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CONTENTS

Certificate
Acknowledgement
Abstract
Introduction
Block Diagram
o Transmitter Unit
o Receiver Unit
Blocks in Brief
o Transmitter Unit
o Receiver Unit
Note
Working in Brief
Components Used in detail
o PS2 Port
o PS2 Keyboard
o ATMEGA 168/328
o Liquid crystal display
o

Transmitter and Receiver

Supply Block

Voltage Regulator IC 7805

Bridge Rectifier

Step Down Transformer

Software Component
o Arduino Compiler

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This is a project synopsis of WIRELESS ENCRYPTED
SECURED DATA TRANSMITTER USING KEYBOARD we are
very thankful to our project guide Prof. DILIP SHARMA,
Department of Electronics and communication engineering, Ujjain
engineering college, Ujjain for his invaluable guidance and
assistance, without which the accomplishment of the task would
have never been possible. We also thank him for giving his
opportunity to explore into the real world and realize the
interrelation.
We extend our most sincere thanks to Dr. BHAWNA JHARIYA
(HOD of Electronics & communication Engineering) for their
cooperation during the project work and also we are thankful to
all the professor and teacher for their support and cooperation.
It is our privilege to express our gratitude to Dr. C.D. PATIL,
Principal of Ujjain engineering college, Ujjain for providing me an
excellent environment to complete my work successfully.

Abhishek Bhatt(0701EC111001)
Rahul Patidar(0701EC111038)
Rohit Gupta(0701EC111044)

Shri Krishna Jatiya(0701EC111051)

ABSTRACT
The Aim of this project is to provide secure Data/Message
transmission between any two devices. In this project we learn
about Cryptography, how to Encrypt and Decrypt the data. Due to
Encryption the benefit is that not anyone can decrypt the
message, only authentic receiver can Decrypt the message. So,
we can say the key learning of the project is Cryptography.
We also learn about Microcontroller and how to program it
for Encryption and Decryption, Arduino, RF transmitter and
receivers.

INTRODUCTION
Today, we live in an age of wireless revolution where every
effort is directed towards getting rid of wires. Removing wires not
only makes things easy but also improves speed of operation.
Challenging thing is that to provide data security and secured
transmission.
This project is used to communicate or transmit a text
message from one place to another place through wireless RF
medium in a secure way. The text message entered via keyboard
is encoded by microcontroller and the written (encoded) message
will be transmitted through wireless. This is a very secure way of
data transmission because before transmission we encrypt the
messages.
At the receiver end the signal will be received by the
standard receiver and the analog signal was fed to the
microcontroller and which will be decoded by the microcontroller
and the message will displayed over the LCD display.
We can use multiple receivers and multiple messages sent
from the transmitter and received at the various receivers at the
same time. Receiver can be accessed separately by its address.
The micro-controller is used to do the above work. It gets data
from the Keyboard and encodes it with a private algorithm and at
the receiver end the microcontroller decodes it with the same
algorithm and displays the data over the LCD display. At the

receiver end there is a button (switch) on pressing which we can


get the original data.
Encoding and Decoding process is performed by software.
Encoding is the process in which plaintext message is converted
into not code word and decoder converts the not code word data
in the text form (if same algorithm is used as encoder).

Block Diagram :
Transmitter Unit :

POWER
POWER
SUPPLY
SUPPLY

PS2
Keyboard

Microcontroller

Transmitter

Receiver Unit :
DE-ENCRPTION
CONTROL SWITCH

Receiver

Microcontroller

LCD
DISPLAY

POWER
SUPPLY

BLOCKS IN BRIEF

Transmitter Unit:
PS2 Keyboard:
This is keyboard interface with buttons having alphabets,
numeric, special characters and control buttons. User can write
any type of data with it. This data is encrypted by some other
unit and transmit the data in a easy and secure manner to the
receiver.
Microcontroller:
This consists of the controller ATMEGA168 which is being
programmed to take the input and generate the desired output.
It is intermediate part of PS2 Keyboard and transmitter. It is
connected with keyboard as well as transmitting antenna. Once
the data entered by user with the help of Keyboard it
immediately encrypt the data with the help of algorithm fed by
user in the Microcontroller than only those person can decrypt
the message who have the correct knowledge of algorithm
used in encryption unit that why it is secure and also easy way
to communicate in a secure manner.
Power Supply :

This block provides the power to the various parts of the


transmitting unit in a uniform way so we can perform the task
of transmission in a comfort manner.
RF Transmitting Antenna :
This is basically 434MHz carrier wave antenna which
will transmit the encrypted data wirelessly.
LCD: This is a 16X2 B/W LCD used to display the data.

