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United States Patent 0 "


Patented Mar. 12, 1968

and/or salt being present in the solution in an amount of
at least 0.01 equivalent per liter of solution.
By equivalent amount is meant the amount calculated
on the basis of the free or attached acid groups of the
acid and this equivalent amount is preferably between
0.01 and 5 equivalents per liter of solution.
In general, the effectiveness of the acids increases with
an increase in the dissociation constant. Hydrochloric
acid and hydrobromic acid are therefore particularly
10 e?ective. Other suitable inorganic acids are hydriodic




Hartmut Steppan, Wiesbaden-Dotzheim, Germany, as

signor, by mesne assignments, to Azoplate Corpora
lion, Murray Hill, N.J.
No Drawing. Filed Oct. 1, 1964, Ser. No. 409,943
Claims priority, application Germany, Oct. 14, 1963,
K 50,998
2 Claims. (Cl. 252153)

acid, sulfuric acid, amidosulfuric acid, perchloric acid,

Light-sensitive material for the production of plane

graphic and o?set printing plates comprises a support

nitric acid, ?uoroboric acid, orthophosphoric and pyro

phosphoric acid, o-phosphorous acid and hypophosphor

and a light-sensitive coating of a nature such that, upon

exposure of the coating to light through an original, a
chemical change occurs in the areas exposed to light

ous acid. Suitable organic acids are alkenyl phosphonic

which renders these areas either more or less soluble in

Water or other solvents than the unexposed areas. The
more soluble areas of the coating are then removed by
treatment with a suitable solvent.
In the case of negative-working printing plates, the ;

light-sensitive coating is such that the unexposed areas

are more soluble than the exposed areas, and these un

and alkyl phosphonic acids, for example vinyl phosphonic

acid, methylphosphonic acid and polyvinyl phosphonic
acid; aliphatic and aromatic monosulfonic and poly
sulfonic acids such as methane-sulfonic acid, benzene

sulfonic acid, mesitylenesulfonic acid and naphthalene

1,5~disulfonic acid; aliphatic and aromatic monocarbox
ylic, polycarboxylic or hydroxycarboxylic acids, aromatic
monocarboxylic and polycarboxylic or hydroxycarboxylic

exposed areas of the coating are normally removed by

acids, which may, in the case of the aromatic acids,

lacquer, for example an emulsion lacquer, the aqueous

or dispersing phase of which is a colloidal solution of

fatty acids, such as monochloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic

contain nuclear substituents, for example formic acid,

treatment with water or an aqueous developing solution.
In order to strengthen the Water-insoluble products re [G Di acrylic acid, oxalic acid, malonic acid, maleic acid, fu
maric acid, lactic acid, tartaric acid, polyacrylic acid,
maining in the exposed or image areas after this treat
o-phthalic acid and o-nitrobenzoic acid. Halogenated
ment, the image areas are often treated with a suitable

acid, trichloroacetic acid, ?uorochloroacetic acid, tri

?uoroacetic acid, dibromosuccinic acid and cyanic fatty
acids, for example cyanoacetic acid, are also suitable.
The organic phosphonic, sulfonic and carboxylic acids

gum arabic in water and the dispersed phase comprises

epoxy resins and dyes. Other suitable lacquers are de
scribed in Germany Patent No. 1,143,710, and Belgian
Patents Nos. 625,786 and 625,787. Such copying mate
rial, after exposure, proper development and, if required,
lacquering, yields excellent printing plates.

should preferably contain not more than ten carbon

atoms per acid group since the effective part of the mole
cule is the acid group and, in general, it is not advan
tageous for the acid group to represent too small a part
of the molecule.
Dibasic or polybasic acids may be used as neutral or

