\1 1""1""'.;,' 1. 1 &'' &IU,VQI. ""IIQ I Q""Io. .... I.I .:Jll ... Vl ....._., ""IU...J'1 .... " "
, . ,.,..,....,
H.>
\,;VU1,VJ.~1UUU..)'
tQ.\,; l Vl
1>
.1 \c
\,.VUl,lJVU\,oll t.
V I
1Vc1U:)
'"UcUJ~C,
u o'I...! ... S.. .....,,.~ , ........... tJ., ,..~......... fJ..n ....... .,........
WJ U \,.JI U14J ~1\;d.U)' d.U\;:\,.l UIC .::H.I\..<0).:)
111
'9,IIIIU.III .l i Ql\o'IVl"t'
.. ... A
UUU uUI\o'l,)o
116
A. M. MUIR WOOO
An elastic analysis, entailing linear stressstrain relations throughout, has the great merit
that several factors may be examined individually and the sum of the effects obtained by superimposition.
There may be, however, considerable economic benefits in the design of a tunnel lining by
taking advantage of a degree of plastic deformation of the ground, often of a timedependent
nature; the concept of a competence factor (Muir Wood, 1972), i.e. the ratio of ground strength
in simple compression to the vertical overburden pressure, is at least a first indicator in assessing
whether the assumption of linearity is likely to be acceptable within the limitations of any twodimensional tunnel analysis.
Twodimensional analysis usually assumes that the tunnel has materialized instantaneously
.,..,..,.f +k ...... +J....,.., 1; ... ; .... ,.. ...... ... ..1,.. ... ,..1.,....,..,.1 ;~ ... r .... lt ,..._,..,.......,,...,L """' t... ..... :"""""' .... C .. , ............ : .... _
CUlU I.U4' I..UC HIUU!:) UCl~ UCVCIV_l)CU JL.::> lUll. :>UCU!_;&.Il CU. LUC Ul:>Li1Ul. Ul CA.t.;(lVUL.lVll.
1'\.:S WUl UC
shown, an elastic analysis may be undertaken in two or more phases, with different values for
the elastic moduli for each, and thus achieve a somewhat greater simulation of actuality.
Several commentators have observed that the paper by Morgan (1961) on stresses around a
circular tunnel contains a basic error, apart from the intentional simplifying assumptions.
This Paper
sets out to correct the error., to extend the techniaue.
as a result
...
...
. . of twelve
.
. "'vears'
 .
further experience in the general approach to tunnel design based on the method, and to clarify
its application. There are several empirical approaches to the problems of tunnel design in
elastic ground but many of these make arbitrary and improbable assumptions which lead to
excessive loadings and in consequence generally to uneconomic designs (Schulze and Duddeck.
1964). The present situation is not aided by several records of strain measurements in tunnel
linings which, on account of instrumental defects, have been incorrectly interpreted in terms of
stress. Records of direct stress measurements known to the Author support the view that
there is a great merit in the light, flexible lining.
;
NOTATION
a, b, c, d, A, B, constants
c'
cohesion (in effective stress terms)
E
Young's modulus for lining (replaced
by EJ(Iv12 ) where lining continuous
along tunnel)
.,
Young's modulus for ground
F
stress function
Fe competence factor
Gc modulus of rigidity of the ground
I
second moment of area of lining per
unit length of tunnel
r. effective value of I for a jointed lining
/J
effective value of I at a joint in a lining
K
constant
k
coefficient of permeability for water
K0
I
M
m
n
p
p
p
Po
Pv
q
,.
117
,/
 .......
....
' '\\
I
I I
i1
I
I
\
\
\
'\
'....._ . j
/

u00
uw
Lip
"7
on undeform<d t u nnol
1
Refer~ce diagram for initial loading on tunnel prior to deformation
Fig. I.
Llr0
_.,
strain in ground
ratio of radius of lining centroid to that
of extrados
Morgan obtained a solution by consideri ng a circular lining deformed into the 'elliptical'
mode in elastic ground (F ig. 1), neglecting shear stresses between extrados and ground; this
omission is conservative and greatly simplifies the solution (Schmid, 1926 ; Engelbreth, 1961 ).
The solution then uses the Airy stress function in polar coordinates
(I)
where
a,. =
I o,P
I o2,P
r or + r
=
802
'J2,P
(2)
(3)
G:~) = (6cr 
(4)
T ro
 :,
+2dr  2 ) sin 20
From the assumed boundary condition, 'Tre=O where r= r0 for small displacements u (ur0).
