One particular approach to the

problem was described by the author (Ponter [5]) where it was suggested
that the application of classical shakedown theory, the upper bound
theorem with an extension, could be used to construct generalised "Bree"
diagrams for a range of structural components and temperature histories.
This suggested that an "Atlas" of such diagrams, which later became known
as "Brussels diagrams" could then be used as a reference to demonstrate
the way differing types of thermal loading effected a range of structural
geometry, and thereby assist designers at the initial stages of design.
The realisation of this concept has proved more difficult than was
initially envisaged for reasons which, with the aid of hindsight, are
fairly obvious.

If information of this type is to be used by designers

there must be a fair degree of confidence in the relevance and accuracy of


the diagrams.

Traditionally, such confidence is built up over a period of

time through comparison with experimental results.

For thermal loading

problems the range of data available is limited, and the process of forming
a comparison is quite a task in its own right.
reliability of the diagrams themselves.

The second problem is the

The simple examples discussed by

Ponter [5] were mainly problems where the mode of ratchetting, which forms
the input into the upper bound shakedown theorem, was either known or could
be sensibly guessed.

In this case the exact, or near exact, solution to

the ratchet limit could be found with relative ease.


problems the optimal mechanism needed to be found.

For more complex


The development of the

finite element technique for axisymmetric shells which was capable of doing

this and the writing of the associated computer software has been no mean
task, but has now been achieved by Dr Carter with the assistance of a research grant from the Science and Engineering Research Council of Great
Britain.

Lastly the range of possible diagrams seemed to expand with the

length of the computer listing (the main programme has in excess of 5000
lines of code) and it has taken some time before they could be condensed
down into a smaller number of significant cases.
This introduction sets out, in fairly simple terms, what the Brussels
diagrams mean, how they were generated, and what the main classes of diagrams look like.

The main body of the report is a more detailed discus-

sion of classes of problems with some comparisons with experimental results.


2.

THE GENERAL PROBLEM AND ASSOCIATED BRUSSELS DIAGRAM


The general problem consists of a structural component which is sub-

jected to two separate loading systems.

A constant load, which may be a

pressure loading or a localised loading is given by


scalar load parameter.

space and time.


of

and

y0 (x,t),

where

The behaviour of such a structure for differing values

is quite complex, but we can summarise the behaviour in the

and

for yield stress

For ease of inter-

are not used as axes, but two equivalent

non-dimensional quantities; P/PL where

PL is the limit load parameter

a y at some reference temperature

is the maximum effective thermo-elastic stress due

P/PL .

is a

is a distribution of temperature which varies in both

pretation the scalars

XP

is a second scalar

form of the general Brussels diagram shown in Fig.l.

where

where

In addition, the structure is subjected to a

cyclic history of temperature


parameter and

XP

produces a uniform stress

a p , then

0 r and; O/Oy
to

o-p/Oy

y0 .

where a t

For cases

is substituted for

These are the quantities used by Bree [3],

The diagram has four separate regions, referred to as E, S, P and R.

- 5

The position of the boundaries and mode of behaviour in each region depends
upon the material behaviour assumed.

There are, however, two basic models,

perfect plasticity and linear hardening, Fig. (2), which are sufficient to
encompass the range of real material behaviour.

The behaviour within the

regions can be summarised as follows:

E:

Purely elastic behaviour occurs.


the initial yield surface.

S:

During the first few cycles some plastic strains occur but they are
limited in magnitude to the order of magnitude of elastic strain i.e.
0.1%. A residual stress field is built up which pulls the elastic
stress into the yield surface. The boundary to the region ABD is
the elastic shakedown limit, and no plastic deformation occurs after
the first few cycles.

P:

In some limited volume of the structure Vp , for shells a proportion


of the thickness of the shell, the stresses cause plastic strains at
the extreme of the thermal loading cycle, but the kinematic constraint
of the remaining material in volume Vs prevents continued cyclic
growth of displacement.
After a few cycles, cyclic growth of displacement ceases and the accumulated strain remains small, of the order
of elastic strains.

R:

For a perfectly plastic material cyclic strain growth of the structures


occur which become a constant increment per cycle after the first few
cycles.
The rate of growth can be significant for small excursions
into this region.
For a strain hardening material the rate of strain
growth is initially close to the value for a perfectly plastic material
with the same yield stress, but the rate then decreases until a limiting strain value is obtained.
This process usually takes a significant number of cycles, in excess of 40-50 cycles.
The boundary between the

and

The elastic stresses nowhere exceed

and the

S and

region can be

predicted by classical shakedown theory and the cyclic hardening properties


of the material is not significant.

The boundary between the P

and

region, however, is more sensitive to the cyclic material properties.


extremes can be calculated.

R
Two

We may assume that the material suffers no

cyclic hardening i.e. perfect plasticity or kinematic hardening, or, that the
material cyclically hardens to elastic behaviour, i.e. isotropic hardening.
The extremes are illustrated in Fig. (3).

The behaviour of 316 stainless

steel lies midway between these two extremes.

By looking at simple examples

V~y 1

P / P L or CTp/o-y

EJ9_1 The general Brussels diagram

-|

Fig, 2 Perfect plasticity and linear hardening

"

Isotropic hardening

ACT.

316 S.S.
Kinematic hardening

he

Perfect plasticity
Ae

Fig._3 Cyclic stress-strain curves

- 7

(Ponter and Karadeniz [6] ) it becomes clear that the assumption of complete
cyclic hardening within the volume of material where reverse plasicity occurs
provides the more conservative boundary between the

and

R region.

With this assumption it is then possible to define the ratchet boundary


by using an extension of classical shakedown theory.

ABC

The theory is des-

cribed by Ponter and Karadeniz [6] and all the diagrams in this Atlas are
produced using this theory.

The Tresca yield condition is assumed and a

simple class of displacement field involving discrete hinge circles at nodal


points and uniform membrane deformation within elements.

For limit load

calculations the assumptions are equivalent to the classic non-interactive


prismatic yield surface of Drucker and Shield [11].

The thermo-elastic

stresses are generated either analytically or by a finite element method


(using the code CONIDA kindly supplied by the UKAEA) and the optimal mechanism is found by converting the upper bound into a linear programming
problem, which is solved using a sparse matrix simplex method.

A full

description of the theory and computational techniques are given in Part 2


for uniaxial problems and in the appendix to Part 4 for axisymmetric shells.
3.

TYPICAL BRUSSELS DIAGRAMS


In the previous E.E.C, report [5] two classes of diagram were distin-

guished, termed type

and Type

the following properties.


the applied load

B .

The two types are distinguished by

In the general Brussels diagram, Fig. (1), when

is zero and the value of

exceeds the line

DB

then

there exists a volume of the structure, Vp , where reverse plasticity occurs.


The volume can be found from the thermo-elastic solution as the regions of
the structure where the thermo-elastic stress history cannot be contained
within the yield surface by translating it by a rigid body translation in
stress space.

We then imagine the structure with this volume

VF

removed.

If the reduced structure can now carry some applied load, then the region P

Op-H

2R

- x

J-*T-t
e,

e.

a.
t

At

Fig._ Example 1, Type A, the Bree problem

h=.0025
e0-o

.12m ^ f \

.'

i \\

.88m

h=.0025
i \\ h:

Ito

Internai
pressure P
Into

\\

/ X
y,'

| V\

1m

\i \\

\\

\\

! Il

Total
length
1.5m

J .233m
.10(

1.16m

-2- =0.00

- =2.08

iii

iii-

cry(6R)
GR=20C
Bree

1\

l> I

1-

P.
P,

Fiq. 5 Example 2. Type A, Torispherical shell with throughthickness temperature gradient.

10

exists (the proof is given in [6]).

A pure

type thermal loading problem

is one where this remains true however large the value of

at/Oy , and it has

the property that there always exists some value of applied load
be carried by the structure without ratchetting.

On the other hand, if the

reduced structure is not capable of carrying any applied load, no


exists and the thermal loading problem is of type

P which can

region

B , and shows a much

greater susceptability to thermal stress than type A .


Since that time is has become clear that a greater range of diagrams
exist across a complete spectrum with distinctive types of behaviour occurring within each category.

To indicate the range of behaviour currently

understood we describe five categories with examples, two each of type


and

and a transitional type

A/B , arranged in order of increasing

susceptability to ratchetting for low levels of mechanical load.


A.

EXAMPLE 1. PURE TYPE A.


THE BREE PROBLEM (FIGURE 4)
A thin walled tube is subjected to internal pressure and/or axial load.

A temperature difference

A0

is induced with no thermal transients through

the thickness of the tube and then removed with or without a change in mean
temperature.

The elastic stresses produced by the pressure are uniformly

distributed with value

ap

and the thermo-elastic stresses vary linearly

through the wall thickness with a zero value at the mid-thickness surface.
The ratchet boundary has been computed by Bree [3].

The volume

sists of two surface layers and the remaining volume

Vg

reduced thickness.

As a result, a

boundary assymptotes to the


o"p a large value of

at

O^/Oy

Vp

con-

forms a tube of

region exists and the ratchet

axis as

0"p reduces to zero.

For low

can be tolerated before ratchetting occurs.

11

5.

EXAMPLE 2, TYPE A; GENERAL CASE


TORISPHERICAL SHELL WITH THROUGH THICKNESS TEMPERATURE GRADIENT
(FIGURE 5)
If the temperature gradient remains predominantly through the thickness

of the shell but the shell itself has a more complex geometry, including
changes in thickness and, perhaps, a spherical or torispherical end cap,
then the stresses induced by the applied load are no longer uniform and
the thermal stresses will be effected by the geometry.
is a torispherical cap subjected to internal pressure
temperature gradient
collapse for

at =

A0
0

through the shell wall.

A typical example
P with a uniform

The mechanism of plastic

involves hinge circles which allow outward movement

of the shell cap as shown in Fig. 5.

We find with increasing thermal stress

that the ratchet mechanism is very similar to this collapse mechanism and the
Brussels diagram is very similar to the classic Bree problem with the
horizontal axis given by

P/PL .

such examples are analysed.

In Part 4 of this report a whole set of

We conclude that the classic Bree diagram gives

a conservative boundary for such problems provided that crp/ay


P/L , where

PL

is replaced by

is the limit load using the yield stress corresponding to the

maximum mean temperature during the cycle.


6.

EXAMPLE 3, TRANSITIONAL A/B.


BREE PROBLEM WITH THERMAL TRANSIENTS (FIGURE 6)
If the rate of surface heating in the Bree problem is sufficiently

great, the through-thickness temperature distribution has a transient phase.


The nature of the transients vary with the details of the surface temperature
history, but there are certain phenomena which always occur.

The stress at

the mid-section surface does not remain at zero, as was the case in the Bree
problem, but can show a significant fluctuation.

As a result, the entire

thickness of the shell experiences a fluctuating thermo-elastic stress distribution, and the volume

VF

can penetrate the full thickness of the shell.

- 12 -

k<

6H

6 = Constant

a. Rate element ond initial condition for thermal downshock


HJ

Hi

ii

o^

A6

VJ

HC
.

IU

b. Temperature history of medium H ( Q r is constant)

time

Hi

Power on

Shutdown trar.sient

Peroff

c. Temperature distributions

Compressive
R

Fig. 6 Example 3, Transitional A/B, Bree problem


with thermal transients

13

There is, in addition, the influence of the variation of the yield stress with
temperature.

Both these effects cause the ratchet boundaries for both

positive and negative ratchetting to meet at a cusp which is marked as


Fig. 6.
D

in

For zero applied load the compressive ratchetting will occur at point

at a finite value of

a^ .

The exact geometry of the Brussels diagrams

depends, however, on a number of factors.

These include whether the transient

is associated with an upshock or a downshock or a double-sided shock.

In

addition, the effects of surface heat transfer, given by the Biot number, and
the rapidity of the surface temperature change, given by the Fourier number,
are quite significant.

In Part 2 of this report a range of such cases are

discussed in detail.

7.

EXAMPLES 4 AND 5, TYPE B: THERMAL GRADIENTS ALONG A SHELL SURFACE


CYLINDRICAL TUBE WITH AXIAL TEMPERATURE GRADIENT (FIGURE 7), AND
CIRCULAR PLATE WITH RADIAL TEMPERATURE GRADIENTS (FIGURE 8).
An important class of problems involves temperature gradients which

are predominantly along the shell surface.

In fact, in reactor design the

tubes are relatively thin and through-thickness gradients are often small.
It may be expected, therefore, that many problems fall into this category.
We consider two examples which are typical of this type.

Example 4

consists of a uniform cylindrical tube, subjected to an axial load and an


axial history of temperature which fluctuates between a uniform temperature
and a maximum temperature.

The detailed temperature history corresponds

to those of an experiment carried out at EDF-SEPTENin Lyon, France.

The

axial temperature gradients induce through-thickness hoop stresses which


can exceed twice the yield value of the material.

In addition, axial

bending moments with maximum stresses of a similar order of magnitude as the


hoop stresses are also induced.
distinct branches

AB

and

BC

The resulting Brussels diagram shows two


as~shown in Fig. (7).

Along

AB

the

mechanism is a local ratchetting mechanism due to the applied load and the

14

axial bending moments and is similar to that of the classic Bree Problem.
Along

BC

CJA

a reverse plasticity mechanism occurs where the large hoop stress

, together with the axial load

instants during the cycle.

ap

, cause plastic strains at two

Most of the plastic strain is in the hoop

direction, but there is an increment of axial strain each cycle.


Example 5 is similar in nature but rather different in geometry and
serves to demonstrate that the characteristics of example 4 are shared by
other problems which have the same type of thermal loading.

In this case a

circular plate is simply supported at its edge and subjected to uniform


lateral pressure

and a linear radial temperature gradient with a maximum

temperature at the centre of the plate as shown in Fig. (8).

Despite the

considerable differences between examples 4 and 5 their Brussels diagrams


are virtually identical in form.

Along

AB

the ratchet mechanism is the

same as the plastic collapse mechanism; the plate deforms as a cone.


BC

Along

a local ratchet mechanism occurs around the edge of the plate induced by

the large hoop thermo-elastic stress variation and the shear stresses induced by the transmission of the pressure

to the edge support.

Again

this mechanism is a reverse plasticity mechanism through the thickness of


the plate.

(A lower bound solution has been given by Cocks [8]).

The rate at which ratchetting will occur for load points in excess of BC
in both examples depends upon the details of the material behaviour.

The

best way of describing the severity of ratchetting is to say that it can be


significant (see solutions by Ponter and Cocks [9]) but it might well be
small.

Some detailed finite element calculations by Webster et al [10] for

example 5 shows that ratchetting occurs but at a lower rate than along
It is tempting to refer to the boundaries
and

AB

as strong ratchetting boundaries.

loading in excess of

BC

BC

AB.

as weak ratchetting boundaries

There is a possibility that

could be allowed, but there is a total lack of

experimental data with which comparisons can be made.

15

u >> ^

1-8

0.1

0.2

0.1

1 i

0.4

0.;

0.7

0.9

o.e

>^

549

1.4

0.6

0.4

N.

0.2

415

348

\
^

482

+-

to

. Expt - 70KN

12

>>
^
0.8
>

emax(C)
616

^ ^ ^ ^

*y I W C ) 16

0.0

0.6

\
\

\
\

282

215

148

\
81

0.0 0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

06

.7

.9

^ i

1.1

1.2

14

<rr IUC)

F\g._2 Example U. Thermal gradient along a cylindrical


tube,- the Lyon lest. Type B

- 16

a.

Local shear mechanism

Global mechanism

Temperature independent yield stress o~y

Fig._8 Example 5, Type B, Circular plate, simply supported.


uniform lateral pressure P and radial linear temperature
gradient.

ti
17

S* ,

This type of problem is discussed, together with some experimental data,


in Part 3 and also in Part 4.

It may well be the most important class of

thermal loading for fast reactor design and it must be emphasised that the
Brussels diagram is very different to that of the Bree problem.

Ratchetting

can ocur at zero applied load.


8.

EXAMPLE 6; TYPE B; MOVING TEMPERATURE GRADIENTS


CYLINDRICAL TUBE SUBJECTED TO AXIAL LOAD AND A TRAVERSING TEMPERATURE
DISCONTINUITY (FIGURE 9~K
The last example concerns the most severe thermal loading problems of

all where an axial temperature gradient along a tube traverses a length of


the tube so that the thermo-elastic stresses are swept backwards and forwards
over a significant volume of material.

In examples 4 and 5 the volume

VF

penetrates the thickness of the shell but remains relatively small compared
with

Vs

V-p can be large and consists of the volume of

In this example

material through which the high thermal stress is swept.

In detail the

example consists of an axially loaded tube with a steep discontinuity of


temperature which repeatedly traverses a length

Ax

of the tube.

position of the ratchet boundary depends upon the value of


where

is the radius and

the thickness of the tube.

Ax = Ax/ /Rh
A whole set of

ratchet boundaries are shown in Fig. (9) for a range of values


small Ax

The

Ax.

For

the boundary is similar to that of examples 4 and 5 with two

parts, the upper part involving a reverse plasticity mechanism, mode II.
However, as Ax

increases the severe ratchetting Mode III, which consists

of inward displacement over

Ax , occurs at decreasing applied load until,

for Ax > 3, corresponding to Ax > 0.3R

for

boundary reduces to near the elastic limit.


where reverse plasticity begins when

ap =

R/h = 100, the ratchet


In addition, the point

0 , occurs when

at one half of the thermal stress of all the other cases.

C ,

a^ = ay , i.e.
When the effect

of the variation of yield stress with temperature are included then severe

18

**?
m. X

2R

Cn^^r-s
L

Temperature

e.-ae

to

AX1

Cold front\
L

-Hot front

Axial distance X

Generat

yield

Mode I
=| 'Weak'
i reverse
! plasticity

Model
= = ^ ^ J = ^ 'Strong*
^ ^
I local
mechanism

* cr

Fig._9 Example 6, Type B, moving temperature

discontinuity traversina length Ax of cylindrical


tube. AS = Ax / / R h

- 19 -

ratchetting can occur at zero applied load.

This problem, together with

some experimental data, is discussed in Part 2.

This circumstance is

clearly very severe and may well be of considerable significance in fast


reactor design.
9.

STRUCTURE OF THE REPORT


The body of the report is sub-divided into three sections which discuss

distinct classes of problems, which also correspond to three differing


methods of applying the upper bound theorem.
Part 2 discusses the transient Bree problem, posed as a uniaxial problem, where the mode of deformation is known and calculations for the ratchet
limit become a simple integration procedure.

The shakedown theory and its

application are explained in full and a number of cases are discussed involving both single sided upshocks and downshocks and double-sided shocks
in terms of the Biot and Fourier numbers.
transition from type

to type

This class of problems form the

B.

In Part 3 a detailed description is given of the behaviour of a cylindrical tube subjected to axial load and either stationary or moving temperature
discontinuity.

The emphasis is placed upon the sensitivity of the diagrams

to the material assumptions and correlation with the limited available


experimental data.
The final part 4 contains a wide range of diagrams involving axisymmetric
geometries using a general purpose computer code.

These include a class of

problems originally suggested by Working Group 2 of the EEC Fast Reactor Coordinating Committee and are known as the Bergamo Set.

A description of the

computational techniques is given in the appendix.


10.

CONCLUSIONS
The theoretical extremes of the ratchet boundary in the Brussels diagram

are; a vertical line, i.e. thermal stresses have no effect whatsoever and; the

20

ratchet limit coincident with elastic limit, so that no


exist.

or

regions

The range of problems discussed in the report shows that both these

extremes can be achieved and that there is a gradation of cases of increasing


severity which lie between these extremes.

The classic Bree diagram can now

be seen as a significant but particular case which lies within this spectrum
and that there are other forms of Brussels diagrams which are possibly more
significant for fast reactor design.
This work represents a first systematic attempt to understand the effect
of thermal cycling.

It constitutes, in essence, a theoretical conjecture,

as the amount of experimental data currently available for low mechanical


loads is very limited, although what data there is tends to support the
theory.

It is hoped that this work might stimulate further experimental

work, particularly into the behaviour of the less severe type

problems

such as examples 4 and 5 where "weak" ratchetting occurs.


All the calculations have been carried out in terms of a yield stress
Oy , usually taken as the 0.1% offset yield stress when comparisons are
given with experimental data.

With such a definition the plastic strain

within the shakedown limit cannot be precisely known as it depends, amongst


other things, upon the initial state of residual stress in the shell.

How-

ever, shakedown theory and experimental evidence indicates that the plastic
strain will remain of the same order as elastic strains, i.e. in the range
0.1 - 0.3% strain within the ratchet limit, and will rapidly grow once the
ratchet limit is exceeded, except in the "weak" ratchetting cases where the
strain growth is dependent upon the particular material and the details of
the loading history.
In conclusion the authors would like to emphasise that the Brussels
diagrams characterise a particular aspect of the behaviour of shells.

The

extension to creep deformation and rupture is discussed in a companion


report [12], where comparisons, based upon the Brussels diagram, is made

21

with the solutions of O'Donnell and Porowski [13,14], and the CEA efficiency
diagram [15].

Work is currently underway within the UK to use these

results to established improved design code rules which will allow a more
accurate and flexible set of restrictions on thermal stresses than those
currently provided by either ASME Section III or RCC-MR.
The authors hope that this report will encourage an improved understanding of structural behaviour for these complex loading problems.
Suggestions of particular cases of interest would be welcomed.
References
[1]

MILLER, P.R.
"Thermal stress ratchet mechanism in pressure vessels", J Basic
Engineering, Trans ASME, Series D, 1959: 81, ppl90-196.

[2]

PARKES, E.W.
"Structural effects of repeated thermal loading" in Thermal Stress,
Benham et al. (eds), Pitman and Son Ltd., London 1964.

[3]

BREE, J.
"Elasto-plastic behaviour of thin tubes subjected to internal
pressure and intermittent high-heat fuses with application to fast
nuclear reactor fuel elements", J Strain Analysis, 1967: 2, No.3,
PP226-238.

[4]

GOKFELD, D.A. and CHERNIAVSKY, O.F.


"Limit analysis of structures at thermal cycling", Sijthoff and
Noordhoff, Alpen aan den Rijm, The Netherlands, 1980.

