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Booklet 2

Cambridge PRIMARY

Science

Teachers Resource Samples

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We at Cambridge University Press International Education are driven by a simple imperative:
to work alongside educators and learners to provide individuals with accessible, inspirational
learning resources that lead them to a lifetime of achievement. We are proud to share the goldstandard tradition and contemporary relevance of the University of Cambridge. For us, academic
rigour, innovative thinking and leading edge practices are crucial aspects of delivering the
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educational materials, resources and services to teachers and learners, from ages 3-19, in over
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In an ever-changing global educational environment, Cambridge University Press aims to
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education.cambridge.org

A view from the publisher why


we have commissioned Cambridge
Primary Science
An enquiry-based, language-rich approach
to learning with an international focus
Methodology and approach
Cambridge Primary Science is a flexible series that can be used to support a range
of teaching methods in different settings. We do this by offering a variety of ideas
for activities to support teaching and learning of each objective in the curriculum
framework, from which you can select those most suited to your learners.
In keeping with the Cambridge International Examinations curriculum framework,
Cambridge Primary Science strongly supports a science curriculum in which
enquiry is central. Support for the scientific enquiry learning objectives is
embedded across the series, with full guidance for teachers on how to develop
the required skills. Throughout, activities are suggested that will help learners to
discover and investigate scientific concepts for themselves in an engaging way.
Cambridge Primary Science is a truly international series, written for a global
audience. Exercises focussing on scientific vocabulary and suggestions for
classroom discussion are included throughout the series, thus supporting
development of language as well as subject knowledge. Examples from a
wide range of international settings are included and alternative activities are
suggested in case certain materials are hard to come by in your part of the world.

Key features
In our Learners Books, all required learning objectives are covered in an engaging visual
layout and suggestions for hands-on activities encourage enquiry-led learning. The Talk
about it! features stimulates classroom discussion and the Check your progress questions
present assessment opportunities and help learners prepare for the Progression and
Checkpoint Tests.
In the Activity Books, additional exercises for each topic may be completed in class or set
as homework. The exercises help to consolidate understanding, apply knowledge in new
situations and develop scientific enquiry skills. Core vocabulary is developed in a dedicated
language activity for each unit in Stages 3 to 6.
The Teachers Resource Book with CD-ROM offers support for using all three components.
The teaching ideas offer flexibility with plenty of activity suggestions, as well as guidance on
differentiation, assessment and using resources available online. Additionally, a collection of
worksheets supports suggested activities. The resource offers flexible delivery, with all content
both in print and in editable format on the CD-ROM.
We hope you enjoy your sample copy and dont forget to visit
education.cambridge.org/cambridgeprimary to find out more!
The International Education team

Introducing Cambridge Primary


Cambridge Primary series
In addition to our market-leading titles for Cambridge Checkpoint, Cambridge O Level,
Cambridge IGCSE and Cambridge International AS and A Level, we will be publishing an
exciting new series for the Cambridge Primary curriculum frameworks developed by Cambridge
International Examinations for Stages 1-6 and for the Cambridge Primary English as a Second
Language (ESL) curriculum framework developed by Cambridge English Language Assessment.
This will complete the learners journey with Cambridge materials from Primary to Pre-University.
We are working with Cambridge International Examinations towards endorsement of the
brand new suite of products for English, Mathematics and Science. Cambridge Global English
will not go through the Cambridge endorsement process as it follows the curriculum framework
developed by Cambridge English Language Assessment.

About the Cambridge Primary Curriculum


Cambridge Primary, typically for 511 year olds, gives schools a curriculum framework to develop
skills, knowledge and understanding in younger learners. Cambridge Primary provides guidance
for curriculum development and classroom teaching and learning. It enables teachers to assess
childrens learning as they progress with Cambridge Primary Progression Tests. [Cambridge English
Language Assessment tests for learners at the Cambridge Primary stage are: Cambridge English
Starters, Movers and Flyers and Key English Test (KET) for schools].

About Cambridge Primary Science


Cambridge Primary Science fully covers the Cambridge Primary Science curriculum framework.
The course offers plenty of teaching ideas to give flexibility, allowing teachers to select activities
most appropriate to their classroom and learners.
An enquiry-based style of teaching and learning is stimulated, with the scientific enquiry
objectives integrated throughout to encourage learning of these skills alongside the scientific
concepts. The language level is carefully pitched to be accessible to EAL/ESL learners, with
concepts illustrated through diagrams to allow visual understanding and learning. There is
dedicated support for practising scientific language and vocabulary.
Comprehensive teaching support helps teachers to bring all elements of the course together in
the classroom.
IGCSE is the registered trademark of Cambridge International Examinations.

What is in your free sample?


Included you will find a representative sample chapter for two stages of:

Cambridge Primary Science Teachers Resource Book

There is another sample booklet available titled Science Booklet 1 which has within it sample
chapters for two stages of:

Cambridge Primary Science Learners Book

Cambridge Primary Science Activity Book

To see samples of all stages as they become available simply visit


education.cambridge.org/cambridgeprimary

What is in the complete series?


Cambridge Primary Science

Learners Books

Cambridge Primary Science Learners Book 1 - 9781107611382

Cambridge Primary Science Learners Book 2 - 9781107611399

Cambridge Primary Science Learners Book 3 - 9781107611412

Cambridge Primary Science Learners Book 4 - 9781107674509

Cambridge Primary Science Learners Book 5 - 9781107663046

Cambridge Primary Science Learners Book 6 - 9781107699809

Activity Books

Cambridge Primary Science Activity Book 1 - 9781107611429

Cambridge Primary Science Activity Book 2 - 9781107611436

Cambridge Primary Science Activity Book 3 - 9781107611450

Cambridge Primary Science Activity Book 4 - 9781107656659

Cambridge Primary Science Activity Book 5 - 9781107658974

Cambridge Primary Science Activity Book 6 - 9781107643758

Teachers Resource Books

Cambridge Primary Science Teachers Resource Book with CD-ROM 1 - 9781107611467

Cambridge Primary Science Teachers Resource Book with CD-ROM 2 - 9781107611481

Cambridge Primary Science Teachers Resource Book with CD-ROM 3 - 9781107611504

Cambridge Primary Science Teachers Resource Book with CD-ROM 4 - 9781107661516

Cambridge Primary Science Teachers Resource Book with CD-ROM 5 - 9781107676732

Cambridge Primary Science Teachers Resource Book with CD-ROM 6 - 9781107662025

How do I order, find out more and register my interest?


Simply visit education.cambridge.org/cambridgeprimary for more information on
the series, extended sample material and to pre-order your copies!

Also available for Cambridge Primary


Cambridge Primary Mathematics

Learners Books

Cambridge Primary Mathematics Learners Book 1 - 9781107631311

Cambridge Primary Mathematics Learners Book 2 - 9781107615823

Cambridge Primary Mathematics Learners Book 3 - 9781107667679

Cambridge Primary Mathematics Learners Book 4 - 9781107662698

Cambridge Primary Mathematics Learners Book 5 - 9781107638228

Cambridge Primary Mathematics Learners Book 6 - 9781107618596

Games Books

Cambridge Primary Mathematics Games Book with CD-ROM 1 - 9781107646407

Cambridge Primary Mathematics Games Book with CD-ROM 2 - 9781107623491

Cambridge Primary Mathematics Games Book with CD-ROM 3 - 9781107694019

Cambridge Primary Mathematics Games Book with CD-ROM 4 - 9781107685420

Cambridge Primary Mathematics Games Book with CD-ROM 5 - 9781107614741

Cambridge Primary Mathematics Games Book with CD-ROM 6 -9781107667815

Teachers Resource Books

Cambridge Primary Mathematics Teachers Resource Book with CD-ROM 1 - 9781107656833

Cambridge Primary Mathematics Teachers Resource Book with CD-ROM 2 - 9781107640733

Cambridge Primary Mathematics Teachers Resource Book with CD-ROM 3 - 9781107668898

Cambridge Primary Mathematics Teachers Resource Book with CD-ROM 4 - 9781107692947

Cambridge Primary Mathematics Teachers Resource Book with CD-ROM 5 - 9781107658547

Cambridge Primary Mathematics Teachers Resource Book with CD-ROM 6 - 9781107694361

We also have a comprehensive range of materials for Cambridge Checkpoint, Cambridge IGCSE,
Cambridge O Level and Cambridge International AS and A Level.
Simply visit education.cambridge.org for more information on all these series.

How do I order, find out more and register my interest?


Simply visit education.cambridge.org/cambridgeprimary for more information on
the series, extended sample material and to pre-order your copies!

