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Week 2: Introduction to Nanotechnology, Part 2

2.1
Welcome to class number 2 session number 1. In this class we will see how scientists see what's going on in the very
small world of nanotechnology. The microscopes that are typically used in high schools or colleges will not do the job.
Therefore, nanoscientists use high powered microscopes that use unique methods to allow them to see the surface
features on the atomic scale. This way the scientists effectively open the door to the modern nanotechnology. The
first tool we will learn about in this session is called atomic force microscopy, or abbreviated as AFM. Or scanning
force microscopy, which abbreviated as SFM, which are basically very high resolution type of scanning prop
microscopy. This type of microscopy demonstrates a resolution on the order of fractions of a nanometer more than
1000 times better than the optical defraction limit. The information in the AFM is gathered by feeling the surface with
mechanical probe. In this context, the piezoelectric elements that facilitate accurate and precise tiny movements
enable the very precise scanning on the surface. In some variations, electric potentials can also be scanned using
conducting cantilevers. The AFM consists of a cantilever with a sharp tip or probe at the end that is used to scan the
specimen surface. The cantilever is typically silicone or silicone nitride with a tip radius of curvature on the order of a
few nanometers only. When the tip is brought into proximity of a sample surface, forces between the tip and the
sample lead to a deflection of the cantilever according to the Hooke's law. Depending on the situation, forces that are
measured in AFM include mechanical contact force, Van der Waals forces, capillary forces, chemical bonding,
electrostatic forces, magnetic forces, solvation forces, etcetera, etcetera. Along with force, additional quantities may
simultaneously be measured throughout the use of specialized types of props. Typically, the deflection is measured
using a laser spot reflected from the top surface of the cantilever into an array of photodiodes. Usually, the sample is
mounted on a piezoelectric tube that can move the sample any z direction for maintaining a constant force. On the
other hand, the x and the y directions are used for scanning the sample. In alternative molds, a tripod configuration
of these three piezo electric crystals may be employed with each responsible for scanning in the x, y, and z direction.
In newer designs, the tip is mounted on vertical piezo scanner while the sample is being scanned in x and y using
another piezo a block. The resulting map that represents the topography of the sample can be then achieved.
Advanced AFM tools can reach lateral resolution of 0.1 nanometer. And a vertical resolution of 0.02 nanometers,
more or less. The AFM tool can be operated in a number of modes, depending on the application. In general, possible
imaging modes are divided into static also called contact modes. And a variety of dynamic modes, usually called
non-contact or trapping modes. And in these cases, the cantilever is not in contact with the device, but rather is
vibrated as we will explain later on. In the static mode operation, the static tip deflection is used as a feedback
signal. Because the measurement of the static signal is prone to noise and rift, low stiffness cantilevers are used to
boost the deflection signal. However, close to the surface of the sample, attractive forces can be quite strong
causing the tip to snap in to the surface. Thus static mode AFM is almost always done in contact where the overall
force is repulsive. Consequently, the technique is typically called contact mode. In the contact mode the force

