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Process & Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID)

Purpose
1. To indicate the instruments or control devices attached to the process.
2. To indicate the control system architecture associated with the process.

How it is done?
Standard symbols and notations representing instruments or control devices are placed to the
pipings and vessels. Standard symbols and notations are available from ISA-5.1(1984) standard.

Methodology?
Process piping and sub-piping
A thick straight line represent main process piping

A thin straight line represent process sub-piping either


to instruments or by-pass process line.

Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2011)

PG

Naming rule

P
T
L
F
A

Measurement

Device

Device / Condition

Condition

Pressure
Temperature
Level
Flow
Analysis

C
T
R
I
A
S
G

Controller
Transmitter
Recorder
Indicator
Alarm
Switch / Safety
Gauge

C
T
R
H
L
V

Controller
Transmitter
Recorder
High
Low
Valve

H
L

High
Low

Complete guide on P&ID symbols & notations are available from ISA 5.1 (R1984)

Examples

PC
PIC
LG
FR
TAL
TALL
TAHL

Pressure Controller
Pressure Indicating Controller
Level Gauge
Flow Recorder
Temperature Alarm Low
Temperature Alarm Low Low
Temperature Alarm High Low

Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2011)

PCC
PTC
PTR
PIR
TRR
TRA
TAV

No such
devices yet.

Symbols
Instruments / control devices:

A circle representing locally


mounted instrument

Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2011)

A circle with horizontal line


representing control room
panel mounted instrument.

A circle with horizontal line


inside a square representing
its function in DCS.

Follow the standard published by the Instrument Society of America (ISA)

Instrument Line (Signal) Symbols

Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2011)

Final control elements

Control
valves

Manual
valve

OR

Not darkened  Always open

Manual
valve

OR

Darkened  Always closed


NC

Solenoid
valve

NO  Normally open

NC  Normally closed
NO

Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2011)

NC

Device names

Devices (hardware)

Current to pneumatic
transducer

Pressure relief valve /


Pressure safety valve

Symbols

Notations

I/P

I/P

PRV

PSV

Thyristor

TY

TY

Inverter

VY

VY

Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2011)

Examples

PG

= Pressure Gauge

PIC

= Pressure Indicating Controller

FT

= Flow Transmitter

TT

= Temperature Transmitter

TE

= Temperature Element (RTD/TC)

Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2011)

Can you read the following P&ID?

 Main process line


 Process instrument piping
 Temperature transmitter
 Temperature controller

product
Feed

 Flow controller

TT

 Current to pnuematic transducer

Control valve

Fuel

Electrical signal
Pneumatic signal
 Temperature controller DCS function


I/P

TC


FC

TC

SP

FT

12

11
ASD

11 Automatic shut down PLC unit


12 Solenoid valve

Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2011)

SP,
Set point

Controller

Final
Control
Element

Process

PV,
Controlled
Variable

PV,
Controlled Variable
Sensor

What is feedback control?


Outcome of an action is fed back to
the controller for corrective action.

Merit?
Simple design. Easy to tune (for linear, fast & short dead time
processes: flow, level & pressure).
Demerits?
Slow recovery for slow process upon load disturbance or change in
set point (such as temperature control). A process with long dead
time may exhibit oscillatory process response and with longer
settling time.

Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2011)

SP,
Set point

Controller
1

Controller
2

PV,
Controlled Variable

PV,
Controlled Variable

Final
Control
Element

Process 2

Process 1

Sensor
2

Sensor
1

What is cascade control?


The inner loop controller obtains its set point
from the outer loop controller.

Merit?
Faster recovery time as compared to SISO feedback
control.

The purpose is to eliminate the effect of


disturbances.

Demerits?
Controllability will be worst than SISO if both
controllers were not properly tuned.

Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2011)

PV,
Controlled
Variable

10

D,
Disturbance

SP,
Set point

Feedforward

Disturbance

Controller

Sensor

Final
Control
Element

Feedback

Controller

Process

PV,
Controlled
Variable

PV,
Controlled Variable
Sensor

What is feed forward control?


A method of control based on process
model: mass and energy balances.
Purpose
To compensate disturbances (D) before they
affect the controlled variable (PV).

Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2011)

Demerit
a) Fail to work if any of the sensor broke
down.
b) Poor process controllability due to
inaccurate process model.

11

TC

I/P

TT
Heated
product out

Product
in

Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2011)

Steam in

Steam out

12

TC

FC

TT

FT

Heated
product out

Product
in

Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2011)

I/P

Steam in

Steam out

13

TC

TT

FC

I/P

FT
L/L

Heated
product out

TT
Product
in

Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2011)

Steam in

FT
Steam out

14

FC

I/P

FT
Steam in

Heated
product out

FT
Product
in

Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2011)

Steam out

15

Using correct P&ID symbols, draw the following


instruments to the reboiler as shown in figure
below.
(i)

Steam pressure gauge

(ii) Reboiler vapor pressure gauge

Reboiler vapor

(iii) Steam temperature gauge


(iv) Vessel over pressure relief valve
Steam

(v) Steam over pressure relief valve


(vi) Liquid level gauge at overflow
compartment
(vii) Liquid level gauge at liquid boiling
compartment

Condensate
Bottom product

(viii) Temperature gauge at liquid boiling


compartment.
Tower bottoms

Install appropriate control systems for the


following tasks:
(i)

Liquid level control at over flow


compartment
Reboiler vapor

(ii) Reboiler vapor pressure control


(iii) Liquid temperature control
(iv) Reboiler vapor pressure alarm high
(v) Liquid temperature alarm high

Steam

(vi) Low and high level liquid alarm at


liquid over flow compartment
(vii) Low liquid level alarm at boiling liquid
compartment

Condensate

(viii) Steam flow cut upon low liquid level.


Bottom product
Tower bottoms