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SamplingDistributions187

CHAPTER 7: SAMPLING AND SAMPLING DISTRIBUTIONS


1. Sampling distributions describe the distribution of
a) parameters.
b) statistics.
c) both parameters and statistics.
d) neither parameters nor statistics.
ANSWER:b TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: statistics, sampling distribution
2. The standard error of the mean
a) is never larger than the standard deviation of the population.
b) decreases as the sample size increases.
c) measures the variability of the mean from sample to sample.
d) All of the above.
ANSWER:dTYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: standard error, mean
3. The Central Limit Theorem is important in statistics because
a) for a large n, it says the population is approximately normal.
b) for any population, it says the sampling distribution of the sample mean is approximately normal, regardless of the
sample size.
c) for a large n, it says the sampling distribution of the sample mean is approximately normal, regardless of the shape of
the population.
d) for any sized sample, it says the sampling distribution of the sample mean is approximately normal.
ANSWER:c TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Difficult KEYWORDS: central limit theorem
4. If the expected value of a sample statistic is equal to the parameter it is estimating, then we call that sample statistic
a) unbiased.
b) minimum variance.
c) biased.
d) random.
ANSWER:a TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: unbiased
5. For air travelers, one of the biggest complaints is of the waiting time between when the airplane taxis away from the terminal
until the flight takes off. This waiting time is known to have a skewed-right distribution with a mean of 10 minutes and a
standard deviation of 8 minutes. Suppose 100 flights have been randomly sampled. Describe the sampling distribution of the
mean waiting time between when the airplane taxis away from the terminal until the flight takes off for these 100 flights.
a) Distribution is skewed-right with mean = 10 minutes and standard error = 0.8 minutes.
b) Distribution is skewed-right with mean = 10 minutes and standard error = 8 minutes.
c) Distribution is approximately normal with mean = 10 minutes and standard error = 0.8 minutes.
d) Distribution is approximately normal with mean = 10 minutes and standard error = 8 minutes.
ANSWER:c TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: central limit theorem
6. Which of the following statements about the sampling distribution of the sample mean is incorrect?
a) The sampling distribution of the sample mean is approximately normal whenever the sample size is sufficiently large (
n 30 ).
b) The sampling distribution of the sample mean is generated by repeatedly taking samples of size n and computing the
sample means.
c) The mean of the sampling distribution of the sample mean is equal to .
d) The standard deviation of the sampling distribution of the sample mean is equal to .
ANSWER:d TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, properties

7. Which of the following is true about the sampling distribution of the sample mean?
a) The mean of the sampling distribution is always .
b) The standard deviation of the sampling distribution is always .
c) The shape of the sampling distribution is always approximately normal.
d) All of the above are true.
ANSWER: a TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, properties

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8. Suppose the ages of students in Statistics 101 follow a skewed-right distribution with a mean of 23 years and a standard
deviation of 3 years. If we randomly sampled 100 students, which of the following statements about the sampling distribution of
the sample mean age is incorrect?
a) The mean of the sampling distribution is equal to 23 years.
b) The standard deviation of the sampling distribution is equal to 3 years.
c) The shape of the sampling distribution is approximately normal.
d) The standard error of the sampling distribution is equal to 0.3 years.
ANSWER:b TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, central limit theorem
9. Why is the Central Limit Theorem so important to the study of sampling distributions?
a) It allows us to disregard the size of the sample selected when the population is not normal.
b) It allows us to disregard the shape of the sampling distribution when the size of the population is large.
c) It allows us to disregard the size of the population we are sampling from.
d) It allows us to disregard the shape of the population when n is large.
ANSWER:d TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: central limit theorem
10. A sample that does not provide a good representation of the population from which it was collected is referred to as a(n)
sample.
ANSWER: biased TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: unbiased
11. Suppose a sample of n = 50 items is drawn from a population of manufactured products and the weight, X, of each item is
recorded. Prior experience has shown that the weight has a probability distribution with = 6 ounces and
= 2.5 ounces.
Which of the following is true about the sampling distribution of the sample mean if a sample of size 15 is selected?
a) The mean of the sampling distribution is 6 ounces.
b) The standard deviation of the sampling distribution is 2.5 ounces.
c) The shape of the sample distribution is approximately normal.
d) All of the above are correct.
ANSWER:a TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, unbiased