between the tip and the surface is kept constant during the scanning by manipulating a constant deflection. Of
course, for every technique has its own pros and cons. Right now we will show what are the advantages and the
disadvantages of this approach in the AFM. Amongst there is of the advantages of this approach, namely the contact
mode, we shall mention the fast scanning. Good for rough samples, and the ability to use this approach for friction
analysis. On the other hand, the disadvantage, the disadvantages include the fact that the forces can damage or
deform soft samples, and therefore they cannot usually utilized for these samples in most cases. The second mode is
called the non-contact mode. In the non-contact mode of the AFM, the tip of the cantilever does not contact the
sample surface. The cantilever is in a state isolated at either It's resonant freq, frequency. Or just above the
frequency where the amplitude of the oscillation is typically a few nano meters, usually less than ten nano meters,
and down to few pico meters. The Van der waals forces which are strongest from one nanometer to 10 nanometers
above the surface, or any other long range forces, which extend above the surface acts to decrease the resonance
frequency of the cantilever. This degrees in resonance frequency, combined with the feedback loop system maintains
a constant oscillation amplitude, or frequency by adjusting the average tip to the surface distance. Measuring the tip
to sample distance, at each X and Y coordination, won't allow the scanning software could to conduct the
topographic image of this sample surface. One of the main advantages of the nano-contact mode is that it exerts
very low force on the sample. This makes the nano contact mode AFM preferrable for measuring soft materials such
as biology sample or organic thin films. Another advantage of the non-contact mode AFM is the extended prop
lifetime. Indeed, non-contact mode AFM does not suffer from tip or sample degradation effects that are sometimes
observed after taking numerous scans with contact FM. [BLANK_AUDIO] On the other hand non-contact mode have
also some disadvantages. A main disadvantage of the non-contact mode is generally lower resolution. If you more or
less absolve fluid, a light on the surface of a rigid sample, the images might look quite different. However, in the
case of rigid samples contact and non-contact images may look the same. Additional disadvantage is that
contaminant layer on the surface can interfere with oscillation and that based imaging with non-contact mode
usually need ultra high vacuum or UHV conditions. Intermediate mode between the contact and non contact AFM is
called tapping mode. In this mode of operation, the cantilever is oscillated at the resonant frequency. The prop lightly
taps on the sample surface during scanning, contacting the surface at the bottom of its swing. By maintaining
constant oscillation amplitude, a constant tip sample interaction is maintained and an image of the surface is usually
obtained. The advantages of this approach that it allows high resolution of samples that are easily damaged, or
loosely held to the surface. And of course this approach is quite good for good and biological samples. This
advantages include that this technique is more challenging to obtain an image in liquids, and of course make the
speed of imaging a little bit slower. Following a video that demonstrate the AFM operation along with animated
presentation. >> The microscope's cantilever is activated to vibrate at resonance. As it is lowered, attractive forces
It's between the tip and the sample cantilever vibration. The cantilever returns to it's unperturbed vibration when
withdrawn from the sample. The set point for the cantilever vibration determines the distance between the tip and
the sample for imaging. Two, scanning principle. If the tip is scanned across the sample the tip height is adjusted by
feedback to keep the cantilever vibration at set point. And the distance between the tip and the sound constant.
Three, scanning the sample. As the tip is rest or scanned across the sample, the tip height is adjusted to keep the
cantilever vibration at the set point. And so the tip follows the topography of the sample. The height of the tip is
recorded along with the coordinates of its point and scan. [BLANK_AUDIO] The resulting map of tip position can then

be processed to render an image of the sample topography at nanometer resolution [BLANK_AUDIO] >> One
example of the AFM image for nanoscale materials could be seen in the up left image, for a copper wire that had a Y
shape. A round shape and a line diameter of eight nanometers can be easily observed in this image. Another
example is the AFM image of Germanium network on Silicon substrate. As seen in the image, the size of the islands
as well as the separation between the adjacent islands is clearly observed indicating the high resolution of the AFM.
We will move now to the scanning electron microscope. The Scanning electron microscope which abbreviated also as
SEM uses a focused beam of high energy electrons to generate A variety of signals at the surface of the solid
specimens. The signals that derive from electron sample interactions reveal information about the sample including
external morphology, chemical composition, and a crystalline structure and orientation of the material making up the
sample. In most applications, data are controlled over a selected area of the surface of the sample. And a twodimensional image is generated that displays special variations in these properties. In a typical SEM, an electron
beam is thermionically emitted from an electron gun, such as Tungsten filament Gethyl. The electron beam, which
typically has an energy ranging from 0.2 kilo electron volt to 40 kilo electron volt, is focused by one or two condenser
lenses to spot about 0.4 nanometer to 5 nanometer in diameter. The beam passes throughout pairs of scanning
coals, or pairs of deflector ple plates in the electron columns. Typically in the final lens, which deflects the beam in
the X and Y axis so, so that it scans in raster fashion of a rectangular area of this sample surface. When the primary
electron beam interacts with the sample, the electrons lose energy by repeated random scattering and absorption
within the teardrop-shaped volume of the specimen known as the interaction volume. Which extends usually from
less than 100 nanometer to around 5 nano, 5 eh, 5000 nanometers into the surface. The size of the interaction
volume depends on the electrons' landing energy. The atomic number of the specimen, and the specimen's density
of course. The energy exchange between the electro beam and the sample results in the deflection and reflection of
the high energy electrons by elastic scattering emission of significant electrons by elastic scattering. And the
emission of electromagnetic radiation, each of which can be detected by the specialized detector. The beam current
absorbed by the specimen can also be detected and used to create images of the distribution of specimen current.
Electronic amplifiers of various types are used to amplify the signals which are displayed as variations in brightness
on a computer monitor. And each pixel of the computer is synchronized with the position of the beam on the
specimen in the microscope And therefore the result is image that is distributed map of the intensity of the signal
being emitted from the scanned area of the specimen. SEM can achieve resolution better than one nanometer.
Specimens can be observed in high vacuum, low vacuum. And in an environmental SEM, specimens can be observed
also in wet conditions. Following a short video that demonstrates the SEM operation along with animated
presentation. Let's have a look and try to connect The part described in the previous slide will be shown parts in the
animated video. Enjoy. [SOUND] [BLANK_AUDIO] Transmission electron microscopy, which are abbreviated usually as
TEM, is a microscopy technique that enables the instrument user to examine fine details. Even as small as a single
column of atoms, which is tens of thousands times smaller than the smallest resolvable object in a light microscope.
TEM forms a major analysis method in a range of scientific fields in both physical and biological surfaces, and
sciences. TEM finds applications in cancer research, biology, material science, as well as pollution nanotechnology
and semiconductor research. And of course in the current lecture, we will focus on nanotechnology. There are four
main components to a TEM. An optical column or more specifically electron optical column, a vacuum system, the
electronics, and the control software. A modern TEM typically comprises an operating console supported by a vertical

