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Wellness & Lifestyles Australia MANUAL HANDLING MATERIALS MINI E-BOOK Prepared by: Wellness & Lifestyles Australia

Wellness & Lifestyles Australia

MANUAL HANDLING MATERIALS MINI E-BOOK

Prepared by:

Wellness & Lifestyles Australia

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Table of Contents Page No. IMPORTANT NOTICE 1 FOREWORD 2 INTRODUCTION: MANUAL HANDLING GUIDELINES 3

Table of Contents

Page No.

IMPORTANT NOTICE

1

FOREWORD

2

INTRODUCTION: MANUAL HANDLING GUIDELINES

3

HAZARD IDENTIFICATION, RISK ASSESSMENT, AND CONTROL

4

METHODS OF MANUAL HANDLING

6

FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENTS AND POSITIONS

8

MANUAL HANDLING OF MATERIALS

11

CONTACT US

13

MANUAL LAST MODIFIED 16/05/2013

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IMPORTANT NOTICE The information provided in this document can only assist you in the most

IMPORTANT NOTICE

The information provided in this document can only assist you in the most general way. This document does not replace any statutory requirements under relevant State and Territory legislation.

Wellness & Lifestyles Australia (W&L) accepts no liability arising from the use of or reliance on the material contained in this document, which is provided on the basis that the Office of W&L is not thereby engaged in rendering professional advice. Before relying on the material, users should carefully make their own assessment as to its accuracy, currency, completeness and relevance for their purposes, and should obtain any appropriate professional advice relevant to their particular circumstances.

To the extent that the material in this document includes views or recommendations of third parties, such views or recommendations do not necessarily reflect the views of the Office of W&L or indicate its commitment to a particular course of action.

© Copyright Australia 2013 This work is copyright. You may download, display, print and reproduce this material in unaltered form only (retaining this notice) for your personal, non-commercial use or use within your organization. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, all other rights are reserved.

The Office of Wellness & Lifestyles Australia acknowledges the assistance of all the persons and organizations who contributed to this document, in particular:

Wellness & Lifestyles Australia Manual Handling Procedure Manual

Department of Human Services Implementation Strategies, 1998

Workplace Services: Employment Relations Information Centre http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/

Work Cover http://www.workcover.com/

Manual Handling Guide for Nurses (2006) Workcover NSW Health & Community Services Industry Reference Group

References:

Work Health and Safety Act 2011 (Cth)

Work Health and Safety Regulations 2011 (Cth)

Hazardous Manual Tasks Code of Practice 2011

How to Manage Work Health and Safety Risks Code of Practice 2011

Work Health and Safety Consultation, Cooperation and Coordination

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FOREWORD Wellness & Lifestyles Australia (W&L) is a market leader in the provision of mobile

FOREWORD

Wellness & Lifestyles Australia (W&L) is a market leader in the provision of mobile allied health services in Australia. Its core business is aged-focussed health services. This document has been put together by its team of physiotherapists and occupational therapists that specialise in aged care.

The National OHS Strategy 2002-2012, records a commitment by all Australian, State and Territory Governments, the Australia Chamber of Commerce and Industry and the Australian Council of Trade Unions, to share the responsibility of ensuring that Australia’s performance in work-related health and safety is continuously improved.

The National OHS Strategy sets out five national priorities to achieve short-term and long-term improvements. The priorities are to:

Reduce high incidence and high severity risks;

Improve the capacity of business operators and workers to manage OHS effectively;

Prevent occupational disease more effectively;

Eliminate hazards at the design stage, and

Strengthen the capacity of Government to influence OHS outcomes.

Performing manual tasks can be hazardous, potentially leading to Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSD). Manual tasks at work resulted in 437,852 compensation claims in Australia in a 6-year period. This is equal to 41.6 percent of all compensation claims for that period, with a direct cost, not counting indirect impacts (such as the long-term impacts on the quality of life of the injured worker) of $11.965 billion.

This manual provides practical guidance on how to prevent MSD when dealing with elderly clients or when working in aged care facilities.

All W&L policies and codes of practice are guidance and advisory documents only and their implementation is dependent on legislation enacted by State/Territory OHS authorities.