12. The average score of all pro golfers for a particular course has a mean of 70 and a standard deviation of 3.0. Suppose 36 golfers
played the course today. Find the probability that the average score of the 36 golfers exceeded 71.
ANSWER: 0.0228
TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, probability, central limit theorem
13. The distribution of the number of loaves of bread sold per day by a large bakery over the past 5 years has a mean of 7,750 and a
standard deviation of 145 loaves. Suppose a random sample of n = 40 days has been selected. What is the approximate
probability that the average number of loaves sold in the sampled days exceeds 7,895 loaves?
ANSWER: Approximately 0
TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, probability, central limit theorem
14. Sales prices of baseball cards from the 1960s are known to possess a skewed-right distribution with a mean sale price of $5.25
and a standard deviation of $2.80. Suppose a random sample of 100 cards from the 1960s is selected. Describe the sampling
distribution for the sample mean sale price of the selected cards.
a) skewed-right with a mean of $5.25 and a standard error of $2.80
b) normal with a mean of $5.25 and a standard error of $0.28
c) skewed-right with a mean of $5.25 and a standard error of $0.28
d) normal with a mean of $5.25 and a standard error of $2.80
ANSWER:b TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, central limit theorem
15. Major league baseball salaries averaged $1.5 million with a standard deviation of $0.8 million in 1994. Suppose a sample of
100 major league players was taken. Find the approximate probability that the average salary of the 100 players exceeded $1
million.
a) approximately 0
b) 0.2357
c) 0.7357
d) approximately 1
ANSWER:d TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, probability, central limit theorem

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16. At a computer manufacturing company, the actual size of computer chips is normally distributed with a mean of 1 centimeter and
a standard deviation of 0.1 centimeter. A random sample of 12 computer chips is taken. What is the standard error for the sample
mean?
a) 0.029
b) 0.050
c) 0.091
d) 0.120
ANSWER: a TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: standard error, mean
17. At a computer manufacturing company, the actual size of computer chips is normally distributed with a mean of 1 centimeter and
a standard deviation of 0.1 centimeter. A random sample of 12 computer chips is taken. What is the probability that the sample
mean will be between 0.99 and 1.01 centimeters?
ANSWER: 0.2710 using Excel or 0.2736 using Table E.2
TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, probability
18. At a computer manufacturing company, the actual size of computer chips is normally distributed with a mean of 1 centimeter and
a standard deviation of 0.1 centimeter. A random sample of 12 computer chips is taken. What is the probability that the sample
mean will be below 0.95 centimeters?
ANSWER:0.0416 using Excel or 0.0418 using Table E.2
TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, probability
19. At a computer manufacturing company, the actual size of computer chips is normally distributed with a mean of 1 centimeter and
a standard deviation of 0.1 centimeter. A random sample of 12 computer chips is taken. Above what value do 2.5% of the sample
means fall?
ANSWER:1.057 TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Difficult KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, value
20. The owner of a fish market has an assistant who has determined that the weights of catfish are normally distributed, with mean
of 3.2 pounds and standard deviation of 0.8 pound. If a sample of 16 fish is taken, what would the standard error of the mean
weight equal?
a) 0.003
b) 0.050
c) 0.200
d) 0.800
ANSWER:c TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: standard error, mean
21. The owner of a fish market has an assistant who has determined that the weights of catfish are normally distributed, with mean
of 3.2 pounds and standard deviation of 0.8 pound. If a sample of 25 fish yields a mean of 3.6 pounds, what is the Z-score for
this observation?
a) 18.750
b) 2.500
c) 1.875
d) 0.750
ANSWER:b TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean
22. The owner of a fish market has an assistant who has determined that the weights of catfish are normally distributed, with mean
of 3.2 pounds and standard deviation of 0.8 pound. If a sample of 64 fish yields a mean of 3.4 pounds, what is probability of
obtaining a sample mean this large or larger?
a) 0.0001
b) 0.0013
c) 0.0228
d) 0.4987
ANSWER: c TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, probability
23. The owner of a fish market has an assistant who has determined that the weights of catfish are normally distributed, with mean
of 3.2 pounds and standard deviation of 0.8 pound. What percentage of samples of 4 fish will have sample means between 3.0
and 4.0 pounds?
a) 84%
b) 67%
c) 29%
d) 16%
ANSWER: b TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, probability