column and containing the vacuum system, and control panels for the operator. The microscope may be fully
enclosed to reduce interference from the environment sources and operated remotely. The electron column includes
elements similar to those in the light microscope. The light source of the light microscope is replaced in the TEM by
electron gun, which is built into column. The glass lenses are replaced by electromagnetic lenses. Unlike glass
lenses, the power of magnetic lenses can be changed by changing the current throughout the lens coil. The eyepiece
is replaced by a fluorescent screen or digital camera. The electron beam emerges from the electron gun and passes
throughout the specimen, transmitting electrons which are collected, focused, and projected onto viewing device at
the bottom of the column. The entire electron path from gun to the camera must be always under vacuum. Or more
specifically under ultra-high vacuum. Resolution of the TEM is limited primarily by spherical aberration. But the new
generation of the aberration correctors have been able to partially overcome spherical aberration to increase
resolution. Hardware correction of sphere, of spherical aberration for high resolution transmission electron
microscopy, which abbreviated usually HR TEM, has allowed the production of images with the resolution below 0.5
Angstroms or 50 picometers. And magnifications above 50 million times. The ability to determine the positions of the
atoms within materials has made the HR TEM an important tool for the nanotechnology research and development.
Still, there are a number drawbacks to the TEM technique. Many materials require extensive sample preparation to
produce sample thin enough to be electron transparent. Which makes the TEM analysis a relatively time consuming
process with a low throw out samples. The structure of the sample may also be changed during the preparation
process. Also, the field of the view is relatively small, raising the possibility that the regime analyzed may not be
characteristic of the whole sample. There is a potential that the sample may be damaged by the electron beam,
particularly in the case of biological materials. In this slide, you will see a short video that demonstrates the TEM
operation along with animated presentation. Enjoy. >> At the top of the Titan column is the highly stable, reliable,
high brightness electron source, the X-FEG Schottkey Emitter. The X-FEG electron gun delivers high coherence and
brightness that is coupled with high emission stability to produce stable measurement conditions not just for hours,
but greater than 1% emission current stability over a week long period of operational use. The extreme high
brightness offers high beam currents in atom sized probes for the acquisition of fast and reliable atomic images and
chemical maps. Below the electron source is the monocrhomator, which narrows the energy spread of the electron
source down to as low as 100 millielectron volts. >> This boosts the lateral resolution and high resolution TEM
imaging to 70 picometers, and enables the spectroscopic study of electronic structures as shown here in this sample
of germanium 112 resolved to 80 picometers. In plasmonics as shown in this visualization of plasmon structures of
silver nano antennas, and in chemical bonding as shown in this atomic resolution oxidation state analysis on ceria
catalyst surfaces. Beyond the monochromater is the accelerator with the broadest commercially available
acceleration voltage range of 60 to 300 kV. The accelerator's voltage range provides unprecedented performance on
any material in terms of penetration power for dense material, high contrast for light compounds, and in minimizing
knock on damage of beam sensitive samples. This technology in combination with CS correctors for stem delivers
unprecedented atomic resolution performance for structural research across the entire acceleration voltage range of
60 to 300 kV. Here you can see the atomic resolution is preserved across the acceleration voltage range shown in the
atomic images of gold acquired at different voltages. Young's Fringe Experiment show the stability of a deep sub
angstrum information transfer across the acceleration voltage range. The three-lens condensor zoom
system,controlled by smart optics is optimized for a large range of parallel illumination in TEM mode, from

