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LGEC087: PREPAID ENERGY METER RECHARE FACILITY WITH RF ID

TAG
Introduction
The energy meter is an electrical measuring device, which is used to record
Electrical Energy Consumed over a specified period of time in terms of units.
Here we have an energy meter using current sensing concept. This energy
meter is prepaid that is recharge and use. The recharge can be done by RF
ID. Every tag is unique and will store a predefined amount. This will act as
the recharge code as prototype. The system will check for the consumption
on the basis of load and the recharge available. The power will be available
till the recharge amount does not end.
Market Potential:
Every house, small factory, business
establishment, shops, offices etc. need at
least one energy meter to register power
consumption. The supplier of electrical
raises the bill on the basis reading shown
by this meter. The producers of electricity
sale the electricity to the electricity boards
and boards have to sale this energy to the
consumer. Consumer needs to pay the
amount against the bill raised by the
supplier. The data generate by the energy
meter is the base to raise the bill by power
supplier. Because of massive rural and
urban
electrification
program
of
Government, there is a good demand for
this product. This product is available in
single phase and three phases at different current rating as per customer's
requirement. Though, newly developed electronic energy meter is also
available in the market but in view of simple technology involved to
manufacture this product and for replacement of spare parts, the present
demand and future prospect of this product is reasonably good.
Note: So, here we tried to design a new advance type of energy meter
based RF ID TAG that can be recharged as like mobile recharge. It will
monitor the consumption as per load and reduce the recharge amount. As
the recharge ends the power will cut.

DESCRIPTION
BLOCK DIAGRAM

ENERGY METER
using
Current sensing
block

AC POWER

RELAY DRIVER
+RELAY

MICROCONTROLLE
R

LOAD

LCD DISPLAY

RF ID READER

Blocks in brief:
a) Input Section:
1. RF ID cards: This is an electronic card that stores a unique ID and
transmits it wirelessly when in range of reader.
2. RF ID reader: This is an electronic device which can retain the data
transmitted by the RF ID card
3. Current Sensor ( ACS-712): This sensor can sense the current across
the load on basis of which we can notify the consumption.

b) Processing Section:
1. Microcontroller: Programmed by the user to monitor the input and
generate proper output for the output unit. In general this is the
brain of the system.
c) Output Section:
1. 16x2 LCD: Used as display device for required data.
2. Relay Driver: IC ULN2803 will be used which can drive the relay
for switching as well as provide proper voltage and current.
3. Relay: Used as automatic switch for real time device control.

Working In brief:
The project is basically depends upon the energy units we use. In this project the power supply is
cut-off after a particular unit. The no. units can be recharged again with the help of a RF ID TAG
installed with meter. The system will provide power till the recharge amount is available. This is
prepaid recharge system.
Hardware Components:
Sensing unit for current ACS712 current sensor.
RF ID CARD AND READER
ATMEGA 328 microcontroller
Liquid Crystal Display
ULN2803 relay driver
Relay
Power supply block
ACS712 current Sensor: The AllegroACS712 provides
economical and precise solutions for AC or DC current
sensing in industrial, commercial, and communications
systems.

The

device

package

allows

for

easy

implementation by the customer. Typical applications


include motor control, load detection and management, switch mode
power supplies, and over current fault protection. The device is not
intended for automotive applications.

RFID cards:
Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is the use of a
wireless non-contact radio system to transfer data
from a tag attached to an object, for the purposes of
automatic identification and tracking. Some tags
require no battery and are powered by the radio
waves used to read them. Others use a local power
source. The tag contains electronically stored
information which can be read from up to several
meters (yards) away. Unlike a bar code, the tag

does not need to be within line of sight of the reader and may be embedded
in the tracked object.