Compliance with the recommendations in this Code of Practice will not necessarily mean that a person has fulfilled their obligations under occupational health and safety acts and regulations relevant to them. Persons should contact their State or Territory or Australian Government health and safety authority for information on their obligations.

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INTRODUCTION: MANUAL HANDLING GUIDELINES Wellness & Lifestyles Australia promotes a work environment where the health

INTRODUCTION: MANUAL HANDLING GUIDELINES

Wellness & Lifestyles Australia promotes a work environment where the health and wellbeing of all staff and clients is not compromised by lifting or manually handling. Manual tasks at work encompasses a wide range of physical activities, and are defined as anything that requires the use of force for lifting, lowering, pushing, pulling, carrying, holding or restraining any person, animal or item. This also includes tasks with repetitive actions, sustained postures and concurrent exposure to vibration.

All staff members are required to use the mechanical aids and personal protective equipment provided, and to use manual handling techniques as taught, to reduce or minimise the risk of any injury.

Duty holders (this includes persons with control of a workplace, employers, workers, and also designers, manufacturers, and suppliers) have a responsibility to identify and eliminate the risk of a musculoskeletal disorder occurring as a result of performing manual tasks at work. A duty holder has an obligation to protect all people who could be exposed to risk workers, trainees, apprentices, contractors, and work experience students.

Duty holders are thus required to ensure that appropriate mechanical aids are available and used, and to notify the key responsibility holder of any further requirements. Until such time as the required equipment becomes available the duty holders must determine other strategies to deal with and minimise the risks of injury that may arise as a consequence.

A risk assessment must be undertaken to determine if a manual handling hazard exists. All identified manual

handling risks and interventions must be documented, monitored and reviewed.

In some circumstances it may be contrary to the situation to use mechanical lifting devices. All identified

manual handling risks and interventions must be documented, monitored and reviewed.

In some circumstances it may be contrary to the situation to use mechanical lifting devices. In these

circumstances the manual handling may only occur if it does not involve lifting a significant weight, singularly, or repetitively, that places the worker as unacceptable risk. The staffing levels must be sufficient enough to

ensure the safe use of equipment and that the manual handling needs of the client are met.

Employees should not lift in any circumstance other than exceptional or life threatening situations. It is each individual’s responsibility to ensure their own health, safety and welfare and to take reasonable care to avoid adversely affecting the health, safety and welfare of any other person.

Nick Heywood-Smith Director Wellness & Lifestyles Australia

April 2013

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HAZARD IDENTIFICATION, RISK ASSESSMENT, AND CONTROL Hazard identification Hazard identification is achieved by identifying

HAZARD IDENTIFICATION, RISK ASSESSMENT, AND CONTROL

Hazard identification

Hazard identification is achieved by identifying the manual handling tasks likely to be a risk to the employee’s health and safety in order that they can be examined and assessed as required by the manual handling regulations. The purpose of hazard identification is to identify and place in priority order the jobs or tasks which require risk assessment. The risk must then be acted upon as decided by management.

There are three basic steps to hazard identification:

Analysis of workplace injury records

All incident records will be reviewed to identify the areas where the manual handling injuries have occurred and will take into consideration:

Area of workplace concerned

Occupation or task of the injured person

Part of the body injured

Nature of the injury

Type of incident

Consultation with employees

All employees will be consulted to assist with the identification of manual handling risks that can be found in the workplace.

Direct observation

Regular inspection of the workplace will be conducted by the appropriate persons to assist with the identification of risk. A checklist may be used to assist with hazard identification.

Risk assessment

When a hazardous activity has been identified the employer will ensure that a manual handling assessment is conducted in an attempt to remove or modify the risk and reduce the risk of injury.

When an assessment is conducted the following factors will be evaluated:

Actions and movements involved in the manual handling

Workplace or work station layout

Postures and positions that must be used by the employee when involved in manual handling

Duration and frequency of the manual handling

Location of the load and the distance of movement required

Weight and forces involved in the manual handling

Characteristics of the load and equipment that is used in the task

Work routines

Work environment

Skill and experience of the employee

Personal characteristics of each person who must carry out the manual handling task

Clothing worn by the employee

Any other relevant factors

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Risk control When a manual handling task is assessed as being a risk to employees’

Risk control

When a manual handling task is assessed as being a risk to employees’ health and safety, such precautions as are considered reasonably practicable must be used.