nanometers to micrometers. The range in convergence angles is extremely broad for focus probe mode applications.
From ultra small angles and nano beam defraction applications used in strain measurements, to large convergence
angles in CS correct HR STEM imaging or convergent beam electron difraction seabed applications for structural
research. The decore probe CS corrector enables extreme high probe current and atomic size probes for atomic
chemical mapping and deep sub angstrom stem imaging in bright and dark field applications. Atomic resolution
imaging and chemical mapping across the high tension range of the titan is achievable with optimum results for
different materials with this technology. 63 picometers can be resolved in the high angle annular dark field STEM
detector imaging of gallium nitride in 211 projection with an extremely high energy resolution of 130 millivolts. By
using the team project microscopes, even the germanium dumbbell with a spacing of 49 picometers can be resolved
using HR STEM. In combination with an eel spectrometer or super x detector, atomic chemical mapping reveals the
polarity of gallium arsenide, or the chemical change at [UNKNOWN] interfaces. The super twin lens has a large pole
piece gap of five millimeters. This allows for a large tilt range of the specimen. This range is important to orient
polycrystalline specimens in the desired projection so that the structure can be determined in three dimensions as
illustrated in the atomic resolution images of germanium in different projections. In complex multi composite
materials, the high tilt range of up to 70 degrees enables 3D imaging with tomography techniques. [BLANK_AUDIO]
This powerful combination of unique technologies in one platform is now complemented with the ultimate
spectrometer for low concentration chemical analysis, atomic resolution chemical mapping, and 3D chemical
mapping. The Super X-Detector which is part of the FEI patented chemistem technology. The symmetric design of
four detectors around the sample increases the collection efficiency, and allows for flexibility and tilt without losing
the EDS signal. In combination with the probe CS corrector, the super X-Detector enables atomic chemical mapping,
as shown in the example of gallium arsenide in 110 projection. The polarity of the structure can be visualized by the
additional information of the different chemical content of the dumbbell structure. Even the difference in chemical
composition between mixed and pure atomic columns can be detected as shown in this example of yttrium titanate.
The image CS corrector boosts the resolution of the HR TEM mode to the sub-Angstrom level. It minimizes the effect
of delocalization in HR TEM imaging, which enables one to determine atomic coordinations at interfaces artifact free.
At 300 kV interstitial atoms can be visualized in germanium crystals to get a better understanding of point defects in
these materials. At low voltage, focal series reconstruction on graphene double sheets, allows one to obtain both 2D
and 3D atomic resolution. The projector system is ultra stable due to its constant power electronics, and offers a
maximum range of magnifications for imaging and large range in camera length for diffraction and EELS
applications. Maximizing the collection angles for high sensitivity. The system is not only designed to perform at
extremely high magnifications for atomic imaging or spectroscopy applications as shown before, but the special post
column energy filter lens series enables one to acquire high contrast zero loss filter diffraction patterns. Large angle
convergence beam electron diffraction patterns, or extremely low magnification images in chemical mapping in
energy filtered TEM of entire lamellas produced by focused ion beam sample preparation. >> With this video we
come now to the end of class number two, session number one. Thank you.

2.2

Welcome to class number two session number two. Fabrication of nanoscale structures or devices can be
achieved either by top down approach or by bottom up approach. Bottom-up approach is seek to have smaller
components built up into more complex assemblies. While top-down approaches seek to create nanoscale
device, devices by using larger, externally controlled ones to direct their assembly. The top-down approach
often uses the traditional workshop or micro-fabrication methods where externally controlled tools are used to
cut, mill, and shape materials into the desired shape and order. Micro pattern techniques such as
photolithography and ink jet printing belong to this category. Bottom up approaches in contrast use the
chemical properties of single molecules to cause single molecule to components to first all self-organized or
self-assemble into some useful conformation. Or suddenly rely on a positional assembly. This approaches
utilize the concept of molecular self assembly or molecular recognition. Such bottom up approaches should
broadly speaking be able to produce devices in parallel and much cheaper than the top down methods. But
could potentially be overwhelmed at the size and complexity of the desired assembly increases. Focused ion
beam, also known as FIB, is a technique used particularly in the semiconductor industry, material science and
recently in the biological field for site specific analysis, deposition, and ablation of materials. FIB systems
operate in similar fashion to the scanning electro-microscope with we have abbreviated so far by SEM. Except
the fact that FIB systems uses a finely focused beam of ions, usually gallium. That can be operated at lowbeam currents for imaging or high-beam currents for site-specific spattering or milling. As the diagram on the
right side of the slide shows. The gallium primary ion beams hits the sample surface and spatters a small
amount of material which leaves the surface as either a secondary ion or natural atoms. The primary beam
also produces secondary electrons. As the primary beam rasters on the sample surface, the signal from the
sputtered ions, or secondary electrons, is collected to form an image. At low primary-beam currents, very little
material is sputtered, and modern FIB systems can easily achieve five-nanometer imaging resolution. At
higher primary currents, a great deal of material can be removed by sputtering, allowing precision milling of
the specimen down to a sub-micrometer or even to a nanometer scale. If the sample is non-conductive, a large
energy electron flow gun can be used to provide neutralization. In this manner, by imaging with positive
secondary ions using the positive primary ion beam. Even highly insulating samples may be imaged and milled
without a conducting surface coating as would be required in SEM. Following is a short video that demonstrate
the feed operating along with animated presentation. Enjoy. [MUSIC] Other videos demonstrating the
capabilities of the FIB in the fabrication of nanoscale material or devices can be seen in the attached link. Now
we will move to the photolithography approach. Photolithography, also termed optical lithography or UV
lithography, is a process used in the microfabrication to pattern parts of a thin film, or a bulk of a substrate. It
uses light to transfer a geometric pattern from a photo mask to a light-sensitive chemical photo resist or
simply called resist on a substrate. A series of chemical treatments then either engraves the exposure pattern
into or enables the position of new materials into the desire pattern upon the materials under DV photo resist.
The main, if main not all the stages involved in typical photolithography process are first and foremost,
cleaning. This procedure removes organic and inorganic contaminations that are present on the wafer surface,
either by wet chemical treatment or dry approaches mostly using plasma. Photoresist application. The wafer is