[5]

PONTER, A.R.S.
"Shakedown and ratchetting below the creep range", Report EUR 8702 EN,
Commission of the European Communities Directorate-General for Science,
Research and Development, Office for Official Publications of the
European Communities, L2985, Luxembourg.

[6]

PONTER, A.R.S. and KARADENIZ, S.


"An extended shakedown theory for structures that suffer cyclic
thermal loading" Parts I and II, J Appi. Mechanics, Trans ASME, 52,
PP877-882 and pp883-889.

22

[7]

CARTER, K.F. and PONTER, A.R.S.


"A finite element and linear programming method for the extended
shakedown of axisymmetric shells subjected to cyclic thermal
loading", Department of Engineering, University of Leicester,
Report no. 86-XX, 1986.

[8]

COCKS, A.CF.
"Lower-bound shakedown analysis of a simply supported plate carrying
a uniformity distributed load and subjected to cyclic thermal
loading", Int. J. Mech. Sci. 1984: 26, pp471-475.

[9]

PONTER, A.R.S. and COCKS, A.CF.


"The incremental strain growth of an elastic-plastic body loaded in
excess of the shakedown limit", Jn. Applied Mechanics, Trans ASME,
1984: Paper 84 - WA/APM-10,
and
"The incremental strain growth of elastic-plastic bodies subjected
to high loads of cyclic thermal loading", Op. Sit. 1984: Paper 84 WA/ADM-11.

[10]

WEBSTER et al.
Private Communication.

[11]

DRUCKER, D.C. and SHIELD, D.


"Limit analysis of symmetrically loaded thin shells of devolution",
Trans ASME, Jn. Applied Mechanics, 1959: 26, p61.

[12]

PONTER, A.R.S. and COCKS, A.CF.


"Computation of shakedown limits for structural components (Brussels
Diagram) Part II - The Creep Range.
Final Report RAP-066-UK (AD),
EEC Fast Reactor Co-ordinating Committee, 1986.

[13]

O'DONNELL, W.J. and POROWSKI, J.S.


Trans ASME, Jn. of Pressure Vessel Technology, Vol. 96, 1974, pl26.

[14]

POROWSKI, J.S., O'DONNEL, W.J. and BADLANI M.


Welding Research Council Bulletin 273, 1982.

[15]

CLEMENTS, G. and ROCHE, R.


General review of available results of progressive tests of structures
and structural components.
In: Ratchetting in the Creep Range by
Ponter, A.R.S., Cocks, A.CF., Clement, C , Roche, R., Corradi, L.
and Franchi, A., Report EUR 9876 EN. Directorate-General, Science
Research and Development Commission of the European Community,
Brussels, 1985.

23

Part II

The influence of transient thermal loading


on the Bree plate
S. Karadeniz, A.R.S. Ponter

1.

INTRODUCTION
Many components of power producing plants are subjected to thermal

transients during start-up and shut-down conditions, but generally the time
scale of the temperature changes means that near quasi-static temperature
gradients are maintained.

There are, however, some exceptional circum-

stances when extremely rapid changes induce transient thermal and thermoelastic fields.

For example, the particular thermal properties of liquid

sodium and the rapid response of the core of a fast breeder reactor result
in rates of changes of temperature on the surface of components as high as
40 K s _ 1 [ l ] .
In the context of the fast reactor it is- necessary to ensure that
structural components do not exhibit progressive distortion during the
reactors lifetime.
transients as

The ASME [2] design codes treat stresses due to thermal

stresses, i.e. local stresses which can cause localised

plastic strain but are not a source of general deformation of the structural
component.

As a result, they are only taken into account when assessing the

possibility of fatigue failure.

It seems advisable to test this hypothesis

by the solution of some relevant problems involving only plastic deformation


(i.e. no creep) and this forms the main objective of this section.

In fact,

we discover that transient thermal fields can have a significant effect upon
the potential for strain growth of components and, as a result, it appears
that the ASME code does not fully take into account the effect of

stresses.
Some particular solutions to such problems have been published by
Goodman [3] who extended the classic Bree solution for quasi-static thermal
fields [4] to include through thickness thermal transients for an elastoperfectly plastic material, assuming a temperature independent yield stress
and computed the ratchet boundary where an increase in loading would cause a
rapid progressive plastic strain growth.

From a computer study Goodman

found that for the single-sided thermal downshock there is a reduction in

27 -

PP
PP K.H.

I.HA
\
\

Reversed
plasticity
P

Plasticity

K.H. Kinematic hardening


I. H. Isotropic hardening
(Complete cyclic hardening)

\
/O-y

Perfect

\
\

\
Ratchetting
R

10 X / X L
CTf' Maximum thermo-elastic effective stress
X L : Plastic limit load parameter

Fjg.

1_ Schematic representation of general problem

- 28

allowable thermal loading for small mechanical loading but the effect Is
less distinct for a double-sided downshock.
In this section of the report we discuss a wide range of such problems,
using the extended upper bound theory of Ponter and Karadeniz [5].

As the

problem involves uniaxial strain growth which is constant through the wall
thickness of the tube, the application of the theory is relatively simple.
This gives an opportunity for the discussion of the general techniques for
the construction of the Brussels diagram in the simplest of contexts.

full discussion of the numerical techniques for a wider class of problems,


axisymmetric shells, is given in the appendix to Part 4.

Those readers who

wish to avoid discussions of the shakedown theory may proceed to section (3).
In section (2), the theory is briefly described and in section (3) a set
of solutions of the Bree problem with thermal transients are presented.
2.

AN UPPER BOUND APPROACH TO CALCULATIONS OF RATCHET BOUNDARIES


The general problem is shown schematically in Fig. (1) where a struc-

ture with volume

over part of S, S
Within

and surface

is subjected to constant loads XP

, and zero displacements over the remaining surface

a non-steady cyclic temperature field

material suffers both elastic strains

e^

0(x,t) occurs.

and plastic strain

Su .

The

e. and the

total strain is given by


e

where

ij

= e

ij

+ e

ij

+ a,S

ij (8 " 6o>

is the linear coefficient of thermal expansion and

(1)

0O

some con-

p
stant reference temperature.

If

Ej

is represented by one of the clas-

sical plasticity models (perfect plasticity, kinematical hardening or isotropic hardening) then the general features of the structural responses are
similar but not identical, and are shown schematically in Fig. (1) where
is the maximum effective thermo-elastic stress during the thermal cycle.
There are four regions in this
(1)

Region E:

(A.,at) interaction diagram:

the elastic stresses do not exceed initial yield


29

at

(2)

Region S:

some plastic strain occurs during the first few cycles


but shakedown subsequently occurs

(3)

Region P:

cyclic plastic straining occurs over a confined volume


but no incremental growth of the structure occurs

(4)

Region R:

for a perfectly plastic material steady incremental


strain growth occurs. For the two hardening models
the structure initially shows substantial rate of
strain growth which assymptotes to a final value.

The detailed calculation of the boundary between the


the

and

S regions, line

ABC

region and

can only be precisely defined for per-

fect plasticity where there is a distinct load level at which incremental


strain growth occurs.

For the hardening models the boundary is less clearly

defined and varies, to some degree, with the definition of tolerable plastic
strains and the initial residual stress field assumed.
ever, for linear hardening models, that the line

AB

It is observed how-

is defined reasonably

well for both isotropic and kinematic hardening by the perfectly plastic
shakedown boundary for the same initial yield stress.

The boundary

BC ,

however, is influenced by the presence of cyclic hardening, a feature


included in an isotropic hardening model but excluded from both perfect
plasticity and kinematic hardening.

From experiments on a two-bar struc-

ture composed of 316 SS at 400C Ponter and Karadeniz [5] showed that the
actual load level at which plastic strain increased rapidly occurred along
a line which lay between
lines
case.

BC' and

BC

ABC'

and

ABC .

For the two-bar structure the

are quite far apart, but this seems to be an extreme

For the classic Bree problem they are identical [5] and for cases

involving transient thermal loading, where the perfectly plastic solution


has been evaluated on a computer, the difference is small (see section 3).
We find that the evaluation of the line

ABC'

can be done directly from the

thermo-elastic solution and, as this line is conservative, we adopt it as


the most appropriate definition of a ratchet boundary.

The resulting cal-

culation requires knowledge of the elastic properties and the variation of


a proof stress with temperature, i.e. the information which is customarily

30

available to a designer.
The theory may be described in two parts for the evaluation of line
AB

and line

BC' .

The region

a residual stress field

Pjj

ABD

is characterised by the existence of

so that the stress history

CT

ij= *ij (x)

+ CT

ij (X't) + Pij

(2)

satisfies the yield condition

where

or

(3)

is an appropriate effective stress, and

varies with temperature.


due to

< CJy (9(t))

Su .

~p
Oj_j and

Here

~6
OM

C7y a yield stress which

denote the elastic stresses

0(x,t) respectively where, in each case, u = 0

and due to

Combination of (2) and the maximum work principle results in an

upper bound [5], which will now be discussed.


We define a compatable strain increment field
ding displacement field

c
du^

c
de-n

with a correspon-

We will be concerned with problems where

the history of thermo-elastic stress follows a near linear path in stress


space and, as a result, plastic strains will occur at most at two instants
t = tx

and

t = t2

during the cycle, i.e.


c
i
2
de-Lj = de-jj + de

where neither

de^j

(4)

nor

de^j

need be compatible.

Using the maximum work

principle [5] the following upper bound can be evaluated


]

[Gij (9X) dEij + ajj (62) dGij] dV > X j Pi du dS

f [a?j (t x ) dej + a?j (t 2 ) dejj] dV

31

(5)

where

Qjj

(^k)

(k = 1,2)

is the point on the yield surface with the


k

associated plastic strain


perature is

0fc

de-M

at time

t^ when the instantaneous tem-

The evaluation of the bound can be more easily under-

stood if inequality (5) is rearranged as

du

(aj (Bj) - al3 (tx)) delj

dS < f

+ (aij (02) - -e
aij (t2)) deij

(6)

dV

The minimum value of the right hand side which yields the exact solution
requires both the optimal mechanism
dGji

and

de^j

du^ "and the optimal sub-division into

For the problems to be discussed here the mechanism is


1

known a - priori and the optimal sub-division requires either


to be zero.

de-jj or

de^j

As a result, the minimum of the right hand side merely requires

the identification of the instant


~0
> !
0"ij (t1)J dji

tx

(or t 2 )

for which

(cjjj (j) -

is a minimum, which can be accomplished by a simple search

procedure.
When the maximum effective thermo-elastic stress exceeds

ay(0x)+ cry(02)

then the total volume V comprises two sub-volumes; V s where the history
~0
Gji may, by a rigid body translation in stress space, be contained within
the yield surface at all times and V F , where Ot > ay(01)+ ay(02) where
Q
a-M

cannot be so translated and must, therefore, cause reverse plasticity.


For the boundary

BC', the upper bound (5) for positive

cr

now has

the form

J [Qij (0X) del]

oli

*>f

9 2 ) d ij ] d v > X

~6

P^du^ ds

2 ,

d i j ( t x ) d e u + a i j ( t 2 ) d e i j ] dV
32

o
co

^-f
*

f1
-

Fig. 2

The Bree problem and the definition of VF and V;

CT,

j [j (tx) + oJ (t2)] de^j dV

(y)

vF
the formal proof of which is given in the Appendix.
An important corollary to this result is that the shakedown condition
can only be satisfied if there exists a region of
ting the load

AP^

through the structure.

Vg

capable of transmit-

For such problems the structure

is capable of carrying some load in excess of the reverse plasticity limit


and a

region exists.

Such problems have been termed type

([5] of Part 1) and include the classic Bree problem.


of reverse plasticity
the load

AP^

Vp

by Ponter

However, the volume

contains a mechanism which can be activated by

then ratchetting can occur once the reverse plasticity limit

is exceeded and no

type

The transient Bree problem discussed here has features

problem.

region exists.

This situation has been termed a

of both situations and therefore forms a transitional type A/B .


3.

THE TRANSIENT BREE PROBLEM


Consider the problem shown in Fig. (2) where a plate of thickness

is restrained from curvature and subjected to a constant average stress


in the

direction and zero average stress in the

cyclic thermal history


face temperature

direction.

p
a

0(y,t) is created by cyclic variation of the sur-

6(0,t) and

0(h,t) .

If we adopt a Tresca yield condition then the plastic strain field for
positive

p
a
C
d x

and

has the simple form

constant, de y

c
0,

c
du x

c
de x . x

de z

c
= - de x

(8)
(9)

The bound (6) becomes, for-small A0,

toy (9j) - x (tj)] dy ,

34

(10)

and the exact solution requires the location, at each


t, , when the integrand is a minimum.

For negative

y , of the instant
cr , the strain field

is reversed in sign and the corresponding result is:


Ic^lh

<

,h
[ [cry (j) + a x (t^)] dy .

In both (10) and (11) the optimal choice of


A0

when a volume

Vp

(11)

t yields equality.

For large

exists, the corresponding results are; for positive

cA < f ' j [jtj) + <jj(t2)]dy + | 2 [a y (0 1 )-x(t 1 )]dy + | ' j K x t ^ + ^ t p j d y


(12)

and for negative

rh.

l^lh ^ J ^[c&V+iSctpidy + J 2 [a y (0 2 )+a x (t 2 )]dy + |

j[(a x (t 1 )+a x (t 2 )]dy


(13)

where

,h

and

are shown schematically in Fig. (2).

It can be

seen that, in all cases, the problem is reduced to a single integral.


The calculation has been carried through for three separate cases; a
single-sided downshock, a single-sided upshock and a double-sided downshock.
The solutions are dependent upon the non-dimensional groups which govern the
transient thermal distribution.

We assume a linear heat transfer relation-

ship between the temperature in the media

0 H and

0C

within which the

temperature changes take place and those on plate surfaces

0(y = 0) and

0(y = h ) ;
QH

h t (0(0,t) - 0 H (t))
(1A)

h t (0(h,t) - 0 C (t))

35

where

h t is the heat transfer coefficient and

Qj an d

transfer per unit area through the plate surfaces in the

Qc
y

are the heat


direction .

The plate material itself is characterised by a coefficient of thermal con-

1 0 position

Fig. (3): Tran sien t temperature profiles due to thermal downshock on


one surface, B = 810, F = 0.0056.

36

ductivity

K , density

and specific heat

c .

The transient tempera-

ture fieids [3,7], corresponding to the media temperature history of the form
shown in Fig. (4) where the temperature changes between its extreme values
at a constant rate in time

the Biot and Fourier numbers

, are functions of four nondimensional groups,


B

and

F , nondimensional distance and time.

e = f (B , F , I , J )
h
h

where

t
= r
and
K

(15)

KT

pch2

F =

The Biot number measures the relative resistance of the plate surface and
plate thickness to heat transfer.

In the context of the sodium cooled

reactor the relevant range of values will be characterised by extreme values


B = 160 and
to

B = 810.

We find, in fact, that the solutions are insensitive

in this range as, effectively, the sodium/steel interface has neg

ligible relative resistance to heat transfer.


The Fourier number
plate.

indicates the speed of heating or cooling of the

Thus a large value of

implies a very slow rate of change of

temperature.

As a wide range of values of

are possible we compute

solutions for

0.0014 < F < 50 which covers a practical range.

The details

of the thermoelastic solutions are given by Karadeniz [6],


In order to include the effect of temperature on the stress distribu
tions it is assumed that in the reversed plasticity region, where the his
tories of peak stresses cannot be contained within the yield surface, the
ratio of peak stresses under tension and compression will be the same as the
ratio of the monotonie yield stresses at the two relative temperatures, i.e.

r 9/^ x.max
[ax(t2)piin
where

and
1

ay[0(t2)]

<16>

are the instants of time during the transient process at


2

37

which the stress extremes occur.


In the analysis material properties characteristic of type 316 SS are
used and these are listed in Tables (1) and (2).
assigned to the dimensional parameters

The numerical values

ht , K , p and

are also pres-

ented in Table (1) .


The mechanical and thermal load components are characterised by the
dimensionless measures

-p
a

and where
4.

0R

"

where

o9

-P _

-0
O

and

-0

ay(0R)

'

EaA6

2gy(eR)

( 1 7

is a convenient reference temperature.

SOLUTIONS TO THE BREE PLATE


The plate is assumed to have hot coolant at temperature

to the one surface and cold coolant at temperature


surface as shown in Fig. (4a).

OH

adjacent

QQ adjacent to the other

The temperature distribution at

t = 0

is

linear through the thickness of the plate.


For the present problem it is possible to produce two types of singlesided rapid thermal transients.

These depend on whether the thermal shock

is applied as a change in the temperature


the surface

OH

from an initial temperature

of the medium in contact with


0 ^ to a final temperature

Hf

along a ramp which is linear with respect to time, as shown in Fig. (4b) or
it is applied as a change in temperature
the surface

0Q

from an initial temperature

as shown in Fig. (5).

, of the medium in contact with


0 ^ to a final temperature

0Cf

These cases will be called a thermal downshock (drop

in temperature) and a thermal upshock (increase in temperature), respectively.


(a)

Solutions to the single-sided thermal downshocks


In order to obtain the response of the plate element to the temperature

gradient, the plate was sub-divided into 50 through-thickness integration


intervals.

The transient stress distributions within each of these inter-

vals were computed from the transient temperature distribution using a

38 -

6H

9 = Constant

Q- Plate element and initial condition for thermal dswnshock


6H

6H

b. Temperature history of medium H ( 8 r is constant)

er
Power on

time

e.
" Shutdown transient

Power off

c. Temperature distributions

Fig. (4):

Plate element and the d e t a i l s of temperature h i s t o r y for


single sided thermal downshock.

39

'Vi,
Q s C ors*an1

Piote element ond initio! conditions for thermol upshock

cf 6 H

6.cf

eCI
*

time
b.

Temperture history of medium C

e,Hf

Power on
c. Temperature

Trcnsient

End of transient

distributions

Fig. (5): Plate elements and the details of temperature history for
single sided thermal upshocks.

40

numerical integration technique.

Values of the temperature to an accuracy

of better than two significant figures were obtained from the summation of
50 terms of the series solutions to the temperature distribution problem.
To obtain the same accuracy for the thermal stresses 45 time steps were used,
time intervals starting from

t = 0

to

t = 140T, where

represents the

duration of the cooling ramp in seconds.


Fig. (3) shows the temperature profiles during the thermal downshock
for a Biot number of 810 and a Fourier number of 0.0056.

The resulting

stress profiles together with the envelope of such profiles are shown in Fig.
(6) for various values of

t/x .

In the first set of calculations the fixed temperature


chosen as 21C.

0 Q = 8jjf

was

In order to assess the effects of the Biot number on the

ratchet boundary, the calculations were carried out with the Biot numbers 810
and 100.
tions.

The Fourier number was kept constant at 0.0056 in both calculaThe computed contours providing the limits to the non-ratchetting

area for tensile and compressive mechanical loadings are shown in Fig. (7)
together with the boundary given by Goodman [3] for a perfectly plastic
material with a temperature independent yield stress and the boundaries
corresponding to Bree's quasi-steady thermal cycle solution.

It can be seen

that the ratchet boundary shows only a slight dependence on the Biot number
for this range.

Nevertheless, the extreme case, when the ratchet boundary

corresponds to the smallest value of mechanical load, occurs for larger values
of the Biot number.

It can also be seen that the rapid thermal downshock

reduces the non-ratchetting area.

For positive

the ratchet boundary is

in good agreement with the boundary given by Goodman [3] for


the temperature independent yield stress is adopted.

9
o < 4.0 when

If the thermal load

exceeds this value, a compressive ratchetting begins to occur and a further


increase in the thermal load will result in compressive ratchetting for the
lower mechanical loads.

Goodman did not report this phenomenon in [3] but

reported that he was unable to generate stable solutions for small mechanical
loads.
- 41 -

a.
Envelope of stress profiles

10

10

Fig. (6): Thermal stress profiles for various values of

t/x , single

sided downshocks, B = 810, F = 0.0056.

Bret, Temprature independent yield stress


B=100,

. . . . . .
B=810

B=100 Temperature dependent yield stress


B=810

Bree. Average temperature dependent yield stress


Goodman's Perfect plasticity solution, B 610.
(Temperature independent yield stress)

Tensile
Ratchetting

05
Mechanical load

Fig. (7): The effects of Biot number on the ratchet boundary for single
sided thermal downshocks, F = 0.0056, 6 = 6D = 21C .
C

42

F.0-0056
FO-07
o O l Fa 0112
* F = 1 1837
Bree. Temp, independent material prop.
Bree. Average temperature
dependent yield stress
Operating points for the high
temperature components in
the primary circuit of the
Commercial Fast Reactor 11 1

Tensile
Ratchetting

% 6 R = 370*C

Fig. (8): The effects of Fourier number


single sided thermal downshocks

on the ratchet boundary for


B = 810, 6 = 6 = 370C.
C

A further reduction is obtained when the temperature dependent yield


stress is adopted in the calculations.

For

>

0.2 a worse case may be

conservatively predicted by the analysis of Bree, if the yield stress is


replaced by the average value of the yield stresses at the two extreme tem
peratures.

However, as the transient thermal load increases then compressive

ratchetting in the absence of a mechanical load starts to develop at about

=2.4

P = 0.20

and the tensile and compressive ratchet boundaries coincide at about


and

= 3.5 .

The comparisons between the calculated ratchet boundaries corresponding


to tensile and compressive mechanical loadings suggests that the thermal down
shock applied on one side of the plate has its greatest effects when the

43

mechanical load is compressive.

This Is not a surprising result since the

integration of the area under the envelope of the compressive stress profiles
in Fig. (6) is larger than the tensile stress profiles.

In addition to this,

the temperature dependence of yield stress will introduce additional assymetry


since the yield stress reduces with increasing temperature and highest temperie
atures occur when a x < 0 .
The fixed temperature
However, in practice

0C

8C

chosen in the above calculations was 21C.

can be as high as 370C [1].

In order to assess

the effects of both the thermal downshocks at such a high temperature and the
Fourier number on the ratchet boundary, a computer investigation was carried
out with the fixed temperature

0 C = 370C.

In these calculations the Biot

number was kept as 810 and the changes in the yield stress with temperature
were included.