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24. The use of the finite population correction factor when sampling without replacement from finite populations will
a) increase the standard error of the mean.
b) not affect the standard error of the mean.
c) reduce the standard error of the mean.
d) only affect the proportion, not the mean.
ANSWER: c TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: finite population correction
25. For sample size 16, the sampling distribution of the mean will be approximately normally distributed
a) regardless of the shape of the population.
b) if the shape of the population is symmetrical.
c) if the sample standard deviation is known.
d) if the sample is normally distributed.
ANSWER: b TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, central limit theorem
26. The standard error of the mean for a sample of 100 is 30. In order to cut the standard error of the mean to 15, we would
a) increase the sample size to 200.
b) increase the sample size to 400.
c) decrease the sample size to 50.
d) decrease the sample to 25.
ANSWER: b TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: standard error, mean
27. Which of the following is true regarding the sampling distribution of the mean for a large sample size?
a) It has the same shape, mean, and standard deviation as the population.
b) It has a normal distribution with the same mean and standard deviation as the population.
c) It has the same shape and mean as the population, but has a smaller standard deviation.
d) It has a normal distribution with the same mean as the population but with a smaller standard deviation.
ANSWER: d TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, central limit theorem
28. For sample sizes greater than 30, the sampling distribution of the mean will be approximately normally distributed
a) regardless of the shape of the population.
b) only if the shape of the population is symmetrical.
c) only if the standard deviation of the samples are known.
d) only if the population is normally distributed.
ANSWER:a TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, central limit theorem
29. For sample size 1, the sampling distribution of the mean will be normally distributed
a) regardless of the shape of the population.
b) only if the shape of the population is symmetrical.
c) only if the population values are positive.
d) only if the population is normally distributed.
ANSWER:d TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, central limit theorem
30. The standard error of the population proportion will become larger
a) as population proportion approaches 0.
b) as population proportion approaches 0.50.
c) as population proportion approaches 1.00.
d) as the sample size increases.
ANSWER:b TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: standard error, proportion