Risk control will be established by:

Eliminating the task to totally remove the hazard

Where appropriate the employer will redesign the task to ensure that the risk factors are eliminated or controlled

Ensure that all employees are trained appropriately in manual handling techniques

Ensure that adequate supervision is given to all employees

If redesign is not appropriate the employer will:

o

Provide mechanical aids

o

Provide personal protective equipment

o

Arrange team movers

The three stage approach to safe manual handling

1. HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

Analysis of workplace injury records

Consultation with employees

Direct observation

 Consultation with employees  Direct observation 2. RISK ASSESSMENT  Actions and movements 

2. RISK ASSESSMENT

Actions and movements

Workplace and workstation layout

Working posture and position

Duration and frequency of manual handling

Location of loads and equipment

Weights and forces

Characteristics of loads and equipment

Work organization

Work environment

Skills and experience

Personal characteristics

Clothing

Other relevant factors

 Clothing  Other relevant factors 3. RISK CONTROL The ways of controlling risks are ranked

3. RISK CONTROL

The ways of controlling risks are ranked from the highest level of control and reliability to the lowest known as the hierarchy of control. The WHS requires duty holders to work through this to choose the control(s) that most effectively eliminate or minimise the risk.

requires duty holders to work through this to choose the control(s) that most effectively eliminate or

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METHODS OF MANUAL HANDLING Before starting any handling procedure (lifting, lowering, pushing, pulling, carrying,

METHODS OF MANUAL HANDLING

Before starting any handling procedure (lifting, lowering, pushing, pulling, carrying, shovelling, sweeping, mopping), first assess the work situation or size up the load.

In a familiar handling situation, where all the characteristics of the load, surroundings and handlers are known, this step will be carried out automatically, but in unfamiliar situations, or where the loads are variable, a deliberate appraisal should be carried out.

Safe manual handling is based upon a set of fundamental positions, movements, and principles which can then be applied to a variety of situations.

General principles

The general principles for most manual handling procedures are:

Position the body correctly before commencing the lift maintaining good body alignment (natural

spinal curves) for ALL tasks regardless of how trivial they appear

curves) for ALL tasks regardless of how trivial they appear  Use the leg (thigh muscles)

Use the leg (thigh muscles) to raise or lower the load, to set the load moving, and to provide momentum for horizontal movement when pushing or pulling

Use body weight together with the above to counter any loss of balance, and to assist with the moving of loads

Keep the load close to the body as possible

When learning over anything, support upper body weight bracketing on a surface

Turn by pivoting/ moving your feet and not twisting the trunk

When moving people prompt them to assist as much as possible

Key Factors

The following key factors set the patterns for the recommended posture and movements in the handling of loads.

Placement of feet

The feet should be placed comfortably apart, one foot forward and the other foot back, before commencing handling procedures, this helps maintain balance

When lifting, the feet should be placed either around the load or as close to the load as possible. Where neither position can be reached, the load should be moved to a suitable position, clear of obstruction before lifting or manual or mechanical assistance should be sought

When lowering a load it should, if possible, be lowered between the feet

When forward movement is anticipated, the front foot should be placed beside the load and pointing in the direction of movement.

When moving backwards (e.g. when moving loads from a shelf or bench), one foot should be placed backwards to receive the combined weight of load and body. Most of the weight should be on this foot before any movement is made

When the feet are correctly positioned the centre of gravity is within the span of the feet, this position results in stability sideways, backwards and forwards. All handling movements should be carried out smoothly and rhythmically. Having the legs apart during lifting does not increase risk of hernia.

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Bent knees – straight back  The knees should be bent before the hands are

Bent knees straight back

The knees should be bent before the hands are lowered to lift or set down loads. When a load is taken from a shelf or received from another person, conveyor or chute, the knees should be sent so that the force of the load can be absorbed.

When a load is lifted from the ground, the knees should preferably not be bent beyond a right angle. If the knee is bent acutely, the mechanical efficiency of the leg muscle is lessened. Bending of knees is greatest when the load is being taken up from the floor. When the load is on the floor, loads should be limited, with certain loads, group lifting may be necessary.