The results of such an investigations are shown in Fig. (8)

for tensile and compressive mechanical loadings which show that this set of
solutions possesses similar characteristics to those obtained for the fixed
temperature

0 C = 21C.

loading is compressive.

It is again found that the extreme case occurs when


It is seen that for the present case the boundary

given by Bree with the average temperature dependent yield stress may give
rise to non-conservative estimates of non-ratchetting regions for the smaller
Fourier numbers.
(b)

Solutions to the single-sided thermal upshocks


The computer investigation was extended to examine the effects of thermal

upshocks on the ratchet boundary.

The first set of calculations were again

carried out with the fixed temperature

6ci

= 21C.

The ratchet boundaries

so calculated are shown in Fig. (9) for tensile and compressive loadings.

It

can be seen that the extreme case corresponds, as before, to the largest Biot
and smallest Fourier numbers.
The comparisons between the computed ratchet boundaries and the boundaries corresponding to the quasi-static case shows that the rapid thermal

44

upshocks cause considerable reductions in allowable combinations of the load


components, especially for compressive loadings when the temperature dependence of yield stress is taken into account.

However, the effect is much

greater for tensile loading when changes in the yield stress during the
transient are ignored.

This suggests that the extreme case for the single-

sided upshock depends upon the relationship between yield stress and
temperature.

The reason for this marked difference in behaviour between

up- and down- shocks may be explained in terms of the temperature distributions and the stress histories.

For upshocks, integration of the area

under the envelope of the tensile stress curves due to thermal loading alone
is larger than that for the compressive stresses.

This leads to opposite

behaviour for the two loading cases; when the temperature dependence is considered, an asymmetry is introduced at the expense of tensile loading, since
the yield stress reduces sharply with increasing temperature and the hot
regions of the plate are in compression.
As in the previous case the second set of calculations was carried out
with a fixed temperature

0C

= 370C.

The resulting Bree diagrams are

shown in Fig. (10) for tensile and compressive mechanical loadings.

This

set of solutions shows many similar features to those described above for the
fixed temperature

6 C 1 = 21C.

There is, however, a significant difference;

ratchetting occurs at a reduced tensile load when

&

=0.

As the thermal

load increases then tensile ratchetting occurs.


It can be seen from these calculations that, for thermal upshocks, the
ratchet boundary for small

-P
a

is very sensitive to the variation of yield

stress with temperature.


(c)

Equal thermal downshocks on both surfaces


This section considers the plate problem with a uniform initial tempera-

ture profile as shown in Fig. (11).

A double-sided thermal downshock occurs

when the temperature of the surrounding coolant is suddenly reduced to a

45

lower value, i.e. the plate is fully immersed in the coolant so that the same
temperature history is applied to both outer surfaces of the plate.

Since

the temperature distributions are symmetrical it is only necessary to consider


the semi-thickness

0 < y < h/2 , taking the co-ordinate origin at the centre

line of the plate as shown in Fig. (11) and making surface


mid-surface so that

the adiabatic

h t = 0.

The influences of the Biot and Fourier numbers on the ratchet boundaries
are examined in a manner similar to that in the case of the single-sided
thermal downshocks.
(12) for

F = .0014

The results of such calculations are presented in Fig.


and for

B = 810

and

B = 100.

The ratchet boundary shows only a slight dependence on the Biot number.
Note also that for tensile mechanical loads the onset of ratchetting is in
good agreement with the boundary proposed by Bree when the temperature independent yield stress is adopted.

However, when the changes in yield stress

with temperature are considered, considerable reductions in the allowable


combinations of load components occur and the ratchet boundary corresponding
to the quasi-static case with the average temperature dependent yield stress
gives rise to a non-conservative boundary.

It is again of interest to note

that as the thermal load increases, ratchetting starts to develop in the


absence of a mechanical load at about

9
a = 2.30.

A further increase in the

thermal load will lead to a compressive ratchetting for small mechanical


loading and the tensile and compressive ratchet boundaries coincide at about
-P
a

-6
= 0.12 ,

= 3.25.

Comparison between the boundaries for tensile and

compressive mechanical loadings demonstrates that the rapid thermal downshock


has the largest effect on the ratchet boundary for the compressive loading and
the reduction in yield stress at high temperatures may have the effect of
hastening compressive ratchetting at the expense of shakedown or reversed
plasticity.

This marked difference that occurs between the two types of

loading situations is due to the reduction in yield stress with increasing

- 46

Bree,Temperaturi independent yield stress


Bree.Averoge temperature dependent yield stress
B100 F=0,O056 Temperature dependent yield stress
B.810 F= 0.0056
B=100 F=00056 Temperature Independent yield stress
B=100 F=0-6

Tensile
Ratchetting

V.n-c
0-5
Mechanical load

Fig. (9): The effects of Biot and Fourier numbers on the ratchet boundary

F=0OO56

F = 0-07

- .
*
'

F=0-112
F.M837
Bree temperature independent
yield stress
Bree average temperature dependent
yield stress
C.F Reactor operating points

Tensile
Ratchetting

0-5
Mechanical load

Fig. (10) : The effects of Fourier number on the ratchet boundary for
single sided thermal upshocks, B = 810, 9D = 0 = 370C .
K

47

y=*h

y=-h

k'

e.

eH
Coolant

Coolant

h c =o
a Initio! conditions for thermal downhock on both surfaces

e,

e
Power on

Shut-down transient

Power of*

b T emperature distributors

Fig. (11) : Details of temperature h i s t o r y for a double s ided thermal


downshock.

- 48

Brtt Temperature independent yield strest


Bree Avtragi temperature depndent yiald stress
Goodmark solution for perfect plasticity
B*1O0> Temperature ndtptndtnt yield stress

B*eio,
B100. Temperature dtpendtnt yitld stress
BsSIO,

H
M

Tensile
Ratchetting

W21t

VBR'

Fig. (12): The effects of Biot number on the ratchet boundary for double
sided thermal downshocks, F = 0.0014, 6 n = 9 = 370C .
K

rir

Bree, temperature independent yield stress


Bree average temperature dependent yield stress

-x
*

F = CK5

F= 1-1837

-
F = 50
. ... Operating
points tor the
C F Reactor
Tensile
Ratchetting

E
a;

eHr-e=37o"c

Mechanical load CP/cr ( 6 R )

Fig. (13): The effects of Fourier number

on the ratchet boundary for

double sided thermal downshocks, B = 810, 6F = 9


49

= 370C.

temperature and the asymmetry in the stress profiles for thermal loading
alone.
As in the previous sections, the second set of calculations was carried
out with a fixed temperature

0u^

= 0

= 370C.

In order to examine the

effects of the Fourier number (i.e. the effects of plate thickness or the
duration of cooling ramp) different values were assigned to the Fourier
number, while the Biot number was kept constant at 810 by adjusting the heat
transfer coefficient
tion for

F = .0014

fixed temperature
F = .0014

h .

The results are shown in Fig. (13).

The solu-

shows similar characteristics to that obtained for the

0Q

= 21C.

For tensile loading the ratchet boundary for

and the boundary given by Bree with the average temperature

dependent yield stress agree fairly well provided

>

0.4 .

But for small

mechanical loads the boundary corresponding to the average temperature dependent yield stress does not provide a conservative prediction of the onset of
ratchetting.

As in the previous cases, for larger values of thermal load,

ratchetting occurs in spite of a zero mechanical load.


this value is given as

-0
a

= 3.80 .

For the present case

A further increase results in a com-

pressive ratchetting for small mechanical loads and the two ratchet boundaries
-n
coincide at about

Cr

-6
= 0.1 ,

= 4.75 .

It is also seen in this figure

that as the Fourier number increases (i.e. an increase in the plate thickness
or a decrease in the duration of cooling ramp) then the effect of thermal
stresses will decrease, and as a consequence of this, the area in which no
ratchetting occurs will increase.

This increase will be larger for tensile

loading than for compressive, since the hot regions of the plate are subjected
to larger compressive stresses.
Following Goodman's approach [3], starting with a solution for a fixed
and

h , the variation of the onset of ratchetting with the plate thickness

may be evaluated by making use of the Fourier number concept.

If

= 5.0 is

taken as a realistic limit to the thermal stresses to be encountered in

- 50

practice for double-sided thermal downshocks and assuming that the cooling
ramp duration

and quantities

culate a critical thickness

K, p

and

are constant, one can cal-

for which ratchetting would not occur for

given combinations of thermal and mechanical load components.

Fig. (14)

shows the variation of computed critical thicknesses with mechanical loads for
the particular material properties of Tables (1 & 2), the Biot number of 810
and the cooling ramp duration of 10 seconds.
duration

The effects of cooling ramp

on the ratchet boundary may similarly be examined by use of the

Fourier number concept.

By keeping the Fourier number constant one can

obtain a relationship between the plate thickness and the cooling ramp time
T

which, if obeyed, should result in a safe design, i.e.


h < h / ^ -

where

is taken from Fig. (14).

a6 < 5.0

(18)

It should be noted, however, that this

result is dependent on the material parameters chosen and the types of transient thermal loading cycle.
(d)

Consequences for fast nuclear reactor design


In order to show the importance of rapid thermal transients in Liquid

Metal Fast Reactor design the following calculation was undertaken:


Using the following values, taken from [1] and Tables (1 & 2); and

At F u l l Power

Sub-assembly maximum nominal temperature

600C

Core mixed outlet temperature

540C

Core inlet temperature

370C

Rate of temperature transient

40C/sec.

E = 1.708 105MN/m2
a = 16.71 10~ 6 1/C
the maximum thermo-elastic stresses which may occur in the primary circuit

51

Goodman [3I,B = 810,remperature independent


yield stress
Present study, temperature dependent
yield stress
j f l - E ( e p ) a (eR)A9 < 50
2ery(e R )
R =370C
ap>00

1-00-1
90
80i
70
Il

60-1

ib

50

-403020
10-1

{.tu

i t t t ,1 I i , i i l I , l i . i . , l n I , ,i

-1-0
a * < 5-0
e R = 370C
cr p <0

-0-9-0-8-0-7
ib

-a -0-6

-0-5-I
-0-4-0-3-0-2-0-1-I
4

5
6 7
8
Plate thickness

9 JO
\

11 12

13 cms

Fig. (14): Variation of allowable mechanical load with thickness for


double sided thermal downshocks, B = 810, 10 second cooling
ramp, material of Tables (1) and (2).

52

may be evaluated as
C-e^I
[a
J

EgA9 J
2ay(370)

_
-

-16

_
-

'33

and
f-eqi,
lCT J

,11
EgA9
2ay(370)

where
A9

= 230C (Sub-assembly max. outlet temp. - Core inlet temp.)

AG

= 170C (Core mixed outlet temp. - Core inlet temp.)

These stress values exceed the classical shakedown limit by substantial


margins.

The operating lines which correspond to these thermal loadings are

shown in Figs. (8), (10) and (13).


For the material data given in Tables (1 & 2), the 5.75 second cooling
ramp (for A9 ) and a Biot number of 810, the critical plate thickness hj_s
below which ratchetting need not be expected, for: single-sided upshocks;
single-sided downshocks and double-sided downshocks can be calculated using
the Fourier number concept.

The resulting critical thicknesses so obtained

and the corresponding allowable mechanical loads are given in Tables (3) and
(4) together with the allowable mechanical loads given by Bree for analogous
quasi-static thermal loading.

5.

CONCLUSIONS
The results of a series of computations of the behaviour of the Bree

plate subjected to single-sided rapid thermal down- and up- shocks and doublesided thermal downshocks have been presented and discussed.

As a result of

this study the following contributions have been made to the understanding of
the effects of rapid thermal transients on the behaviour of a Bree plate
taking into account, in a conservative manner, cyclic hardening.

53

(1)

It has been shown that, for a Bree plate subjected to various types
of rapid thermal transient loadings, the extended upper bound
shakedown technique can be particularly useful in predicting
structural behaviour.

(2)

Rapid thermal transients applied to only one surface or both surfaces of the Bree plate, will induce ratchetting at lower combinations of mechanical and thermal load components than predicted by
Bree for analogous quasi-steady loading.

(3)

The extreme case, when the ratchet boundary corresponds to the


smallest value of

| c^ | , is given by large Biot and small Fourier

numbers.
(4)

When a rapid down-shock is applied to one surface of the plate, the


extreme case occurs for compressive loading, whereas if the plate
is subjected to a thermal upshock the extreme case strongly
depends upon the variation of yield stress with temperature.

If

the variation is large, the extreme case can occur for compressive
loading.

On the other hand, for small variation in yield stress

with temperature, the extreme case occurs for tensile loading.

If

equal thermal downshocks are applied to both surfaces then the


extreme case occurs for compressive loading.
(5)

As the thermal load increases then ratchetting becomes possible in


the absence of a mechanical load.

This ratchetting will be com-

pressive if thermal downshocks are applied.

For thermal up-

shocks, this ratchetting can be either tensile or compressive


depending upon the variation of yield stress with temperature.
As a result of this, compressive ratchetting can occur for small
tensile mechanical loads when the plate is subjected to thermal
downshocks applied on one surface of the plate or both surfaces.

- 54

For thermal upshocks the occurrence of compressive ratchetting in


the presence of small compressive mechanical loads, depend on the
variation of yield stress with temperature.

The former case

occurs when the variation is small.

(6)

These results indicate the importance of taking the variation of


yield stress with temperature into account.

Any analysis ignoring

this effect may lead to erroneous predictions of structural


behaviour.
(7)

For transient thermal loadings a critical plate thickness may be


evaluated as a function of mechanical load by use of the Fourier
number concept, which should result in a safe performance.

All these calculations were carried out using conservative assumptions about
the material behaviour.

They display the type of behaviour which may occur

and indicate that thermal transient effects can be significant.

55 -

Appendix
Proof of inequalities (5) and (7)
The maximum work principle [8] requires that for any stress state a. .
which satisfies the yield condition
(a*. a?.)de?. o
ij

where

c
de.. and

c
a. .

ij

xy

(Al)
K

ij

denote the plastic strain increment and associated


*

ij

yield point stress. For the component strains


write

1
de.. and

(*k a*.)de*. * 0 ,

2
de. . we may

(A2)

where
*k
a. .
ij

.9

a . . + a:.(tj
+ K p. . ,
v
y
ij

ij

ij

'

k = 1,
2
'

(A3)

* *

and
de. . = de. . + de. . ,
ij

ij

ij

summing (A2)over k, integrating over the volume

V and applying the

principle of virtual work to the resulting term involving

P.du?
+
1
1
S

, yields

e
(\ij.(t,)de*.
v
V 13 + i.(tOde?.)dV
j v 2J i j J

2
(CT?.(0
)deK
+ a?.(9_)de
.)dV
+
* ij * V 1
ij
i j v 2J
ijJ

as

*P
a..

de., are compatible and

p..de?.dV $ 0
ij

ij

(A4)

p.. is a residual stress field, the last

term in (A4) is zero, yielding inequality (5) of the main text.


When

a. . (t) cannot be contained within the yield surface by a rigid

body translation in stress space in volume

V n , it is necessary to assume
r

that the extreme stresses are related to each other by a relationship such
as equation (16), which was the form used in the calculations.

56

The residual stress

p.. is divided into two components


1
* p.2 .
p.. +

p. . =

where

CA5)

p.. = 0 in V_ and Mp.. is chosen so that a., ft) + p.. satisfies


ij
F
i]
il
il
A
the equation (16) (or any other appropriate relationship), as a result the
1
deviatoric component of p.. is 'determinate in V p . We assume that where XP
H

is applied forms part of the surface

ii
As

V , and hence apply inequality

A4 to V ,

6
2
(?.(tjde}.
.(t02'
)de?.)dV
_ Jf(<,?.
.)dV
+
J
v
^ i;p V i] + i;p
i]J
ij v(ejde*.
V ij + a?.
ij *(902)de
ijJ
V
V

P.du?
+
i i

p}. de?.dV +
p?. de?. dV $ 0
iJ
13
J il il
s
V
p . . = 0 in

(A6)

t h e corresponding i n t e g r a l i n
p\.

d?.dV

il

A6

is zero.

Further
(A7)

il

and hence

( p i . d C . dV =

] il
V

il

p}.de?.dV

il

Vr

which is a known quantity.

If we use the isothermal condition


(5?.(tJ + 9l. .)

a. . ( t j + p. .

13

then
f 1 c
p7.de?.dV

. il
V
F

il

(A8)

il

ij

in V n
F

+ 5?.(tJ)de?.dV
K
= ' 2^(5?.(tJ
13v r
ij v 2
ij
V

(A9)

(AIO)

Combination of (A6), (A7), (A8) and (AIO) yields inequality (7). For
the case of a temperature dependent yield value,

7^^r

o (91)

(a..(t,)
+ Mp..)
1

i ] 1'

ir

(a,,(t + p..)
a y (9 2 ) * i j ^ 20
*ij

replaces (A9) and the inequality (7) may easily be extended to this case.

57

Parameter

Value

Density, p

7980 kg/m3

Specific Heat, c

556 J/kg C

Conductivity, K

24.7 W/m C

Heat Transfer Coefficient, h

2 x 105 W/m C

Modulus of elasticity, E

195 GN/m2 at 20C


170 GN/m2 at 370C

Coefficient of thermal expansion

16.39 x IO"6 1/C at 20 C

ex

16.71 x IO"6 1/C at 370 C

Table (1)

: Material Parameters

Temperature C

Table (2)

MN/m2

20

205

50

179

100

155

150

142

200

132

250

121

300

113

350

106

370

104

400

101

450

97

500

95

550

92

600

90

: Yield strength

58

values for type 316 SS [2 ]

Plate Thickness
[m]

en
to

Bree [4 ]
with
ay(eR)+ay(eR+A9)

p
Allowable Mechanical Load \o |/a (370C)

0.0756

0.24

0.04

Thermal Upshock
-p
-P
a > 0
a <0
0.16
0.06

0.0213

0.25

0.13

0.10

0.165

0.0169

0.26

0.17

0.14

0.185

0.0084

0.29

0.27

0.27

0.24

Thermal Downshock
-P
-P
a > 0
a < 0

Table (3) : Variation of Allowable Mechanical load with Thickness for Single Sided
Thermal upshock and Thermal downshock (Material of Tables
(2) , 5.75 second Cooling Ramp,

=3.16,

B = 810)

(1) and

0.28

Plate thickness
[m]

Double Sided Thermal Downshocks


Allowable Mechanical Load \o? \/o
Tension

Compression

0.302

0.22

0.08

0.1512

0.225

0.12

0.0426

0.31

0.28

0.0338

0.385

0.35

0.0238

0.54

0.50

0.0168

0.68

0.67

0.0016

0.86

0.86

Table (4)

(370 C)

Bree [4 ]
with a =
loy C e R ) + a y ( e R + W 2

0.28

Variation of Allowable Mechanical Load with Thickness for a


Double sided downshock (Material of Tables
a

5.75 second Cooling Ramp,

=3.16,

(1) and

B = 810).

(2)

References
[1]

HOLMES, J.A.G.
"High temperature problems associated with the Design of the
Commercial Fast Reactor", in "Creep in Structures", Ponter, A.R.S.
and Hayhurst, D.R. (eds), 3rd IUTAM Symposium, Leicester, 1980:
PP279-286.

[2]

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Nuclear Power
Plant Components, Division 1, 1974.

[3]

GOODMAN, A.M.
"The influence of rapid thermal transients on elastic-plastic
ratchetting", CEGB, Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories, Report no.
RDB/N4492, 1979.

[4]

BREE, J.
"Elastic-plastic behaviour of thin tubes subjected to internal
pressure and intermittent high-heat fluxes with application to
Fast-Nuclear-Reactor fuel elements", J. Strain Analysis, 1967:
2, No.3, pp226-238.

[5]

PONTER, A.R.S. and KARADENIZ, S.


"An extended shakedown theory for structures which suffer cyclic
thermal loading", Part I: Theory. Journal of Applied Mechanics,
Trans. ASME, 1985: 52, pp877-882 and Part II: Applications, Journal
of Applied Mechanics, Trans. ASME, 1985: 52, pp883-889.

[6]

KARADENIZ, S.
"The development of upper bound and associated finite element
techniques for the plastic shakedown of thermally loaded structures",
Ph.D. thesis, The University of Leicester, February 1983.

[7]

CARSLAW, H.S. and JAEGER, J.C.


"Conduction of Heat in Solids", 2nd Edition, Oxford University Press,
1959, Chapter 3.

[8]

MARTIN, J.B.
"Plasticity", MIT Press, Boston 1975.

61

Part III

The plastic ratchetting of thin cylindrical shells


subjected to axisymmetric thermal and mechanical loading
S. Karadeniz, A.R.S. Ponter, K.F. Carter

1.

INTROD UCTION
An entirely different class of problems occur when the temperature

gradient occurs along the surface of a shell structure rather than through
the shell thickness.

The thermoelastic stresses involve a significant

membrane component and a situation can easily occur where the reverse
plasticity region, volume

Vp , can contain an entire cross section of a

cylindrical or axisymmetric shell.


likely to be of type

B where no

As a result these problems are more


P

region exists.

A full understanding

of such problems, however, requires a consideration of both the ratchet


boundary and the sensitivity of the boundary to various material effects.
This part of the report provides an introduction to the class of problems
by studying a cylindrical tube subjected to a variety of simple axial tem
perature histories.

Some comparisons with experimental data is possible

for these problems and two sets

[7,8] of experimental data are used for

this purpose.
The essential feature of this type of problem is shown in Figs. (1),
(2) and (3) where an axially loaded tube is subjected to a temperature
discontinuity of amount

A0

which moves over a very short distance

Ax

The temperature discontinuity generates a discontinuity in the hoop stress


of magnitude
A A = EaA
As this discontinuity traverses the length

Ax

each material element ex

periences a variation of stress of the same magnitude.

Hence when

A8

exceeds the value

A oc = EaA = 2a y
the entire thickness of the tube over the length exceeds the reverse plas
ticity limit.

The volume

Vp

is, therefore, a hoop of material which

can deform under the action of the axial load and hence no

region

exists; ratchetting can occur once the reverse plasticity limit is exceeded
65

Fig. 1

Geometry of an axially loaded tube

Temperature

General condition

e,
Axial distance
9 1 Temperature
0 O+ A9

Simplified cases
AX1

8,

a - Moving temperature front

Axial distance

9 1 Temperature
9 R +A0

o<t^
T

/2^t^T

e(
b- Stationary thermal cycling

Axial distance

F[g^2 Thermal loadings


66

and the problem is of type

B .