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31. The amount of pyridoxine (in grams) per multiple vitamin is normally distributed with = 110 grams and = 25 grams. A
sample of 25 vitamins is to be selected. What is the probability that the sample mean will be between 100 and 120 grams?
ANSWER: 0.9545 using Excel or 0.9544 using Table E.2
TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, probability
32. The amount of pyridoxine (in grams) per multiple vitamin is normally distributed with = 110 grams and = 25 grams. A
sample of 25 vitamins is to be selected. What is the probability that the sample mean will be less than 100 grams?
ANSWER:0.0228 TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, probability
33. The amount of pyridoxine (in grams) per multiple vitamin is normally distributed with = 110 grams and = 25 grams. A
sample of 25 vitamins is to be selected. What is the probability that the sample mean will be greater than 100 grams?
ANSWER:0.9772 TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, probability
34. The amount of pyridoxine (in grams) per multiple vitamin is normally distributed with = 110 grams and = 25 grams. A
sample of 25 vitamins is to be selected. So, 95% of all sample means will be greater than how many grams?
ANSWER: 101.7757 TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Difficult KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, value
35. The amount of pyridoxine (in grams) per multiple vitamin is normally distributed with = 110 grams and = 25 grams. A
sample of 25 vitamins is to be selected. So, the middle 70% of all sample means will fall between what two values?
ANSWER: 104.8 and 115.2 TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Difficult KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, value
36. The amount of time required for an oil and filter change on an automobile is normally distributed with a mean of 45 minutes and
a standard deviation of 10 minutes. A random sample of 16 cars is selected. What would you expect the standard error of the
mean to be?
ANSWER:2.5 minutes TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: standard error, mean
37. The amount of time required for an oil and filter change on an automobile is normally distributed with a mean of 45 minutes and
a standard deviation of 10 minutes. A random sample of 16 cars is selected. What is the probability that the sample mean is
between 45 and 52 minutes?
ANSWER: 0.4974 TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, probability
38. The amount of time required for an oil and filter change on an automobile is normally distributed with a mean of 45 minutes and
a standard deviation of 10 minutes. A random sample of 16 cars is selected. What is the probability that the sample mean will be
between 39 and 48 minutes?
ANSWER: 0.8767 TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, probability
39. The amount of time required for an oil and filter change on an automobile is normally distributed with a mean of 45 minutes and
a standard deviation of 10 minutes. A random sample of 16 cars is selected. So, 95% of all sample means will fall between what
two values?
ANSWER: 40.1 and 49.9 minutes TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Difficult KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, probability
40. The amount of time required for an oil and filter change on an automobile is normally distributed with a mean of 45 minutes and
a standard deviation of 10 minutes. A random sample of 16 cars is selected. So, 90% of the sample means will be greater than
what value?
ANSWER: 41.8 minutes TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Difficult KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, probability
41. The amount of bleach a machine pours into bottles has a mean of 36 oz. with a standard deviation of 0.15 oz. Suppose we take a
random sample of 36 bottles filled by this machine. The probability that the mean of the sample exceeds 36.01 oz. is
__________.
ANSWER: 0.3446 TYPE: FI
DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, probability, central limit theorem
42. The amount of bleach a machine pours into bottles has a mean of 36 oz. with a standard deviation of 0.15 oz. Suppose we take a
random sample of 36 bottles filled by this machine. The probability that the mean of the sample is less than 36.03 is
__________
ANSWER: 0.8849
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, probability, central limit theorem

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43. The amount of bleach a machine pours into bottles has a mean of 36 oz. with a standard deviation of 0.15 oz. Suppose we take a
random sample of 36 bottles filled by this machine. The probability that the mean of the sample is between 35.94 and 36.06 oz.
is __________.
ANSWER: 0.9836
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, probability, central limit theorem
44. The amount of bleach a machine pours into bottles has a mean of 36 oz. with a standard deviation of 0.15 oz. Suppose we take a
random sample of 36 bottles filled by this machine. The probability that the mean of the sample is between 35.95 and 35.98 oz.
is __________.
ANSWER: 0.1891
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, probability, central limit theorem
45. The amount of bleach a machine pours into bottles has a mean of 36 oz. with a standard deviation of 0.15 oz. Suppose we take a
random sample of 36 bottles filled by this machine. So, 95% of the sample means based on samples of size 36 will be between
__________ and __________.
ANSWER: 35.951 and 36.049 ounces
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Difficult KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, value, central limit theorem
46. A manufacturer of power tools claims that the average amount of time required to assemble their top-of-the-line table saw is 80
minutes with a standard deviation of 40 minutes. Suppose a random sample of 64 purchasers of this table saw is taken. The mean
of the sampling distribution of the sample mean is __________ minutes.
ANSWER:80 TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, unbiased
47. A manufacturer of power tools claims that the average amount of time required to assemble their top-of-the-line table saw is 80
minutes with a standard deviation of 40 minutes. Suppose a random sample of 64 purchasers of this table saw is taken. The
standard deviation of the sampling distribution of the sample mean is __________ minutes.
ANSWER: 5 TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, standard error
48. A manufacturer of power tools claims that the average amount of time required to assemble their top-of-the-line table saw is 80
minutes with a standard deviation of 40 minutes. Suppose a random sample of 64 purchasers of this table saw is taken. The
probability that the sample mean will be less than 82 minutes is __________.
ANSWER: 0.6554
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, probability, central limit theorem
49. A manufacturer of power tools claims that the average amount of time required to assemble their top-of-the-line table saw is 80
minutes with a standard deviation of 40 minutes. Suppose a random sample of 64 purchasers of this table saw is taken. The
probability that the sample mean will be between 77 and 89 minutes is __________.
ANSWER: 0.6898
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, probability, central limit theorem
50. A manufacturer of power tools claims that the average amount of time required to assemble their top-of-the-line table saw is 80
minutes with a standard deviation of 40 minutes. Suppose a random sample of 64 purchasers of this table saw is taken. The
probability that the sample mean will be greater than 88 minutes is __________.
ANSWER:0.0548
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, probability, central limit theorem
51. A manufacturer of power tools claims that the average amount of time required to assemble their top-of-the-line table saw is 80
minutes with a standard deviation of 40 minutes. Suppose a random sample of 64 purchasers of this table saw is taken. So, 95%
of the sample means based on samples of size 64 will be between __________ and __________.
ANSWER: 70.2 and 89.8 minutes
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Difficult KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, value, central limit theorem
52. To use the normal distribution to approximate the binomial distribution, we need ______ and ______ to be at least 5.
ANSWER: np and n(1-p)
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, proportion, central limit theorem
53. Assume that house prices in a neighborhood are normally distributed with standard deviation $20,000. A random sample of 16
observations is taken. What is the probability that the sample mean differs from the population mean by more than $5,000?
ANSWER: 0.3173 using Excel or 0.3174 using Table E.2
TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, probability