Sometimes, however, the original which is to be copied

has insut?cient opacity necessary to yield a satisfactory
copy. If a negative-working presensitized copying mate
rial is exposed under such an original until optimum
decomposition by light is achieved in the areas which
light can reach Without hindrance, exposure of the non


acid salts with ammonia, hydroxylamine, hydrazine or

organic bases. They may also be used in the form of acid
metal salts or may be partly esteri?ed with aliphatic
alcohols or phenols of low molecular weight, provided

image areas can easily occur through insu?iciently opaque

that these acid derivatives contain at least one free acid
portions of the original, with the result that, after devel
opment and inking up or lacquering, the non-image areas 45 group having a dissociation constant greater than 10-4.
Thus, sodium hydrogen sulfate and ethyl sulfuric acid
are to some degree receptive to ink or lacquer and ex
hibit tone. Similar poor results can also occur when the

presensitized copying material is damaged su?iciently by

careless treatment (e.g. exposure of the entire surface
before or during processing, by storage at too high a

temperature or simply through being kept in ordinary

storage too long) that tone is produced in the non-image
areas after inking up or lacquering.
While slight tone in the non-image areas can some

times be removed by treatment of the developed and

inked-up printing plate with conventional agents, such as
an aqueous solution of gum arabic or phosphoric acid,
these agents are often ineffectual in the cases Where the
tone is more pronounced, and are nearly always ineffec

tual when the printing plate has been lacquered. Printing

may be used.
It is advantageous to use water-soluble acids, but acids
which are sparingly soluble in water may also be used.

Exemplary of such sparingly soluble acids are o-phthalic

acid and o-nitrobenzoic acid. It is desirable, but not abso
lutely necessary, that the acid should form a homogene
ous phase with the organic solvent. A suspension of the
acid in the solvent or mixture of solvents can, however,
be used, provided the acid is to some extent soluble in

the solvent.
The organic bases used to form salts of these acids
are preferably not more strongly basic than ammonia.
Especially preferred are weak organic bases having disso
ciation constants at 25 C. which are less than 104.

60 Bases having dissociation constants at 25 C. between

plates which have accepted substantial amounts of lac
10-8 and 1.79-1()5 (the dissociation constant of am
quer or ink in the non-image areas have hitherto been
may conveniently be used in conjunction with
regarded as unusable. The invention provides a cleansing
the particularly strong acids. In conjunction with these
solution which will effectively clean such plates.
acids, still stronger bases with dissociation constants up
The invention provides a cleaning solution, for treat
to 10-3 (measured at 25 C.) can be used, although gen
ing negative-working planographic and offset printing 65 erally
no further advantages are obtained.
plates, which comprises an organic solvent capable of
The following are exemplary of suitable weak bases;
dissolving lacquers and greasy ink, and an acid, having a
aromatic amines, such as aniline, toluidines and xylidines,
dissociation constant at 25 C. which is greater than
oz- and B-naphthylamine and its derivatives containing an
10-4, and/ or a salt of such acid with ammonia, hydroxyl 70 alkyl or aryl substituent on the nitrogen atom, for ex
amine, hydrazine or an organic base having a dissociation
ample monomethylaniline, dirnethylaniline and diphenyl
constant at 25 C. which is less than 10*, the acid
amine; heterocyclic bases, such as quinoline and its alkyl


ation products, for example quinaldine, carbazole, N-eth

ylcarbazole, acridiue, phenothiazine and benzimidazole;
and acyclic and cyclic carboxylic acid amides, especially

may also be outside the above limits and may, for exam- _

with the above bases in the case of very strong acids.