Hence d= 3cr0  2 from equation (4) a=b =0 since a8 ~ 0 as r ~ c:x:>. Thus, from equations
(2) and (3)
a,.=  6c(r  4 2r0  2 r  2 )cos20
(5)
a0 = 6cr 4 cos20
(6)
11 8
A. M. MUIR W OOD
The error in Morgan's paper concerns the assumption, as for the thick pipe problem, that
plane strain entails plane stress, i.e. that a8 +a,= constant (which would follow from the simultaneous requirement of :=0 and a:= constant). It can readily be shown that aR+ ar=constant requires
oa,. 0
i.e. I:J, oc l fr 2
2a,+ r or =
and invariable with respect to 0.
Plane strain requires
so
(7)
and as
(8)
au
(10)
cr =
I.e.
u = 
(I + v)
Ec
2c(1+v)
[r  3 6(1v)r0 
2 ,. 1 ]
cos 20
hence
Uo
;c (l +v)(56v)
2cr  3
COS
or
28
u0 =
u0 cos 28
( I I)
3Ec
(I +v)(5  6v)r0
(12)
compared with >.. = 3Ecf(l + v)r0 deducible from Morgan . For v=025, '= 0685 Ecfr0 compared with A=24 Ecfr0 by Morgan and for v=05, A=Ec/r0 compared with A=2Ecfr0 by
Morgan.
Taking into account the stiffness of the lining and the loading transmitted to the ground
around the extrados, starting from an applied normal loading to the lining
p = Pv_P; {lcos 28)
(13)
it can readily be shown (Morgan, 1961) that, from consideration of change in curvature around
the tunnel, the induced maximum bending moment
1
Mmax = + 3uo
(14)
2
!ro
7J
119
But the corresponding maximum moment applied by the ground loading (equation ( 13)) is
+ Po,"'2'o2

(
max
\
\34)
ro = + Po'YJ 2ro2
1 + A'YJ9/
6
(15)
61(1 + v)(56v)+2'Y]a,oaEc
where equation (14) permits evaluat ion of il0 corresponding to the value of M mo.x red uced on
account of passive resistance of the ground.
The stiffness ratio, R. (Muir Wood, 1970) represents the ratio of the stiffness of the tunnel
lining (to deformation in the 'elliptical' mode) to that of the surrounding ground. Thus,
{l 7 )
s
Ec'YJa,oa
AYJ3'o 4
and t he reduction in bending moment to be carried by the lining is immediately apparent in
relation to its flexibility, since equation (16) may be written
(18)
Lyons and Reid (1974) provide some typical values for J and Ec
EFFECT OF SHEAR FORCES BETWEEN GROUND AND LlNlNG
For simplicity, shear forces between the ground and the lining have so far been neglected,
and it should be noted that this a lways leads to conservative solutions. However, it is known
that appreciable shear may be developed (Muir Wood, 1969) and the theory is not greatly
complicated if an explicit value for ground/lining shear stress is inserted and a means provided
for establishing its compatibility with these criteril1
(a) its maximum value must not exceed permissible shear stress between tunnel and
ground
(b) the related circumferential movement of the ground at r=r0 , assumed to be caused by
drag as the ring deforms, must not exceed that of the corresponding point on the deformed
ring. The introduction of shear stress between ground and lining implies that for
r=r 0
T.o = Tsin2 8
where Tis the value of shear stress at 0=7T/4. Thus. from equation (4)
d =  (3cr0  2 +tTr0 2 )
and hence,
o,. =  2(3cr 4  6cr  2 r0  2  Tr  2 r 0 2 ) cos 28
(19)
6cr 4 cos 20
(20)
o0
and
Tro
~'! =  ~ [ (6CI 4 ir
1:"
12cr  2 ro 
2
(2 1)
120
A. M. MUIR WOOD
I.e.
so
Uo
(22)
(3 +Tr04/2c)Ee
(23)
r 0 (1 +v)((5  6v) + T(lv)r0 4/2c)
Circumferential m ovement of a point o n the gro und/lining contact o n radius 8=rr/4, 3rr/4 is
given by
I.e.
llno
2( 1 +v) (4cr  3 + Tr )
Ec . 0
o
(24)
where
u00 =
I"
(dsct>)
rr4
where
dsct>
10
r l tir. \
H'de)
+r1 2
] 1/2
dO
so
o r smce
Uo
'o
I.e.