The mechanism of ratchetting consists of

a reverse plasticity mechanism where plastic strains occur at two points on


the yield surface and tends to form net axial strain per cycle.
The evaluation of the ratchet limit for this class of problems involves a totally different type of numerical technique to the simple method
discussed in Part II for the transient Bree problem.

The optimal mech-

anism is not known a priori and must be found by some means.


used has been discussed by Karadeniz and Ponter

The method

[3] and consists of a

combined finite element/linear programming technique where the optimal


mechanism is formed from amongst a class of displacement fields described
by a finite element spatial description.
In the following section the finite element method and the shakedown
theory are briefly discussed.

In Section 3 a sequence of diagrams are

presented for an axially loaded tube and for moving and stationary temperature distributions. We find that the ratchet limit can vary markedly
depending upon the details of the loading history.

In addition, inclusion

of the variation of yield stress with temperature can have an amplified


effect for small applied loads, so that it is possible for ratchetting to
occur at zero applied load.

In many realistic circumstances with moving

temperature distributions the exact history of temperature is not known and


in this case it seems unwise to exceed the elastic limits.
The effect of cyclic hardening of the material is also discussed.
In some circumstances it seems likely that ratchetting is suppressed by
the development of cyclic hardness.

However, there are definite ranges

of loading where ratchetting occurs without reverse plasticity so that


cyclic hardening may be expected to have no effect. In particular it is
possible for ratchetting at zero applied load to occur even for strongly
hardening materials such as annealed 316 stainless steel.

Some experi-

mental evidence is present in support of this conjecture.


To further demonstrate that the degree of severity of thermal loading

67

is not easy to predict without fairly detailed calculations, solutions are


presented for tests conducted by INSA at Lyon, France, where a hot gas jet
was diverted by a system of baffles along a narrow length of an axially
loaded tube.

Although the thermal loading appears to be severe, the

interaction diagram demonstrates that it is less likely to produce ratchetting than a less severe moving temperature field.
Finally the interaction between concentrated loading, and a thermal
field is demonstrated by the solution of a tube problem involving a moving
temperature front and a ring of loading.

It is shown that quite sudden

transitions occur as the thermo-elastic stresses approach the region of the


applied load.
2.

FINITE ELEMENT TECHNIQUE


The shakedown theory and finite element techniques are discussed in

detail elsewhere

[3,4,5]

and here we briefly summarize the essential

features of the techniques.


The upper bound shakedown theorem

[2,4,5]

allows the evaluation of

an upper bound to the applied load, i.e. the axial load on the tube,
corresponding to the boundary of the region
temperature.

for a prescribed history of


p
We define a cycle of plastic strain i-j(t) which gives rise

to an accumulated strain over the cycle of thermal loading, t0< t < t 0 + At

Ae

,tn+

j - [
J

t
-o

j(t)dt

which is compatible with a displacement field

(D
Au

The finite element

method is developed for a Tresca type yield condition where the yield surface is composed of a sequence of planes in stress space.

The upper bound

can then be expressed in terms of. the plastic multiplyers associated with
these planes so that the formulation reduces to the minimization of a linear
cost function, a load parameter, where the variables are the values of the

68

plastic multiplyers at a sequence of nodal points. The compatibility of the


strain field (1) and the relationship between the plastic multiplyer and
assumed displacement field is assured provided a number of linear constraint
equations are satisfied.

The upper bound technique then reduces to a

linear programming problem where we seek the mechanism amongst a class


defined by the finite element-approximation which minimizes the applied load
parameter.

The material is assumed to obey a Tresca yield condition and

the displacement field is chosen so that axial bending occurs at a discrete


set of nodal points

[3].

If the class of displacement field includes the

exact shakedown mechanism then we find the exact value of the load parameter
at shakedown.

In practice the solutions are first produced for a fairly

crude distribution of elements which is subsequently sub-divided until no


change in the load parameter occurs.

As a result the computed values may

be expected to be close to the exact solution provided it is within the


general range of displacement fields adopted.
A computer programme has been written for axisymmetric loading of thin
walled tubes which takes as input an axial temperature distribution at a
sequence of times during the cycle at a sequence of points along the tube.
The thermo-elastic stress history is then computed using linear interpolation spatially and a convolution integral formed from the analytic solution
for a step discontinuity in temperature.

In addition the variation of

yield stress with temperature is provided in the form of a table of values.


As a result the programme is capable of providing interaction diagrams for
any history of thermal loading by scaling of the temperature history.

As

output the programme produces a sequence of diagrams which gives, in


graphical form, the extremes of the thermo-elastic stresses, the interaction diagram and the optimal mechanism corresponding to a sequence of
points along the shakedown boundary.

69

a/EaA9/2

x=n/2

"*-

X=IT/

Fig. 3 Elastic thermal stress distribution for a tube subjected to a step change in temperature A8

3.

VARIATION OF TEMPERATURE ALONG THE LENGTH OF A TUBE


A simple but not uncommon problem Involves a tube which is periodically

subjected to an increase in temperature along part of its length, so that it


is subjected to a history of temperature of a type shown schematically in
Fig. (2), where an increase of temperature

A9

occurs in a fairly uncon-

trolled manner over part of the tube so that the temperature front may
fluctuate axially as well as occasionally reducing to a uniform temperature.
We study this problem by looking at two simplified cases, the first shown in
Fig. (2a) where a sharp discontinuity in temperature
over a distance

Ax

A0

moves cyclically

(a moving temperature front) and the second, shown in

Fig. (2b) where the discontinuity is imposed and then removed (stationary
thermal cycling).
tinuity

A0

The thermo-elastic stresses due to a temperature discon-

at x = 0

hoop stress component

is shown in Fig. (3), where it can be seen that the


QQ has a maximum value of

(EA0)/2

where

and

are Young's modulus and the linear coefficient of thermal expansion respectively.
The interaction diagrams for the two problems, assuming a constant
value of the yield stress are shown in Figs. (4a) and (4b).

In these

diagrams and all subsequent diagrams the axes are given by


P = P/pL
where

PL is the plastic limit load value of the axial load

from a yield stress value


and
where

ay
at

at

at a reference temperature

0R

P , computed
,

2 ay(0R)

is the maximum thermo-elastic shear stress.

In figure (4a) a sequence of shakedown boundaries are shown corresponding to a range of values of the

Ax

variable.

- 71

in the form of the non-dimensional

3
e

itr

?
E

Elastic region (E)

0.5
Mechanical Load
Fia. U a

P=

PR

2hay(0R)

Bree type diagram for a tube subjected to a steady


axial mechanical load and moving temperature fronts
with temperature independent yield stress cr=o~(8R)

- 72

Temperature independent yield stress


ay=y(9R)
Temperature dependent yield stress
Hardening models
a t =o corresponds to 8R=150C
2.25
Plastic
2.00

C
\

1.75

Shakedown
(F)

1.50

Ratchetting
(R)

1.00

Elastic
Behaviour
(E)
-l

Fig. b

0.5

r-

1.0

Modes of behaviour for a tube subjected to constant


axial load and stationr y thermal cycling

73

Ax = Ax.|

(2)

where V 3 is a characteristic decay length of the tube and given by


3 = [3<l-v2)/R2h2]*
In both cases the boundary between the shakedown region and the ratchetting region can be divided into segments, along which the mechanism of
deformation remains of constant type.

These mechanisms represent the mode

in which the structure would begin to ratchet if the load were increased
above the shakedown limit.

In Fig. (4a) the segments are given by regions

of the diagram labelled as Mode I, II and III.

The corresponding mech-

anisms are shown in Fig. (5) together with a schematic representation of the
regions of the yield surface where the plastic strains occur.

The thermo-

elastic stress history at a point within the mechanism is shown as translated, by the development of residual stresses and by the applied loads, so
that the stresses at a certain instant touch the yield surface.
If we compare the boundary for small Ax

in Fig. (4a) with stationary

cycling in Fig. (4b) we see that the principal difference is that the
boundaries cross the

P = 0

lines at

t = 1 and 2 respectively. The

difference can be understood from Fig. (3).

When the stress distribution

moves, the variation of stress at a material point becomes


as the variation of stationary cycling is
stress at each point.

2(EocA0/2) where-

(E<xA0/2) i.e. the range of

In reality, of course, the temperature would not be

discontinuous and a more gradual change would take place.

In this case a

moving front would correspond to the movement of the temperature profile over
a distance which is greater than the length of the temperature change.

As a

result a problem can only be regarded as stationary cycling if the temperature


is maintained sufficiently stationary for this condition not to occur.

In

most applications it seems unlikely that such a high degree of control can

- 74

MODE I
s
Region LO
' ^

localized thinning
due to Ae occurring
on o"x = o~y

MODE n
Line CB

localized thinning
due to Ae x occurring
as a resultant of plastic
strains on CT =CTWand
e
*
=
a
u
\-"e

o*

hinge - cone mechanism


with axial strains

MODE m
Region GL

Fig. 5

a0(n
,J

Schematic representation of shakedown states and corresponding


mechanisms of deformation for a tube subjected to a steady
axial mechanical load and axially moving temperature fronts
for regions of Fig. 4a.

75 -

be maintained.

This argument indicates that it is possible to seriously

underestimate the effect of temperature variation by using an inappropriate


simplified form of the temperature history, and it seems unlikely that the
stationary cycling approximation would have much relevance to practical
circumstances.
If we now include the effect of temperature on the yield stress, the
general feature of the diagram remains unchanged, but the boundaries
corresponding to the various mechanisms are moved by differing amounts,
depending upon the temperature at which the plastic yielding occurs.

In

Fig. (6) the boundaries for the moving temperature fronts are shown, using
a variation of yield stress with temperatures which correspond to the 0.2%
proof stress of Type 316 Stainless Steel.

Plastic strains in Mode III

occurs in a material element when the temperature is at maximum whereas in


Mode II plastic strains occur at both the maximum and minimum temperature.
As a result the shakedown boundary corresponding to Mode III occurs at a
reduced level of A9
of Ax

compared with Mode II.

Mode III boundaries cross the

For sufficiently large values

P = 0 axis, i.e. the tube would

ratchet in Mode III at zero applied load.

These calculations are for a

perfectly plastic model which exclude the effects of strain hardening.

We

now look into the effect upon this diagram of its inclusion.
4.

THE EFFECTS OF STRAIN HARDENING UPON THE RATCHET BOUNDARIES


Referring again to Fig. (5) we see that for Mode I and Mode III all the

plastic strain occurs on a single part of the yield surface.

If the

applied load was raised above yield, strain hardening would occur in a monotonic fashion as the mechanism deformed.

As a result the shakedown

boundary gives the load level at which the tube begins to exhibit significant plastic yielding in the form of a mechanism and may be regarded as an
estimate of the yield point of the structure in the presence of thermal

76

a, so corresponds to 6R=150C
1.00.,

075.

A
0.501

0.25.

Elastic

Behaviour
(E)

0.00

0.5

Fig. 6

p*

1.0

Bree diagram for a tube subjected to a steady axial mechanical


load and axially moving temperature fronts with the temperature dependent yield stress

77

loading.

For Mode II, however, the situation is rather different as plastic

strain occurs, within each cycle, on two sectors of the yield surface, i.e.
p
reverse plasticity takes place. The hoop component of plastic strain o
cancel over the cycle but a net increase
compression.

P
Ae x

occurs due to yielding under

In many alloys cyclic hardening would occur in these circum-

stances which would tend to suppress this type of mechanism. We can estimate
an extreme mode of behaviour by assuming that the yield surface increases
in size to accommodate the variation in thermo-elastic stress thereby completely suppressing reverse plasticity mechanism.

This was done by adopting

two assumptions, isotropic and non-istropic hardening as shown in Fig. (7).


With this adaptation the structure can only ratchet in mechanisms of the type
of Mode I and III. In practice, Mode III mechanisms always occurred.

The

resulting new ratchet boundary for the two models are shown in Fig. (8) for
the moving temperature front with a temperature independent yield stress.
The difference between the two solutions is not great and it implies that the
real ratchet boundary lies somewhere between two extreme assumptions i.e. for
Ax = 0.6, between
Ax

RS

and

RT . This argument indicates that for a given

there exists a particular load

p* with a corresponding value of A6*

which divides the behaviour of the structure into two distinct regions.
A8 < A6* and

P > P*

For

then the ratchet boundary can be expected to give a

good indication of the load level at which substantial plastic strains begin
to occur.

For A9> A0* and

P < P*

the behaviour is very sensitive to

the detail of the material behaviour and the structure may or may not ratchet.
Certainly below the perfectly plastic line there is no danger of ratchetting.
Despite this uncertainty we can, however, show that under some circumstances
ratchetting will certainly occur at zero applied load even for a cyclically
strongly strain hardening material such as 316 SS.
plotted from Fig. (4a) and Fig. (6) the variation of

78

In Fig. (9) we have


p* with

Ax

For a

- Partial

isotropic hardening model

Fig. 7-Non-isotropic

hardening model

79 -

'Partial isotropic
hardening model

'Non isotropic
hardening model

Rate netting
(R)

Ex

Fjg._8

1:

0.60

2:

1.20

3:

2.10

Effects of material hardening on the shakedown


limits for a tube subjected to an axial mechanical
load and axially moving temperature fronts with
temperature independent yield stress o~y=cry(9R)

80

1.0

0.9
0.8

Temperature independent yield stress


Temperature dependent yield stress
(eR = 150 C)

0.7
0.6

Ratchetting
(Global mechanism)

0.5
0.4

.C

L)

0.3

0.2

0.1
0.0
0.0

0.5

1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0


Distance of travel

3.5 4.0

Fig._9 Effects of AX on P *

81 -

4.5 5.0
AX

5.5

temperature independent yield stress

P*

goes to zero as

infinity, i.e. ratchetting will certainly occur at


large
Ax

Ax
1.8

increases to

only for very

However, for a temperature dependent yield stress

P* = 0 when

for material data which is typical of type 316 Stainless Steel.

With Poissons ratio


Ax

P* = 0

Ax

= 0.17R.

V = 0.3 and

= 400

then this value corresponds to

Therefore, any movement of the temperature front over a

length of the order of the radius of the tube well certainly give rise to
radial plastic displacement.
These calculations indicate that quite small movements of a temperature
front will cause ratchetting of a tube even at zero applied load.

In a

practical circumstance, the temperature front would involve a temperature


gradient over a length of the tube.

The effect of this would be to reduce

the maximum thermo-elastic stress to

kE<xA0/2

in experiments described in the next section


two effects, it increases the range of

A0

where

k < 1 .

0.14 < k < 0.48.

For example,
This has

required to cause ratchetting

and, at the same time, increases the difference between the yield values at
the two temperature levels

0R

and

0R

+ A0.

The latter effect increases

the tendancy for ratchetting to occur at zero applied load and as a result
the estimate of Ax =1.8

will be reduced in most practical circumstances.

In the following section we describe some experimental results due to


Bell [19] and compare them with shakedown prediction for a moving temperature
front. The experimental results confirm that ratchetting will occur even
when the thermal loading exceeds the shakedown limit by only a small amount.
5.

EXPERIMENTS ON THIN CYLINDERS SUBJECT TO AXIALLY MOVING TEMPERATURE


FRONTS [7]
The experiments consisted of two types:

a) Cold Front Experiment


A cylinder of 316 Stainless Steel of outer diameter 140mm and wall

82

thickness 0.381mm was heated over a length of 165mm using

RF

heating. The

tube was then lowered into water at room temperature at a rate which allowed
the formation of a steep temperature front along the length of the tube but
almost uniform temperature through the thickness.
We discuss two of their tests, Experiments 1A and 2, which were conducted under near identical conditions with

A9

of 530C and 515C except

that in experiment 2 the tube was subjected to an axial load of 20MN/m


whereas in experiment 1A the tube was load free.

The value of

k , the

reduction in maximum thermo-elastic stress compared with a temperature discontinuity, lay within the range
0.31 < k < 0.46
depending upon the instant during the cooling of the cylinder.

The shake-

down boundary was evaluated using the more severe temperature front throughout the movement of the cylinder and the result is shown in Figure (10)
assuming both temperature independent yield stress (taken as the 0.2% proof
stress of the lower temperature) and a linear variation of yield stress with
temperature.

As

A0

was relatively larger than the cases discussed in the

previous solution the difference between the solutions is much larger and the
ratio of the values of

for zero applied load for the two calculations is

given approximately by the ratio of the yield stresses at the two extreme
temperatures.

The operating points of the experiment are also shown and can

be seen to be far in excess of the shakedown limit.

The tubes showed

excessive ratchetting showing a hoop plastic strain of 0.47% strain in the


first cycle and a mean constant rate 0.16% strain/cycle from the 5th to the
25th cycle when the experiment ended with a noticably misshapen cylinder.
Experiment 2 showed similar behaviour.

In both cases the rachetting was

outwards, whereas the mechanism from the shakedown calculation was inwards.
However, the loading was far in excess of shakedown and, perhaps, it is no
surprise that the mechanism has changed.

83

1A (SE)
2 (SE)
1.50 Temperature independent yield stress
y=CTy(8R) for both hot & cold fronts

1.375
++

1.25

1.125 -

Temperature dependent yield stress


Experiment(1A)
Temperature dependent yield stress
Experiment (5)
Operating points
Severe extreme temperature profile
Gentle extreme temperature profile

1.00
!

'

o-y(20C)

0.875-

0.75 .
Ratchetting
(R)

0.625

Shakedown
(S)

Fig JO Operating points and calculated shakedown


limits for tests (1A). and (5).

84

b)

Hot Temperature Front, Experiment 5


A front of increasing temperature was induced by moving a cylinder

initially at room temperature through a high power single turn


a speed of about lOmm/sec.

RF

coil at

The increase of temperature was about 600C

but the shape of the temperature profile was less severe than in the cold
front experiments so that less severe thermo-elastic stresses were induced
with a factor

k = 0.14.

The shakedown boundaries are shown in Fig. (11), again for a temperature
independent and temperature dependent yield stress.

In this case the

operating point lies only 12.5% in excess of the predicted shakedown limit.
The experiment was continued for 60 cycles during which a total hoop strain
of 2.5% occurred with an assymptotic rate over the final 40 cycles of .01%
per cycle.

The mode of deformation was very similar in form to the shake-

down mechanism.

The experiment confirms that ratchetting of a significant

magnitude occurs at zero applied load, once the shakedown limit has been
exceeded.

6.

OTHER TYPES OF THERMAL LOADING OF CYLINDERS


A sequence of ratchetting experiments have been carried out by Cousin

and Julien, at INSA [8] .

In the tests a cylindrical tube of ICL/67SPH

Stainless Steel (similar in composition to 316 Stainless Steel) of diameter


400mm, wall thickness 2mm and lm in length was used.

An axial temperature

profile over a short length of the tube was induced by circulating combustion gas from a burner past a sequence of baffles.

By spraying water over

a section adjacent to the hot gases, high axial temperature gradients could
be induced.

A complete cycle of temperature for a particular experiment is

shown in Figure (12).

A very high temperature gradient is induced over a

short length of tube; with the temperature varying over the cycle between
room temperature and 480C.

Although this type of cycling appears to be

85 -

Temperature

independent yield stress

Temperature

dependent yield stress

Operating point for test (5) 6 R = 20C

100

075.

Ratchetting
CD CD"
<

0-50J

>^

CSI

Shakedown

II

0-25

Elastic region

ao

^F

"

P=PR/2ho-y(0R)
Fig. 11

Operating

points and computed shakedown

boundaries for test(5)

- 86

very severe we find, in fact, that it is less likely to induce ratchetting


than the temperature histories discussed in the last section.
The interaction diagram was constructed from the temperature history of
Figure (12) by linearly scaling the entire history.

The yield stress

variation with temperature was given by the 0.2% proof stress. The resulting
diagram is shown in Figure'(13) which includes the operating point of the
experiment.

The shakedown boundary

consists of two parts, each of which

involve a particular mechanism.


Section AB:

Axial strains occur over a short length of tube near the

position of the maximum temperature due to the presence of a large variation


in the thermo-elastic axial bending moment at this point.

The ratchetting

is induced, therefore, by linear through-thickness thermo-elastic stress in


the same manner that ratchetting occurs in the Bree plates problem [1],
although in that case the stresses arise from a through-thickness temperature
difference.

The boundary

AB

can be seen to be very close to the Bree

solution.
P + \ t = 1

(3)

and the deviation from the formula arises from the decrease in yield stress
with increasing maximum temperature.
Section BC:

Axial strains occur over a short length of tube adjacent

to the step temperature gradient due to a large value of hoop stress inducing
reverse plasticity.
As a result the behaviour has features of both the classic Bree problem
(axial ratchetting induced by linear through-thickness stresses) and
stationary cycling (line BC of Fig. (4b)).
front Fig. (4a) the value of

But for a moving temperature

at the ratchet limit is reduced by a

factor of 2.

87

500

9 ra
450

165s
150s - " " " ~ " I

400

135s-

180s

\\____195s

350 -

Affli

210s

300

120s

250

\/V\VOK
200

90s

150

60s

100

-285s
-

30s

_1258s

50

^ %

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

METERS

Fig. 12 Temperature distributions for Lyon test

88

Temperature dependent yield stress


T

a n0.1
i (UC)
Fig. 13

Bree diagram for Lyon test

89 -

It can be seen that the operating point of the experiment was in the
ratchetting region

R .

An estimate of the assymptotic plastic strain over

many cycles can be obtained for the mechanism which occurs on section

AB

by

using the approximation [6] .


Ae P = KAcTp

where
P/2irRh

= (a D

S
aD )

s
where <j

is the value of the mean applied stress


da
at the shakedown limit and K =
, the slope of the uniaxial stressdeP

ACT D

strain curve above yield.

The material data allows the calculation of

which is reasonably independent of temperature.


Ae

Contours of constant

= 0.5% and 1% are shown indicating that about 1% accumulated strain

might be expected after a number of cycles.


a similar value [9] .

Full inelastic analysis yields

The experiments showed a larger amount of plastic

strain which may be attributable to the fact that the cycle time was quite
large (two cycles per 24 hours).