covered with photoresist by spin coating. A viscous liquid solution of photoresist is dispensed. Onto the wafer,
and the wafer is expanded rapidly to produce a uniformly thick layer of a few nanometers or to few
micrometers. The photoresist coated wafer is then prepacked. To drive off excess photoresist solvent, typically
at 90 centidegrees to 100 centidegrees degrees for 30 to 60 seconds in health plate. The next stage is the
exposure and the developing. After pre-packing, the photoresist is exposed to a pattern of intense light. The
exposure to light causes a chemical change that allows some of the photoresist to be removed by a special
solution called developer, by analogy with a photographic developer. Positive photo resist, the most common
type, becomes soluble in the developer when exposed. On the other hand, the negative photo resist shows it's
soluble in the developer when the unexposed regions are exposed to the same solution. A post-exposure prepack is performed before developing. Typically to help reducing standing wave phenomena caused by the
destructive and constructive interference patterns of the incident light. The resulting wafer is then hardpacked to solidify the remaining photoresist. To make a more durable protecting layer in future ion
implementation, wet chemical etching, or plasma etching. The next stage in this micro-fabrication process is
called etching. In etching, a liquid, or so called wet, or plasma, called also dry chemical agent, removes the
upper-most layers of the substrate in the areas that are not protected by the photoresist. In semiconductor
fabrication, dry etching techniques are generally used as they can be made of an isotropic. In order to avoid
significant undercutting of the photoresist pattern. This is essential when the width of the features to be
defined is similar to or less than the thickness of the material being etched. The next stage is called the
position of thin films. In other cases actually target material is the positive on the surface. This layer covers
the remaining resist as well as the parts of the wafer that were cleaned of the resist in the previous developing
state. The next step is called photo resist removal. After a photo resist is no longer needed. It must be
removed from the subscript. The sacrificial material, namely the photoresist, is washed out, throughout,
together with parts of the target material covering eight. And in this case, only the material that was in the
holes, and having a direct contact with the underlying layer stage. This usually covers a liquid resistance
stripper which chemically alters the resist so it no longer adheres to the substrate. So far, photolithography is
conferrable to a high precision version of the method used to make printed circuit eh, boards. Subsequent
sketches in the process have more in common with etching than with lithography printing. It is used because it
can create extremely small patterns. It affords also, exact control over the shape and the size of the object it
creates. And because it can create patterns over the entire surface cost effectively, this technique is highly
recommended. It's main disadvantages are that the, the technique requires a flat substrate to start with. It is
not very effective at creating shapes that are not flat and it can require extremely clean operating conditions.
Following this short video that will demonstrate the photolithographic process along with animated
presentation Enjoy. [BLANK_AUDIO] We will move now to electron beam lithography. Electro-beam lithography
which abbreviated as EBL. Refers to a lithographic process which uses a focused beam of electrons to form the
circuit patterns needed for material deposition on the wafer. In contrast with the optical photo lithography
which uses light for the same purpose. Electrical lithography offers higher performance resolution. Than the
optical lithography because of the shorter web length possessed by the ten to 50 kilo electro bolt electrons
that are employed in this process. Given the availability of the technology that allows a small diameter focus