1Tfo
1100
rio
1Tfo
"'4 2 4 = 
fi0
2
(25)
(26)
(27)
where pis the value of the normal pressure between ground and lining at 0=11'/4, 3rr/4, i.e. the
mean value of this pressure between its extreme values at 8= 0, rr and at 0=11'/2, 31Tf2. The
initial pressure between the ground and the lining, given by equation (13), comprises a uniform
component (Pr p 0 j2)( = p), which is unvaried by the deformatio n of the lining in bending, and
a variable component p0 /2 cos 20. It may readily be shown by the use of equation (18) that,
in equilibri um, the variable component
~ = ~o R./(1 + R.)
121
Thus the normal pressure on the extrados of the deformed tunnel may be represented as
p
p+~cos 28c
(28)
It will be noted that equation (13) allows constant c to be evaluated in equations (22) or (26)
in terms of the variable loadingft by way of equation (19), since for r=r0 and 8=0
ft/2 =
ur =
(6cr0  4 +2T)
(29)
= ft/ 12r0 
(30)
'
~ (6v1)/(5  9v)
T <
(31)
(32)
3(p + 5T)Eo
.\ =
The assumption of linear stressstrain relationships of elasticity permits the effect of bending
and compression of the lining to be evaluated separately and the overall effect to be determined
by superimposition. The initial normal load between ground and tunnel is provided by
equation (13), and will be seen to vary between Pv at crown and (Pv p 0 ) at axis. The ratio
(pv  Po)!Pv (i.e. CPPo/2)/(fi+p0/2)) may be referred to as K 0 but the Author prefers to designate this ratio as N, a term more commonly used in rock mechanics, leaving K 0 for the axisymmetric case which is by no means the normal condition for tunnels in competent ground,
which has been subjected to tectonic activity. The constant component of loading is p
(equation (28)).
The general expression of stress in elastic ground around a circular tunnel causing a change
in uniform normal ground/lining pressure of magnitude t.lp is
where initially ar=a9=p.
The radial defiexion at r 0 is thus
~r0 =
A
) /
A )(
 ao(lE+v)ro = (p~p 1 +v r 0 Ec
(33)
The change in pressure t.lp will also give rise to compression of the tunnel lining yielding
t.lr0 = t.lpr0 2(lv12 )/ritE
(34)
where t is effe.ctive thickness of lining. Thus assuming no initial clearance between ground
and tunnel equations (33) and (34) must give
(pt.lp)(l +v)/Ec = t.lpro(lvJ2 )/ritE
or
.
(35)
122
A. M. MUlR WOOD
The compressibility factor Ro is defined as the compressibility of the tunnel in relation to that
of the surrounding ground (this is not the same as the compressibility ratio of Peck eta/. (1972)
.,. , 1,...;...,1,... ,.,,..,_,..;....t ......... +1.. ........... t: .... Ao .. ,....(',. ..,.. ... A A: ... t ............. A 1... .. . +t.. .... + .. ..  ......... 1\
nL.UU ''V.Uo:UUV.I..,, llo.l_U, V]J..U,J.U'"'.l
VI 51.VUUU UJ..>}JJ.U\;VU V}
I..U.V 'UUU""'I}
Thus
I)
~c
roE0(1vl 2)
'l]tE(l +v)
_
0
.Pi(l + Rc)
fjp =
(37)
whence is apparent the capability of reducing loading on the tunnel lining by providing a high
f'"f'\fnnrP~cihiliht
f~rtt'\r
...............J:' .............. .; .. ...., ..J ............
..., ...
GROUNDWATER
........
,.
..
..
...
..
....
'.
J.ne enect 01 a tunnel at oepm, prov1atng aramage 10r grounawater, IS to 1mpose rama1 oouy
forces represented as the pressure gradient
du:;
Kr
where K has to be evaluated in relation to rate of flow and permeability. For the special case
where permeability k is isotropic and constant (i.e. unaffected by changes in ground loading)
and 2'"q is the flow into unit length of tunnel,
dr
and
K= k/q
(38)
If the permeability of the tunnel lining is effectively less than the ground, it must directly
support the full hydrostatic pressure, assuming there are no other 'sinks'. Where the permeability of the tunnel lining is greater than that of the ground, it is possible to determine the
lt'\~r1~ tte~ncn'\itt~~>A tn th~ tnnnol "" ".J,,..I"'t'\nnt nf thP. o
Orf'\nnr1u.r~t~r
l='nr
thP r
c.nPr.i!:tl ~!:a<:~
....  ..... ...............