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TABLE 7-1
Times spent studying by students in the week before final exams follow a normal distribution with standard deviation 8 hours. A
random sample of 4 students was taken in order to estimate the mean study time for the population of all students.
54. Referring to Table 7-1, what is the probability that the sample mean exceeds the population mean by more than 2 hours?
ANSWER: 0.3085TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, probability
55. Referring to Table 7-1, what is the probability that the sample mean is more than 3 hours below the population mean?
ANSWER: 0.2266
TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, probability
56. Referring to Table 7-1, what is the probability that the sample mean differs from the population mean by less than 2 hours?
ANSWER: 0.3829 using Excel or 0.3830 using Table E.2
TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, probability
57. Referring to Table 7-1, what is the probability that the sample mean differs from the population mean by more than 3 hours?
ANSWER: 0.4533 using Excel or 0.4532 using Table E.2
TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, probability

TABLE 7-2
The mean selling price of new homes in a city over a year was $115,000. The population standard deviation was $25,000. A
random sample of 100 new home sales from this city was taken.
58. Referring to Table 7-2, what is the probability that the sample mean selling price was more than $110,000?
ANSWER: 0.9772 TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, probability, central limit theorem
59. Referring to Table 7-2, what is the probability that the sample mean selling price was between $113,000 and $117,000?
ANSWER: 0.5763 using Excel or 0.5762 using Table E.2
TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, probability, central limit theorem
60. Referring to Table 7-2, what is the probability that the sample mean selling price was between $114,000 and $116,000?
ANSWER: 0.3108 TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, probability, central limit theorem
61. Referring to Table 7-2, without doing the calculations, state in which of the following ranges the sample mean selling price is
most likely to lie?
a) $113,000 -- $115,000
b) $114,000 -- $116,000
c) $115,000 -- $117,000
d) $116,000 -- $118,000
ANSWER: b TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, probability, central limit theorem

TABLE 7-3
The lifetimes of a certain brand of light bulbs are known to be normally distributed with a mean of 1,600 hours and a standard
deviation of 400 hours. A random sample of 64 of these light bulbs is taken.
62. Referring to Table 7-3, what is the probability that the sample mean lifetime is more than 1,550 hours?
ANSWER: 0.8413 TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, probability
63. Referring to Table 7-3, the probability is 0.15 that the sample mean lifetime is more than how many hours?
ANSWER: 1,651.82 hours using Excel or 1,652 hours using Table E.2
TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, probability
64. Referring to Table 7-3, the probability is 0.20 that the sample mean lifetime differs from the population mean lifetime by at least
how many hours?
ANSWER: 64.08 hours using Excel or 64 hours using Table E.2
TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Difficult KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, mean, value