Also available for Cambridge Primary


Cambridge Global English*

Learners Books

Cambridge Global English Learners Book with Audio CD 1 - 9781107676091

Cambridge Global English Learners Book with Audio CD 2 - 9781107613805

Cambridge Global English Learners Book with Audio CD 3 - 9781107613843

Cambridge Global English Learners Book with Audio CD 4 - 9781107613638

Cambridge Global English Learners Book with Audio CD 5 - 9781107619814

Cambridge Global English Learners Book with Audio CD 6 - 9781107621251

Activity Books

Cambridge Global English Activity Book 1 - 9781107655133

Cambridge Global English Activity Book 2 - 9781107613812

Cambridge Global English Activity Book 3 - 9781107613836

Cambridge Global English Activity Book 4 - 9781107613614

Cambridge Global English Activity Book 5 - 9781107621237

Cambridge Global English Activity Book 6 - 9781107626867

Teachers Resource Books

Cambridge Global English Teachers Resource Book 1 - 9781107642263

Cambridge Global English Teachers Resource Book 2 - 9781107664968

Cambridge Global English Teachers Resource Book 3 - 9781107656741

Cambridge Global English Teachers Resource Book 4 - 9781107690745

Cambridge Global English Teachers Resource Book 5 - 9781107646124

Cambridge Global English Teachers Resource Book 6 - 9781107635814

*Cambridge Global English has not been through the Cambridge endorsement process.

We also have a comprehensive range of materials for Cambridge Checkpoint, Cambridge IGCSE,
Cambridge O Level and Cambridge International AS and A Level.
Simply visit education.cambridge.org for more information on all these series.

Cambridge PRIMARY

Science

Teachers Resource

Unit
Being alive

Jon Board
Alan Cross

Unit

Teaching ideas
Background knowledge

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Some things are alive, some are dead and some things have never been alive. The characteristics of
living things are movement, respiration (needing air), sensitivity, growth, reproduction, excretion
(producing waste) and nutrition (needing food and water). Learners do not need to memorise these
characteristics at this stage. But they should start to think about the differences between things that
are alive and things that are not. Some objects, such as rainbows and fire, may confuse learners.
Be aware that some learners may not have experienced the death of a relative or a pet at this stage.
However, some learners will have had this experience, perhaps recently. Treat this topic with care.

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Living things inhabit local environments. An environment needs to provide food and shelter for
animals. An environment needs to provide suitable soil and the right amount of water and light for
plants. (Plants need nutrients from the soil.) Animals and plants also need protection from predators
(including humans) to survive. Different animals inhabit the same and different environments. For
example, a bat and a pigeon may live in the same local habitat but eat slightly different foods, find
food in different ways and sleep in different places. Some animals live in their natural habitats. Some
animals are kept in unnatural habitats such as zoos. You may wish to talk about the work zoos
undertake in the field of conservation in terms appropriate to the learners age.

ts

Animals produce young. These young grow into healthy adults who themselves produce young.
Plants also have young. They produce seeds in the flower which are dispersed, for example, by wind
or by insects. Insects also help in the fertilisation of seeds. The reproduction of plants is beyond the
scope of this unit, but learners may ask about it.

dr

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Humans need a healthy diet. Some foods are healthy, for example, fruit and vegetables contain fibre,
minerals and vitamins. Other foods are less healthy, for example, high sugar foods. Too many of
these foods can lead to tooth decay and obesity. A healthy lifestyle is important and includes healthy
food choices, exercise and the right amount of sleep. Remember that learners at this stage will not
have much control over their diet. Treat this subject carefully.

Cambridge Primary Science 1

11

Unit 1 Teaching ideas

Unit overview
Topic

Number
of
lessons

Outline of lesson
content

Resources
in Learners
Book

Resources
in Activity
Book

Resources
in Teachers
Resource

1.1 Animals
and plants
alive!

Learners find out


that there are living
things and things
that have never
been alive.

Activity 1.1

Exercise 1.1

Worksheet 1.1a

Su

Ex

Su

Worksheet 1.1b

Su

Resource sheet 1.1

L
2

Learning about the


local environments
which suit different
animals and
plants. Learners
explore this for
themselves.

Activity 1.2a

Exercise 1.2

Worksheet 1.2a

Ex

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e

1.2 Local
environments

Activity 1.2b

Ex

Su

Worksheet 1.2b

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The focus in this


lesson is baby
animals and their
parents. Learners
make a model
nursery for an
animal of their
choice.

Activity 1.3

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2

This lesson looks


at the range of
healthy and less
healthy foods.

Activity 1.4

Su

Su

Worksheet 1.3

Ex

Ex
Resource sheet
1.3a

Su

Resource sheet
1.3b

Su

Resource sheet
1.3c
Exercise 1.4

L
L

Su

Resource sheet
1.2c

dr

1.4 Healthy
food and drink

Su

Resource sheet
1.2b

Exercise 1.3

Ex

ts

Su

Resource sheet
1.2a

1.3 Animal
babies

Su

Su

Worksheet 1.4a

Su

Ex
Worksheet 1.4b

Ex

Ex

Su

Resource sheet
1.4a Su
Resource sheet
1.4b Su

Check your
progress

Ex Extension

12

Questions

Worksheet 1.5

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2 Su ,
3 L ,
4 L

Language

Cambridge Primary Science 1

Scientific enquiry

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Support

Teaching ideas Unit 1

Ideas for the lesson

Look at the picture on page 6 of the


Learners Book and talk about things in the
picture that are alive and things that have
never been alive. Alternatively, you could use
Picture 1.1 on the CD-ROM which includes
further examples.

Activity 1.1 in the Learners Book asks


learners to go outside and observe living
things. Higher achieving learners could use
Worksheet 1.1a, which asks them to predict
what living things they will find. Making
predictions is an important scientific enquiry
skill to be developed at this stage.

clipboards (one per pair or group)


digital cameras (optional)
safe invertebrates, such as snails or woodlice
water and food trays
bird seed
modelling material or construction kits
cardboard
scissors
glue
sticky tape
nursery items such as food, water, shelter
pictures of food to cut out
fruit and vegetable examples, or pictures of
food plants that grow locally
small samples of fruit
skewers

This topic will allow you to find out about the


learners understanding of the range of living
things and see whether they understand the
distinctions between living and non-living and
never been alive.

Learning objectives

Know that there are living things and things


that have never been alive.

Try to answer questions by collecting


evidence through observation.
Record stages in work.

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Curriculum links

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Use Exercise 1.1 in the Activity Book to


encourage learners to talk some more about
living things and non-living things in the
context of a pet and garden centre. Learners
are asked to talk about how the pet and
garden centre owner cares for the animals
and plants in her shop. Learners might
think about drink, food, space and the home
provided for the animals. Or the water and
light provided for the plants.

Worksheet 1.1b gives further support in


talking about living and non-living things.
It is set in the context of a farm, which links
with the next topic on environments.

Resource sheet 1.1 provides the words to


learn for this topic. You could use these to
support lower achieving learners, or use
them to start a wall display for this unit.
Learners could produce pictures of animals
and plants to go in the alive section of
the display, and pictures of, for example,
tractors, rocks and clouds, to go in the nonliving section of the display.

ts

Know that plants and animals are living


things.

An alternative to making a tour of the


school grounds with the learners would be
for you to collect examples from around the
school, such as pets and plants. Learners
should not forget that humans are also
living things. So you can talk about adults
and young people too. Worksheet 1.1a can
be used for this alternative as well. Here, the
learners think about the living things they
might find, note the living things found and
are encouraged to group them into animals
and plants, allowing them to practise the
science skills of sorting and grouping.

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Topic 1.1 Animals and plants


alive!

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Resource list

This topic links to environmental studies


as the learners are looking at the range of
living things in the world. This should help
them appreciate the beauty and wonder
of the natural world and realise that it is
something that should be cared for.
There is an opportunity to link to
mathematics in Activity 1.1 if learners
are involved in sorting and classifying
living things, comparing their heights and
measuring them using standard and nonstandard units.

Cambridge Primary Science 1

13

Unit 1 Teaching ideas


Ask learners to tell you about animals and
plants that they see in the environment.

Talk about the photographs on page 7 of


the Learners Book. Ask learners to identify
things that are living and things that are
non-living. Picture 1.1 on the CD-ROM
might come in useful here as well. Higher
achieving learners should be expected to
give reasons for their answers; for example,
living things need food and water, living
things can move, and living things have
young.
You could end the lesson by asking learners
questions such as: Is a rainbow alive? Which
is alive, the nest or the bird?