Receiver Unit:

RF Receiving Antenna:
This is basically 434 MHz RF frequency receiver which will
receive the data wirelessly.
Microcontroller Unit :
This consists of the controller ATMEGA168 which is being
programmed to take the input and generate the desired output.
Basically, its work is to convert the encrypted data into an
original data or message. Also this unit controls the various parts
of receiver.
Decryption Button :
Its use is to decrypt the message and showing of correct
message on the LCD.
LCD: This is a 16X2 B/W LCD used to display the data.
Power Supply :

This block provides the power to the various parts of the


transmitting unit in a uniform way so we can perform the task
of transmission in a comfort manner.

WORKING IN BRIEF
The main function/working part of the project is controller via
programming that is PS2 protocol, According to the efficient
programming done and interfacing if the user types anything on
keyboard that will be display on LCD in the transmitter block. The
controller checks for this protocol efficiency. As the user press the
enter key on the keyboard the data is encrypted as per coding
and transmitted to remote location receiver. The receiver receives
the data as it is and gives it to the controller which is displayed on
the receiver LCD in encrypted form. There is a control switch
pressing the encrypted data will be de-encrypted and displayed
on the LCD.
The back bone of this project is Encryption and Decryption of
data via a program/algorithm fed in the Microcontroller via a
Arduino IDE Software.
With the help of this project we can send different messages
or different data on a different receiver separately. All the
receivers have separate address to access. So, transmitter can
easily access those receivers on which they want to send a

message but receiver can only access the data when it uses the
same algorithm used to encrypt the data.

COMPONENTS USED IN DETAIL


Hardware:
The major components used in this project are

Keyboard (PS2)
PS2 Port
Microcontroller
RF transmitter and receiver
LCD Display
Power Supply

PS2 PORT :

The PS/2 connector is a 6-pin Mini-DIN connector used for


connecting some keyboards and mice to a PC compatible
computer system. Its name comes from the IBM Personal
System/2 series of personal computers, with which it was
introduced in 1987. The PS/2 mouse connector generally replaced
the older DE-9 RS-232 "serial mouse" connector, while the PS/2
keyboard connector replaced the larger 5-pin/180 DIN connector
used in the IBM PC/AT design. The PS/2 designs on keyboard and
mouse interfaces are electrically similar and employ the same
communication protocol. However, a given system's keyboard and
mouse port may not be interchangeable since the two devices use
a different set of commands.
Nowadays this pin has one modified form which is USB. USB
is better than PS2 pin due to its comfort ability to plug in and out.
Also it gives fast response compare to PS2 but due to some
specific properties it still used at some places.

1.

CLOCK

2.

GROUND

3.

DATA

4.

N/C

5.

Vcc

6.

N/C

PS2 KEYBOARD :

It is a basic Keyboard used in computers which have


numeric, alphabetic, special characters and some control keys.

ATMEGA 168/328 :

The Atmel AVR core combines a rich instruction set with 32


general purpose working registers. All the 32 registers are directly
connected to the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), allowing two
independent registers to be accessed in one single instruction
executed in one clock cycle. The resulting architecture is more
code efficient while achieving throughputs up to ten times faster
than conventional CISC microcontrollers.

The Atmega168 provides the following features: 16 Kbytes of


In-System Programmable Flash with Read-While-Write capabilities,
512 bytes of EEPROM, 1 Kbyte of SRAM, 23 general purpose I/O
lines, 32 general purpose working registers, three flexible
Timer/Counters with compare modes, internal and external
interrupts, a serial programmable USART, a byte oriented Two
wire Serial Interface, a 6-channel ADC (eight channels in TQFP and
QFN/MLF packages) with 10-bit accuracy, a programmable
Watchdog Timer with Internal Oscillator, an SPI serial port, and
five software selectable power saving modes. The Idle mode stops
the CPU while allowing the SRAM; Timer/Counters, SPI port, and
interrupt system to continue functioning.

The Power down mode saves the register contents but


freezes the Oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the
next Interrupt or Hardware Reset. In Power-save mode, the
asynchronous timer continues to run, allowing the user to
maintain a timer base while the rest of the device is sleeping. The
ADC Noise Reduction mode stops the CPU and all I/O modules
except asynchronous timer and ADC, to minimize switching noise
during ADC conversions. In Standby mode, the crystal/resonator

Oscillator is running while the rest of the device is sleeping. This


allows very fast start-up combined with low-power consumption.

Liquid Crystal Display :


This is a 16x2 Black and White LCD for the display of the
data at the transmitter as well as receiver unit.

The
16x2
Black
and
White
LCD
have 16
pins all have different functions described below:

pin 1: ground

pin 2: 5V

pin 3: 3.3k resistor

pin 4: digital pin 12

pin 5: ground

pin 6: digital pin 11

pin 7: nothing

pin 8: nothing

pin 9: nothing

pin 10: nothing

pin 11: digital pin 5

pin 12: digital pin 4

pin 13: digital pin 3

pin 14: digital pin 2

pin 15: 5V

pin 16: 47 resistor

The Digital Pins are used to feed data in the LCD through
Arduino with the help of programming.