some cases the treatment with the cleaning'solution may

be effected immediately after exposure. In this case, it is
sometimes possible to use the cleaning solution as the

ple, be greater, up to 10 equivalents. In this case, how

ever, no further advantage is obtained. When amounts
of less than 0.01 equivalent per liter are used, the de
those containing less-than ten carbon atoms in the mole
sired effect is generally not sufficient for practical use.
cule, for example acetamide, dimethylformamide, diethyl~
If the damage to the printing plate or the original has
formamide, dimethylacetamide, diethylacetamide, urea
not been detected, the undesired tone in the non-image
and N-methylpyrrolidone-(Al). These latter bases are read
areas does not appear until after the printing plate has
ily soluble in water and have only slight toxicity. Car
ben developed and inked up or lacquered. In this case,
boxylic acid amides which contain more than ten carbon
the treatment with the cleaning solution is carried out
atoms in the molecule may, however, also be used. If 10 after inking up or lacquering the plate. In cases, however,
the bases are not to serve simultaneously as a solvent, they
in which it is known before exposure or development that
are desirably used in, at the most, equivalent amounts
the printing plate will show a tendency to tone, the plate
with respect to the acid with which they are used.
may be treated with the cleaning solution after develop
Naturally, the acids are used only in the form of salts
ment and prior to'lacquering and inking up. However, in >

Weaker acids, for example those having a dissociation

constant less than 1 are used preferably in free acid form
since even in this form they are very mild in their effect.

developing solution.

The etfectiveness of the cleaning solutions according

solution may be effected by distribution of the solution

over the entire plate, within a period of 30-60 seconds,
with gentle hand pressure. For a DIN/A4 plate, 3 to 5 ml.
of solution are usually sufficient. The printing plate is
then wiped dry, for example with a fresh pad of cotton,
and then cleaned with water. If the plate still shows some
tone after one treatment with the solution, the treatment

and preferably completely, miscible with water. The sol

vent must also be capable of dissolving the resins which
are contained in the lacquers normally used in copying,
and also the protective inks used in copying, since the
purpose of the cleaning solution is complete, or at least
partial, solution of the resin components and ink which
have been deposited on the non-image areas.
Preferably in conjunction with the stronger of the acids
claimed, a large number of other organic solvents or
mixtures thereof can be used. Exemplary of suitable or
ganic solvents are canboxylic acid amides, such as di

may be repeated one or more times.

The following are examples of cleaning solutions ac

cording to the invention, parts by weight and parts by

volume being, respectively, in grams and milliliters.
Example 1
Isopropanol _________________ __parts by volume__ 30

methylacetamide, diethylformamide and N-methylpyrroli

N-methylpyrrolidone ____________________ __do____.v 10

done~(4); ethers and esters, especially those of ethylene

glycol and its homologues, for example ethyleneolycol
monoethyl ether, ethyleneglycolmonomethyl ether acetate,
ethyleneglycolmonobutyl ether and di-ethyleneglycolmon
oethyl ether; tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol, diacetone alcohol,
tetrahydrofuran and butyl acetate. Ketones, such as ace

The application to the printing plate of the cleaning

to the invention is dependent not only upon the nature of

the acid used but also upon the dissolving power of the
solvent. The solvent preferably should be at least partly,

Ethyleneglycohnonobutyl ether __________ __do____ 45


do;___. 15

Aqueous hydrochloric acid (36.5%) _____ __do____

Phosphoric acid (85%) _______ __parts by weight__


tone, butanone and diisobutylketone, and alkanols, for

example amyl alcohol, can also be used. The solvent is


Example 2

Isopropanol _________________ __parts by volume__ 30


preferably of low volatility. In cases where a mixture of

solvents is used it is preferable that these be in the form

__________________ __d0____

Ethyleneglycolmonobutyl ether __________ _-do____ 50

Glycerine ____________________________ __d0____ 15
of homogeneous solutions.This, however, is not absolutely
Urea nitrate __________________ __part by weight__ 1
necessary. The cleaning solution may also be in the form 45

of a liquid two-phase system, for example an emulsion.