As a result some logarithmic creep will

have been induced as this material shows such creep in the temperature range
0OC < e < 350C .
This example further demonstrates that the precise behaviour depends
upon the details of the thermal loading history.
7.

TUBE SUBJECTED TO A BAND OF PRESSURE AND AXIALLY MOVING TEMPERATURE


FRONTS
The limit load analysis of an infinitely long isotropic thin tube of

perfectly pastic material obeying the Tresca yield criterion has been given
by Drucker [10].

Insofar as the authors are aware no attempt has been made

to investigate the behaviour of cylindrical tubes under a band of pressure


or a ring of force in the presence of thermal loads, although such loading
situations are encountered in .structures operating at elevated temperatures.
In this section we discuss the behaviour of a thin cylindrical tube under
a band of pressure

and a temperature front of magnitude

- 90

A6

which travels

repeatedly in alternating directions over a length of tube as shown in Fig.


(14).

The problem is an interesting one and yet is sufficiently simple to

serve as an example of problems involving thermal loading interacting with a


localised mechanical load.
The computer programme used is a modified form of that used in the
analysis of the problem of a tube under axial load.

The assumptions made

about material constitutive relations are identical to those described in the


previous sections but the effects of temperature on the material properties
are ignored here for simplicity.
The calculations are carried out in two phases.

First we assume that

a band of pressure was being applied at a distance from the temperature discontinuity (Case I).

Then we considered that the band of pressure was being

applied within the sweep of the moving temperature front (Case II).

The

Cases I and II are illustrated in Fig. (14).


For Case I the computations were performed for differing values of the
length of travel

Ax with the aim of providing some information to assess

the effects of the variation of distance between the traversed region and the
section of the tube which is subjected to the band of pressure loading.

To

compare the predictions of the limit load given by Drucker [10] and that
predicted by the present technique, the calculations were carried out with
t = 0 .

It was found that the difference between the predictions was less

than one per cent.

The interaction diagram for a range of values of

shown in Fig. (15).

Ax

is

As it is seen, if the temperature front moves a small

amount, i.e. the traversed region is far away from the region where a band of
pressure is applied, the thermal loads have little effect on the load carrying
capacity of the tube.

As a result the non-ratchetting lines are insensitive

to the length of the front and the magnitude of thermo-elastic stress


For intermediate values of
of travel

Ax

Ax

at .

the sensitivity of the boundaries to the length

and the magnitude of thermo-elastic sress

91

at

increases with

AX

Temperature

9R+A9

Cold Front

Hot Front
_L

9R
a- Axially Moving

Temperature Fronts

Uf
,, ,

Casei

,~T Case II

co

Ab 1=0-3 j

2R

f -4

i
Al=1-35f

'

:iQ

iAf.

b-Bandof
Fiq. 14

LU

Pressure Loadings

Geometry and loading programme

= [3(

1-V2)/RV]

25

1.0
Mechanical
Fig. 15

Load

PR

2.0
=p

2hy
The interaction diagram for a tube under a band of
pressure and QXiallv moving temperature fronter Q s e D

93 -

increasing

Ax

up to a certain value, i.e. the boundary of the traversed

region coincides with a boundary of the region on which the band of pressure
is applied.

For values of

Ax

larger than this value the sensitivity to the

length of travel reduces with increasing


a range of values of
mechanical load axis.

Ax

Ax .

It can also be seen that for

, the non-ratchetting lines become horizontal to the

The reason for this sharp reduction in the allowable

mechanical load component can be explained in terms of the location of the


hinge circles.

For

t > 1.0

the shakedown condition demands that the

material within the traversed region must satisfy the reversed plasticity
condition.

However, if one of the side hinge circles forms within this

volume, or in a region beyond the traversed region, the contributions to


the load carrying capacity of the tube from such a hinge will be zero since
no mechanical load can be transmitted through this volume without causing
ratchetting.

Similarly if all the hinge circles form within the traversed

region or in a region where the thermo-elastic stress history cannot be


accommodated within the yield surface, which contains a mechanism of
deformation, then there exists no reversed plasticity region since the
behaviour above the shakedown limits is determined by whether there exists a
region capable of transmitting the applied loads through the structure.
If

t <

3.0 is considered to be a realistic limit to the thermal loads,

the reversed plasticity region may be divided into three sub-regions from
consideration of the locations of the hinge circles.
fall within the region marked

If the operating points

I in Fig. (15) then all the hinge circles form

on the same side of the traversed region and contribute to the load carrying
capacity.

If an operating point lies within the region marked II then one

of two side hinge circles forms within the traversed region, whereas if the
operating point falls within the region marked III then one of the side hinge
circles and the central hinge circle form within or beyond the traversed region.
As a consequence of this, the ratchetting lines which cross the line dividing

94

region II from region III will have a horizontal section corresponding to the
reduction in load carrying capacity of the tube due to the formation of the
central hinge circle within the traversed region, as shown in Fig. 15.
The computations were repeated for the Case II.

The resulting interaction

diagram is shown in Fig. (16) for a range of values of Ax

It can be

readily seen that for this case there exists no reversed plasticity region.
In this case, unlike in the previous cases, the length of the region in which
a global mechanism forms increases with increasing magnitude of the thermal
load

There exists only one type of mechanism of deformation, that is

a global mechanism, i.e. three hinge circles separating cone like regions of
radial deformation.
In order to assess the effects of hardening above the shakedown limits
the calculations were carried out assuming that the material behaved in a
manner similar to that described in section 4 and Fig. (7) in the reversed
plasticity region and obeyed the Tresca yield condition elsewhere. The
results of such calculations for various values of
schematically in Fig. (16).

Ax

are also shown

As is seen, this set of solutions show a

similar characteristic to those obtained in the previous tube problems and


requires no further comment.

The only difference that occurs is in the

length of mechanism of deformation which increases with increasing


8.

at.

CONCLUSIONS
There has been increasing reliance upon full inelastic analysis in

nuclear industry for the validation of structural designs using available


non-linear finite element codes.

However, such solutions do not directly

help the designer to understand the nature of complex loading systems such
as severe thermal loading, as the answers are specific to a particular
circumstance and give no general picture of structural response.

In this

section we have described the use of a simplified shakedown technique to

95

1.25.
\
|
f Plastic
, Shakedown
. . \\
((hardening mfcdels)

\ \
\\

\\

1.00

0.7S

Elastic Behaviour

CD
<

Rate h et ting

Ib*

TD

0-50

E
c_

0.25

0.00

Fig. 16

1:

AX
0.30

2:

0.60

3:

0.90

4:

1.50

5:

2.10

6:

2.40

1-

2.70

8:

6.00

1.0
Mechanical Load
Bree diagram for a tube subjprtpfi t n hand of
pressure and axially moving temperature fronts

96

compute interactive diagrams for certain important types of loading.

Such

information provides, in a simple and graphic form, the entire range of


ratchetting response of the structure for varying severity of themal loading.
By combining a number of particular cases it is then possible to draw some
general conclusions^about the influence of thermal loading of thin circular
cylinders.
The most significant conclusion to these calculations was that the
variation of yield stress with temperature and cyclic hardening can significantly effect structural response.

For tubes subjected to moving temp-

erature fronts over very short lengths of tube structural ratchetting can
occur in the absence of applied loads even when the material is strongly
cyclically hardening.

Some experiments conducted by Bell [19] give re-

sults which are consistent with our calculations.

On the other hand, a

history of temperature which involves the near proportional increase and


decrease of a temperature distribution is far less likely to produce structural ratchetting.

Comparison between our calculation and tests carried

out by Cousin et al

[8] give support to the conclusion.

As a result, we

conclude that in validating experimental work on thermal loading, care must


be taken that the history of temperature is of the same type, in some detail,
as that in the industrial application.
occur.

Otherwise, significant errors can

In addition, it seems that the simplified forms of analysis des-

cribed here can give a better insight into the nature of the problem than
full inelastic analysis.
Further solutions have been presented which show the interaction between localised forces, in our example a ring of load on a tube and localised
thermal loading.

The two forms of loading begin to strongly interact when

the high thermal stresses occur within the plastic collapse mechanism of
the localised load.

In the process, the mechanism itself changes to

include the high thermal stresses within its volume.

Shakedown analysis

demonstrates these interactive effects in a very clear and simple manner.

97 -

References
[1]

BREE, J.
"Elastic-plastic behaviour of thin tubes subjected to internal
pressure and intermittent high-heat fluxes with applications to Fast
Nuclear Reactor Fuel Elements", J. Strain Analysis, 1967: 2, No. 3,
pp226-238.

[2]

KOITER, W.T.
"General theorems for elastic-plastic solids", Progress in Solid
Mechanics, Hill, R., and Sneddon, I., (eds), North Holland Press,
Amsterdam, 1960: 2, ppl67-219.

[3]

KARADENIZ, S. and PONTER, A.R.S.


"A linear programming upper bound approach to the shakedown limit of
thin shells subjected to variable thermal loading", J. Strain Analysis
for Engineering Design, 1984: 19, pp221-230.

[4]

PONTER, A.R.S. and KARADENIZ, S.


"An extended shakedown theory for structures that suffer cyclic
thermal loading, Part I: Theory", J. of Applied Mechanics, Trans.
ASME, 1985: 52, pp877-882.

[5]

PONTER, A.R.S. and KARADENIZ, S.


"An extended shakedown theory for structures that suffer cyclic
thermal loading, Part II: Applications", J. of Applied Mechanics,
Trans. ASME, 1985: 52, pp883-889.

[6]

COCKS, A.CF. and PONTER, A.R.S.


"Accumulation of plastic strain in thermal loading problems for a
linear hardening material", to appear.

[7]

BELL, R.T.
"Ratchetting experiments on thin cylinders subjected to axially
moving temperature fronts", UKAEA, Risley Nuclear Power Development
Establishment, Report ND-R-835(R), Risley, October, 1980.

[8]

COUSIN, M. and JULIEN, J.F.


"Specifications de l'essai pour step II benchmark calculations",
Institut National des Sciences Applique de Lyon, France, May, 1983.

[9]

CORSI, F.
Private communication.

[10] DRUCKER, D.C.


"Limit analysis of cylindrical shells under axially symmetric
loading", Proc. 1st Midwest Conf. Solid Mechanics, Urbana, II, 1953:
PP158-163.

98

Part IV

Interaction diagrams for axisymmetric geometries


K.F. Carter, A.R.S. Ponter

1.

INTRODUCTION
Previous sections of this report have been concerned with the applica-

tion of the upper bound techniques to particular types of structures and


thermal loading by using special features of the geometry with the results
presented in the form of Brussels diagrams.

A computer code, EECS3, has now

been generated at the University of Leicester which is capable of producing


such diagrams for a wide range of axisymmetric thin shells subject, in
principle, to an arbitrary history of thermal loading.

The method used is

based upon the technique described by Karadeniz and Ponter [1] and a full
description is given in the appendix to this section.

In this section we

give results for a range of cases, typical of fast reactor design, which
demonstrate the effects of variations in shell thickness, axial and throughthickness temperature gradients and geometries composed of cylindrical,
spherical and conical sections.

In all cases continuity of the tangent angle

to the shell mid-section is maintained.

The cases chosen are based upon a

set suggested by WG2 of the EEC Fast Reactor Co-ordinating Committee under the
chairmanship of Dr Tonnorelli to which have been added further cases,
including a problem suggested by Guy Baylac of EDF (the Baylac test).

Their

assistance in this matter is gratefully acknowledged.


The cases in this section demonstrate the type and range of information
which may be gained through the application of these new numerical techniques.
The information is broader in scope and more easily understood in terms of
design restrictions than conventional finite element methods.

A typical

design question, such as the amount the pressure or temperature distribution


needs to be changed to avoid excessive deformation, can be more easily
answered through a technique which concentrates on the problem of finding the
load levels at which significant deformation begins to occur.

As far as the

authors are aware, this is the first time classical shakedown theory has been
successfully employed in this way and it seems likely that there will be many

101

other applications in the future of this type of technique.


In the following section the general form of the component parts of EECS3
are described.

This is followed by a description of Brussels diagrams and

associated mechanisms for a set of cases.

We then conclude that, despite

many differences in detailed behaviour, there are general trends which


suggest that certain master diagrams may cover ranges of useful cases.
2.

EECS-3
The program takes as input the basic physical dimensions of the axisym-

metric shape, the material data (including yield stress as a function of


temperature) and the temperature distribution.

The thermo-elastic stress for

the temperature distribution, which can vary axially and through the thickness
of the shell anywhere within the material volume, is calculated by a finite
element elastic stress program CONIDA [2], supplied by the United Kingdom
Atomic Energy Authority.

The program then calculates the Brussels diagram

for the shell subject to a proportional temperature history and constant


mechanical load, which can be axial loading (tension or compression), internal
or external pressure, or a band of internal or external pressure.

The

solution is subject to boundary constraints such as zero displacements normal


or tangential to the mid-surface or axisymmetric axis (as required by loading
type) at the ends of the body.
The program initially establishes a finite element structure based on a
minimum number of elements in each geometrical section, and then increases the
density of elements, by bisection, at positions where the thermo-elastic
stress is largest. For the solutions discussed here, a maximum of 40 elements
were used.

The entire Brussels diagram is obtained by linear scaling of the

temperature history

0(x,t) = g(x.t)(0max_0o^ ^ y

factor

to

produce a

sequence of distributions 9^(x,,t) differing only in magnitude;

e X (x,t) = e 0 + x g ( x , t ) ( 6 m a x - e 0 )
- 102 -

(1)

ec

Fig. la - Yield surface showing plastic multiplier directions


Solid line - Tresca yield condition
Dashed line - 12 A yield condition

600DCWG [] Recommended values


316 Stainless steel

500-

oo-

300-

200-

100 0
0
Fig. lb

50

100

150

200

a-y(MPa)

Yield stress values vs temperature for Type 316 Stainless


Steel from DCWG recommended data (4) - See Table 1

103

where

0O

is the initial temperature and

6max

(or 0 m i n for downshocks) is

the temperature having the largest difference from

0O .

The function

g(x,t) is the normalized shape function of the temperature distribution.

For

experimentally obtained temperature distributions the correct solution will


correspond to the value of

at/y(0o) = t

obtained when

X = 1 where

is the maximum shear stress in the thermo-elastic distribution.


the plastic yield stress at

0O .

at

ay(0o) is

The temperature distribution can then be

characterized by its knockdown factor

k , which is defined as the maximum

thermo-elastic stress of the temperature distribution divided by the maximum


thermo-elastic stress for a step discontinuity having the same maximum temperature difference

A0 = (0max~0o)
k = at(0max)/(EaA0/2)

The value

for

lie in the range

(2)

0 < k < 2 .

The program incorporates the same extension to the upper bound shakedown
theorem as discussed in Section 2 which allows calculation of the shakedown/
ratchetting boundary in the

region where the thermo-elastic stress cannot

be contained within the yield surface within a volume

VF

In this case

The mean value of the thermo-elastic stress history is set to zero within the
volume

Vp

, and then the calculation for the shakedown boundary is carried

out using this assumption in the region

Vp .

The method is discussed in

detail in the appendix to this section.


Throughout these calculations the yield criteria used is based on the
Tresca yield surface (illustrated in Fig. 1) in terms of the meridional and
circumferential stress components.

The yield stress values are calculated by

linear interpolation within a table of data values of yield stress against


temperature.

The program is also capable of using a 12 X yield surface which

has only a 3% error in comparison with the Von Mises yield surface, however the
increased accuracy results in a significant increase in computer time and

104

storage required.
Curvature in the meridional direction is concentrated at plastic hinges
at the nodal points between elements and linear variation in
between nodes.

A^

is assumed

As the structure and loadings are both completely axisymmetric,

there is no curvature in the circumferential direction.

Consistancy between

the displacement components and plastic strains expressed in terms of the


plastic multiplyers
relationships.

is assured by integration of the strain-displacement

As a result the meridional curvature, when derived from the

displacement fields, is small but non-zero.

However, the energy dissipated

due to curvature within elements is assumed zero as, in terms of the


curvature is calculated in the plastic hinges.
usually only found at high values of

at

varying this effect can be significant.

A's

In certain exceptional cases,

or where the geometry is very rapidly


However, as the program does not

account for this mode of energy dissipation the resultant mechanical load will
always be less than the true value.

Thus this method is always conservative

in these conditions.
The cases studied in this report are based on a set of typical thermal
loading problems in reactors, known as the Bergamo set, proposed by Working
Group 2 of the Fast Reactor Co-ordinating Committee.

Throughout this report

the Case Numbers correspond to those of the Bergamo set.

Case 1, not dis-

cussed in detail in this report, is sphere with a through thickness temperature gradient.

The Brussels diagram for this case is exactly the same as for

the Bree problem and a representative mechanism is shown by Case 5 which


involves a spherical end section.
with an axial temperature gradient.

Case 3 of the Bergamo set is a cylinder


Examples of this type have been

discussed in great detail in Section 3 of this report.

105

jh=.020

jh=.oii
1

.35m

.2275m

.045

.2275m

.5m

Geometry and temperature distributions for Baylac tests


See Table 1

max

UPSHOCK

J .063
Fig._2

106

3.

CYLINDRICAL SHELLS

The program EECS3 is capable of calculating Brussels diagrams for all the
cylindrical cases discussed in Section 3, with the exception of cases
containing multiple temperature distributions, although a small modification
to include such cases can easily be incorporated.

However the program can

also handle cases for any geometry which involves changes in shell thickness
and also temperature distributions including linear changes in temperature
across the shell wall.
^in(z*t)

an

This is accomplished by specifying the temperatures

6 o u r (zi,t) on the inner and outer surfaces respectively at a

number of specific points

along the axisymmetric axis, and using linear

interpolation to deduce the temperature between these points and through the
thickness.

When changes in thickness are incorporated, the thickness is

assumed to vary linearly along the length of an element.

The thermo-elastic

stress for the temperature distribution and specific geometry is calculated


by CONIDA, and is then used in the calculation of the Brussels diagram.
4.

BAYLAC TESTS

A simple example of a cylindrical tube with a change in thickness subject


to an axially varying temperature distribution (Type B) is provided by the
'Baylac' tests, the geometry of which is illustrated in Fig. (2).

This con-

figuration is particularly suitable as it shows competition between mechanisms


involving the thin cold part of the tube and the thicker hot part, with the
thermo-elastic stresses determining the locality of the mechanism.

The

Brussels diagrams for four cases of this type have been calculated involving
two separate temperature gradients, shown in Fig. 2, with either an axial load
or internal pressure.

The geometric and material data and the temperature

distributions being given in Table 1.


For axial loading the mechanism is localized in the thin section of the
tube for

j- < 1.2 , where the Brussels diagram is almost exactly that of a

107 -

1.0..

ks 0.915
k= 0.680
l9ox-9o) = 2o-yieo)/E*

ay(f0)

-1.0

-\

0.0

0.50

Maximum and mimimum thermo-elastic stresses for the Baylac tests


in the meridional (axial) direction a. for temperature difference

1.0-

k* 0.915
-^
k=0.680
9 - J20L(S 0 )/E

cr0
ay(80)

-LO-

0.25

0.0

0.50

Fig. 2 b
Maximum and mimimum thermo-elastic stresses for the Baylac tests
in the circumferential (hoop) direction aQ for temperature

108

2.0-

o- y (e 0 )

io -

Axial loading k=.915


Axial loading k=.68
Internal pressure k=.915
Internal pressure k=.68

\\\'
V\\

o.o.
0.0
Fig. 3

Master diagram for Baylac tests

- 109

Wlz)

tt<T

L
U(z)

-H

TRI ni m n^
<j t =0

9 max = 20

P/PL=1.0

1 IllIllllllHHWl

HI

H-H

Fiq. 3a
Deformation mechanism for the Baylac Test - See Table 2
Internal Pressure - k=0.680
U(z) - Axial displacement
W(z) - Radial displacement
Tick marks denote the axisymmetric element structure

^1

w(z)

'L
U(z)

-M

1
CTt=0
9max = 20

P/PL = 0.577

1 lltlllllllBIWIiiimi

Fig. 3b
Deformation mechanism for the Baylac Test - See Table 2
Internal Pressure - k=0.680
U(z) - Axial displacement
W(z) - Radial displacement
Tick marks denote the axisymmetric element structure

110

W(z)[

cjt = 1.69
S max = 338
P / P L / 0.273
U(z)

11

i iimiuiiHmwr^^ I

l^-

Fiq. 3c
Deformation mechanism for the Baylac Test - See Table 2
Internal Pressure - k=0.680
U(z) - Axial displacement
W(z) - Radial displacement
Tick marks denote the axisymmetric element structure

W(z)l

L
U(z)

-M

1-

CT,= 0.11
e
= 1
max M '
f^PL= 0.979

/miniiimmm

i 11

Fig. 3d
Deformation mechanism for the Baylac Test - See Table 2
Axial Loading - k=0.680
U(z) - Axial displacement
W(z) - Radial displacement
Tick marks denote the axisymmetric element structure

111 -

W(z)

(7t = 1.38
9mox = 2.13
P/PL=0.785

U(z)
l i

HttWIIIH+

Fiq. 3e
Deformation mechanism for the Baylac Test See Table 2
Axial Loading k=0.915
U(z) Axial displacement
W(z) Radial displacement
Tick marks denote the axisymmetric element structure

W(z)
-i-rriT.

crt = 1.69
mox = 338

P/P L = 0.135

U(z)
HIIIMil Mimmi

I MM

Fig._3f
Deformation mechanism for the Baylac Test See Table 2
Axial Loading k=0.680
U(z) Axial displacement
W(z) Radial displacement
Tick marks denote the axisymmetric element structure

112

W(z)[

|r

IP^

^ui

o-, = 124
e max
_ = 254
P/PL= 0.777

U(z) f

I inniii 1

Deformation mechanism for the Baylac Test - See Table 2


Axial Loading - k=0.680
U(z) - Axial displacement
W(z) - Radial displacement
Tick marks denote the axisymmetric element structure

113 -

tube with temperature independent yield stress, subjected to a step temperature


distribution whose thermo-elastic stress has the same knockdown factor, k
For internal pressure the behaviour at low

at is progressively compromised by

incursion of the hinge/cone mechanism into the hot part of the tube, and
localization of the mechanism towards the position of the change in thickness.
The mechanisms from these Baylac tests are summarized in Table 2.