beam of electrons to be scanned over a surface. An electron beam lithography does not need masks anymore
to perform its task. An electron beam lithography system simply draws the pattern over the resist wafer using
the electron beam as its drawing pen. Thus, the electron beam systems produce the resist pattern, in a serial
manner, making it slow compared to the optical system. A typical electron beam lithographic process and
system consist of the following parts. The first, an electron gun or electron source that supplies the electron.
Second, an electron column that shapes and focuses the electron beam. Third, mechanical stage that positions
the wafer and the electron beam. Fourth, a wafer handling system that automatically feeds wafers to the
system and unloads them after the processing. And finally, a computer system that control the equipment.
The resolution of the optical lithography is limited by diffraction. But this is not the problem for the electron
lithography. The reason for this short wave length is exhibited by the electrons in the energy range, they are
being used in the electron beam lithography systems. However, the resolution of an electron lithography
system may be constrained by other factors such as electroscattering in the resist, and by various aberrations
in electron optics. Just like optical orthography, electron lithography also uses positive and negative resists.
The resolution achievable with any resist limited by two major factors. The first is the tendency of the resist to
swell in the developer solution. And the second, electron scattering, within the resist layer. The primary
advantage of electron-beam lithography is that one of the ways to beat the diffraction limit of the light and
makes features in nanometer regime. This form of mask-less lithography has found wide usage as a
photomask making used by the photolithography low volume production of semiconductor components. And
also for a lot of research and development. The key limitation of electro-beam lithography is thorough output.
Namely, the very long time it takes to expose the entire silicon wafer, or glass substrate. A long exposure time
leaves the user with a broad beam drift or instability that may occur during the exposure. Also, the turnaround
time for reworking or redesign, is length in unnecessary way if the pattern is not being changed the second
time. The left side images demonstrate production level high resolution electron beam lithography of lines and
dots formed in a resist. In this example 20 nanometer sized features were delivered and have a patent transfer
capability, for a wide range of materials. Nano-meter level to level alignment accuracy is made possible by the
in house software and maker design that's used in these system and samples. The right side image include a
single silicon nano wire that is conducting by two adjacent electrons to enable measuring the silicon nano
wires electrical properties. With this we come now to the end of class number two, session number two. Thank
you.

2.3
Welcome to Class Number Two, Session Number Three. New bottom-up techniques are being explored as a
complement to traditional top-down methods. In contrast to removing the materials we don't need, bottom-up
techniques simply construct the desired features from fundamental building blocks. Usually throughout self-assembly
without the need for patterning. Indeed, in the bottom-up approach, materials and devices are built from molecular
components, which assemble themselves chemically by principles of molecular recognition. In molecular recognition,
molecules can be designed so that specific configuration or arrangement is favored due to non-covalent

intermolecular forces. Thus, two or more components can be designed to be complementary and mutually attractive
so that, they make a more complex and usable as a whole component. Bottom-up approaches should be capable of
producing devices in parallel and be much cheaper than the top-down methods. But could be, potentially be
overwhelmed as the size and complexity of the desired assembly increases. Most useful structures require complex
and thermodynamically unlikely arrangements of atoms. Nevertheless, there are many examples of self-assembly
based on molecular recognition in biology. Most notably the Watson-Crick base repairing and the enzyme substrate
interactions. The challenge for nanotechnology is whether these principles can be used to engineer new constructs in
addition to natural ones. Growing these structures in well designed coordination and fabricating robust structures,
etcetera, etcetera. A key approach in the bottom-up fabrication technique is the self-assembly. Self-assembly, in the
classic sense, can be defined as the spontaneous and reversible organization of molecular units into ordered
structures by the non-covalent interactions. The first property of a self-assembled system that this definition
suggests is the spontaneity of the self-assembly process. Indeed, the interactions responsible for the formation of the
self-assembled systems act on a strictly local level. In other words, nanostructure build itself. There are at least three
distinctive features that makes self-assembly a distinct concept. The first feature is the order. The self-assembled
structure must have a higher order than the isolated components. Be it a shape or a particular task that a selfassembled entity may perform. The second feature is the interactions. Self-assembled structure rely on select
interactions such as van der Waals, capillary and hydrogen bonds. Of course, this is, is given with respect to the
traditional covalent, ionic or metallic bonds. Although typically less energetic by a factor of ten, these weak
interactions play an important role in material synthesis. It can be instructive to note, how's like interactions hold a
prominent place in materials but especially in biological systems. Although, they are often considered marginally
with the respect to strong, namely the covalent interactions. The third feature is the building blocks. The building
blocks are not only atoms and molecules but stand in wide range of nano and microscopic structures. With different
chemical compositions, shapes, and functionalities. This nanoscale building blocks can in turn be sythesized through
out conventional chemical roads or by other self-assembly strategies. There are two types of self-assembly.
Intramolecular self-assembly and intermolecular self-assembly. The intramolecular self-assembly molecules are often
complex polymers with the ability to assemble from a random coil conformation into well-defined, stable structure.
An example of intramolecular self-assembly is a protein folding. On the other hand, the intermolecular self-assembly
is the ability of molecules to form supramolecular assemblies in the sample. A simple example of the formation of
micelle by surfactant molecules in solution is one of the intramolecular examples. Following is a short video that
demonstrate the self-assembly of a dindrimer host/guest system, along with the animated presentation. In the
research shown in the animation, researchers. Make use of supramolecular or nanovalent chemistry to assemble
nanoparticles with the small hydrophobic patches. The number of patches depends on the coverage of hydrophilic
guest molecules, shown in blue, that protects the hydrophobic host molecules, shown in yellow. [MUSIC] The
coverage in turn depends on the concentration of the guest and host molecules on solution. In most systems,
assembly of nanoparticles into large structures occur at high concentration and dilution, causing them to be disturb,
disrupted. [MUSIC] Dilution of a solution of Hess and [INAUDIBLE] complexes leads to an increased number of
attractive hydrophobic batches. Which interact and derive assembly. In other words, this system assembles upon
dilution. Similarly defining the law of mass action. We forget that this study could help close the gap between