Notes on practical activities

predictions is another scientific enquiry skill to


be developed at this stage.
Check (as far as possible) that the
areas that you visit are free from
poisonous or stinging plants. Also
check for any allergies to plant material
and for hayfever. Make sure that
learners wash their hands after
the activity.
Ensure that learners are wellsupervised at all times, particularly in
areas where there may be vehicles.

Internet and ICT

The website www.bbc.co.uk/nature/collections/


p00fxfvq includes a film of baby animals. It
would be a great starting point for talking
about animals. However, make sure you
watch it beforehand to check there is no
content that would be inappropriate for
your learners. The film is well signposted
and you could choose not to use all of it.

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Activity 1.1
Each pair or group will need:
clipboard
digital camera (optional).

pl
e

Assessment

Can learners describe animals or plants as


living things? Give learners pictures or real
examples. Can they talk or write about the
features?

dr

af

ts

Allow learners the opportunity to observe


in the school grounds. Tell them that the
search outside is to answer the question What
living things can we find? and that they will
be collecting evidence through observation
(looking). This is a scientific enquiry skill
required at this stage. Learners can develop
recording skills by making sketches or taking
photographs of the living things they find. This
will encourage them to look at the plants and
animals outside and recognise them as living
things (make sure that learners are able to
distinguish between living things and non-living
things). Focus the learners attention on where
plants grow and where animals are observed, for
example in trees, under logs or stones and
in the soil.
Give learners an objective, for example, to find
six things. This will encourage them to look
harder. Another way to encourage careful
observation is to ask questions such as What
is the tallest living thing you can observe? This
question could also be linked to mathematics
if you involve the learners in comparing
heights and measuring using non-standard and
standard units.
Higher achieving learners could use Worksheet
1.1a for this activity. This worksheet asks
learners to predict what living things they might
find before they start the search and to record
those they do. Comparing what happened with

14

Cambridge Primary Science 1

Can learners identify living things and


things that have never been alive? Ask
learners to sort pictures of living and nonliving things. They might colour code them.

Learners could self-assess their drawings


from Activity 1.1. Ask them to say two
things that they think are good about
them and one thing that they would like to
improve.
Higher achieving learners could self-assess
the accuracy of their predictions about what
living things they would find in Activity 1.1,
as recorded on Worksheet 1.1a.

Differentiation

Support lower achieving learners by


selecting very familiar examples of living
and non-living things and assisting them
with vocabulary. As stated previously,
Resource sheet 1.1 could be useful for this
group of learners.

Teaching ideas Unit 1


Higher achieving learners could be asked to
make predictions about what living things
they might find in Activity 1.1 and record
them using Worksheet 1.1a.

Common misunderstandings and


misconceptions

Learners are often confused about whether


the following are living things or non-living
things: a river, a cloud, a clock, a rainbow, a
flame.

Worksheet 1.1b.
Ask learners to draw four of their favourite
living things. These pictures could be used
for a wall display for the unit, as suggested
as a lesson idea.

Worksheet 1.1b
The following things should be circled: goat,
horse, cow, sheep, duck, bird, chicken, goose,
trees, flowers, grass and bushes.

This topic encourages learners to think about


the many local environments that animals and
plants live in. Living things often share a local
environment but live quite different lives.

Learning objectives

Explore ways that different animals and


plants inhabit local environments.

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Answers to Activity Book exercises


Exercise 1.1

Sorting: learners create a set of animals and a


set of plants.

Topic 1.2 Where do I live?

Homework ideas

Results of observation: what living things were


found.

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Make predictions.

Make comparisons.

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Learners should colour in everything that is


alive, for example like this:

Explore and observe in order to collect


evidence (measurements and observations)
to answer questions.
Compare what happened with predictions.
Model and communicate ideas in order to
share, explain and develop them.

Curriculum links
This topic links to environmental education.
It is about living things living in local
environments. Learners might find out
about a local environment and think about
the impact which people have, or might
have, on it.

Learners are asked to talk about how the pet


and garden centre owner cares for the animals
and plants in her shop. Learners might think
about drink, food, space and the home provided
for the animals. Or the water and light provided
for the plants.

Activity 1.2b links to design and technology


when learners are asked to design a way to
help birds.
There are opportunities to link to literacy if
you use the stories suggested in the ideas for
the lesson.

Answers to Worksheets

Ideas for the lesson

Worksheet 1.1a

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Prediction: accept any sensible suggestions


about the living things that might be found.

Use the large picture in the Learners Book


on page 8 to find out what learners know
about animals and the local environments in
which they live. Alternatively, you could use
Picture 1.2 on the CD-ROM, which shows a
Cambridge Primary Science 1

15

Unit 1 Teaching ideas

Remind learners about Worksheet 1.1b.


What animals were there on the farm? Talk
about what a farm does. Point out that some
farms produce crops (plants that we eat),
some produce animals that we eat (many
learners may not make the link between
animals on farms and the meat they eat
treat this subject with care) and some
produce both.

You could read the story of The Gruffalo


by Julia Donaldson. All the animals have
different houses and yet they live in the
same woods. They all want to eat the mouse.
What else can they eat?

Ask learners to talk about animals they see


in the local area. These may be pets (animals
kept in the home), farm animals and wild
animals. Ask them to talk about how wild
animals choose where to live and that
they must have certain things (food, water,
shelter, and so on).

16

Exercise 1.2 in the Activity Book involves


matching animals to their environments.
It allows learners to make comparisons.
You could use it to start a discussion or as
a quick assessment of learners knowledge
and understanding.

Worksheet 1.2b could be used to support


lower achieving learners. Learners are asked
to cut out pictures of animals and stick
them or the picture of the environment they
live in.

Resource sheet 1.2c provides the words


to learn for this topic. You could also use
these to support lower achieving learners.
Add them to the wall display for the unit.
Learners could be asked to draw some
different environments, things you would
find on a farm (for example animals, crops
and objects such as tractors), and pets
(domestic animals) to add to the display.
You could use these questions at the end of
the lesson: Where do birds build their nests?
Why does a frog live near water? What does
a plant need to grow? (The final question is
more suitable for higher achieving learners,
unless you have already taught Unit 2.)

ts

Bring some safe invertebrates, such as snails


or woodlice, into class for a few days. Ensure
that you care for them well and ask learners
to talk about their care. Discuss where
these animals are found. Ensure you return
the animals to their natural environments
after you have studied them, and explain to
learners why you must do so.

dr

Most schools have birds visiting the site


during the school day. Before introducing
Activity 1.2b, you might use the extension
activity to ask learners to observe (look
at) the birds and where they are seen.
Learners can then carry out Activity 1.2b
to design a feeding station for the birds.
Point out that providing food and water
makes the environment better for the birds.
The availability of food is very important
in making an environment suitable for an
animal or plant to live in.

Hand out animal pictures to half the


class. To the rest, hand out pictures of
environments. (You will find suitable
pictures on Resource sheets 1.2a and 1.2b.)
Ask learners to speak to one another and to
match each animal with an environment it
could live in.

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1.2a. Take the class outside to observe


plants growing. Focus their attention on
where plants do and do not grow.

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variety of animals in different environments.


If you use this picture you might ask higher
achieving learners to suggest why the
environments are suitable for the animals
shown in the pictures. Suggesting ideas is
an important scientific enquiry skill to be
developed at this stage.

Ask the learners to think back to what they


did in the last lesson. Where did they find
living things in the school grounds? At this
point learners could do Activity 1.2a. This
activity introduces learners to environments
where plants grow. Ask learners to predict
where they might find plants growing in the
school grounds. Higher achieving learners
could record their predictions on Worksheet

Cambridge Primary Science 1

Notes on practical activities


Activity 1.2a
Each pair or group will need:
clipboard
digital camera (optional).

Teaching ideas Unit 1

Ask learners to talk with others and to think


about how they might design a bird feeding
station. What would they include? A perch?
Water? Food? A roof ? There is the opportunity
here to practise the scientific enquiry skill of
modelling and communicating ideas in order
to share, explain and develop them. Ask the
learners to draw sketches to show their ideas.
If you have time, and appropriate materials,
then you might ask learners to make the feeding
station they have designed.
You could challenge learners further by asking
them to suggest ways that they could encourage
more birds. As well as providing food directly,
this could involve sowing seed-bearing plants or
plants that will encourage insects.