RF transmitter & receiver :

Transmission through RF is better than IR (infrared)


because of many reasons. Firstly, signals through RF can travel
through larger distances making it suitable for long range
applications. Also, while IR mostly operates in line-of-sight mode,
RF signals can travel even when there is an obstruction between
transmitter & receiver. Next, RF transmission is more strong and

reliable than IR transmission. RF communication uses a specific


frequency unlike IR signals which are affected by other IR emitting
sources.

This RF module comprises of an RF Transmitter and


an RF Receiver. The transmitter/receiver (Tx/Rx) pair operates at
a frequency of 434 MHz. An RF transmitter receives serial data
and transmits it wirelessly through RF through its antenna
connected at pin4. The transmission occurs at the rate of 1Kbps 10Kbps.The transmitted data is received by an RF receiver
operating at the same frequency as that of the transmitter. The RF
module, as the name suggests, operates at Radio Frequency. The
corresponding frequency range varies between 30 kHz & 300
GHz. In this RF system, the digital data is represented as
variations in the amplitude of carrier wave. This kind of
modulation is known as Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK).

The RF module is often used along with a pair of


encoder/decoder. The encoder is used for encoding parallel data
for transmission feed while reception is decoded by a decoder.
HT12E-HT12D, HT640-HT648, etc. are some commonly used
encoder/decoder pair ICs.

Pin Diagram:

Pin Description:

RF Transmitter
Pin No
1
2
3
4

Function
Ground (0V)
Serial data input pin
Supply voltage; 5V
Antenna output pin

Name
Ground
Data
Vcc
ANT

RF Receiver
Pin No
1
2
3
4

Function
Ground (0V)
Serial data output pin
Linear output pin; not connected
Supply voltage; 5V

Name
Ground
Data
NC
Vcc

5
6
7
8

Supply voltage; 5V
Ground (0V)
Ground (0V)
Antenna input pin

Vcc
Ground
Ground
ANT

Power Supply Block :

The power supply consists of a step down transformer


230/12V, which steps down the voltage to 12V AC. This is
converted to DC using a Bridge rectifier. The ripples are removed
using a capacitive filter and it is then regulated to +5V using a
voltage regulator 7805 which is required for the operation of the
microcontroller and other components.

Voltage Regulator IC 7805


7805 is a voltage regulator integrated circuit. It is a member
of 78xx series of fixed linear voltage regulator ICs. The voltage
source in a circuit may have fluctuations and would not give the
fixed voltage output. The voltage regulator IC maintains the

output voltage at a constant value. The xx in 78xx indicates the


fixed output voltage it is designed to provide. 7805 provides +5V
regulated power supply. Capacitors of suitable values can be
connected at input and output pins depending upon the
respective voltage levels.

Pin Description:
P

Function

Name

1
2
3

Input voltage (5V-18V)


Ground (0V)
Regulated output; 5V (4.8V-5.2V)

Input
Ground
Output

in
No

Bridge Rectifier : Its work is to convert AC power supply into DC


power.

StepDown Transformer :
Its work is to reduce the AC voltage from 220V to 12V(or
lower voltage). There are two types of Transformers i.e. Step Up
and Step Down. If number of windings in primary side is more
than it is Step Down transformer. Similarly, if more winding is in
secondary side than it is Step Up transformer.

SOFTWARE COMPONENT:

ARDUINO COMPILER :

The Arduino IDE is a cross-platform application written


in Java, and is derived from the IDE for the Processing
programming language and the Wiring project. It is designed to
introduce programming to artists and other newcomers unfamiliar
with software development. It includes a code editor with features
such as syntax highlighting, brace matching, and automatic
indentation, and is also capable of compiling and uploading
programs to the board with a single click. There is typically no
need to edit make files or run programs on a command-line
interface. Although building on command-line is possible if
required with some third-party tools such as Ino.

The Arduino IDE comes with a C/C++ library called "Wiring"


(from the project of the same name), which makes many common
input/output operations much easier. Arduino programs are
written in C/C++.

APPLICATIONS :

Secretly Transmit Messages.


Wireless data acquisition with security.
Military applications.
It can be used as a zero cost online pager.
Car security system
Sensor reporting
Remote Keyless Entry (RKE)
Wireless Alarm and Security Systems
Long Range RFID
Automated Resource Management

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Vibha Tiwari INFORMATION THEORY AND CODING


Cryptography : Encryption And Decryption

R.S.Sedha APPIED ELECTRONICS Basic Electronic


Component : B JT, 7805 Voltage Regulator IC, Special
Purpose Diode, Bridge Rectifier

en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryptography/Encoder and
Decoder

http://www.engineersgarage.com/electroniccomponents/rfmodule-transmitter-receiver

https://www.sparkfun.com/Basic 16*2 Character LCD


Black and
White 5V

voltage

http://www.electronichub.org/understanding-7805-icregulator

embeddedsoftdev.blogspot.com/p/arduino.html

http://www.rsa.com/

http://www.sunrom.com

http://www.webopedia.com/

http://www.alldatasheet.com/

http://www.cs.colostate.edu/