In a typical lifting posture with the knees and hips bent, the lumbar spinal curve is flattened, resulting in the ‘straight back’ but not necessarily in a vertical back

When only one hand can be used in lifting, overloading the back muscles can be reduced by placing the other hand on the knee or against a firm support. Lifting and carrying of heavy loads with one hand should be avoided.

Arms close to the body correct grip

The arms if possible should hang between the thighs when lifting or lowering loads. The load should be carried close to the body with elbows by the sides. Wide loads may be handled obliquely, or vertically, provided that the load does not obscure the vision of the handler. If the load obscures vision, an assistant is required to help carry the load, or mechanical handling should be employed.

Loads should not be held out from the body when they are being raised, lowered or supported

In manual handling the arms should act as links not sources of power. Muscles of the legs and buttocks not arm muscles are used to move the load.

In lifting, the hand on the same side of the body as the forward foot, should grasp the side of the load furthest from the body. The other should grasp the opposite side of the load.

When carrying, the hand supporting the far side of the load should clasp the load to the body. In some cases, it may be necessary to have both hands underneath to support the load.

In all handling procedures a grasp should be used to keep control of the load. The load should be grasped with the whole length of the fingers and part of the palm of the hand, not just the fingertips

In continuous carrying of light loads by only one hand, the hand being used should be alternated.

Head erect

Raising the head at the commencement of lifting automatically assists in keeping a ‘straight back’ during the lift. The ‘straight back’ is necessary to ensure that uniform pressure is applied to discs between the spinal bones

Turning the head may cause the spinal column to rotate and should be avoided during handling procedures when a change in direction of movement is required, or if it is necessary to look around, the body should be turned by pivoting on the feet

Use of body mass

Body mass used as a source of momentum acts with the muscles to set loads in motion and to propel moving loads. When setting loads in motion, jerky actions should be avoided by applying force slowly to the load through shoulders, arms and hands

Body mass is also used as a counter balance in handling procedures

is also used as a counter balance in handling procedures www.wellnesslifestyles.com.au / www.wleducation.com.au /
is also used as a counter balance in handling procedures www.wellnesslifestyles.com.au / www.wleducation.com.au /
is also used as a counter balance in handling procedures www.wellnesslifestyles.com.au / www.wleducation.com.au /

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FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENTS AND POSITIONS Semi-squat lift/bench position The semi-squat lift is the preferred technique for

FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENTS AND POSITIONS

Semi-squat lift/bench position

The semi-squat lift is the preferred technique for the manual handling of materials because it:

Minimises strain on spinal discs and other body areas

Is adaptable for a variety of activities and situations

Other techniques can put enormous strain on the lower spine or knees and may not be adaptable

Preparation for the semi-squat technique involves:

Bringing the chin in

Pulling the shoulder blades together

Lifting the breast bone by adjusting vision to a point in front

Dynamic abdominal bracing (pulling umbilicus towards spine helps to maintain the natural lumbar curve and reduce strain)

Poking the bottom out

Bending the knees

Having the feet shoulder width apart

Lifting well using this technique involves:

Keeping the load close to the body

Bending the knees

Using a firm grip

Placing the body over the load

Bracing the spine using dynamic abdominal bracing

Keeping the load as close to the body as possible

Lifting and lowering using the legs

If straining occurs and the load is not comfortable, use a 2 person lift, i.e. assess the load before the lift

USE: lifting and lowering

assess the load before the lift USE: lifting and lowering www.wellnesslifestyles.com.au / www.wleducation.com.au /
assess the load before the lift USE: lifting and lowering www.wellnesslifestyles.com.au / www.wleducation.com.au /
assess the load before the lift USE: lifting and lowering www.wellnesslifestyles.com.au / www.wleducation.com.au /
assess the load before the lift USE: lifting and lowering www.wellnesslifestyles.com.au / www.wleducation.com.au /

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LUNGE  Feet flat,, pointing forward  Weight through rear leg  Maintain natural spinal

LUNGE

Feet flat,, pointing forward

Weight through rear leg

Maintain natural spinal curves

Brace arms against body

Smoothly transfer body weight forward

USE: pushing and pulling (e.g. - trolley)

weight forward USE: pushing and pulling (e.g. - trolley) Sideways lunge  Feet slightly wider than

Sideways lunge

Feet slightly wider than shoulder width

Weight through one side

Maintain natural spinal curves

Brace if possible

Transfer weight to the other leg

USE: sliding

If you haven’t moved the object far enough, ensure you do not follow- through by using arms / twisting trunk… reposition feet, and perform again!