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Ask learners to identify the features that plants


appear to like, for example, soil to grow in,
space to grow, little disturbance and water.
Learners can develop the scientific enquiry
skill of recording stages in work as they record
what they find using drawings, photographs or
both. Higher achieving learners can record their
predictions and their findings on Worksheet
1.2a. All learners can compare their findings
with their predictions. They can also make
comparisons between different areas in terms
of how many plants they found. Making
comparisons and comparing what happened
with predictions are both scientific enquiry skills
to be developed at this stage.

Begin by asking the learners to talk about the


birds they see on the school site. Encourage
them to talk about the different types of birds
(describing the differences in appearance, at
least). Allow the learners to look outside for a
short period of time (five or ten minutes). Can
they see birds? Where do they see birds?

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Before going outside, learners should predict


where they might find plants growing. Allow
learners to then examine areas on the school site
that are different in character, for example, a
place where there is lots of good soil and a place
where there is not much soil. Tell them that the
search outside is to answer the question Where
do plants grow? and that they will be collecting
evidence through observation (looking). This is
a scientific skill required at this stage. Learners
could consider environments that are very
unsuitable for plants (a roadway) and more
suitable areas (a flower bed or field). Encourage
learners to talk about what they observe and to
explain what they see.

Internet and ICT

ts

af

As in Topic 1.1, check (as far as


possible) that the areas that you visit
are free from poisonous or stinging
plants. Also check for any allergies to
plant material and for hayfever. Make
sure that learners wash their hands
after the activity.

dr

Ensure that learners are wellsupervised at all times, particularly in


areas where there may be vehicles.

Activity 1.2b

Each pair or group will need:


water and food trays
bird seed.

The website www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/


clips/how-have-different-animals-adapted-totheir-habitats/12665.html shows animals in

their habitats. Turn the sound down and


ask the children to talk about what they see.
The film shows lizards, penguins, camels,
birds and bats. Make sure that all these are
culturally appropriate before using the film.
The website www.sebastianswan.org.uk/swan/
bksw.html is an online book about the life of
Sebastian Swan. This could lead to thought
and discussion about the places that swans
and other birds and animals live.
The website www.gruffalo.com/ is the official
website for all things connected to The
Gruffalo story.

Assessment

The resources above can be used to illustrate the


requirements for a feeding station. Learners will
develop important scientific enquiry skills here
associated with modelling and communicating
ideas.

Can learners describe the ways that different


plants live in local environments? You might
make use of Worksheet 1.2a to elicit the
ideas of the learners.

Can learners describe the ways that different


animals live in (inhabit) local environments?
Ask learners to talk about local
environments, and how animals live there,
for example in a lake, up in a tree, amongst
Cambridge Primary Science 1

17

Unit 1 Teaching ideas

Answers to Activity Book exercises

Learners could self-assess Activity 1.2a by


thinking about what they did well and what
they would like to improve if they repeated
the activity.
Learners could look at another learners
design for helping the birds in Activity 1.2b
and say two things they like about it and
one thing that could be improved. Higher
achieving learners should be asked to
explain how this thing could be improved.

goat field
duck river
crab seashore
bird tree

Differentiation

Learners may not realise that wild animals


choose where they make a home, for
example a nest, very carefully.
Learners may not realise that wild animals
living in the wrong place will have to move
or they will die.

dr

Homework ideas

18

Worksheet 1.2a
Prediction: accept any sensible suggestions
about where plants might grow.
Results of observation: where plants were
found.

Worksheet 1.2 b

forest: owl, deer, squirrel

river and bank: duck, swan, fish

am

Common misunderstandings and


misconceptions

Answers to Worksheets

seashore: crab, starfish, sea bird, dolphin (Note:


fish may be placed here.)

Topic 1.3 Animal babies


This topic appeals to learners interests in
animals and in young animals in particular. It
refers to the young of a number of animals and
how these young can grow into healthy adults
who themselves can have young.

ts

Lower achieving learners would benefit


from being provided with extra support in
terms of structure in tasks, modelling and
vocabulary support (Resource sheet 1.2c
would be useful for this). The matching
activity, Exercise 1.2, would be particularly
suitable for this group of learners. You
could use a story format, as in The Gruffalo
or the story about Sebastian Swan. Provide
opportunities for learners to talk about what
they see. Be prepared to challenge them as
appropriate, to give them the opportunity to
develop their ideas.
Cater for higher achieving learners by asking
them to make a number of suggestions and
to explain what they think. For example,
when talking about a desert environment
you might ask them the question: Why
dont many plants live here?

af

Exercise 1.2

pl
e

the bushes. You could use Activity Book


Exercise 1.2 to make a quick assessment of
learners knowledge.

Learning objectives

Know that humans and other animals


produce offspring which grow into adults.

Suggest ideas and follow instructions.

Curriculum links

Exercise 1.2 in the Activity Book.


Worksheet 1.2b.
Ask learners to list the living things they can
see from a window at home.

Cambridge Primary Science 1

Record stages in work.


Model and communicate ideas in order to
share, explain and develop them.

This topic only discusses the offspring of


humans and animals. However, you could
make a link to Unit 2, where young plants
are discussed, and point out that plants also
have babies.
There are links with design and technology
as learners will design and make a nursery
for young animals.

Teaching ideas Unit 1


and baby animals (including humans) for
the display.

Ideas for the lesson


Talk about the picture of adult and baby
animals on page 10 of the Learners Book.
Alternatively, you could use Picture 1.3 on
the CD-ROM, which offers the opportunity
to extend the examples being considered
to include young that look very different
to their parents. Talk to the learners about
adults and their young, using the questions
in the Learners Book as a guide for the
discussion. The picture of the animal
nursery illustrates a number of talking
points, for example, What are the zoo
keepers doing? You could talk about the
years of care humans give to their young,
then compare this example to that of a baby
duck who is only looked after by its parents
for a few weeks.
If possible, arrange a class visit to either a
zoo or a farm to look at animals and their
babies.

The website www.fossweb.com/modulesK-2/


AnimalsTwobyTwo/index.html could be
introduced at this point.

Resource sheets 1.3a and 1.3b provide


pictures of baby animals and the adults.
Learners could play a matching game
using these pictures. This game would be
particularly suitable for lower achieving
learners.

Exercise 1.3 in the Activity Book can be


used to reinforce the idea that babies grow.
Explain that in time young animals grow
into adults. This exercise also extends
learning and gives learners the opportunity
to practise comparing, predicting, modelling
and communicating, and deciding what to
do to answer a science question.

Play the game: I am a . , my babies


are called . . For example, I am a
cat, my babies are called kittens. This is an
opportunity to work on vocabulary.
You can use the following questions to
summarise the learning in this lesson: Are
most young animals like their parents?
What is a young goat called? Why do
some animals have lots of babies? The
last question is particularly suitable for
higher achieving learners as it involves
understanding the dangers that young
animals face in the wild, linking back to
Topic 1.2 about environments.

am

pl
e

Notes on practical activities


Activity 1.3

ts

Each pair or group will need:


modelling material or a construction kit
cardboard
scissors
glue
sticky tape
nursery items such as food, water, shelter.

Talk briefly about the needs of animals:


shelter, food and water.

Activity 1.3 asks learners to make a model


of a nursery for an animal. Higher achieving
learners could be asked to draw a plan of
their nursery before they make it. They
could use Worksheet 1.3 to record their
ideas and help to develop the scientific
enquiry skills of suggesting ideas and
recording stages in work.

dr

af

You could use Activity 1.3 to begin a


discussion about how to care for young
animals and humans. Some learners may
have younger siblings or young pets they can
talk about.

Resource sheet 1.3c gives the words to


learn for this topic. These could be used to
support lower achieving learners. You could
also add them to the wall display for this
unit. Ask learners to draw pictures of adult

Models could be made from paper and card,


modelling material, clay or a construction kit.
Learners can design an ideal nursery for an
animal of their choice. Ask learners to think
about what should be included in their nursery,
for example, a bed, a shelter, water, food and a
space to play. Higher achieving learners could
be asked to plan their nursery more carefully
and record their ideas on Worksheet 1.3. This
activity is an opportunity for learners to talk
about the needs of young animals for food,
water and shelter. They should suggest, model
and communicate ideas. These are all important
scientific enquiry skills to be developed.
The picture on page 11 of the Learners Book
shows a baby monkey. If learners are unable to
think of a baby animal of their own, then they
could design a nursery for this baby.
Cambridge Primary Science 1

19

Unit 1 Teaching ideas

Internet and ICT

Homework ideas

Learners can look at another learners


nursery from Activity 1.3. They should say
two things that they like about the design
and one thing that they would like to
change. Higher achieving learners should
be asked to say why and how they would
change this one thing.