complex biological and colloidal like systems. [MUSIC] Self-assembly can occur spontaneously in nature, for example
in cells, and other biological systems, as well as in human engineered systems. It usually results in the increase in
internal organization of the system. Many biological systems use self-assembly to assemble various molecules and
structures. Imitating these strategies and creating novel molecules with the ability to self-assemble into super
molecular assemblies is important technique in nanotechnology. In self-assembly, the final or the desired structure is
encoded in the shape and the properties of the molecules that are used. As compared, of course, to the traditional
techniques such as lithography, where the desired final structure must be carved out from a larger block of matter.
An example of biology based self-assembly process, I will give the example by a scientist at the United States
Department of Energy, the DOE, at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Who reported successful assembly of threedimensional, multicomponent, nanoscale structures with tunable optical properties that incorporate light absorption
and emitting particles. In this work, the scientists used DNA linkers with a free-binding sites to connect gold
nanoparticles and the fluorescein dye molecules, tagged with the complementary DNA sequences. The DNA linker
molecules have three binding sites. The two ends of the th-, strands were designed to bind two complimentary
strands on plasmonic gold nanoparticles. Namely, particles in which a particular wavelength of light induces a
collective oscillation of convective electrons. Leading to strong absorption of light of that wavelength. The internal
part of the h DNA was encoded to recognize a complimentary strand. Chemically bond to a fluorescein dimolecule.
This setup resulted in a self-assembly of three dimensional body centered cubic crystalline structure. With gold
nanoparticles located at each corner of the cube and in the center with dimolecules defined position in between
them. Following is a short video that demonstrate the self-assembly of binary virus gold nanoparticles superlattices,
along with the animated presentation. Indeed, in this animation, the Aalto University-led research group shows that
the CCMV virus or ferritin protein cages can be used to guide the assembly of RNA molecules. Or iron oxide
nanoparticles into three dimensional binary super lattices. The lattices, which will be seen soon on the screen are
formed throughout tunable electrostatic interaction with the charged gold nanoparticles. [BLANK_AUDIO] An
important bottom-up aspect for sensing applications is the so called self-assembled monolayers. Self-assembled
monolayers are usually abbreviated as SAM, S, A, M, of organic molecules are molecular assemble, assemblies.
Formed spontaneously on surfaces by absorption and are organized into more or less large ordered domains. In some
cases, markers that form in monolayer don't interact strongly with the substrate. On the other hand, and in other
cases, the molecules process a functional group that has a strong affinity to the substrate and it calls the molecules
to it. Such is self-assembly monolayer consisting of a head group, tail and functional end group is depicted in the
figure presented on the screen. Common head groups include thiols, silanes, phosphonates, etc, etc. . Selfassembled monolayers are created by the consumption of head groups onto a substrate from either the vapor or
liquid phase, followed by a low organization of tail grooves. Initially, at small molecular density of the surface,
adsorbed molecules form either a disordered mass of molecules, or form and ordered, two dimensional lying-down
phase. And at higher molecular coverage, over a period of many, two hours, begin to form three dimensional
crystalline or semi-crystalline structures on the substrate surface. The head groups assemble together on the
substrate, while the tail groups assemble far from the substrates. Areas of closed back molecules nucleate and grow
until the surface of the substrate is covered by a single monolayer. Thin film self-assembled monolayers can be
placed on nanostructures. In this way, they function relays the nanostructure. This is an advantage because the

