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Causes of Crime
Poverty, economic inequality and social inequality
Unemployment- causes prolonged needs, anger, despair, unemployed and unskilled
persons find alternative (often illegal means) of surviving
Lack of values in society, lack of respect for persons and property
Lack of political will
Lack of development of family life (fatherless children, abandoned and unwanted

children), inadequate parenting

Lack of development of individual and collective conscience, social justice
Injustice and inadequacies in the justice system
Social inequalities-class divide-better than/less than syndrome
Pervasiveness of politics-garrison phenomenon persons with little education, no skillskept loyal by the distribution of scare benefits and spoils and other forums of political

Lack of education and skills, high rates of illiteracy, no qualification for jobs
Training and hardening obtained in penal facilities
High levels of materialistic obsession, increase in quality of life expectations
Revenge, anger, greed, pride, jealousy
High levels of corruption
Availability and sophistication of weapons and methods of committing crimes
Family and community violence
Cross border migration of crime

Affects social capital- victimization, fear, people do not feel secure, brain drain, hard
policing-detonation in relationship between state and citizens.
Affects business and industry:
o Negative impact on the investment climate
o Deters both domestic and foreign investment and thus slows economic
o Leads to higher cost of doing business due to the need to employ different
forms of security (money that could be spent on expansion and
productivity improvements)

o Leads to business losses arising from, looting, arson, theft, extortion and
o Causes loss of output because of reduced hours of operation (opening late,
closing early, night shifts) or loss of workdays arising from outbreaks of
violence, and avoidance of some types of economic activity
o Reduces output due to temporary or permanent exit of persons from the
Labour force-injury or murder
o Can cause permanent shut down of businesses or relocation to less crime
prone countries
Affects family structure, destroys families, creates barrel children- more crime
Affects tourism- Robbery, rape, murder of tourists-highly published-others do not want to
Affects government:
Security-large sum must be spent on security-defence, justice, correctional

services, police
Health system-extreme pressure on health system

Effective socialization in families- proper parenting skills
Early identification and prediction of problem individuals
Special programs to prevent development of criminal lifestyles eg. Basic education, job
training, employment strategies
Program designed to prevent reoffending- counselling, psychiatric treatment, new forms
of punishment eg. House arrest
Increased surveillance of areas
Inculcation of proper values and attitudes
Re-establish and strengthen legitimate leadership within communities and break the cycle
of political patronage
Empowers communities to effectively participate in the judicial process (not taking the
law into their own hands)
Encourage active partnership between the private sector and communities
Controlling the flow of guns and ammunition into and within countries
Improve police effectiveness and community- police relationships.
Utilize reformed gang leaders in the fight against crime and violence
Increase employment and alleviate poverty
Develop special legislation aimed at controlling crime
Tough resolute policing