Differentiation

Support lower achieving learners by


providing many concrete examples and
opportunities to talk about what they see
and their experiences. Resource sheets 1ac
may be useful for these learners. Assist with
their vocabulary. This group will find the
website mentioned above particularly useful.
Cater for higher achieving learners by
expecting them to be able to talk about a
wide range of animals and their babies. This
group could be introduced to the idea of life
cycles. Challenge them with more examples,
for example by making use of Picture 1.3 on
the CD-ROM.

af

dr

Common misunderstandings and


misconceptions

20

1
2

The baby is growing.


Learners should draw a slightly larger
footprint.
Sheena will need bigger shoes.
Accept any sensible suggestions about taking
measurements of the babys hand growth.

Answers to Worksheets
Worksheet 1.3

Animal: any suitable animals may be chosen.

Animals needs: accept any sensible suggestions,


for example, shelter, food, drink, environment.
Materials required: accept any suitable
suggestions of what materials would be needed.
Drawing: learners draw their nursery ideas.

Topic 1.4 Healthy food and


drink

ts

Exercise 1.3

am

Answers to Activity Book exercises

3
4

Assessment

Ask learners to choose two animals, find out


something about them and draw pictures of
the adult and young.

pl
e

The website www.fossweb.com/modulesK-2/


AnimalsTwobyTwo/index.html includes a
simple game with photos of baby animals
which need to be matched to photos of
adult animals. Most of the matches are
straightforward and this might be especially
beneficial for lower achieving learners.
Learners could make a presentation of
photos of themselves as babies, or of their
younger siblings.

Some learners may think that babies are


identical in every way to the adults they
grow in to, but smaller. Explain that
babies are often similar to adults, but that
they develop as they grow. Some young,
particularly invertebrates, and some birds,
amphibians and reptiles, are very different
from their parents. A wider range of
examples can be considered on Picture 1.3
on the CD-ROM.

Cambridge Primary Science 1

In this topic, learners have the opportunity to


think about healthy and less healthy foods. They
are asked to think about a range of foods and
to compare what they eat themselves to healthy
foods. They learn that many foods are good for
you, but that some should only be eaten in small
quantities at any one time.

Learning objectives

Know about the need for a healthy diet,


including the right types of food and water.

Suggest ideas and follow instructions.


Record stages in work.
Make comparisons.

Curriculum links

You can make a link to Unit 2 if you explain


that fruit and vegetables come from plants.
Learners could be encouraged to think
about which parts of the plant are used for
food.

Teaching ideas Unit 1


This topic links to personal and social
education and to health education. It
focuses on the need for a healthy diet and
taking care of our bodies.

Ideas for the lesson

Ask learners to look at a selection of foods.


Resource sheet 1.4 could be helpful here.
Discuss with them what the foods are and
whether they think the foods are good for
you or not so good for you. Sort the foods
into three groups, for example: foods which
are mostly good for you, foods which are
good in some ways but can be a problem if
eaten too much and foods which should not
be eaten too often.

Supply food for the learners to make a


healthy fruit kebab. You could bring in
different types of fruit and cut them into
bite-size pieces. Learners can thread the
pieces onto skewers. Learners will have
the opportunity to handle, talk about and
discuss the various fruits.

Take care when asking learners to eat


in class. Make sure that learners wash
their hands before the activity. Check
for any food allergies or intolerance.
Follow local regulations about handling
and preparing food.

Show the learners two plates. Put a set of


healthy foods on one plate and a set of less
healthy foods on the other. Ask learners
to talk about the positive and negative
effects of different foods, but try to avoid
confusion.

Be aware that skewers are sharp, so


show learners how to use them safely.

ts

You could use the simplified food pyramid


on the website www.globaleye.org.uk/primary_
spring2002/focuson/index.html at this point.

af

Activity 1.4 asks learners to develop their


recording skills by drawing what they have
eaten today and to compare it with a healthy
meal. Making comparisons is an important
scientific skill to develop at this stage.

dr

The Learners Book introduces the idea that


fruit and vegetables come from plants.
You could bring in examples or pictures of
food plants that grow locally.

Talk about the picture on page 12 of the


Learners Book. Alternatively, you could
use Picture 1.4 on the CD-ROM. There
are prompts for discussion in the Learners
Book. These opportunities for talking
are very important in science as it is an
opportunity to use the science vocabulary
and to share and explore ideas.

am

This activity is most suitable for higher


achieving learners. It asks them to suggest
ideas and record their work, both of which
are important scientific enquiry skills.

pl
e

Ask learners to design their own healthy


meal. They could use Worksheet 1.4a to
record their ideas. Recording stages in work
is a scientific enquiry skill to be developed
at this stage. Present learners with a wide
range of foods from which they can select
foods for a meal. You might ask different
groups to deal with breakfast, lunch and
an evening meal. Can they talk about good
combinations? Can they talk about healthy
foods and less healthy foods? They could use
pictures of food cut from magazines, or they
could choose from the pictures of healthy
foods on Resource sheet 1.4a.

Use Exercise 1.4 in the Activity Book


to encourage learners to think about
healthy and less healthy foods. There is an
opportunity for learners to add their own
ideas. Challenge higher achieving learners
to give ideas for breakfast, and then other
meals or for a party dinner.

Worksheet 1.4b asks children to classify


foods as healthy or unhealthy. Assist lower
achieving learners by talking through the
healthy and unhealthy foods before they try
the worksheet.

Resource sheet 1.4b gives the words to


learn for this lesson. Use it to support lower
achieving learners. You could also add
to the wall display for this unit by asking
learners to draw pictures of sugar, salt, fat,
a healthy person doing exercise, and a range
of food.

Invite a health professional into class to talk


the learners about healthy diets.
You could use these questions at the end
of the lesson to summarise the learning:
Should you eat lots of salty foods? Why are
sugary foods and drinks bad for you? Why is
fruit good for you?

Cambridge Primary Science 1

21

Unit 1 Teaching ideas

Activity 1.4

Each pair or group will need:


pictures of food to cut out.

Learners should draw what they have eaten


today, or stick on pictures of foods that they
have eaten. They then compare their plate with
a plate of healthy food. Learners should be
presented with a wide range of pictures of foods
from which they can select foods.

Differentiation

Support lower achieving learners by


providing real life examples of different
foods and making use of posters and
prompts with relevant language, and so on.
Ensure that learners focus on the different
effects that healthy and less healthy foods
can have on the body.
Cater for higher achieving learners by
expecting them to deal with a wider range of
food and food categories. Challenge them by
expecting them to explain why some foods
are healthy and others less so. This group
of learners would find the simplified food
pyramid particularly useful when explaining
their choices when they design their own
healthy plate of food.

am

You could show learners a plate of healthy


food for them to make comparisons with.
Alternatively, learners could choose foods from
the selection of pictures they have, or they could
draw a plate of healthy food Worksheet 1.4a
could be used here. You could extend this part
of the activity further by asking learners to
design their own healthy meal. Look back to the
notes in the lesson ideas section for Worksheet
1.4a. Can they talk about good combinations?
Can they talk about healthy foods and less
healthy foods?

Learners can self-assess their plate of food


from Activity 1.4. Can they say if it is
healthy or unhealthy?
Learners can look at another learners
design for a plate of healthy food and
say whether it is healthy or not. Higher
achieving learners should be expected to
give reasons to support what they say about
the plate.

pl
e

Notes on practical activities

Internet and ICT

The website www.globaleye.org.uk/primary_


spring2002/focuson/index.html contains a
useful simplified food pyramid.

af

Assessment

Can learners talk about the need for a


healthy diet? Are they able to link diet to
aspects of good health?

dr

22

Common misunderstandings and


misconceptions

ts

If learners decide that what they have eaten


today could be healthier, ask them to suggest
changes that could make it more healthy.
Suggesting ideas is another important scientific
enquiry skill. Be aware that learners of this age
may not have much control over what they eat
at home, so treat this subject with care.

Can learners describe examples of the right


types of food and water in a healthy diet?
For example, you could ask learners to
describe a healthy meal for a given person,
such as a young child.
Show learners a collection of foods. Can
they talk about why some are less healthy?
For example, sugary drinks can damage
your teeth.

Cambridge Primary Science 1

Many children are confused by the term


diet. They confuse a slimming diet with a
healthy diet.

Take care with the word fat as many


children see it as a descriptive term for
overweight people. Explain that is a food
type.
Be aware that in most households children
are not in control of what they eat. Look for
ways to communicate positive messages to
parents and carers.

Homework ideas

Worksheet 1.4b.
Ask learners to list the foods they eat
tonight at home and then describe them as
healthy or less healthy foods.