At the top

of the Brussels diagram two distinct types of behaviour are seen.

For the

sharper temperature distribution


mechanism
cases

(k = 0.915) the usual reverse plasticity

(Xi = X2//2) is encountered.

However, the lower knockdown factor

(k = 0.680), result in a four hinge mechanism involving a Xi hinge/

cone mechanism in the thin section of the tube changing to a X3

hinge/cone

mechanism with associated axial stretching, located across the change in


thickness and into the thick part of the tube.

The relative ratios of this

composite mechanism changes between the axial loading and the internal pressure
cases.

This composite mechanism occurs below the reverse plasticity line.

The master diagram for the Baylac tests is shown in Fig. (3), together
with illustrative examples of typical mechanisms reported in Table 2.

All

these cases can be be shown to be conservatively bounded by the following


equations.

Axial Load

Internal Pressure

where

ay

i
1

P/P!+ at/4CTy = 1
P/2PJ + at/2av = 1
P/P!

(3)

+ at/4CTy = 1

PMPi + a t /2 G y = 1

is taken to be the yield stress at the maximum temperature, P is

the mechanical load at the ratchetting boundary and


limit load.

Pi

is the corresponding

In addition, Brussels diagrams for this problem is conservatively

approximated by the Brussels diagram for a Type B step temperature distribution


of the same knockdown factor in a tube whose thickness is given by the thin
section of the Baylac test geometry, again assuming a constant yield stress
- 114

corresponding to the value of the maximum temperature.


CASE 2 - THE BREE PROBLEM
The ratchetting boundary for cylindrical tubes with through thickness
temperature distributions has been calculated by Bree [3] for the simplified case
of a thin cylinder subjected to a temperature distribution given by
e
where

= e0 + ( e m a x - e 0 ) ( i / 2 - h )

(4)

is the normalized distance across the thickness of the cylinder

-1/2 < h < 1/2.

Thus the inner surface cycles between

the outer surface remains at

0O.

0O

and

6 m a x while

The thermo-elastic stress in this case is

given by
<b

= a

hEa(0max-eo)/(l-v)

(5)

The solution diagram found by Bree is shown in Fig. (4), for a temperature
independent yield stress.

The Bree solution for a cylinder under internal

pressure predicts that the ratchet boundary varies as


P/Pj + a t / 4 a y = 1

at

< 2ay
(6)

(P/P1).(at/ay) = 1

a t > 2a y

The Bree problem for a tube whose geometrical and material properties are
given in Table 3 has been solved using EECS3.

The solution for internal

pressure loading is a A, 3 hinge mechanism shown in Fig. (5) for all values
of

at .

This mechanism is caused by the boundary condition of zero radial

displacement at the ends of the tube.

The resultant Brussels diagram for a

temperature independent yield stress using uniaxial

(QQ only) or biaxial

thermo-elastic stress is within 1% of the analytic solution of Bree.

The

difference is due to the contribution of the hinges to the deformation


mechanism, caused by the boundary conditions.

The mechanism for axial loading

cases with biaxial thermo-elastic stress is a single node

115

X 2 axial stretch

-a.1

1 P/P L
Fig.

4 Analytic ratchetting boundary calculated by Bree (3) for a


tube with temperature independent yield stress under internal
pressure

W(z)
^rrrrTtTmTTTTTr.

(Jt=0

9mox=20

L.
z

M| z j

P/PL=1.0
Axisymmetric axis

n i n n i ni min n i munit

In 1

Fig.

5 Deformation mechanism for Bree problem (Case 2) See Table 3


Internal pressure with end
U(z) Axial displacement
W(z) Radial displacement
Tick marks denote the axisymmetric element structure

116

ay(90)
5.0Analytic bree line [3]
Case 2 cr(8)=316SS
Case 2 cry (8) = cry(T0)
.0--

3.0-

2.0--

LO-

CO
0.0
_Fig. 6a
Master diagram for Bree problems (Case 2) - o./olQ)

vs P/P-,

Brussels diagrams for axial loading or internal pressure, with a


linear through thickness temperature distribution, using
temperature independent and temperature dependent yield stress
Coincident lines for a

= 316 Stainless Steel

Internal Pressure - Uniaxial Thermo-elastic stress


Internal Pressure - Biaxial Thermo-elastic stress
Axial Loading - Biaxial Thermo-elastic stress
Same lines coincident for a

= a (8 )

117

8-Analytic Bree line [3]


Case 2 cr (9) = 316SS
Case 2 cry(e) = o-y(80)

4--

2--

0.0
P x o-y(80)
Fig. 6b

PLxy

Master diagram for Bree problems (Case 2) renormalized with


respect to mean yield stress - o./~a
Key as for Figure 6a

118

vs P.CT (0 )/(p.,. )

at an arbitary node, all nodes being equivalent, and gives the exact solution.
A basic master diagram composed of temperature independent and temperature dependent yield stress cases is shown in Fig. (6a).

The same calcula-

tions but with both axes renormalized with respect to the mean yield stress is
shown in Fig. (6b).

The mean yield stress is defined as

=
y

1
[0max~0oJ

max

e0

ay(0) d

(7)

It can be seen from the basic master diagram that all six cases lie on two lines
corresponding to the temperature independent and dependent solutions.

The

analytic Bree solution, given by Equation (4), is also drawn and is coincident
with the temperature independent line.

The renormalized master diagram shows

that the temperature dependent lines are shifted outside the analytic solution
at all temperatures, and thus this renormalization constitutes a conservative
rule for Type A (through thickness only) temperature distribution within tubes,
where the thickness is constant and the temperature varies linearly throughout
the thickness.
6.

CASE 7 - CYLINDRICAL TUBE WITH VARIABLE THICKNESS AND VARIABLE


THROUGH-THICKNESS TEMPERATURE GRADIENT
Another example of a tube with varying thickness is Case 7 of the Bergamo

set, the geometry for which is illustrated in Fig. (7) and tabulated with the
temperature distribution and the material properties in Table 4.

Case 7 has

been solved as a thermal upshock under internal pressure loading, with one
end of the tube acting as an enclosing plate giving an axial component to the
internal pressure.

The temperature distribution along the tube has been

estimated using a simple formula which relates the temperature at the inner
and outer surfaces.

This can be expressed as


9out - O m

+ B

6ex)/(l + B)

119

(8)

h=0.02

h=0.01

h=0.01

E^

SI

35m

LL
.2275m

.045

.135m

05

.2275m

.68m

8max

Inner surface
Outer surface
" " _

^ " " ^

2/3

8,

1/2

max

2/3
9
max

UPSHOCK

max

Geometry and temperature distribution for Case 7 See Table 4

120

a r e t ie

i-nner

an

Qn

and

0Out

tively and

0ex

is a fluid temperature adjacent to the outer surface of the

where

tube.

d outer surface temperatures respec-

The Biot number B is a measure of the relative resistance to heat flow

of the tube metal to the adjacent fluid, and is defined as


B = W.H/K
where

(9)

is the heat transfer coefficient of the surface interface, K is

the conductivity of the tube metal and

is the thickness of the tube.

large Biot number implies that the resistance to heat flow is principally
within the tube metal whereas a small Biot number indicates that the greater
resistance to heat flow is in the tube/fluid interface.

Thus

B = 1 implies

that the surface and the tube transfer the same amount of heat per unit area
for identical temperature differences.
case are

The values chosen in this particular

B = 1 for the thicker section and

B = 1/2

for the ends of the tube

where the thickness is half that of the middle section.

The essential assump-

tions are that the tube is filled with liquid sodium, which being a very good
heat conductor, means that the inner surface of the tube can be regarded as
being at the same temperature as the liquid sodium.

The Biot numbers chosen

approximately correspond to the outer surface being in contact with air, and
for simplicity of calculation of the thermo-elastic stress

0ex = 0

is chosen.

This results in the upshock temperature distribution shown in Table 4, for


which the axial and hoop components of the thermo-elastic stress envelopes,
calculated by CONIDA, are shown in Figs. (8a) and (8b) respectively.

The resultant Brussels diagram is very similar to that of the Bree problem.

The master diagram for Case 7, renormalized with respect to the mean

yield stress is illustrated in Fig. (9) and the associated mechanisms tabulated in Table 5.

It can be seen from the master diagram that the renorm-

alized ratchetting boundary for Case 7 again lies outside the analytic Bree
line for all values of

at , and that the changes in mechanism have little

121

1.0 -

I ,1

CT,

0.0

iem,x-eol=2cry(eo)/Ect

-1.0
0.20

0.40

r-

0.60 z

Fig. 8a

Maximum and mimimum thermo-elastic stresses for Case 7 in the


meridional (axial) direction a, for temperature differenc:e given

Fig. 8b

Maximum and mimimum thermo-elastic stresses for Case 7 in the


circumferential (hoop) direction cr. for temperature difference
given by
J 9 = 2 a ( 0 ) / Ea
y o

122

H
'y

8--

Analytic bree line [3]


Case 2
Case 7
6"

t*-

2--

0.0
P x <ry(80)
P L x cry

Fig^9
Master diagram for Case 7 renormalized with respect to mean yield
stress - <*t/

vs P. a ( 0Q)/( P^^ . )

Internal Pressure with End Plate


Included for comparison
Analytic Bree line given by equation (6)
Case 2 - a

= 316 Stainless Steel

- 123

W(z)

t =0

max =20

P/PL=1.0
U(z)

Axisymmetric axis
l l l l l I I I I I III

II

I HIM I I

H-H4

Fia 9a
W(z)

er,=2.11
9max=322
P/P L = (U24
Axisymmetric gxis

U(z)
H-H

1 I I I MUH M l I MII - H

H4+4

Fiq. 9b
s

W(z)

o-, = 3.21
9max^81
P/PL=0.2^1

Axisymmetric axis

U(z)
+f-H

1 I III llllll

IUI I Mill I I

H+++-

Fiq. 9c
Deformation meclianisms for Case 7
Description of individual figures given in Table 5
Internal Pressure with End Plate
U(z) - Axial displacement
W(z) - Radial displacement
Tick marks denote the axisymmetric element structure

- 124

effect on the shape of the ratchetting boundary.


CONICAL TUBES
The program is able to calculate the ratchetting boundaries for all types
of conical sections.

As a comparison with other upper-bound and lower-bound

techniques, the limit load has been calculated for the geometry and material
properties given in Table 6a.

The resultant mechanism is shown in Fig. (10),

compared with that calculated by Morelle [5] and Franco [6].

\l

All three

hinge/cone mechanisms in the wider part of the cone are nearly identical.
Comparative values for the limit load are given in Table 6b.

It can be seen

that the present technique gives the lowest upper bound consistant with being
above the highest lower bound.

The result by Morelle, while being a lower

upper bound is below both lower bound loads.


The calculation of Brussels diagrams has been carried out for two representative conical shapes, the geometry of which is given in Table 6c and the
material properties are as given in Table 6a.

The temperature distribution

and thermo-elastic stress are the same as those used in the Bree problem.
The mechanisms along the ratchetting boundaries are the same as the limit load,
except at the very top of the Brussels diagram where very high curvature
collapse mechanisms occur, which is because EECS3 does not account for the
energy dissipated by changes of curvature within elements.
isms are not valid and show the limits at high

Thus these mechan-

cr^ of the technique.

The

master diagram renormalized with respect to mean yield stress is shown in Fig.
(11).

Again the diagrams for both Cones A and B are both outside the

analytic Bree line in this renormalized plot.


the Bree problem for a tube (Case 2) are shown.

For comparison the results of


It would appear that as the

cone angle changes from a tube towards a plate geometry, the mechanical load
for a given thermal load decreases slightly, as the Case 2, Cone B and Cone A
rachetting boundaries indicate.

125

resent technique

[5]

Fig. 10

Comparison of the mechanism of deformation of the


present technique with those obtained by Morelle[5]
and Franco [6]

- 126 -

PLXCTy
Master diagram for Cones (See Table 6c) renormalized with respect
to mean yield stress - <**./<*

s P.ff (9 )/(P,.a )

Pure Internal Pressure


Included for comparison
Analytic Bree line given by equation (6)
Case 2 - a

316 Stainless Steel

127

8.

SPHEROIDAL AND COMPOSITE SHAPES


To illustrate the ability of the program to calculate Brussels diagrams

for a wide variety of composite axisymmetric cases, a few particular examples


have been chosen, based on the Bergano set.

For these spheroidal shapes

three characteristic distances, shown in Fig. (12), are defined as follows


r

- Radius perpendicular to the axisymmetric axis

- Radius of curvature of element mid-surface

- Distance from the axisymmetric axis perpendicular to the mid-surface


alomg a radius of curvature

- Distance of the centre of curvature of


axisymmetric axis

perpendicularly to the

Where a spherical cap meets the axes of symmetry special boundary conditions
can be analytically derived and included in the present upper bound formulation.

The essential requirement is that the strain increments in the

meridional and circumferential directions,

EA

and

CQ

respectively, become

equal as a point approaches the axis and zero on the axis itself.
It is'worth noting that under certain circumstances it is not possible
to recover known analytic solution mechanisms, even though the mechanical load
at the ratchetting boundary is computed accurately.

This is due to a number

of mechanisms having the same or near identical mechanical loads.

Approxima-

tions in the finite element method, including the use of axisymmetric assumptions for a spherically symmetric geometry provide sufficient perturbations to
the problem to change the optimal mechanisms.

This is illustrated by the

solution for a perfect sphere (Case 1) where the technique used does not have
sufficient plastic multipliers to give the analytic solution.

Thus the

solution shows the correct limit load and ratchetting boundary, but the
mechanisms are not those of the analytic solution.

128 -

Fig. 12
Characteristic radii for Spheroidal and Composite Shapes

W(z)
,-T-TTTrr

U(z) "

(T t =0

L
+-H

9
=20C
max
P/PL = 1.0

1 I I II I I

1 I I II I I I I I I I I

1H

Rg.J3
Deformation mechanism for Case 4 See Table 7
Pure Internal Pressure
U(z) Axial displacement
W(z) Radial displacement
Tick marks denote the axisymmetric element structure

129

5.0-cry(60)
.0-1-

3.0..

Master diagram for Spheroidal and Composite Shapes - a./a (6 ) vs


P/P,
t y o
Brussels diagrams for linear through thickness temperature
distribution, using temperature dependent yield stress a - 316SS
Case 4 - Pure Internal Pressure
*
Case 5 - Pure Internal Pressure - See Table 8
ASME Torispherical Head - Pure Internal Pressure - See Table 9
Case 6 - Internal Pressure with End Plate - See Table 10
Case 9 - Internal Pressure with End Plate - See Table 11
Included for comparison
Analytic Bree line given by equation (6)
Case 2 - a = 316 Stainless Steel

130

-i

f-

9.

max
600--

CASES 2 and L
ASME TORISPHERICAL HEAD
ff,3BSS
CASE 5 IUPSHOCK)
CASE 6
CASE 9

00 -

200--

0.0

p/p,

FigJ
Diagram of maximum temperature in temperature distribution 0,

max
plotted against normalized mechanical load P/P, for Spheroidal
and Composite Shapes
Key as for Figure 14
Analytic Bree line not shown

131

Pxo- y (8 0 )
PLXCTy
Fig 16
Master diagram for Spheroidal and Composite Shapes renormalized
with respect to mean yield stress - <*t/J
Key as for Figure 14

- 132

vs P. a {Q0)/(?i

%)

9.

CASE 4 - CYLINDRICAL TUBE WITH SPHERICAL CAP OF SAME THICKNESS


The first spheriodal shape is a simple tube with a spherical cap end under

internal pressure (Case 4), the geometry of which is given in Table 7 together
with the boundary conditions and the material properties.

Again the tempera-

ture distribution and the thermo-elastic stress are those used in the Bree
problem (Type A) and given in equations (4) and (5) respectively.
The solution mechanism, a \ 1

hinge/cone in the tube part, is shown in

Fig. (13), and is exactly the same as that obtained for Case 2 (Bree problem)
for all values of t .

The Brussels diagram normalized with respect to the

limit load is shown in Fig. (14) with those for other spheroidal and composite
shapes discussed below.

The corresponding diagram of maximum temperature 0 m a x

against mechanical load normalized by the limit load is shown in Fig. (15).
Finally the master diagram renormalized with respect to the mean yield stress
is shown in Fig. (16) for all these cases.

In all three of these figures the

ratchetting boundary line for Case 4 is exactly coincident with that for Case
2 which is also shown for comparison.
10.

CASE 5 - CYLINDRICAL TUBE WITH SPHERICAL CAP OF HALF THICKNESS


This example from the Bergamo set combines a tube of one thickness with a

spherical cap of half the thickness, illustrated in Fig. (17) and given with
boundary conditions and material properties in Table 8.

This has been solved

under internal pressure for the temperature distribution which is also given in
Table 8.

These values have been calculated using the same assumptions for the

Biot numbers as in Case 7.

The thermo-elastic stress envelopes for this

temperature distribution, as calculated by CONIDA, are shown in Figs. (18a) and


(18b).

To a good approximation the thermo-elastic stress envelope is the

same as that given by equation 5 in terms of the local thickness and throughthickness temperature gradients.
The resultant Brussels diagram is again included in Figs. (14), (15) a
- 133 -

h=.0050

h=.0025

Geometry and temperature distribution for Case 5

emax

Inner surface
Outer surface
2/3

1/2
9

e max UPSHOCK

emax
Fig. 17

134

1.0'0

S^o)

Maximum and mimimum thermo-elastic stresses for Case 5 in the


meridional (axial) direction a. for temperature difference given
9
by AT = 2ff(0 O ) / Ea

1.0-

0"
e
9

^ o) +
0.0

J~
le^-ej^iej/E 4-

-1.00.0

r I

1.0

Fig. 18b

2.0
z

Maximum and mimimum thermo-elastic stresses for Case 5 in the


circumferential (hoop) direction a Q for temperature difference
given by T = 2 t T v ( 6 o ) ^ E a
- 135

Axisymetnc
axis

Fig. 19a

Deformation mechanisms for Case 5


Pure Internal Pressure
U(z) Axial displacement
W(z) Radial displacement
Tick marks denote the axisymmetric element structure

W(z)f .-r-T-TTr...

Axisymetric
axis
U(z)
Fig. 19b

136 -

(16).

There are two mechanisms along the ratchetting boundary.

At

gt

less

than 0.4 the mechanism is a spherical cap deformation shown in Fig. (19a) for
which the mechanical load is exactly that of a sphere (Case 1).
than or equal to 0.4 the mechanism changes to the

Xi

At ^jt greater

hinge/cone mechanism in

the tube part, shown in Fig. (19b), as in Case 2 and Case 4. However the
thickness is increased in the tube part, and thus the ratchetting boundary lies
outside the line of Case 2 for the hinge/cone mechanism at

at > 0.4 .

Thus

the ratchetting boundary for this case also lies outside the analytic Bree line
when renormalized with respect to the mean yield stress.

11. ASME STANDARD TORISPHERICAL HEAD

The ratchetting boundary has been calculated for the ASME Standard Toris
pherical Head under internal pressure, for which independent calculations of
the limit load by Drucker and Shield [9] are available. The geometry, boundary
conditions and material properties for a particular torispherical head are
given in Table 9.

The limit load collapse mechanism is shown in Fig. (20a)

which is very similar to the mechanism given by Drucker and Shield.

The only

substantial difference is that the mechanism of Drucker and Shield extends


slightly into the tube section, whereas in the present calculation the mech
anism starts at the boundary between the tube section and the spheroidal
knuckle section.

This seems a more likely mechanism as a tube requires more

energy to distort than the weaker knuckle section.


by the yield stress at

The limit load, divided

0 O , for the present calculation is

whereas the Drucker and Shield result gives

.626 x 10~3

.675 x 10~ 3 .

The Brussels diagram for the Type A temperature distribution of equation


(4) and the thermoelastic stress given in equation (5), is shown in Figs.
(14),(15) and (16).

The associated ratchet boundary mechanisms from 0 to

2.5 o'. are virtually identical to the limit load mechanism.

At higher

the hinge/cone mechanism at the knuckle becomes progressively sharper as seen

137

Wlz)
, = 0

L
U(z)

ax = 20

m
max
=

P/P L = 1.0

-<IIIIH

1IIH-#

Fig. 20a

W(z)

L
Ulzl

t=2.63
emax=257
P/P, = 0.249

-IlIH

1 1 1K-W

Fig. 20b

W(z)

(Tt= 3.40

L
U(z)

<

1I

max=326

P/PL= 0.075

Fig. 20c
Deformation mechanisms for ASME T o r i s p h e r i c a l Head
Pure I n t e r n a l Pressure
U(z) - Axial displacement
W(z) - R adial displacement
Tick marks denote the axisymmetric element s t r u c t u r e

138

in Figs. (20b) and (20c) which are typical examples.

The work done by these

mechanisms is principally in the movement of the spherical cap in the direction


of the internal pressure, enabled by the knuckle deforming, being the weakest
part of the structure.
The master diagram renormalized with respect to the mean yield stress
Fig. (16) shows that the ratchetting boundary lies outside the analytic Bree
line except for

at > 4.0 which corresponds to an upshock of 270C.

mechanisms in the high

at

The

region are substantially sharper and the changes

in curvature within the knuckle elements are an order of magnitude larger


than those at low
12.

at

CASE 6 - CYLINDER TO CONE TO CYLINDER (CONTINUOUS ANGLE)


This example from the Bergamo set shows the ability of EECS3 to cope with

composite axisymmetric shapes where the angle defining the geometry is continuous.

This case consists of a tube connected by a short spheroidal

section to a cone, which leads to a tube of twice the diameter of the previous
tubular section via another short spheroidal section.

The geometry, boundary

conditions and material properties are given in Table 10.

The ratchet

boundary has been solved for Type A thermal loading, the temperature distribution being given by equation (4) and the thermo-elastic stress by equation
(5) as in the Bree problem.

The mechanical loading is internal pressure with

an end plate at the end of the larger tube section giving an additional axial
component to the mechanical loading.
The resultant Brussels diagram is again illustrated in Figs. (14),(15)
and (16).