...
.....................
 nf
.. .
k =constant, equation (38) allows the condition of equilibrium to be stated thus
_ duw , d ,_
_ _ n
/'lO\
rr,rurJuo = v
\"')
dr dr
For the axisymmetrical case,
du
u
and
r
dr
thus
  . . .
"'4
................................. _
.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _
.......
...,. "
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... ....
..,~_,
do = O
o +rr
dr
or, smce
i.e.
duo
dar O
u11 ur+(1v) r dr vr dr =
From equation (39) a stress function F may be selected such that rur=F and
dF du,..
a8 =+rdr
dr
123
whence
d2F
dF
qr _
r ~+
r
;;:F+"
" 0
Ul
Uf
\1  .,)1\.
2
F = Ar+ B qr Jog. r
r....
'\1.1' 1
..4K t.l
~'
 VJ
and
and
Since
ur = u9
=0
r+ co,
where
=0
For free drainage through the lining, q can be determined for a given tunnel radius r 0
Without support from the lining O'r=O where r=r0 and
C') _
t __
B = r 0 q tv~. ro
2k(l v)
whence
(40)
and
ll
""'
'
ft ...
L'  : ..., t' L     1 ...... ..1 . .. .'L: .... L !  .,1.,.,.._ ,..,.. _ _;,...,a ,a; ..,.. ...... 1 t.. ... 1... ..,.
LUC H Cl\,;UVH Ul UIC waLct tvau w UJ\,.JJ 1;:, LU\.ou vcu Jtvu uu\A..u]' u J' """"'
L" L
lining.
HiGHER MODE DISTORTiONS Or THE TU'N"NEL
The first mode of distortion of the tunnel has been represented earlier in the Paper as
1 {i, co~ 28
r = r.vv
(42)
' '
(43)
.p = (cr 2 + d) cos m8
for the boundary conditions that O's=O'r=O where r+ co.
A. . . ...
VJ
/...,\
\,;'i.UO.UVU.:t \~)
Uo
,.....,A /11\
CIUU \.l .lJ
3
whence in combination with the equivalent to equation (5) the coefficient of ground reaction
may be determined
,_,
I Ail \
In Fig. 2 .\is plotted against mas a continuous curve applicable to the special circumstances of
thin pipes and of tunnel deformations in orthotropic ground (Brownrigg and Wood, i973)
124
A. M. MUIR WOOD
, ,.. 050
1 ool
V olS
07t
>.lEe
050
//
V=OOO
025
ooo
Fig. 2. Relationship between coefficient of ground reaction :h and mode of deformation m for different values
('f Pni~SJ) n ,R
r~ ti o
which do not precisely correspond to the condition of m being an integer. It will be noted that
the assumption of ,\ being constant for any number of deformation lobes, or for distortion
represented by a Fourier series, is unlikely to introduce error beyond the uncertainty of
the other physical factors.
APPLICATION OF THE METHOD
The design method described in this Paper is applied to changes of loading in the ground and
not as most other design methods (Hewett and Johannesson, 1922; Schulze and Duddeck,
1964) directly to the overburden pressure at the level of the tunnel. Clearly if a tunnel were
inserted into the ground without relaxation of the initial state of stress then the values of Pv
and (Pv  p 0 ) to be inserted into equations (13) would represent the initial conditions of vertical
and horizontal grouiid load ; where the degree of relaxation is unknown, 1t 1s safe but possibly
very conservative to select these initial values. Consideration of a circular tunnel seen as a
hole being drilled through an elastic solid suggests that at the face the state of stress in the r, B
plane will be intermediate between the intact and the perforated condition, e.g. the value of
Ur(r c r n\
Po
\
= P = ~1 ('.' Pv;:;[ICOS 2011
I
~
(45)
and the loads on the tunnel lining can be derived by considering such an initial value. Panet
(1973) suggests that, as the face is not maintained effectively plane only about t (and not! as
suggested above) of inward movement of ground had occurred at the plane of the face. Panet
does not consider how this fraction is affected by the distance between the face and the leading
reality, for cohesive ground, it is known that a viscoelastic condition should be considered.