Teaching ideas Unit 1

Answers to Activity Book exercises

Exercise 1.4
The following foods should be circled: banana,
pineapple, chicken, rice, tomato, grapes, milk,
lettuce and cucumber.

adult frog group of tadpoles


Healthy foods: milk, apple, orange,
sweetcorn, chicken, fish.
Note: salt can be included (you might talk
about salt being essential but never too
much).

Answers to Worksheets

Answers to Worksheets

Worksheet 1.5

Healthy foods should be stuck onto the plate.

Worksheet 1.4b
Healthy food for Harry: chicken, apple, pear,
milk, egg, carrot, banana, water.
Unhealthy food for Sam: burger, butter, sweets,
chocolate, cola, pop.

This baby is alive.


He needs milk to stay healthy.
Food will help him to grow.

pl
e

Worksheet 1.4a

He needs to live in a safe environment.


In time, he will grow into an adult.

am

Note: margarine can go into either group.

Topic 1.5 Check your progress


Learning objectives

Review the learning for this unit.

Learners can be asked to answer the


questions on the Check your progress
pages of the Learners Book. These
questions cover topics from the whole unit.
Some answers are ambiguous, which will
lead to discussion that will help to assess
learners understanding of this unit.

af

ts

Ideas for the lesson

Worksheet 1.5 covers ideas from the


whole unit and practices some of the core
vocabulary.

dr

Answers to Learners Book


questions
Check your progress
1
2
3

Alive: frog, dog, cats and kittens,


bears, birds
Never alive: metal, fire, water, clouds
desert: meerkat, camel, scorpion
pond bank: duck, frog, dragonfly, newt
Note: snake can go into either group.
adult bird chick
adult goat kid
adult cheetah two cheetah cubs
Cambridge Primary Science 1

23

Resource sheet 1.1

Plant hunt
Name: ________________________

living

Date: ________________________

What plants can you find outside the classroom?

plant

Example

pl
e

Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.
Small plant

am

flower

animal alive
leaves

ts

stem

roots

Another plant

dr

af

Large plant

nonliving

24

look

Cambridge Primary Science 1


Cambridge University Press 2014

Resource sheet 1.2a


Plant hunt
Environment
cards

Name: ________________________

Date: ________________________

What plants can you find outside the classroom?

pl
e

Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.
Example

Small plant

am

flower

leaves

ts

stem
roots

Another plant

dr

af

Large plant

Cambridge Primary Science 1


Cambridge University Press 2014

25

Resource sheet 1.2b


Plant hunt
Animal
cards

Name: ________________________

Date: ________________________

What plants can you find outside the classroom?

pl
e

Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.
Example

Small plant

am

flower

leaves

ts

stem
roots

Another plant

dr

af

Large plant

26

Cambridge Primary Science 4


Cambridge University Press 2014

Resource sheet 1.2c

Plant hunt

environment

Name: ________________________

Date: ________________________

What plants can you find outside the classroom?

pl
e

Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.
Example

Small plant

flower

am

farm
leaves

ts

stem
roots

pet

Another plant

dr

af

Large plant

compare
Cambridge Primary Science 4
Cambridge University Press 2014

27

Resource sheet 1.3a


Plant hunt
Baby
animal cards

Name: ________________________

Date: ________________________

What plants can you find outside the classroom?

pl
e

Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.
Example

Small plant

am

flower

leaves

ts

stem
roots

Another plant

dr

af

Large plant

28

Cambridge Primary Science 1


Cambridge University Press 2014

Resource sheet 1.3b


Plant hunt
Parent
cards

Name: ________________________

Date: ________________________

What plants can you find outside the classroom?

pl
e

Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.
Example

Small plant

am

flower

leaves

ts

stem
roots

Another plant

dr

af

Large plant

Cambridge Primary Science 1


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Resource sheet 1.3c

Plant hunt

baby

Name: ________________________

Date: ________________________

What plants can you find outside the classroom?

pl
e

Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.
Example

Small plant

flower

am

calf
leaves

ts

stem

human
roots

Another plant

dr

af

Large plant

young

30

Cambridge Primary Science 1


Cambridge University Press 2014

Resource sheet 1.4a

DayPlant


hunt



DayName: ________________________

Worksheet 1.2a


Date: ________________________



DayWhat plants
can you find outside the classroom?

Example

pl
e

Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.
Small plant

am

flower
Draw and label the plants at the end.

leaves

ts

stem
roots

Another plant

af

Large plant

dr

Conclusion

Do plants need water to grow? ____________________________________________


What happens if plants have no water? _____________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

Cambridge Primary Science 1


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Resource sheet 1.4b

Plant hunt

healthy

Name: ________________________

Date: ________________________

What plants can you find outside the classroom?

Example

Small plant

food

am

flower

fat

leaves

ts

stem
roots

Another plant

sugar

dr

af

Large plant

pl
e

Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.

salt
32

Cambridge Primary Science 1


Cambridge University Press 2014

Worksheet 1.1a
Plant hunt
What
living things can we find?
Name: ________________________

Date: ________________________

Name: ___________________ Date: ___________________


What plants can you find outside the classroom?

pl
e

ILabel
think
I can find these living things:
the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.
Example
Small plant
_________________________________________________

flower

_________________________________________________

am

_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________

ts

stem
leaves
_________________________________________________
roots

What
I actually found:
Large plant

Another plant

af

_________________________________________________

dr

_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________

Cambridge Primary Science 1


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Worksheet 1.1a

Now
the living things into animals and plants and draw
Plantsort
hunt
them below.
Name: ________________________

Write a label for each group.

Date: ________________________

What plants can you find outside the classroom?

pl
e

Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.
Example

Small plant

am

flower

leaves

ts

stem

roots
______________________________________
Another plant

dr

af

Large plant

______________________________________
34 34

Cambridge Primary Science 1


Cambridge University Press 2014

Worksheet 1.1b
DayPlant

hunt
On the
farm



DayName: ________________________

Worksheet
1.2a
Worksheet
1.2a


Date: ________________________

Name: ___________________ Date: ___________________



DayWhat plants
can you find outside the classroom?

Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.
Example

pl
e

Draw a circle around each of the living things.


Small plant

am

flower
Draw and label the plants at the end.

leaves

ts

stem
roots

Another plant

af

Large plant

dr

Conclusion

Do plants need water to grow? ____________________________________________


What happens if plants have no water? _____________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

Cambridge Primary Science 1


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Worksheet 1.2a
Plant hunt
Where
do plants grow?
Name: ________________________

Date: ________________________

Name: ___________________ Date: ___________________


What plants can you find outside the classroom?

pl
e

the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.
ILabel
think
plants will grow here:
Example

Small plant

flower
_________________________________________________

am

_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
leaves

ts

stem

Where I foundroots
plants:
Large plant

Another plant

af

_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________

dr

_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________

36

Cambridge Primary Science 1


Cambridge University Press 2014

Worksheet 1.2b
Plant hunt
Who
lives here?
Name: ________________________

Date: ________________________

Name: ___________________ Date: ___________________


What plants can you find outside the classroom?
.

Example

pl
e

Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.
Small plant

am

flower

leaves

ts

stem
roots

Another plant

dr

af

Large plant

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Worksheet 1.2b

Cut
outhunt
these pictures of animals.
Plant
Stick
them on the right picture to
show where they live.
Name: ________________________
Date: ________________________
What plants can you find outside the classroom?

pl
e

Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.
Example

Small plant

am

flower

leaves

ts

stem
roots

Another plant

dr

af

Large plant

38

Cambridge Primary Science 1


Cambridge University Press 2014

Worksheet 1.3
Plant hunt
Plan
an animal nursery
Name: ________________________

Date: ________________________

Name: ___________________ Date: ___________________


What plants can you find outside the classroom?

pl
e

stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.
ILabel
amthe
planning
a nursery for a: ________________________
Example

Small plant

flower

This animal needs:

am

_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________

ts

stem
leaves
_________________________________________________
roots

To
build
materials:
Large
plantmy nursery I need these
Another
plant

af

_________________________________________________

dr

_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________

Cambridge Primary Science 1


Cambridge University Press 2014

39

Worksheet 1.3

This
what my nursery will look like:
Plantis hunt
Name: ________________________

Date: ________________________

What plants can you find outside the classroom?

pl
e

Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.
Example

Small plant

am

flower

leaves

ts

stem
roots

Another plant

dr

af

Large plant

40

Cambridge Primary Science 1


Cambridge University Press 2014

Worksheet 1.4a
DayPlant


hunt
My healthy
plate



DayName: ________________________

Worksheet 1.2a


Date: ________________________

Name: ___________________ Date: ___________________



DayWhat plants
can you find outside the classroom?