The limit load mechanism is shown in Fig. (21a) and shows remark-

able similarity to the ASME Standard Torispherical case, the work done by the
mechanism being in the movement of the end plate in the direction of the
internal pressure.

Again the knuckle with the largest radius deforms as it

is the weakest part of the structure.

As the thermal load increases the

139

W(z)
e'max
mnv =20
P/PL=1.0
U(z)
++*

1 Hm

1 1 1 y^m
<illllll I I

1 HHH

Fiq. 21a

W(z)
Qmax =89

P/P L = 0.853
i

U(z)
< + m i i \ m i i i num i iimw+-

Fiq. 21b

W(z)

U(z)

<rt = 3.95
9max=376
P/P L =0.U
m\ii

f mim i i i m m -

-M

Fiq.21c

Deformation mechanisms for Case 6


Internal Pressure with End Plate
U(z) - Axial displacement
W(z) - Radial displacement
Tick marks denote the axisymmetric element structure

140

mechanism remains that of the limit load to approximately

0.75at at which

point the mechanism starts to become progressively sharper as shown in Figs.


(21b) and (21c).

At the highest value of

at

(4.28) the change of curvature

within the knuckle elements is an order of magnitude larger than for the limit
load.
The master diagram, shown in Fig. (16), which has been renormalized with
respect to the mean yield stress shows that the ratchetting boundary lies outside the analytic Bree line except at very high

at > 4.0

(which corresponds

to an upshock of approximately 350C) where the mechanisms involve large


changes of curvature within the elements.
13.

CASE 9 - CYLINDER TO CYLINDER BY SPHEROIDAL SECTIONS (CONTINUOUS ANGLE)


In this case the geometry is similar to that of Case 6, consisting of a

tube connected to a tube of twice the radius by two spheroidal sections of the
same curvature.

The geometry, boundary conditions and material properties are

given in Table 11.

The thermal loading is again Type A, and is given by

equations (4) and (5).

The mechanical loading is the same as Case 6, i.e.

internal pressure with an end plate.


Here the structure does not contain a weak knuckle section, thus the limit
load mechanism illustrated in Fig. (22a) is a

Xi

hinge/cone entirely local-

ized in the section of tube with the larger radius.


to approximately

0.7at .

This mechanism persists

Above this value an interesting composite mechanism

takes place, shown in Fig. (22b), where there is an axial stretching mechanism
at the boundary between the small radius tube and the first spheroidal section,
which results in work done by end plate extension, and a much smaller
hinge/cone mechanism in the larger radius tube section.
mechanism continues from 0.7 ot
Xi

to approximately

Xi

This composite

1.5 at , during which the

hinge/cone part becomes smaller and smaller, so that at

1.5 at

the

mechanism only involves the axial stretch at the boundary between the smaller

141

-Z

Fig. 22a

e max = 89
P/P L = 0.753
U(z)

Hill I I t l * T

1l-H-HI

1 I I I 1 I mi

Fig. 22b

cjt=1.5A
mox=158
P/P L =CU98
U(z)

Hill

U M '

1I

I MM

II

M I M

I I

Fig. 22c.
Deformation mechanisms for Case 9
Internal Pressure with End Plate
U(z) - Axial displacement
W(z) - Radial displacement
Tick marks denote the axisymmetric element structure

142

radius tube and the first spheroidal section.

This mechanism is shown in Fig.

(22c), and is the mechanism of the ratchetting boundary up to

3.4 at

where

mechanisms involving large changes in curvature within elements start to occur.


The Brussels diagrams for Case 9 are again shown in Figs. (14),(15) and
(16).

The associated master diagram renormalized with respect to the mean

yield stress (Fig. (16)) shows that the renormalized ratchet boundary lies
outside the analytic Bree line except at very high

at

(corresponding to an

upshock of approximately 300C) where the mechanisms become unreliable as' they
involve large changes of curvature within elements.
14.

CONCLUSION
In the final section of the report we have given Brussels diagrams for a

range of geometries, from solutions generated by a finite element method


incorporated in a computer code EECS3.

We observe that the mechanisms assoc-

iated with the ratchet boundary take a wide variety of forms, but some general
conclusions can be drawn.

For all these problems where the thermal gradient

is through the shell thickness, the classical Bree solution for a uniform
cylindrical tube yields a safe bound when the uniform yield stress in that
solution is chosen as the mean yield value, defined by equation (7).
comparison for a range of cases is shown in Fig. (16).

The

For cases where the

temperature gradient is entirely axial along a cylindrical tube, there is some


evidence from the Baylac tests and from other tests not reported here, that
the Brussels diagrams can be approximated by the diagram for a linear axial
gradient in a uniform term, where the gradient is chosen so that the knockdown
factor coincides.
These solutions begin to yield an insight into the range of Brussels
diagrams which may be of use in design.

At the present time the results of

these and many other calculations are being used to define a set of master
diagrams which encompass a range of practically useful cases as the basis for
design code rules in Fast Reactor design.
- 143 -

Table 1
Baylac Tests
Geometry
Axial Position (m)

Radius (m)

0.0
0.2275
0.2725
0.5

Thickness (m)

0.35
0.35
0.35
0.35

0.011
0.011
0.020
0.020

Temperature Distributions
Temperature

Axial Position (m)


k = 0.680

Axial Position (m)


k = 0.915

0.0

0.0

0.2185

0.2365

emax

0.2815

0.2635

emax

0.5

0.5

Boundary Conditions
1)
2)

Radial Displacement set to zero at extremes of tube.


Axial Displacement set to zero at end of tube (z = 0),

Material Properties
0O

20C

.195 x 10+12 N/m2

.1639 x IO"1* /C

.3

av(0o)

.205 x 10+9 N/m2

Yield values vs. temperature given by DCWG[4] - see Fig. la


6 C

0-y(6) MPa

20
50
100
150
200
250
300

205
179
155
142
132
121
113 ""

8 C

Oy(0) i
106
104
101
97
95
92
90

350
370
400
450
500
550
600

Limit Load
Axial Loading
Internal Pressure

.242 x IO"1 ay(60)


.407 x IO"1 ay(80)

144

Table 2
Summary of Mechanisms for Baylac

Tests

k = 0.680
Axial Loading

0 - 1.2 at
X2 single node axial
stretch in thin part
of tube
Figure 3d

1.2 - 1.6 ot
A3 hinge/cone mechanism
(axial stretch) across
change in thickness
Figure 3g

1.6 at 4 hinge/cone mechanism


Ai hinge/cone in thin part
(small)
A3 hinge/cone across change
in thickness into thick
part (large) - Figure 3f

k = 0.680
Internal Pressure

0 - 1.2 at
Ai hinge/cone in thin
part - Figure 3a

1.2 - 1.6 ot
Ai hinge/cone around
change in thickness
Figure 3b

1.6 at 4 hinge/cone mechanism


Ai hinge/cone in thin part
(large)
A3 hinge/cone across change
in thickness into thick
Part (small) - Figure 3c

k = 0.915
Axial Loading

0 - 1.3 at
A2 single node axial
stretch in thin part

1.3 - 1.8 ot
single node (A1/A2/2)
reverse plasticity at
start of change in
thickness (thin end)
Figure 3e

1.8 at single node (A1/A2/2)


reverse plasticity at end
of change in thickness
(thick end)

k = 0.915
Internal Pressure

0 - 1.3 at
Ai hinge/cone in thin
part

1.3 - 1.9 at
Ai hinge/cone around
change in thickness

1.9 at single node (A1/A2/2)


reverse plasticity at end
of change in thickness
(thick end)

01

Table 3
Bree Problem (Case 2)
Geometry
Axial position (m)

Radius (m)

Thickness (m)

0.0
1.0

1.0
1.0

0.0025
0.0025

Temperature Distribution
As given by equation (4) in text.
Boundary Conditions
1)
2)

Radial Displacement set to zero at extremes of tube.


Axial Displacement set to zero at end of tube (z = 0)

Material Properties

e0

20C

.195 x 10 + 1 2 N/m2

.1639 x 10-lt /C

.3

ay(90)

.205 x 10 +9 N/m2

Yield values vs. temperature given by DCWG[4]


Limit Load
Axial Loading
Internal Pressure

.157 x 10 -1 ay(80)
.253 x 10~2 ay(60)

146

Table 4
Tube with Variable Thickness and Through Thickness Temperature Gradient (Case 7)
Geometry
Axial Position (m)

Radius (m)

Thickness (m)

0.35
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.35

0.01
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01

0.0
0.2275
0.2725
0.4075
0.4525
0.68
Temperature Distributions
Axial Position (m)

Initial
Inner

Surface Temperatures
Upshock - Case 7
Inner
Outer
Outer

0.0

e0

e0

"max

26

max/ 3

0.2275

e0

e0

"max

20

max/ 3

0.2725

e0

6o

"max

iax'2

0.4075

e0

e0

^max

iax'2

0.4525

e0

e0

max

2e

max/ 3

0.68

e0

e0

"max

26

max/ 3

6n = 20C
Boundary Conditions
1)
2)

Radial Displacement set to zero at extremes of tube.


Axial Displacement set to zero at end of tube (z = 0)

Material Properties
Upshock - Case 7
E

N/m2

.195 x 10 + 1 2

/C

.1639 x IO"1*
.3

V
ay(0o)

N/m2

.205 x 10+9

Yield values vs. temperature given by DCWG[4]


Limit Load
Internal Pressure

.363 x 10"1 ay(80)

147

Table 5
Ratchetting Boundary Mechanisms for Case 7
0 - 2.1 at

Xi hinge/cone in thin part of tube - Figure 9a

2.1 - 3.2 O

X2 single node axial stretch in thin section of tube,


just after change in thickness - Figure 9b

3.2 - 4.5 a t

Xi hinge/cone in thin part of tube localized towards


the change in thickness - Figure 9c
Table 6a
Cone Test

Geometry
Axial Position (m)

Radius Perpendicular to
Axisymmetric axis (m)

Thickness (m)

0.0
1.0

0.05
0.05

0.0
2.5
Boundary Conditions
1)
2)

Displacement normal to the mid-surface set to zero at the extremes of


the tube
Displacement tangential to the mid-surface set to zero at the end of
the cone (z = 0)

Material Properties
E

N/m2

.195 x 10 + 1 2

/C

.1639 x 10-1*

.3

ay(60) N/m2

.205 x 10 +9

Yield values vs. temperature given by DCWG[4],

148

Table 6b
Limit Load for Cone
Reference

Type of Formulation

Present

Upper Bound

0.0518

Morelle [5]

Upper Bound

0.0A82

Franco [6]

Upper Bound

0.0521

Biron et al [7]

Upper Bound
Lower Bound

0.0532
0.0504

Nguyen et al [8]

Upper Bound
Lower Bound

0.0541
0.0496

Pi/cry(eo)

Table 6c
Geometry

Cone A

Axial Position (m)


0.0
1.0
Geometry

Radius Perpendicular to
Axisymmetric Axis (m)
1.25
0.125

Thickness (m)
0.05
0.05

Cone B

Axial Position (m)


0.0
2.25

Radius Perpendicular to
Axisymmetric Axis (m)
1.25
0.125

Thickness (m)
0.05
0.05

Boundary Conditions
1)
2)

Displacement normal to the mid-surface set to zero at the extremes of


the tube
Displacement tangential to the mid-surface set to zero at the end of
the cone (z = 0)

Limit Load
Pure Internal Pressure

Cone A
-1
.506 x IO-l
ay(0o)

149

Cone B
.518 x 10 -i

Table 7
Parameters for Case 4
Geometry
Radius (m)
r0
rx

Axial Position (m)


0.0
1.0

1.0
1.0

2.0

0.0

1.0

0.0

Thickness (m)
r2

1.0
1.0

0.0025
0.0025

1.0

0.9925

Boundary Conditions
1)
2)
3)

Displacement normal to the mid-surface set to zero at the end of the


tube (z = 0)
Displacement tangential to the mid-surface set to zero at the end of
the tube (z = 0)
Spherical Cap
a)
Displacement tangential to the mid-surface set to zero at the
centre of the cap (z = L)

b)
e - e*
c)
deQ/dsq>= de^/ds = 0.0

Material Properties

e0

20C

N/m2

.195 x 10 + 1 2

/c

.1639 x 10-1*
.3

V
ay(90)

N/m2

.205 x 10 +9

Yield values vs. temperature given by DCWG[4]


Limit Load
Pure Internal Pressure

-,-2z
.253 x 10"
ay(0o)

150

Table 8
Parameters for Case 5
Geometry
Axial Position (m)

Radius (m)

0.0
1.0

r
1.0
1.0

1.174

0.985

0.0

2.0

Thickness (m)

0.0

1.0

0.0

1.0

r2
1.0
1.0

0.005
0.005

1.0

0.0025

1.0

0.0025

Temperature Distributions
Axial Position (m)

Initial
Inner

0.0

e0

1.0

Surface Temperatures
Upshock - Case 5
Outer
Inner
Outer

e,

e.max

e0

-'max

"max' 2

1.174

e0

2.0

e0

max

-"max

max/ 2

20

max/ 2

20

max/ 2

0 n = 20C
Boundary Conditions
1)
2)
3)

Displacement normal to the mid-surface set to zero at the end of the


tube (z = 0)
Displacement tangential to the mid-surface set to zero at the end of
the tibe (z = 0)
Spherical Cap
a)
Displacement tangential to the mid-surface set to zero at the
centre of the cap (z = L)
de/dsT= de<j)/ds = 0.0

c)

Material Properties
6

20C

N/m 2

.195 x 1 0 + 1 2

/C

.1639 x 10_,f
.3

v
a y (6 0 )

N/m2

.205 x 1 0 + 9

Yield values vs. temperature given by DCWG[4]


Limit Load
Pure Internal Pressure

.500 x 1 0 _ z a y (9 0 )

151

Table 9
Parameters for ASME Standard Torispherical Head
Geometry
Axial Position (m)

Radius (m)
*i

r0

0.0

1.0

1.161

1.0

0.88

0.12

1.267

0.936

0.0

2.0

1.5

0.0

Thickness (m)
r2
1.0
1.0

0.0025
0.0025

2.0

0.0025

2.0

0.0025

Boundary Conditions
1) Displacement normal to the mid-surface set to zero at the end of the
tube (z = 0)
2)
Displacement tangential to the mid-surface set to zero at the end of
the tube (z = 0)
3)
Spherical Cap
a)
Displacement tangential to the mid-surface set to zero at the
centre of the cap (z = L)
b)
CQ = fy
c) de/ds = de^/ds =0.0
Material Properties

e0

20C

N/m2

.195 x 10 + 1 2

/c

.1639 x 10_lt
.3

a y (e 0 )

N/m2

.205 x 10 +9

Yield values vs. temperature given by DCWG[4]


Limit Load
Pure Internal Pressure

.626 x IO1-3
' Cfy(60)

152

Table 10
Parameters for Case 6

Geometry
Axial Position (m)
r
0.0
0.450

0.5
0.5

0.535
0.965

0.535
0.965

1.050
1.5

1.0
1.0

radius (m)
r0
ri

0.62

0.12

0.88

0.12

Thickness (m)
r2
0.5
0.5

0.0025
0.0025

0.757
1.365

0.0025
0.0025

1.0
1.0

0.0025
0.0025

Boundary Conditions
1)
2)

Displacement normal to the axisymmetric axis set to zero at the ends


of the structure
Displacement tangential to the axisymmetric axis set to zero at the
end of the tube (z = 0)

Material Properties
20C

e0
E

N/m 2

.195 x 1 0 + 1 2

/c

.1639 x IO-1*
.3

V
av(90)

N/m2

.205 x 1 0 + 9

Yield values vs. temperature given by DCWG[4]


Limit Load
Internal Pressure

.110 x 10~ 2 a y (9 0 )

153'

Table 11
Parameters for Case 9
Geometry
Axial Position (m)

Radius (m)
r0
r!

r
0.0
0.317

0.5
0.5

0.75

0.75

1.0

0.5

0.5

0.5

1.0
1.0

1.183
1.5

Thickness
r2
0.5
0.5

0.0025
0.0025

1.5

0.0025

1.0
1.0

0.0025
0.0025

Boundary Conditions
1)
2)

Displacement normal to the axisymmetric axis set to zero at the ends


of the structure
Displacement tangential to the axisymmetric axis set to zero at the
end of the tube (z = 0)

Material Properties
20C

6o
E

N/m2

.195 x 1 0 + 1 2

/c

.1639 x I O - 4
.3

V
ay(60)

N/m 2

.205 x 1 0 + 9

Yield values vs. temperature given by DCWG[4]


Limit Load
Internal Pressure

.275 x 10-2 0"y(6o)

154 -

References

[1]

S. KARADENIZ & A.R.S. PONTER


An extended shakedown theory for structures that suffer cyclic
thermal loading, Parts 1 and 2, J. Appi. Mechanics, Trans. ASME,
1985: 52, 877.
Ibid. 1985: 52, 883.

[2]

P.W. CLARKE
CONIDA: A finite element program for the stress analysis of
axisymmetric thin shells, United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority,
1974: HMSO Report 2382(R).

[3]

J. BREE
Elastic-plastic behaviour of thin tubes subjected to internal
pressure and intermittent high heat fluxes with application to fast
nuclear reactor fuel elements, J. Strain Analysis, 1967: 2, 226.

[4]

Interim D.C.W.G. recommendation note on allowable design limits for


type 316 stainless steel in the treated solution condition, UKAEA,
Risley Nuclear Development Estalishment, Report no. CFR/DCWE/P(80)
269.

[5]

P. MORELLE
Numerical shakedown analysis of axisymmetric sandwich shells,
To be published.

[6]

J.R.Q. FRANCO
Ph.D thesis, Leicester University 1987.

[7]

A. BIRON & U.S. CHAWLA


Numerical method for limit analysis of rotationally symmetric shells,
Bulletin de l'Acadmie Polonaise des Sciences, 1970: 18, 109.

[8]

D.H. NGUYEN, M. TRAPELETTI & D. RANSART


Bornes quasi-inferieures et bornes superieures de la pression de
ruine des coques de revolution par la methode des elements finis et
par la programmation non limeaire, Int. J. Non-linear Mechanics,
1978: 13, 79.

[9]

R.T. SHIELD & D.C. DRUCKER


Limit strength of thin walled pressure vessels with an ASME standard
torispherical head, 3rd Congr. of Appi. Mech., 1958: 665.

[10]

Limit analysis of symetrically loaded thin shells of revolution,


ASME J. Appi. Mech., 1959: 26, 61.

- 155

Appendix

Extended upper bound shakedown theory and the finite


element method for axisymmetric thin shells

1.

INTRODUCTION
The method developed to establish the position of the shakedown/rat-

chetting boundary is based upon the upper-bound shakedown theorem [6].


This theorem bounds the magnitude of the mechanical load for a prescribed
temperature cycle by equating the internal rate of plastic energy dissipation to the rate at which the applied mechanical loads do work on mechanisms
of deformation of the body.

The optimal mechanism of deformation is chosen

by linear programming methods to be that which has the lowest energy


dissipation for a given load within the constraints of the structure.
Thus the upper-bound estimate of the shakedown/ratchetting boundary will be
either correct or high by the least possible amount within a class of
mechanisms.
2.

UPPER-BOUND THEORY
The upper-bound theorem [6] relates the energy dissipated by a mech-

anism of deformation to the work done by the thermal and mechanical loads,
where the material is assumed to be perfectly plastic.

The energy dissi-

pated by the mechanism is the total plastic energy dissipated over the
loading cycle which is given by

,c

'T

( [ aj(x,t) ij(x.t) dt dV

where

(D

denotes the volume of the body and the superscript

that the stress

OM

associated flow law.

and

strain rates

denotes

are related through the

The work done by the mechanical load

\|>p on dis-

placement can be written as


*

where

P.AUC ds
J

(2)

S denotes the surface area of the body and

159

AU

the plastic dis-

placements of the deformation mechanism.

The mechanical load is assumed

to be constant throughout the thermal loading cycle

(t = 0 to t = T) .

c
The displacement AU
is related to the history of Btrain
the condition that the accumulated strain

AU

(3)

e. . dt

Aeij
is compatible with

through

ij

The work done by the thermal loads is an

integral over the thermo-elastic stresses

O.. (x,t) in the body,

.(x,t) ijx.t) dt dV

(4)

In terms of these quantities the upper bound theorem is expressed in the


inequality
,T

aJjU.t) J.(x,t) dt dV > ip


'ij

P.AU

ds

(5)
a, ,(x,t) .c
(x,t) dt dV
V

1J

1J

i.e. the energy dissipated must be greater than or equal to the work done
by the system.

The equation (5) may now be rearranged to give a form

suitable for minimization


[a.(x,t) - a,(x,t)] |.c (x,t) dt dv > \|>

p.AU

ds

(6)

If we now require that


P.AU

ds = 1,

(7a)

inequality (6) simplifies to


[a(x,t) -

(x,t)] ljj(x,t) dt dV > \|t

(7b)

Thus the problem can be reduced to a minimization over the volume of the
body throughout the loading cycle.
The problem is reduced to a linear programming problem by first ex160

pressing both

^j

an

Ae^

in terms of the magnitude of the plastic

multipliers corresponding to the surfaces of the Tresca or

12X

surface

of Fig. 2,
k
Lj = Nj^j X k

and

k
Ae^j = N ^ X k , k = 1 to 6

(8)

where the yield surfaces are given by


(9)
Substituting in (7b) yields

f f faij - ij)

ij *k dt dV > | {(a 5(t k ) - a lj (t k )N 1 ^} Xk dV > $ (10)

'v o

where

tv
tk

is chosen so that

{(crj(tk) j (t k )) N ^ } < {(aj(t) Sij(t)) NJ} for 0 < t < T

A finite element approximation to the total

Xk

ma

now De

(ID

introduced,

reducing (10) to a linear form in terms of nodal values of the

Xk

The

linear constraint equations are then provided by equation (7a).

This is

achieved by integrating the strain displacement relationships.

D isplace

ment boundary conditions and continuity conditions between elements of


differing geometric types provide further linear constraints which form
part of the linear programming formulation.
For axisymmetric shell problems discussed here the following assump
tions were made;
(a)

The

Xk

varied linearly between nodal points with no through

thickness variation,
(b)

midsection values of

Xk

were continuous between nodes,

161

(c)

at nodal points a concentrated curvature could occur in the form


of a plastic hinge.