nanostructure can now selectively attach itself to other molecules or self-assembled monolayers. This technique is
useful in biosensors or other devices that need to separate one type of molecules from its environment, as we will
learn in the next classes. After the introduction of the various top-down and bottom-up fabrication approaches I will
present a video from the John Hopkins University that demonstrates devices fabricated by a combination between
these two approaches. Namely, the top-down and the bottom-up or the self-assembly approach. Indeed, the
following video present the production of three-dimensional structures by the assembly of pattern made by photo
lithography. Enjoy. >> Once the two dimensional structures have been prepared, they are heated until the hinges
begin to melt. As the hinges melt, they ball up in order to minimize their surface area and since they are attached to
the square faces this brings the faces together and eventually forms a cube. >> This project demonstrates the use
of these polyhedral containers for chemical encapsulation, remotely guided chemical release and spatially controlled
chemical reactions. Chemicals held within these containers can be released remotely, allowing for controlled drug
delivery or on-site chemical reaction. Because the containers are made of metal they can be remotely guided with a
magnet. Combining these two features, chemicals can be remotely released while they're guided along a desired
path. [MUSIC] This project demonstrates the hierarchical self-assembly of complex polyhedral microcontainers, such
as the dodecahedron shown here. Polyhedral microcontainers that approach a sphere are especially attractive for
biomedical applications, such as drug delivery in the body. Shown here are the two-dimensional templates prior to
being self-assembled. [MUSIC] [MUSIC] [MUSIC] [MUSIC] [MUSIC] Each face of the container can have unique surface
parenthood. And beading capsulation within the dodecahedron containers has been demonstrated. [MUSIC] This
project demonstrates and alternative to service tension driven self-folding. [MUSIC] This new strategy utilizes thin
film hinges that allow self-assembly to be triggered on demand in water using relatively low temperatures. [MUSIC]
This project demonstrates mass-producible microgrippers that can be remotely triggered by temperature or
chemicals under biological conditions. These microgrippers utilize the previously mentioned thin film hinges. [MUSIC]
To demonstrate controlled remote movement, two magnets were used to guide a microgripper from one opening in
the spiral tube to the other. [MUSIC] This movie shows the microgripper being remotely moved towards a blue bead,
using a magnetic stylus. Once over the bead, the microgripper is triggered to close by slightly beating the solution.
After capture the microgripper with the bead is moved away using the magnet. This movie demonstrates the remote
manipulation of a microgripper into a capillary tube and remote retrieval of cell mass that is dyed with red stain. The
movie highlights the applicability of the microgripper to capture living cells, such as in a biopsy. A hypothetical future
biomedical application for these microgrippers is controlled movement throughout the body to carry out non-invasive
procedures, such as a biopsy. [MUSIC] This project demonstrates microgrippers that can be remotely opened and
closed by chemical cues. [MUSIC] These microgrippers can effectively move objects from one location to another.
[MUSIC] The last project that we'll discuss demonstrates a new strategy to construct complex 3D paneled structures
by self-assembling 2D sheets that have thin film hinges. [MUSIC] As an example application these sheets can be
used as mirco-wells for cell culture. [MUSIC] With this video we come now to the end of Class Number Two, Session
Number Three. Thank you.

Question 1
Which of the following statements is most correct about Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)?

Your Answer

Score

AFM can visualize unfixed specimens in water or buffer.

AFM moves a very sharp tip over the surface of the specimen to "feel" its shape.

AFM can visualize protein bound to DNA molecules.

Total

Inorrect

0.00

0.00 / 1.0

Question 2
Electron microscopes have a much higher resolution than either the human eye or conventional light microscope because:

Your Answer

Score

Of the very short (nanometer) wavelengths of electrons

All of the answers

Inorrect

0.00

The lenses used are of much higher quality

Of their higher magnification

Total

0.00 / 1.00

Question 3
The best description of bottom up fabrication is:

Your Answer

Score

Starting with a larger component and carving away material.

Building something by assembling smaller components

Correct

1.00

Have a limit of 0.1 microns (100 nm)

Utilizing direct writing without a mask on a resist

Total

1.00 / 1.00

Question 4
DNA molecule is a good example for:

Your Answer

Score

Ex

Top down fabrication

Self assembly process

A biological un-understood process

0.00

Inorrect

Total

0.00 / 1.00

Question 5
The best technique for fabrication of many devices with minimal resolution of 200 nm will be:

Your Answer

Score

Self-Assembly

E-beam Lithography

Inorrect

0.00

Explan

Standard Photolithography

Focused Ion Beam

Total

0.00 / 1.00

Question 6
The best technique to fabricate one of a kind device with minimal resolution of 10 nm will be:

Your Answer
Focused Ion Beam

Self-Assembly

Standard Photolithography

Score

Explan

E-beam Lithography

Correct

Total

1.00

1.00 / 1.00

Question 7
What is the medium gas inside the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)?

Your Answer

Score

Nitrogen

Helium

Argon

There is vacuum inside the SEM

Total

Correct

1.00

1.00 / 1.00

Exp

Question 8
Which of the following is true?

Your Answer

Score

Self-Assembly is a process that happens only in the lab

Self-Assembly is a process that happens only in nature

Inorrect

0.00

Self-Assembly can happen spontaneously

Total

0.00 / 1.00

Question 9
Which is true regarding Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy
(TEM)?

Your Answer
All use electron beam for imaging

Score

Ex

All can detect features below 100nm

Correct

1.00

All work under vacuum conditions

Total

1.00 / 1.00