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TABLE 7-4
According to a survey, only 15% of customers who visited the web site of a major retail store made a purchase. Random samples of
size 50 are selected.
65. Referring to Table 7-4, the average of all the sample proportions of customers who will make a purchase after visiting the web
site is _______.
ANSWER: 0.15 or 15% TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, proportion, mean
66. Referring to Table 7-4, the standard deviation of all the sample proportions of customers who will make a purchase after visiting
the web site is ________.
ANSWER: 0.05050 TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, proportion, standard error
67. Referring to Table 7-4, what proportion of the samples will have between 20% and 30% of customers who will make a purchase
after visiting the web site?
ANSWER: 0.1596 TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, proportion, probability
68. Referring to Table 7-4, what proportion of the samples will have less than 15% of customers who will make a purchase after
visiting the web site?
ANSWER: 0.5 TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, proportion, probability
69. Referring to Table 7-4, what is the probability that a random sample of 50 will have at least 30% of customers who will make a
purchase after visiting the web site?
ANSWER: 0.0015 TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, proportion, probability
70. Referring to Table 7-4, 90% of the samples will have less than what percentage of customers who will make a purchase after
visiting the web site?
ANSWER: 21.47% TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Difficult KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, proportion, value
71. Referring to Table 7-4, 90% of the samples will have more than what percentage of customers who will make a purchase after
visiting the web site?
ANSWER: 8.528% using Excel or 8.536 using Table E.2
TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Difficult KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, proportion, value

72. A study at a college in the west coast reveals that, historically, 45% of their students are minority students. The expected
percentage of minority students in their next batch of freshmen is _______.
ANSWER: 45% TYPE: FI DIFFCULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, proportion, mean
73. A study at a college in the west coast reveals that, historically, 45% of their students are minority students. If random samples of
size 75 are selected, the standard error of the proportions of students in the samples who are minority students is _________.
ANSWER: 0.05745 TYPE: FI DIFFCULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, proportion, standard error
74. A study at a college in the west coast reveals that, historically, 45% of their students are minority students. If a random sample
of size 75 is selected, the probability is _______ that between 30% and 50% of the students in the sample will be minority
students.
ANSWER: 0.8034 using Excel or 0.8033 using Table E.2
TYPE: FI DIFFCULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, proportion, probability
75. A study at a college in the west coast reveals that, historically, 45% of their students are minority students. If a random sample
of size 75 is selected, the probability is _______ that more than half of the students in the sample will be minority students.
ANSWER: 0.1920 using Excel or 0.1922 using Table E.2
TYPE: FI DIFFCULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, proportion, probability
76. A study at a college in the west coast reveals that, historically, 45% of their students are minority students. If random samples of
size 75 are selected, 80% of the samples will have less than ______% of minority students.
ANSWER: 49.83 TYPE: FI DIFFCULTY: Difficult KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, proportion, value
77. A study at a college in the west coast reveals that, historically, 45% of their students are minority students. If random samples of
size 75 are selected, 95% of the samples will have more than ______% of minority students.
ANSWER: 35.55 TYPE: FI DIFFCULTY: Difficult KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, proportion, value
78. Which of the following is NOT a reason for the need for sampling?
a) It is usually too costly to study the whole population.