In- this case, care should be taken that the two phases
are well mixed before the cleaning solution is used. The
same is true when there is a liquid two-phase system be

Example 3'
Parts .by volume
N-methylpyrrolidone ________________________ __ 100

Aqueous hydrochloric acid (36.5%) __________ __ 10

tween the solvent or solvent mixture and the acid used. 50
Example 4
In some cases, it is desirable to include in the cleaning
solution between 1 and 50% by volume of water, or an
Ethyleneglycol-monobutyl ether __parts by volume; 55'
aliphatic alcohol such as diisopropyl alcohol, or a polyol,
Isopropanol __________________________ __d0____ 30
preferably one which is liquid at room temperature, such
Glycerine _
_do____ 15
as ethylene glycol or glycerin, or an aromatic hydrocarbon 55 Benzenesulfonic acid _________ __parts by weight__ 10
which is liquid at room temperature, such as benzene, to
Example 5

uene, 0-, m- and p-xylene or mixtures thereof, or an ali

phatic or cycloaliphatic hydrocarbon, such as hexane,

Dimethylacetarnide _________ __parts by volume__ 100

cyclohexane or benzene. The solution may also include a
Xylene (mixture of isomers) ___________ __do____
dye,.f0r example a triphenylmethane dye or an azo dye, 60 Maleic acid ____ __; __________ __parts by weight. 7
a wetting agent, and an agent which increases the hydro
Example 6
philic properties of the surface of the support, for ex
ample cellulose ether in the case of an aluminum support.

Dimethylformamide _________ __parts by volume__ 100

The proportions between solvent and acid, in free form

or wholly or partly in the form of one of the above-men

tioned salts, can be varied within Wide limits. Cleaning

solutions which give good results are generally obtained

by adding, per liter of solvent or solvent mixture, 0.01-5 ,


Aqueous hydrochloric acid (36.5%)


part by weight" 0.1

Example 7'

preferably 0.1-1 equivalent of acid in free or combined

Dimethylformamide _________ __partsbyvolume" 100

form. If polybasic acids are used, there are to be con

Formic acid ________________ __parts by weight__

sidered as acid equivalents only the acid dissociation

steps which in free form have dissociation constants great
er than 10-4. Within these limits, there are used in larger


Example 8

Diethylform'amide __________ __parts by volume__ '100

amounts preferably the less strong acids and in smaller
amounts the specially strong acids. The amount of acid 75 o-Phth-alic acid ____________ __parts by weight__' 10


Example 9

organic solvent capable of dissolving lacquers and greasy

ink, and a compound selected from the group consisting

2-phenoxyethanol __________ __parts by volume__ 100

of hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, and salts of such

do____ 50
Alkarylpolyglycol ether marketed under the name
Hostapalw _____________ "parts by vveightulv 2.5

acids with a base selected from the group consisting of

ammonia, hydroxylamine, hydrazine, and aromatic

amines and carboxylic acid amides having a dissociation

constant less than 10"3 at 25 C., the compound being
Example 10
present in the solution in a quantity of 0:01 to 10 equiva
lents per liter of total solution.
Dioxane __________________ __parts by volume__ 75
2. A process according to claim 1 in which the com
___do____ 15 10
pound is present in a quantity not in excess of about ?ve
Methanesulfonic acid (96%) ___part by weight-.. 0.75
equivalents per liter ofsolution.
Hydrobromic acid (63%) _____________ __do____ 0.45

Example 11

Parts by volume
Dirnethyl formamide ________________________ __ 99

Aqueous hydrochloric acid (36.5% by weight) _____

It will be obvious to those skilled in the art that many

modi?cations may be made within the scope of the pres

ent invention without departing from the spirit thereof,

References Cited




Ducamp et al. ____ __ 252l43



Marcus ___________ __ l3441

OConnor ________ __ 252l43

2/1957 Nichols ______ __ 252l43 XR

and the invention includes all such modi?cations.
20 2,780,168
5/1960 Weisberg et a1. __ 252--143 XR
What is claimed is:
1. A process for removing undesired tone from the
LEGN D. ROSDOL, Primary Examiner.
non-image areas of a negative-Working planographic
printing plate which comprises treating the plate with a
solution consisting essentially of e?ective amounts of an 25 I. T. FEDIGAN, Assistant Examiner.