When the plastic behaviour of a single element is investigated in


terms of generalised stresses and strains, the behaviour is identical to
the non-interactive yield surface of Drucker and Shield [2], as membrane
action and curvature in the meridional direction are uncoupled by concentrating the curvature at plastic hinges.

Improvements on this approxima-

tion are currently under development.


3.

UPPER-BOUND METHOD FOR AXISYMMETRIC SHELL ELEMENTS


The structure is divided into a series of finite elements.

Four

types of elements can be so defined for axisymmetric shapes; cylindrical,


conical, toroidal and inverse toroidal.

The strain/displacement relation-

ships within such elements are given by


_ dq(s) B(s)
<t> " ds
" rx

(12)

a(s)Cot(|> - (s)

(13)

Similarly, the curvatures are given by


H

o
where

d
d^

r q(s)A d(s)i
~7^ + "s - '

d 1 )

otj rojll + d(s)|


l
r
r,
ds J
2

(15)

<f denotes the meridional direction and 6

direction and s

is the mid-surface coordinate.

the circumferential
O(s) is the displace-

ment tangential to the mid-surface and (s) is the displacement normal


to the surface towards the axisymmetric axis.
curvature of the element mid-surface,
to the axis of rotation, and r
of

rx

r2

rx

defines the radius of

the distance along the radius

the distance of the centre of curvature

to the axis of rotation as illustrated in Fig. 1.

162

For a Tresca yield condition the plastic strains determining the


mechanism are a linear combination of the plastic multipliers, which are
assumed to vary linearly throughout an element, hence the strains in this
approach also vary linearly.
throughout the structure.
terms, particularly

<,

The displacements must also be continuous


It is further desirable that the two curvature

should be small or zero.

Work in bending in the meridional direction are accomodated by the use


of plastic hinges at the nodal points between elements.

The energy dissi-

pated by changes in curvature within elements is thus transferred to the


energy dissipated by changes of angle in the plastic hinges.

In certain

exceptional cases, usually only found at high values of the thermal load
or where the geometry is very rapidly varying, it is necessary to specifically account for the energy dissipated caused by changes in curvature
within elements.

In these circumstances the mechanisms found by this

technique would no longer be the lowest upper bound if the curvatures


within the elements were found to be very large.

As the present method

does not account for this mode of energy dissipated the resultant mechanical
load will always be less than the true value.

Thus this method is always

conservative in these conditions.


The plastic hinge angle can be expressed as
=

Lim +
s+s^

d(s) _ Lim _ d(s)


ds
s-^Sj^
ds

(l6)

This gives a constraint at each node relating positive hinge angle to the
normal displacements at the node.

It is possible to increase the accuracy

of the yield surface by increasing the number of basic plastic multipliers


from 6 (Tresca) to 12 which decreases the error compared with the Von Mises
ellipse from 15? to 3%.
The constant mechanical load can be separated into an axial load component and a pressure component acting normal to the surface.

163

This allows

a variety of differing loading situations to be studied, namely; axial


loading (tension and compression); pure internal/external pressure;
internal/external pressure (with end plates); bands of internal/external
pressure.

Cylindrical Elements;

The expressions for the strains and curvatures reduce to

e e = B(s)/r2

"

da(s)
ds

KQ = d 2 (s)/ds 2

=
:<

t>

which implies that

a(s)

(17)

(18)

K = 0

varies quadratically and

(19)

3(s) varies linearly

within the element.

Conical Elements:

Here the expressions for the strains and curvatures become

_ a(B)Cos() + g(s)Sin()
9 "
r2Sinc|>
=
e

da(s)
ds

K<j, = d 2 (s)/ds 2

Cosd) dg(s)
r Sin<j) ds

As the strains are linear functions of

(20)

(21)

(22)

(23)

s , then the displacements must

both vary quadratically along the element.

Toroidal Elements:

For toroidal elements the equations for the strains (12) and (13) can
be separated giving a first order differential equation for the displace
ments, which can be solved to give

164

a (s) = C Sin<|) + Sint|)

ds [e^ - ei^/rJD/SirKj)

(s) = C Cos<)) - eg r 2 + Cos(J)


where

(24)

ds [e^ - eg(r 2 /r 1 ) ]/Sin<|>

is a constant determined by the boundary conditions.

(25)
The

strains and plastic multipliers remain linear determining the analytic form
of the displacements.
Inverse Toroidal Elements:

In this case the equations for the strains and curvatures are slightly
different due to redefining the displacement directions to be consistant
with the previous element types.

Again the strain/displacement relations

can be separated giving a first order differential equation for the displacements , which can be solved to give

a(s) = C Sin<t> + Sin(J> I ds [e^ + e (r 2 /r 1 ) ]/Sin<t>


3(s) = C Co8(|> - G r 2 + Cost
the constant

ds [E<J, + e 0 (r 2 /r 1 ) ]/Sln<|

(26)

(27)

being determined by the boundary conditions.

Minimisation of the Upper Bound by Linear Programming Techniques


The upper bound method is then the straightforward translation of the
strain/displacement relations above into the energy dissipation and work
terms, giving in linear programming terms, a cost function and a general
constraint respectively.

The minimisation takes place to find the

mechanism of smallest cost (plastic energy dissipation less thermal work


done) for a given amount of mechanical work done, subject to the boundary
constraints, mechanical work done constraint and hinge angle constraints.
It can be shown that there is no need for matching constraints between
different element types as the displacements are continuous, if and only
if the tangent angle determining the geometry is continuous.

165

The cost function is evaluated by calculating the left hand side of


equation (10).

The upper bound solution determines the closest solution

to the correct solution within the class of solutions defined by the


various approximations made.

In addition a consequence of the upper

bound theory is that the elastic modulus


expansion

and the coefficient of thermal

are assumed to be constant at values corresponding to the

initial temperature.
The procedure for evaluating the cost function may be summarised as
follows :
1)

For each of the plastic multipliers, corresponding to a face of the

yield surface, find the minimum of the stress difference through the entire
loading cycle, for a given point in space as expressed in inequaltity (11).
This gives a set of times in the loading cycle at which the minima occur.
These times may not coincide for adjacent material points in the structure.
2)

Integrate through the volume of each element using the stress differ-

ence minima determined above.


It should be remembered that both the thermo-elastic stress and the yield
stress vary throughout the loading cycle as the temperature of the material
changes.
The procedure for calculating the cost function for the plastic hinges
is slightly different.

In order to facilitate linear programming in which

all the variables must be positive, the hinge angle at each node is expressed as the sum of two positive contributions
6i = 6i - dl

(28)

at each hinge the plastic strain rate can be expressed as the sum of
meridional and circumferential contributions
. c,

r .c
ijix.t) = (jjx.t) , e(x,t))

166

(29)

The work dona by the circumferential term can be shown to be zero, and the
strain in the surface meridional direction can be deduced from the elongation of different fibres, initially undistorted, through the thickness.
These elongations vary linearly from the mid-point

h = 0

so that the

layers above are in tension and those below in compression.

e
where
H^

r^

= %

h/rj

(-1/2

< h < 1/2)

is the thickness at the


dgx

node.

axis.

0^

and

The hinge point on the yield

Thus for the Tresca yield condition the

plastic hinge is on the junction between


.

(30)

is the radius of curvature corresponding to the angle

surface is along the

This gives

and

and between

and

However, in the limit of small hinge angles, it can be shown that

the hinge involves the plastic multipliers


2).

The hinges are such that

de^

and

only (see Figure

is positive on the outer surface, zero

on the mid-surface and negative on the inner surface for positive hinge
angles
(h > 0)

t.
is

Thus the active plastic multiplier above the mid-surface


, and below

(h < 0)

is

for
5

way round for negative hinge angles

t.

This is the other

-1-

The concept of the active

plastic multiplier associated with the plastic hinge is required in order


to apply the extended upper bound method.

The hinge angle is assumed to

be small, which gives the cost function for plastic hinges in the
to be
2Hi0iSint|>i

V.2

0i

dh [ r j + H h] h Aox ( x , t )

(3D

/O

case

dh [r* + H h] h Aax5(xi,t)

2TTHi0iSin<J)i

-Vi
The procedure for calculating the cost function for the plastic hinges
follows the same method as for the elements, namely;

167 -

1)

Search through the loading cycle for the minimum of the stress

difference at a given node and point through the thickness.


2)

Integrate through the thickness changing the sign of the plastic

strain, corresponding to the hinge angle at the midpoint.


The mechanical work done can be be expressed as the sum of contribu
tions from the plastic multipliers within each element, taking account of
the different geometries of the element type.

This forms a general con

straint to the linear programming method determining the size of the mech
anism of deformation.
The upperbound mechanism is thus the solution to the linear program
ming problem above, giving the mechanical load required to reach the
shakedown/ratchetting boundary for a given thermal loading cycle.
4.

EXTEN
D D
E

UPPERBOUND METHOD

The upperbound shakedown theorem only applies when there exists a


residual stress field p^* so that the sum with the thermoelastic history
a

i1

Pii

l l e s within the yield surface.

If, at some point, there exists

no local value of p^j which satisfies this criterion then the shakedown
limit has been exceeded and localized reverse plasticity will occur.
The extension to the shakedown theory employed in EECS3 allows an estimate
of the primary load

\|;p which will cause general ratchetting by allowing

localized reverse plasticity to occur.


and Karadeniz [6].
into a region

VF

The theory is described by Ponter

We subdivide the total volume of the structure

where the thermoelastic solution cannot be translated

by the addition of p ^ so that it lies entirely within yield; and its


complement
that

Vo .

cjji + p;M

is

Within

Vp we define a residual stress field

p^* so

contained within the Tresca yield condition for in

creased values of o ^ , k = 1 .. 6.

The particular

one which requires the smallest increase in

168

p^ chosen is the

a k , assuming that the

yield value for each pair of yield surfaces of opposite sign have equal
This means that the sum o^*

yield values.

+ pi

has equal and opposite

values of shear stress corresponding to a pair of yield surfaces.

In

this way we define an assymptotic (in terms of cyclic behaviour) stress


history which assumes complete cyclic hardening of the material.
Ponter and Karadeniz argue that the assumption is conservative.
chet limit is then defined as the load level
shakedown limit in

i>

P Au

^j

also for

ds <

\|jp corresponding to the

[cr-Lj (x,t) - Gij (x,t) - PiJ] J dt dV

(32)

VC

is defined in the usual way for the entire volume


Vc

The rat-

Vg , given by the upper-bound.

where

In [6]

As

p.. i

is a residual stress field in

Pij ij dt dV =
J

Pij ij

dt dv

,T
Pij ij

and hence

then

dt

dv

Vs o

(33)
e
Pij Ae<
i jA dV = 0

Hence the inequality (32) may be written as

P Au

[Oij(x,t) - j(x,t)] ij

ds <

dt dV +

Pij AsijdV (34)

Vs o

As

p^*

is defined in terms of o^* within

Vp

its value may be calculated

without difficulties.
There are two underlying problems in the argument.
calculating
within

Vg

p^

within

Vp

which ensures that

assuming that there exists a distribution


p^

is a residual stress field.

shells this does not present a problem as

VF

p^

can be con-

Perhaps a more significant point occurs when the loads


169 -

For thin

consists of regions adjacent

to the shell surfaces, and a proof of the existance of


structed.

The method of

\|jp are

applied on the surface of

Vp

itself.

In these circumstances we need to

construct, conceptually, a hydrostatic stress field within


translates the surface traction from the surface of
Vg

Vp

Vp which

to the surface of

Again formal proof can be constructed which demonstrates that (32)

remains unchanged when this occurs.


5.

COMPUTATIONAL METHOD
The upper-bound method is implemented by the programs EEC-SHAKEDOWN 1

(EECS1) and EEC-Shakedown 3 (EECS3), both of which take as input the basic
physical dimensions of the axisymmetric shape, the material data (including
yield stress as a function of temperature) and the temperature distribution.

EECS1 calculates the Brussels diagrams for cylindrical tubes subject


to single or multiple stationary axial temperature distributions or a
single moving axial temperature distribution.

The thin shell thermo-

elastic stress in this case is calculated assuming uniform temperature


through the thickness and linear temperature variation between specified
points.

EECS3 finds the Brussels diagrams for axisymmetric geometries in which


the tangent angle defining the geometry is continuous, subject to a single
upshock or downshock temperature distribution, which can vary axially or
through the thickness of the shell anywhere within the material volume.
The thermo-elastic stress is calculated by a finite element elastic stress
program CONIDA [3] supplied by the UKAEA.
Both programs choose a suitable finite element structure of axisymmetric elements.

This is accomplished by first Inserting nodes at the

ends of the geometrical sections, then giving a minimum number of nodes to


each section.

This is supplemented by adding nodes at the edges and

170

centre of any band of pressure and/or moving temperature front, together


with additional nodes at, and bisecting, the elements either side of any
particular point of stress maxima or minima.

Finally, further nodes are

added up to the required total in areas where the nodes are most sparse.
The energy dissipation or cost function contribution for each node is
then calculated using linear variations of the strains and plastic multipliers within the elements by the method discussed above.

The coeffic-

ients of the constraint equations are also calculated, there being one
constrain equation for each plastic hinge (i.e. each node) and one constraint equation for each boundary condition.

There is also one general

constraint equation governing the size of the mechanism, obtained by


setting the work done by the plastic multipliers to a constraint as in
equation (7a).
a)

The boundary constraints are usually:

Displacement normal to the axisymmetric axis (or shell mid-surface

depending on mechanical loading type) at one or both ends of the structure


- set to zero
b)

Displacement tangential to the axisymmetric axis (or shell mid-surface

depending on mechanical loading types) at one or both ends of the structure


- set to zero
c)

Spherical Cap Elements


Special analytic boundary conditions can be shown to apply at the

centre of the cap.

Displacement tangential to the shell mid-surface is set

to zero and,
e

e - e(|>

deg/ds = de^/ds = 0
The minimum cost (energy dissipation) is found within the system of
constraints by a sparse matrix linear programming package known as XMP [4],
kindly supplied by Professor Roy Marston of the University of Arizona.
The resultant minimum cost is then the mechanical load at the ratchetting
- 171 -

boundary and the plastic multipliers active in the solution give the mechanism of deformation.

The maximum number of plastic multipliers active

in the solution is equal to the total number of distinct constrain equations.

In one or two special cases this can produce an incorrect result

as there are insufficient plastic multipliers to give the true mechanism.


However, the value of the mechanical load at the ratchetting boundary remains accurate.
Having solved the linear programming problem the finite element mesh
can be refined by bisecting about the positions of hinges or distinct
plastic multipliers active in the solution.

The problem can then be

resolved to give increased accuracy of solution.

This may be repeated as

often as required, consistant with the cost function and constraint matrix
not becoming ill-conditioned; twice is usually sufficient for the accuracy
wanted for most problems (greater than 2 significant figures).
Finally, from the plastic multipliers and hinges active in the solution, the deformation of the structure is calculated as well as any changes
or curvature within elements.
The solution process for the mechanical load at the ratchetting boundary is repeated for varying values of the thermal load, until a Brussels
diagram is calculated containing sufficient points.

This is achieved by

linear scaling of the temperature history 0(x,t) = g(x,t) (8 m a x - 60)


factor

to produce a sequence of distributions

by a

6^(x,t) differing only

in magnitude
e x ( x , t ) = e0 + x g ( x , t ) ( 6 m a x - e0)
where

60

is the initial temperature and

8max

(35)

(or 0 m l n

is the temperature having the largest difference from

for downshocks)

0O .

The function

g(x,t) is the normalized shape function of the temperature distribution.

172

For experimentally obtained temperature distributions the correct solution


will correspond to the value of

at/cry(0o) obtained when

\ = 1 .

at

is

the maximum shear stress in the thermo-elastic distribution, used with the
quantity
Oy(Q0)

at/ay(0o)

denoted by

t >

is the plastic yield stress at

to

characterise the thermal load.


.

The temperature distribution

can then be characterised by its knockdown factor

k , which is defined as

the maximum thermo-elastic stress of the temperature distribution divided


by the maximum thermo-elastic stress for a step discontinuity having the
same maximum temperature difference

A0 = (max ~ ^ 0 )

k = a t (0 m ax)A E aA0 /2)


The values of

lie in the range

0 < k

< 2 .

(36)
The concept of the

characteristic length or gradient of the temperature distribution


x = AX//(RH)

is not very useful in cases where either the radius

the thickness
magnitude.

R or

vary when the thermo-elastic stress is of a significant

During the calculation of the Brussels diagram, at the onset

of the region

V p , where the stress first exceeds twice yield, the pro-

gram bisects the thermal load points for increased accuracy.


Both programs thus accurately calculate a sequence of points on the
shakedown/ratchetting boundary, together with their associated deformation
mechanisms, to form a complete Brussels diagram.
6.

THERMO-ELASTIC STRESS DUE TO AN ARBITRARY AXIAL


TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION ALONG A CYLINDRICAL TUBE
Assuming uniform temperature through the thickness, any axial temp-

erature distribution may be represented as the sum of a number of discrete


temperature increments (steps) of height

A0

over length

Ax

Boundary

effects are not included as the tube is assumed to be continuous within the
range of the thermo-elastic stresses.

The thermo-elastic stress due to a

discrete temperature increment (step) of

173

A0

at a

point

x0

is given by

[ 5 ] as
a<j)(x) = a p + ha t exp(e(x-x 0 )/o)) Sin( (x-x 0 )/)

(37)

a(x) = ( e / 2 ) a t exp(e(x-x 0 )/o)) Cos ( ( x - x 0 ) / u )

(38)

+ iivat exp(e (x-x 0 )/(D) Sin ((x-x 0 )/w)


where

is the constant axial load, v

is

Poissons Ratio, h

is the

normalized distance across the thickness, - 0.5 < h < 0.5, and
= /(3/(i-v2))
e = 1

a t = EaA

for

(x-x0) < 0

e = -1 for

(x-x0) > 0

0)

= /(RH)/V(3(1-V2))

is the modulus of elasticity and a is the coefficient of thermal ex-

pansion.

R is the radius of the cylinder and H

is the thickness.

The stresses for the temperature distribution are now given by


CtyU) = L CF^U-XQ) Ai/Axi

(39)

cr(x) = Z Q Q ( X - X 0 ) A6i/Ax

(40)

This approximation becomes exact as the interval

AXJ becomes infinitely

small and the summation becomes an integration over the length of the
temperature distribution

W .

<V x)=
Q(x) =

d8

<V M o> T- dxo

(41)

W
(42)

For computational purposes the temperature distribution is given by the

174

temperature at a number of discrete points

(0j at

Xj, j = 1 * N ) .

Between these points the temperature is assumed to vary linearly.

Thus

the integration may be split into a sum of integrations over segments


t

j+l

In

each segment

(0j+l 0j) / (*j+i Xj).

d8/dx0

Xj

is then a simple constant given by

It should be noted that the term

equations (37) and (38) changes sign at the point

in

x , giving an extra sub

division within that particular segment, using equations (37) and (38) ,
results in simple analytic integral forms.

These expressions may then be

summed over the segments specifying the temperature distribution to produce


the thermoelastic stress at that point in the structure.

175

References
[1]

S. KARADENIZ and A.R.S. PONTER


A linear programming upper bound approach to the shakedown limit of
thin shells subjected to variable thermal loading.
J. Strain Anal.
1984, 19, 221.

[2]

D.C. DRUCKER and R.T. SHIELD


Limit analysis of symetrically loaded thin shells of revolution.
ASME J. Appi. Mech., 1959, 26, 6lb.

[3]

P.w. CLARKE
CONIDA: A finite element program for the stress analysis of
axisymmjetric thin shells. United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority,
197^, HMSO Report 2382(R).

[4]

R.E. MARSTEN
The design of the XMP linear programming library.
- Trans. Math. Soft. (ACM TOMS), 1981, 7, 481.

[5]

Asse. Comp. Mach.

F. ARNAUDEAU, J. ZARKA and J. GERIJ


Thin circular cylinder under axisymmetric thermal and mechanical
loading.
Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Struct. Mech. in React. Tech., San
Francisco, USA, 1977, Vol. L, Paper L6/5.

[6]

A.R.S. PONTER and S. KARADENIZ


An extended shakedown theory for structures that suffer cyclic
thermal loading, Part I and II. J. Appi. Mechanics, Trans ASME,
1984, 52, pp877-882 and pp883-889.

176

Fig. 1
Characteristic radii for Spheroidal and Composite Shapes

Tresca yield surface


Fig. 2
MIM W ^MMM

177

European Communities Commission


EUR 12686 The computation of shakedown limits for structural
components subjected to variable thermal loading
Brussels diagrams
A.R.S. Ponter, S. Karadeniz, K.F. Carter
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities
1990 X, 177 pp., tab., fig. 21.0 x 29.7 cm
Nuclear science and technology series
EN
ISBN 92-826-1340-2
Catalogue number: CD-NA-12686-EN-C
Price (excluding VAT) in Luxembourg: ECU 15

Structures submitted to a constant primary load and a cyclic (thermal)


secondary load may for certain combinations of load ratio, geometry and
material properties undergo ratchetting, i.e. a situation where the strains
increase at each cycle of the applied thermal load until failure or
prohibitively large accumulated deformations occur. This report resulting
from CEC Study Contract RAP-054-UK having mainly fast breeder reactor
applications in mind, discusses the so-called Brussels diagrams which are
a practical tool for the designer for assessing a particular design situation
with respect to ratchetting. Brussels diagrams show four regions: elastic,
shakedown, reverse plasticity and ratchetting.
The theory of Brussels diagrams is presented. It is the upper bound
shakedown theory, specialized for axisymmetric shell elements and in
which the upper bound is minimized by linear programming techniques.
This theory is extended to the reverse plasticity region and has been
implemented in two finite element axisymmetric shell programs which
calculate a sequence of points on the ratchetting boundary. Three classes
of problems are discussed:
(i) The uniaxial transient Bree problem.
(ii) The cylindrical tube subjected to axial load and stationary or moving
temperature discontinuity,
(iii) A range of Brussels diagrams for axisymmetric geometries and thermal
loadings typical of LMFBRs.
The discussion includes comparisons with some experiments and considerations on the sensitivity of the diagrams to the material assumptions.

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