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b) It is usually too time consuming to look at the whole population.
c) It is sometimes destructive to observe the entire population.
d) It is always more informative by investigating a sample than the entire population.
ANSWER: d TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: reasons for sampling
79. Which of the following is NOT a reason for drawing a sample?
a) A sample is less time consuming than a census.
b) A sample is less costly to administer than a census.
c) A sample is usually not a good representation of the target population.
d) A sample is less cumbersome and more practical to administer.
ANSWER: c TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: reasons for sampling
80. Which of the following sampling methods is a probability sample?
a) Chunk
b) Quota sample
c) Stratified sample
d) Judgment sample
ANSWER: c TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: probability sample
81. A sample of 300 subscribers to a particular magazine is selected from a population frame of 9,000 subscribers. If, upon
examining the data, it is determined that no subscriber had been selected in the sample more than once,
a) the sample could not have been random.
b) the sample may have been selected without replacement or with replacement.
c) the sample had to have been selected with replacement.
d) the sample had to have been selected without replacement.
ANSWER: b TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: sampling method
82. For a population frame containing N = 1,007 individuals, what code number should you assign to the first person on the list in
order to use a table of random numbers?
a) 0
b) 1
c) 01
d) 0001
ANSWER: d TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: random number
83. Which of the following types of samples can you use if you want to make valid statistical inferences from a sample to a
population?
a) A judgment sample
b) A quota sample
c) A chunk
d) A probability sample
ANSWER: d TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: probability sample, sampling method
84. The evening host of a dinner dance reached into a bowl, mixed all the tickets around, and selected the ticket to award the grand
door prize. What sampling method was used?
a) Simple random sample
b) Systematic sample
c) Stratified sample
d) Cluster sample
ANSWER: a TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: simple random sample, probability sample, sampling method
85. The Dean of Students mailed a survey to a total of 400 students. The sample included 100 students randomly selected from each
of the freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior classes on campus last term. What sampling method was used?
a) Simple random sample
b) Systematic sample
c) Stratified sample
d) Cluster sample
ANSWER: c TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: stratified sample, probability sample, sampling method

86. A telemarketer set the companys computerized dialing system to contact every 25th person listed in the local telephone
directory. What sampling method was used?
a) Simple random sample

196SamplingDistributions
b) Systematic sample
c) Stratified sample
d) Cluster sample
ANSWER: b TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: systematic sample, probability sample, sampling method
87. Since a _______ is not a randomly selected probability sample, there is no way to know how well it represents the overall
population.
a) Simple random sample
b) Quota sample
c) Stratified sample
d) Cluster sample
ANSWER: b TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: quota sample, nonprobability sample, sampling method
88. A population frame for a survey contains a listing of 72,345 names. Using a table of random numbers, how many digits will the
code numbers for each member of your population contain?
a) 3
b) 4
c) 5
d) 6
ANSWER: c TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: random number
89. A population frame for a survey contains a listing of 6,179 names. Using a table of random numbers, which of the following
code numbers will appear on your list?
a) 06
b) 0694
c) 6946
d) 61790
ANSWER: b TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: random number
90. Which of the following can be reduced by proper interviewer training?
a) Sampling error
b) Measurement error
c) Both of the above
d) None of the above
ANSWER: b TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Difficult KEYWORDS: measurement error, survey worthiness

TABLE 7-5

SamplingDistributions197
The manager of the customer service division of a major consumer electronics company is interested in determining whether the
customers who have purchased a videocassette recorder made by the company over the past 12 months are satisfied with their
products.
91. Referring to Table 7-5, the manager decides to ask a sample of customers, who have bought a videocassette recorder made by
the company and filed a complaint over the past year, to fill in a survey about whether they are satisfied with the product. This
method will most likely suffer from
a) non-response error.
b) measurement error.
c) coverage error.
d) non-probability sampling.
ANSWER: c TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Difficult KEYWORDS: coverage error, survey worthiness
92. Referring to Table 7-5, if there are 4 different brands of videocassette recorders made by the company, the best sampling strategy
would be to use a
a) a simple random sample.
b) a stratified sample.
c) a cluster sample.
d) a systematic sample.
ANSWER: b TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Difficult KEYWORDS: stratified sample, probability sample, sampling method
93. Referring to Table 7-5, which of the following questions in the survey will NOT likely induce a measurement error?
a) How many times have you illegally copied copyrighted sporting events?
b) What is your exact annual income?
c) How many times have you brought the videocassette recorder back for service?
d) How many times have you failed to set the time on the videocassette recorder?
ANSWER: c TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Difficult KEYWORDS: measurement error, survey worthiness
94. Referring to Table 7-5, if a customer survey questionnaire is included in all the videocassette recorders made and sold by the
company over the past 12 months, this method of collecting data will most like suffer from
a) nonresponse error.
b) measurement error.
c) coverage error.
d) nonprobability sampling.
ANSWER: a TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Difficult KEYWORDS: nonresponse error, survey worthiness