Example

pl
e

Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.
Small plant

am

flower
Draw and label the plants at the end.

leaves

ts

stem
roots

Another plant

af

Large plant

dr

Conclusion

Do plants need water to grow? ____________________________________________


What happens if plants have no water? _____________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

Cambridge Primary Science 1


Cambridge University Press 2014

41

Worksheet 1.4b
Plant hunt
Feed
the giants
Name: ________________________

Date: ________________________

Name: ___________________ Date: ___________________


What plants can you find outside the classroom?

pl
e

Label the
stem,
leaves and
flowers
thenSam,
draw how
the roots
might
look.
Our
two
giants,
Harry
and
need
to be
fed.

am

Example
Smallunhealthy
plant
Sam
is unhealthy because he eats
food.
flower
Harry eats only
healthy food.

leaves

ts

stem
roots

Another plant

dr

af

Large plant

Draw arrows to show which foods Harry would eat and


which foods Sam would eat.
42

Cambridge Primary Science 1


Cambridge University Press 2014

Worksheet 1.5

Worksheet 1.2a

DayPlant



hunt
Keeping
a baby healthy



DayName: ________________________


Date: ________________________

Name: ___________________ Date: ___________________




DayWhat plants
can you find outside the classroom?

Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.

pl
e

Write
the right word into the space
in each sentence.
Example
Small plant
flower
Draw and label the plants at the end.

environment

healthy

baby

grow

adult

am

This _________________________ is alive.

He needs to live in a safe

leaves

_________________________

ts

stem
roots

Another plant

af

Large plant

_________________________

Conclusion

dr

In time, he will grow into an

Do plants need water to grow? ____________________________________________

Food will help him to

What happens if plants have no water? _____________________________________

_________________________

______________________________________________________________________

He needs milk to stay

_________________________
Cambridge Primary Science 1
Cambridge University Press 2014

43

Cambridge PRIMARY

Science

Teachers Resource

3
Unit 6
Forces and movement

Jon Board
Alan Cross

Unit

Teaching ideas Unit 6

Teaching ideas
Background knowledge

pl
e

This topic is an introduction to everyday forces such as pushes, pulls and friction. You can make it
more accessible to learners by using familiar examples such as push-pull toys, sports and games.
You will teach about how forces make things move, stop and change direction. Forces can make
things move, for example, when you kick a ball or pull a door open. The object will not move until a
force is applied. Learners sometimes do not recognise very small forces as forces. One example would
be lifting a sheet of paper. In this case, the pulling or lifting force is so small that we hardly notice it,
but it is a force. We use forces to stop moving objects such as a ball rolling towards us. In order to
stop the ball, we must apply a force. Even a small stopping force is still a force. When a larger object
like a trolley is moving, we have to apply a larger pulling or pushing force to stop its movement.

am

We regularly use forces to change the shape of objects. In the kitchen, we will push and pull to knead
dough, tear bread or break an egg. Learners will be familiar with modelling materials and, perhaps,
clay where they push, pull, press and squeeze the material to change its shape. We are surrounded by
materials that are easy to shape, such as paper, card, plastics, fabrics, clay and foodstuffs.
You will teach learners about the newton (N), the unit of measurement for force. They will learn to
use forcemeters calibrated in newtons. Learners will be taught that the force of friction is a force that
acts when two surfaces are in contact.

dr

af

ts

Friction is a force that you experience every day. If you rub your hands together, you will feel the
friction, and that this slowly warms your hands. The force of friction occurs when any two surfaces
come into contact and rub against one another. Friction is present whether or not the surfaces are
moving relative to each other, but in this unit we only consider friction that is present when two
surfaces are moving against each other. The amount of friction between two surfaces depends on
the surfaces. There is less friction between the sole of a shoe and ice than between the same sole and
tarmac. This is why it is easier to slide on ice than it is on tarmac. Learners just need to know that
friction acts between two surfaces that are in contact and moving against each other, and that the
size of the friction force depends on the materials that make up the surfaces. Friction slows things
down. For example, friction between the tyres of a car and a roadway slow the car down. Friction
can also help us, for example, the brakes of a car use friction to slow the vehicle. Learners will
experience friction when they slide down a playground slide, or when they fall on a hard surface and
the friction painfully breaks the skin on their knees.

Cambridge Primary Science 3

141

Unit 6 Teaching ideas

Unit overview
Topic

Number
of
lessons

Outline of
lesson content

Resources
in Learners
Book

Resources
in Activity
Book

Resources
in Teachers
Resource

6.1 Push
and pull

12

Observing and
talking about
familiar forces in
action.

Activity 6.1

Exercise 6.1

Worksheet 6.1a

Observing and
talking about
how forces can
change the
shape of things.

Activity 6.2a

12

Su

Su
Worksheet 6.1b

Su
Exercise 6.2

Activity 6.2b

Worksheet 6.2b

Ex

Questions 1,
2, 3

6.4
Forcemeters

Observation
and qualitative
judgements
about the
magnitude of
forces.

Using a
forcemeter.

Activity 6.4

Learning to use
the newton to
measure forces.

Questions
1, 2

Investigating
friction.

Activity 6.5

af

6.6 Check
your
progress

Questions
1, 2

Exercise 6.3

Language

dr

Ex Extension

Checking
learners
understanding.

Exercise 6.4

Worksheet 6.3

Worksheet 6.4

Ex

ts

6.5 Friction

Activity 6.3

Worksheet 6.2c

am

6.3 How big


is that force?

Worksheet 6.2a

Ex

pl
e

6.2
Changing
shape

Questions 1,
2, 3

Check your
progress

Scientific enquiry

Exercise 6.5

Worksheet 6.5a

Ex
Worksheet 6.5b
Worksheet 6.5c
Language
review L

Su

Support

Resources

142

a ball
some water in a bowl
some balloons
a chair
a pencil
some clay
some rulers
some small, heavy balls
different objects to drop a ball onto
paper tubes
some objects to push against

Cambridge Primary Science 3

some forcemeters
some small trolleys
different types of surface

Teaching ideas Unit 6

Topic 6.1 Push and pull

The activities in this topic allow learners to


explore familiar forces from everyday life. They
will have the opportunity to experience different
forces, to talk about them and their effects, and
learn to measure them.

Exercise 6.1 in the Activity Book provides


further support. Learners are asked to sort
things into things that they push and things
they pull. They could be asked to add their
own ideas to each category.

Ask learners to talk about times that they


stop things, start things and change the
direction of moving things. Activity 6.1
asks learners to consider how things can be
stopped from moving or have their direction
changed using forces.

Learning objectives
Explore how forces can make objects start
or stop moving.

Suggest ideas, make predictions and


communicate these.

Measure using simple equipment and record


observations in a variety of ways.

Curriculum links

This topic links to Design and Technology


which uses pushes and pulls in mechanisms.

This topic links to Physical Education (P.E.),


where pushes and pulls form the basis of
controlled movement.

Ideas for the lesson

af

As this is the first lesson in this unit, it is an


opportunity to find out what the learners
already know about forces. Ask a learner
(or learners) to walk around the classroom
demonstrating pushes and pulls as forces
that make things move, for example, opening
and closing doors, sharpening a pencil, etc.
Note the language of pushing and pulling
on the board or on a poster, for example,
press, hit, push, lift, twist, bang, flick, etc.
You could begin a class glossary of words
related to forces.

dr

water in a bowl
a balloon
a chair

pencils.

Learners are asked to find ways to start and


stop the objects from moving. They are also
asked to suggest how they could change the
direction of the object once it is moving. They
are asked to feel the force that they are using to
make the change in movement.
The water in the bowl presents some difficulty
because to make it move you have to move the
bowl to rock or swish the water around. An
alternative would be to use a spoon, stick or
finger. You might discuss all these examples
with the learners. This is a harder example
because if learners dont use fingers or a spoon,
they have to use the friction between the bowl
and the water. This is not as effective as a spoon
or finger. Discussion which the learners might
have around this example may be very valuable.

ts

Each pair or group will need:


a ball

am

A link could be made to the topic of


magnets. The pull of a magnet on a
magnetic object is a force as it makes the
object move.

Notes on practical activities


Activity 6.1

pl
e

Learners could discuss the picture of Luiz


on Worksheet 6.1a in pairs. Are they able
to identify items that Luiz can push and
pull? Encourage them to talk about their
decisions and use scientific vocabulary.
Worksheet 6.1b gives further examples of
familiar pushes and pulls. Again, they could
work in pairs to complete this and
discuss ideas.