RF ID READER: RFID (radio-frequency identification) is the wireless noncontact use of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields, for the purposes of
identifying and tracking tags attached to objects. This is the EM-18, a very
simple to use RFID reader module from ID Innovations. With a built in
antenna, the only holdup is the 2mm pin spacing. Power the module, hold up
a 125 kHz card, and get a serial string output containing the unique ID of the
card.
Features:

2.5 - 5V supply

125kHz read frequency

EM4001 64-bit RFID tag compatible

9600bps TTL and RS232 output

Magnetic stripe emulation output

120mm read range

ATMEGA 168/328:
The Atmel AVR core combines a rich instruction set
with 32 general purpose working registers. All the
32 registers are directly connected to the Arithmetic
Logic Unit (ALU), allowing two independent registers
to be accessed in one single instruction executed in
one clock cycle. The resulting architecture is more code efficient while
achieving throughputs up to ten times faster than conventional CISC
microcontrollers. The Atmega168 provides the following features: 16 Kbytes
of In-System Programmable Flash with Read-While-Write capabilities, 512
bytes of EEPROM, 1 Kbyte of SRAM, 23 general purpose I/O lines, 32 general
purpose working registers, three flexible Timer/Counters with compare
modes, internal and external interrupts, a serial programmable USART, a

byte oriented Two wire Serial Interface, a 6-channel ADC (eight channels in
TQFP and QFN/MLF packages) with 10-bit accuracy, a programmable
Watchdog Timer with Internal Oscillator, an SPI serial port, and five software
selectable power saving modes. The Idle mode stops the CPU while allowing
the SRAM; Timer/Counters, SPI port, and interrupt system to continue
functioning. The Power down mode saves the
register contents but freezes the Oscillator,
disabling all other chip functions until the next
Interrupt or Hardware Reset. In Power-save
mode, the asynchronous timer continues to
run, allowing the user to maintain a timer base
while the rest of the device is sleeping. The
ADC Noise Reduction mode stops the CPU and
all I/O modules except asynchronous timer and
ADC, to minimize switching noise during ADC
conversions.

In

Standby

mode,

the

crystal/resonator Oscillator is running while the


rest of the device is sleeping. This allows very
fast

start-up

combined

with

low-power

consumption.
Liquid Crystal Display: This is 16x2 B/W LCD for the display of the data.

Power Supply Block: The power supply consists of a step down


transformer 230/12V, which steps down the voltage to 12V AC. This is
converted to DC using a Bridge rectifier. The ripples are removed using a
capacitive filter and it is then regulated to +5V using a voltage regulator
7805 which is required for the operation of the microcontroller and other
components.

Relay Driver: ULN2803 is a current driver IC which drives


the relay. The eight NPN Darlington connected transistors in
this family of arrays are ideally suited for interfacing
between low logic level digital circuitry (such as TTL, CMOS
or PMOS/NMOS) and the higher current/voltage requirements
of lamps, relays, printer hammers or other similar loads for a
broad range of computer, industrial, and consumer
applications. All devices feature opencollector outputs and
freewheeling clamp diodes for transient Suppression. The
ULN2803 is designed to be compatible with standard TTL
families while the ULN2804 is optimized for 6 to 15 volt high
level CMOS or PMOS.
RELAY: A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an
electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism mechanically, but other
operating principles are also used. Relays are used where it is necessary to
control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical isolation
between control and controlled circuits), or where several circuits must be
controlled by one sign. Here, relay is used to switch on the devices.
SOFTWARE COMPONENT:
ARDUINO COMPILER:
The Arduino IDE is a cross-platform application written in Java, and is derived
from the IDE for the Processing programming
language and
the Wiring project.
It
is
designed to introduce programming to artists
and other newcomers unfamiliar with
software development. It includes a code
editor
with
features
such
as syntax
highlighting, brace matching, and automatic
indentation, and is also capable of compiling
and uploading programs to the board with a
single click. There is typically no need to
edit make
files or
run
programs
on
a command-line interface. Although building
on command-line is possible if required with
some third-party tools such as Ino.
The Arduino IDE comes with a C/C++ library called "Wiring" (from the project
of the same name), which makes many common input/output operations
much easier. Arduino programs are written in C/C++.

Applications and advantages:


Makes the system more secure
There will be no power theft.

Very much reliable


Easy to implement