/ twisting trunk… reposition feet, and perform again! www.wellnesslifestyles.com.au / www.wleducation.com.au /

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Knight’s position  Place one knee on floor  Maintain natural spinal curves  Keep

Knight’s position

Place one knee on floor

Maintain natural spinal curves

Keep toes-up position

Rest on soft surface if available

USE: working at low levels

Counterbalance

Ensure area behind is free of obstacles

Firm grip

In bench/ semi-squat position

Move COG/ bodyweight backwards

Maintain natural spinal curves

USE: pre-tension/ initiate movement Anticipate need for step response!

initiate movement Anticipate need for step response! Pivot  Feet shoulder width apart  Load close
initiate movement Anticipate need for step response! Pivot  Feet shoulder width apart  Load close

Pivot

Feet shoulder width apart

Load close to body

Brace if possible

Pivot on ball of foot

Maintain natural spinal curves

Avoids trunk rotation under load

natural spinal curves  Avoids trunk rotation under load USE: turning in confined areas www.wellnesslifestyles.com.au

USE: turning in confined areas

trunk rotation under load USE: turning in confined areas www.wellnesslifestyles.com.au / www.wleducation.com.au /

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MANUAL HANDLING OF MATERIALS Manual handling of materials includes the movement or storage of anything

MANUAL HANDLING OF MATERIALS

Manual handling of materials includes the movement or storage of anything that is handled on the job.

Materials handling can be very hazardous and every year can cause many disabling injuries. These injuries can be prevented if you:

Stay alert

Be safety conscious

Handle the materials appropriately

Shovelling, Sweeping, mopping

The selection of the correct shovel, mop or broom for a specific purpose is fundamental

Where material is being handled by a shovel in a confined space, or where granular material is being placed in a hopper, a short shovel may be preferred

Where materials are being transferred to other than a specific area, the long handled shovel may be found to be ideal

In any case it is essential that the length of the handle of the shovel, mop or broom is adequate for its purpose. As a general rule, the longer the lever, the less the force required to move.

Pallet handling

Always use a pallet jack or forklift when available

Place the front foot by the side of the pallet, rear foot close behind the pallet. Bend knees but not beyond a right angle

Grasp pallet in corner using gloves on hands. Lift pallet up and forward onto front edge by straightening knees and advancing rear foot.

Team lifting

Assess and discuss the lift with a partner

Use clear commands when performing any manoeuvre

Wear glove when handling rough loads

Using clear commands, with both hands under the load, lift on signal by straightening legs

Use clear commands during the procedure and for setting down the load

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Principles for all procedures  Keep back firm and straight  Brace low abdominal muscles

Principles for all procedures

Principles for all procedures  Keep back firm and straight  Brace low abdominal muscles 

Keep back firm and straight

Brace low abdominal muscles

Knees bent and feet apart

Maintain good balance

Firm forehand grasp

Lift by using the power in the thigh and bottom muscles

Lift the load as close to the body as possible

Allow the patient to assist as much as possible to minimise the lift needed. If they can do it, you assist less and therefore lessen risk of injury

The height of the staff must be considered for all procedures. If there is a large difference, the taller carer must get into a wide lunge position to be level with the other carer for 2 person assist techniques

Evaluation of all manual handling procedures

At the completion of each transfer or lift, staff shall evaluate the technique used and identify and document changes as necessary.

Review the performance of the technique and identify:

Any problems encountered

Causes of any problems

Possible solutions

Determine the most appropriate alternative technique for the patient

Report any changes that may be required on the Manual Handling Assessment by communicating with the Physiotherapist via referral or using the physiotherapy diary

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CONTACT US Wellness & Lifestyles Australia 41 Sydenham Road, Norwood SA 5067 P: +61 8

CONTACT US

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