At its simplest, this may imply a reduction of Ec with time so that it would be unacceptable to
assume any appreciable reduction in effective load as suggested by equation (44). The threedimensional timedependent state of stress around an advancing tunnel bas a complexity beyond the scope of this Paper but reasonable upper and lower limits of the fraction of p ... and
(pv p 0 ) may be postulated for particular circumstances to check whether the range of uncertainty may be so great as to merit its reduction by experiment and analysis in the interest of
economy.
It is generally far easier to control the stiffness ratio Rs of the tunnel lining (equation (17))
than its compressibility factor Rc (equation (36)) as for a given lining material, E, the ratio
between stress and strain at acceptable working load limit cannot easily be varied; but hinges
125
,, __
Equilibrium
"
"
e:~
Equillbrlu

. .
Hard l ining
,.:1p : p 0
.dp
Fig. 3. Diagrammatic representation of the benefit or an initial phase or high compressibility of a lining in
relation to its ultimate condition of loading, pAp
can be introduced into the lining. For steel or concrete E is about an order of magnitude
too high for optimum load sharing in a wide range of ground calling for permanent support.
There are several methods which might be adopted to increase the compressibility ratio,
which are as follows.
Temporary peripheral jacks can be used in the lining, for example allowing a controlled degree of closure of the ring by keeping a constant load on each jack. The period of jacking
must depend on the speed of tunnel advance and the timedependent ground properties. This
method could be used for an expanded lining.
Frangible packing between ground and lining could be used to control maximum radial
loading. Such a method, which could be attempted by the use of aerated grout outside a ring
of lining, would require much care to avoid uneven loading.
Use could be made of a first stage compressible lining of a shotcrete variety with deliberately
reduced E.
Yielding arches and supports could be used, a long standing practice in mines (usually
hydraulic supports) and small diameter rock tunnels (usually depending upon friction joints),
placed before a permanent lining.
Compressible radial packings could be inserted in rings of lining to achieve reduced effective
value of E for the lining until a certain predetermined circumferential strain has been reached,
after which the value of E appropriate to the principal lining material would supervene (Muir
Wood, 1973).
The criterion for stability of the ground, however, must always satisfy the MohrCoulomb
condition
_( 1 +sin </>') ,
.~,.,
(46)
O'o(r=ro) < p (1  sin </>') + c cos 't'
Such expedients permit an analysis of loading, using equation (37) up to a certain value of
..::Jr0 jr 0 provided by the deliberately increased compressibility ratio with subsequent loading for
the ultimate ring compressibility added thereto. Fig. 3 shows simply how this analysis may
be combined with a reduced value for Eo to provide a more realistic provision for the effects of
quasielastic creep. For a high enough competence factor Fe (Muir Wood, 1972) the lining
may alternatively be delayed until a large fraction of inward movement of the ground has been
completed. In all such expedients regard must be paid to the effects of relaxation on other
structures. For a simple approach to this problem see Muir Wood (1970).
126
A. M. MUIR WOOD
Where a lining is composed of segments, the stiffness at the joints may be appreciably less
than elsewhere and, for abutting joints, clearly the effective stiffness will be increased as the
__ ...,; ....
...... _ _ __
.A. ...
~V
TJ:'AL ...
~~ ~UC
designated as ~. the corresponding effective value of I for the ring, 18 , to be used in equation
(17) for determining R3 , may be approximately calculated. While generally the load around
the tunnel will have two maxima and two minima, for four or fewer segments the existence of
joints may not affect ring stiffness. For an increased number of equal segments, say n, we
m~v ~~~nmP. !:U~ ~ fir<:t ~nnrnYim~tinn !:a n~r~hnlil"'. PnvPinnP tn hPnrfino mnmPnt ~rnnnrf ~ c.Po...
 ~
          r ~:        r     r       o   .           o
and thus, where JJ 1 for an expanded and articulating lining of, say, eight segments, l 6 =lj4.
For the special case of an elliptical tunnel in orthotropic ground whose elastic moduli are
approximately in the ratio of the axes of the ellipse (the greater ground modulus being parallel
to the major axis) it is possible, for a first approximation, to transform the problem into that of
a circular tunnel with appropriate factors for correction. Where the value of N corresponds
,. ___...,_.:_
.......... 1.. . ..... L .... _..,..,: .... .... C' .... .4t.. ... ... _ .... _; ....