95. ________ results from the exclusion of certain groups of subjects from a population frame.
ANSWER: Coverage error TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Difficult KEYWORDS: coverage error, survey worthiness
96. Coverage error results in a ________
ANSWER: selection bias TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Difficult KEYWORDS: selection bias, survey worthiness
97. ________ results from the failure to collect data on all subjects in the sample.
ANSWER: Nonresponse error or bias TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: nonresponse error, survey worthiness
98. The sampling process begins by locating appropriate data sources called ___________.
ANSWER: frames TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: frames, sampling method
99. Which of the following sampling methods will more likely be susceptible to ethical violation?
a) Simple random sample
b) Cluster sample
c) Convenience sample
d) Stratified sample
ANSWER: c TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: ethical issues, sampling method

TABLE 7-6

198SamplingDistributions
According to an article, 19% of the entire U.S. population have high-speed access to the Internet. Random samples of size 200 are
selected from the U.S. population.
100. Referring to Table 7-6, the population mean of all the sample proportions is ______.
ANSWER: 19% or 0.19
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: mean, sampling distribution, proportion, central limit theorem
101. Referring to Table 7-6, the standard error of all the sample proportions is ______.
ANSWER: 0.0277
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: standard error, sampling distribution, proportion, central limit theorem
102. Referring to Table 7-6, among all the random samples of size 200, ______ % will have between 14% and 24% who have
high-speed access to the Internet.
ANSWER:92.85 using Excel or 92.82 using Table E.2
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, proportion, central limit theorem
103. Referring to Table 7-6, among all the random samples of size 200, ______ % will have between 9% and 29% who have highspeed access to the Internet.
ANSWER: 99.97 TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, proportion, central limit theorem
104. Referring to Table 7-6, among all the random samples of size 200, ______ % will have more than 30% who have high-speed
access to the Internet.
ANSWER: 0.0000 or virtually zero
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, proportion, central limit theorem
105. Referring to Table 7-6, among all the random samples of size 200, ______ % will have less than 20% who have high-speed
access to the Internet.
ANSWER: 64.08 using Excel or 64.06 using Table E.2
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, proportion, central limit theorem
106. Referring to Table 7-6, among all the random samples of size 200, 90 % will have less than _____% who have high-speed
access to the Internet.
ANSWER: 22.56 using Excel or 22.55 using Table E.2
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, proportion, central limit theorem
107. Referring to Table 7-6, among all the random samples of size 200, 90 % will have more than _____% who have high-speed
access to the Internet.
ANSWER: 15.45
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, proportion, central limit theorem

TABLE 7-7

SamplingDistributions199
Online customer service is a key element to successful online retailing. According to a marketing survey, 37.5% of online customers
take advantage of the online customer service. Random samples of 200 customers are selected.
108. Referring to Table 7-7, the population mean of all possible sample proportions is ______.
ANSWER: 0.375 or 37.5%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: mean, sampling distribution, proportion, central limit theorem
109. Referring to Table 7-7, the standard error of all possible sample proportions is ______.
ANSWER: 0.0342
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: standard error, sampling distribution, proportion, central limit theorem
110. Referring to Table 7-7, ____ % of the samples are likely to have between 35% and 40% who take advantage of online
customer service.
ANSWER: 53.48 using Excel or 53.46 using Table E.2
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, proportion, central limit theorem
111.Referring to Table 7-7, ____ % of the samples are likely to have less than 37.5% who take advantage of online customer
service.
ANSWER: 50 TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, proportion, central limit theorem
112. Referring to Table 7-7, 90% of the samples proportions symmetrically around the population proportion will have between
_____% and _____% of the customers who take advantage of online customer service.
ANSWER: 31.87 and 43.13
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, proportion, central limit theorem
113. Referring to Table 7-7, 95% of the samples proportions symmetrically around the population proportion will have between
_____% and _____% of the customers who take advantage of online customer service.
ANSWER: 30.79 and 44.21
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate KEYWORDS: sampling distribution, proportion, central limit theorem