O.J:'.IJlVA.llll<l~ClJ
~V
UlC 1<1UlJ Vl
 ...1
 ....:1 . 1!
lUVUUH,
Will lJC UV
'...:11! "" :_
UCHUIU~
lllUlHClH 111
the lining. An approach of this nature has served as a first guide to the behaviour of elliptical
tunnels with horizontal axis approximately 15 times the vertical axis in Lias Clay and in
London Clay. For the general case of orthotropic ground Brownrigg and Wood (1973) permit estimation of the value of effective Eo to be assumed for best application of the simple
which
 may give far more insight into the relative importance of the relevant factors than immediate
recourse to computer methods, which may as a second stage far better serve in reproducing
a more vaiid representation of the probiem.
An elastic method may serve to indicate upper and lower limits, even where cyclic tests on
the ground indicate considerable departures from a linear relation between stress and strain.
From multicyclical load tests, lines of slope of Ec may be selected as corresponding to the
lowest and the highest reasonable value for Ec.
TherP.
merit
in :mnlvina"'
methori of
     is
  re ::tl
    r rJ o  simnle
 ..r   :~n:~lvsis
 ., ... . ... to
 ::l
 tnnne
 l clP.sion nrohle m
 ~ 
...U. V ~ "
... T, A
Y1'U.LU. J.44"'t.V.l
~  or    
,. ....,.., ..._.1 ....,,.. +;,. ...,.. ..,.+l.,,...,.:l .ol..,to t" f,... fh a. ,...k,...;roA 1"\f 'f")lu.o
.11.1. UJ.J.}
I.V
........v
"'I"'\iccnn 1c
A "'"'""""'"' U
ratio v. A simple illustration may be provided by assuming that elastic ground of low permeability bas, when unsaturated or for slow loading, values of Young's modulus and Poisson's
ratio, E0 and v respectively. For rapid loading in plane strain of total loads {Tr and as the
strains Er and Eo will each be reduced by [(1 +v)/Ec]u., where u., is porepressure (assuming a
value ofunitv
for ...norenre.c;sure
behaviour in total stress terms
"'
...
 factor
 At
,, and thus the aooarent
... ...
will imply that Poisson's ratio is variable with values varying between 05 and v. Where
drainage occurs towards the tunnel excess porepressures will have a higher value away from
      ..1
t"... .. . _ ... _ ....
4.1 ,.. 4.\.. ...
Lm: Lunnt:t ana tnus tne OJStnouuon or Joao 1n tnc grvunu
w1 u uc u1v1c Iuvvutuvtc ~uo.u .u u ~
assumed for the simple elastic case. Clearly the variation of v in effective stress terms merits
considerably better understanding; ground testing and sample testing should be designed towards this end. Provided sufficient regard is paid to variability of the ground, jacking tests
with circular and elongated pressure plates of comparable area (approximately representing a
41.
4      '
_ _ .J
..., ____
.._._ _
~~  '"'  " 1 
nl::~ne str::tin
m:~v
 .....  ........ ~onrlition)
 ....... J
r ~ ~ 
~,
. ..._!
t"" 11 
 ..t
..
..._, __
 .!11 L  

\..1 ...
4.
Generally, tunnel loading problems should be treated in effective stress terms. In the
absence of better information, a part of this Paper may serve to indicate the pattern of piezomeiric pressures for cohesive ground, on compieiion of consolidation.
127
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The Author acknowledges much benefit from discussions over the years with colleagues and
others concerned with the application of these design methods. He also wishes to thank Mr
Frank Cooper, MSc, MICE, for criticism and comment during drafting.
REFERENCES
Brownrigg, D. R. K. & Wood, W. L. (1973). Deformation of tunnel with variable ground reaction. Proc.
Instn Civ. Engrs 55, 479486.
Engelbreth, K. (1961). Correspondence on Morgan. Geotechnique 11, No. 3, 246248.
Hewett, B. H. M. & Johannessen, S. (1922). Shield and compressed air tunnelling. McGrawHill.
Lyons, A. C. & Reed, A. J. (1974). Modern cast iron tunnel and shaft linings. 2nd Rapid Exc. and Tunnel.
Con[., San Francisco.
Morgan, H. D. (1961). A contribution to the analysis of stress in a circular tunnel. Geotechnique 11,
3746.
Muir Wood, A. M. (1969). Proc. VIIth Conference of Int. Soc. of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engng,
Mexico 3, 363 365.
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