All learners will have experience of playing with


a ball and moving a chair and pencil so these
should be the most straightforward examples.

Internet and ICT

This interactive resource reinforces the ideas


in this topic:
http://www.ngfl-cymru.org.uk/vtc/push_pull/
eng/Introduction/MainSession.htm

The website http://wsgfl2.westsussex.gov.uk/


aplaws/intergames/science/v5_CyrilsCheese2.
swf reinforces the vocabulary of pushes and

pulls.
Cambridge Primary Science 3

143

Unit 6 Teaching ideas

This initial lesson will allow you to find out


about the learners understanding about
forces by listening to and observing their
responses. Can they talk about simple
pushes and pulls as forces? Can they
describe how forces might stop objects and
change their direction?
You can involve the learners in selfassessment by asking them to talk about
things they did well in the lesson and things
that they would have liked to change.

Differentiation

Homework ideas

Worksheet 6.1b.

Answers to Learners Book


questions
1
2
3

Cater for lower achieving learners by


providing straightforward instructions with
clear examples. Encourage the use of the
science vocabulary. Allow them to handle
equipment and to talk about examples
they have seen in the real world. You may
also assist them with reading instructions.
Ask them to tell you what they have to do
before they do it. This ensures that they have
understood the instructions. This group of
learners may benefit from the reinforcements
provided by the website suggested in the
Internet and ICT section. Exercise 6.1 in
the Activity Book also provides support.
It has just a few specific examples to think
about. You can then encourage the learners
to add their own examples, such as applying
thinking in new situations.

Exercise 6.1 in the Activity Book.

Learners will suggest their own examples of


forces.
Examples: toy car, door, window blind, gate,
drawers.
Examples: cricket, football, basketball, etc.

Answers to Activity Book exercise


In most cases they can be both pushed and
pulled.

am

Some learners think that very small objects


require no force at all to make them move.

pl
e

Assessment

Push

Pull

chair

chair

table

table

tins

tins

opening window

peeling banana

dr

ball

pull spoon out of mug


ball
window blind down

door

door

drawers

drawers

Worksheet 6.1b

Talk about it!

Push

Pull

This is an opportunity to link this unit with the


learning from Unit 5. Magnetism is one of the
four fundamental forces of nature. There is a
force acting between a magnet and a magnetic
material, or between two magnets. Learners will
be able to feel this force when they use magnets.

pushing a light switch

pulling open a
drawer

pushing a buggy

pulling out a chair


from behind desk

pushing a door shut

pulling a window
shut

Common misunderstandings and


misconceptions

144

Worksheet 6.1a

ts

Cater for higher achieving learners by


expecting them to give more examples and
to use the scientific terms more accurately.
Ask them to explain what they did to start,
stop and change direction of the objects in
Activity 6.1.

af

Answers to Worksheets

Some learners think that all circular/


spherical things can move by themselves.

Cambridge Primary Science 3

Teaching ideas Unit 6

Changing shape

Ask the learners to drop objects onto a slab


of clay or modelling material. Ask learners
to observe and describe the shapes made
in the material. Try to ensure that everyone
agrees that there has been a change of
shape even if it is small. Activity 6.2a is
an opportunity for learners to conduct a
similar investigation and comment on the
results. Worksheet 6.2a provides a recording
sheet for this activity.

Activity 6.2b gives learners the opportunity


to carry out a test to see what happens when
an object is dropped on different materials.

After the activity, ask the learners to present


their results. Ask them to say what they
have found and answer the question: What
happens to objects when a hard force presses
on them?

In this topic, learners are given the opportunity


to observe, predict, test and record a range of
changes made to objects and materials when
forces are applied.

Learning objectives

Explore how forces can change the shape of


objects.

Collect evidence in a variety of contexts to


answer questions or test ideas.

Curriculum links

There are clear links to be made with Unit


5 regarding material properties. It is very
easy to change the shape of some materials,
but not others. There are also materials that
break, rather than change their shape.

This topic links to parts of the curriculum


where learners shape materials, such as,
Design and Technology, and Art.

Notes on practical activities

Ideas for the lesson

Show the class, and ask them to


demonstrate the use of, equipment that is
used in school to change the shape of things,
for example, a pencil sharpener, scissors,
clay tools, modelling clay, pastry cutter,
hole punch, etc. Ask them to work in pairs
to think of one piece of equipment and
describe, using the word forces, how the
equipment changes the shape of things. Ask
several pairs to share their ideas.

dr

af

Ask the class to examine the shape of a


lump of modelling clay. Ask them to predict
its shape if you press on it. Take care as you
press very hard on the clay. Ask learners to
describe the new shape.

Activity 6.2a

Each pair or group will need:


a ball of clay

ts

Worksheet 6.2c asks learners to consider


how the shape of different objects has been
changed by forces.

am

pl
e

Topic 6.2

With a tray of sand and a small cup, ask a


learner to make a mini sand castle. Ask all
the learners to talk about the forces used
to make the shape, for example, lifting,
pushing, and pressing. You could use the
photos on page 60 of the Learners Book as
an opportunity for learners to describe how
forces change the shape of things. Exercise
6.2 in the Activity Book extends this idea
by asking learners to consider the types
of forces that could be used to change the
shape of different objects.

a ruler.

For this activity, learners need to drop a ball of


clay from different heights. Show them how to
measure the height using a ruler. They may find
it helpful to fix the ruler so that it is vertical.
They need to record what happens to the ball of
clay (how its shape changes) when it is dropped.
This recording could take the form of before
and after drawings which show the change in
shape of the surface of the clay that hits the
ground first. Learners should find that clay
that is dropped from greater heights is
deformed more.

Activity 6.2b
For this activity pairs or groups will require:
a small but heavy ball

a large sheet of paper e.g. A1 or A2


sticky tape
materials to test (a raw vegetable, the
same vegetable but cooked, a grape, clay,
modelling material, etc.).

Cambridge Primary Science 3

145

Unit 6 Teaching ideas

The website http://www.craftexpert.co.uk/


VideoMakingPlatePottery.html shows how
a plate is made on a potters wheel and
demonstrates the pushing and pulling that
is required.

Assessment

This is another opportunity to elicit


understanding and to determine whether
learners appreciate the cause and effect of a
force and the change of shape.

Can learners describe the changes they


observe using scientific terms? Can they
collect evidence and present results?

Ask the learners to say whether they think


they have grasped the concept of a fair test,
using the traffic light system where green
means they have grasped it fully, amber
means they are not quite sure, and red
means they do not follow it at all.

am

Show the learners how a ball or wooden brick


can be dropped safely down a paper tube
onto a test material. Ask learners to suggest
materials which could be tested e.g. clay,
Blu-Tack, biscuit, hard boiled egg, grape,
pasta, etc. Worksheet 6.2b provides a table for
recording predictions and results. Ensure that
the learners think and talk about how to make
this a fair test. Here are questions that should be
considered at this point:

change the shape of things: http://www.bbc.


co.uk/learningzone/clips/the-use-of-force-tochange-shape/2489.html

pl
e

There is always danger when objects


are being dropped. As the objects
are inside the tube, on impact pieces
cannot fly towards eyes. Therefore,
safety goggles are not required, but
might be used if they are available.
Ensure that you can supervise the
class and that learners are warned to
think about how to keep themselves
safe and how to keep others safe.

Should objects be dropped from the same height?


Should they always use the same tube?

Would it be fair if learners dropped the objects on


different surfaces?

Differentiation

Cater for lower achieving learners by


providing clear step-by-step guidance. You
might provide prompts for different stages
in the lesson. Ask them to tell you what they
have to do before they do it.

ts

Allow the learners to raise any points about the


equipment used in the tests. Ensure that they
realise that only one thing will change from test
to test, which is the object being dropped.

af

You will need to demonstrate an example and


ask learners to talk about the tests, including
how to ensure this is safe. Show how the tube
covers the object on impact, which adds to
safety by preventing the ball rolling outside the
test area.

dr

Ask learners to devise a science question to


be answered. For example, how are materials/
objects affected when a force hits them from
a falling ball? Encourage them to make
predictions.
Ask them to carry out one or two tests followed
by a mini plenary to discuss the tests and the
results before completing others.
After completing the tests, ask pairs or groups
to discuss the results and report back. Can the
class identify any patterns? Were the predictions
confirmed? Has the question been answered?

Internet and ICT

146

The following website is a montage of


different ways in which forces are used to

Cambridge Primary Science 3

Cater for higher achieving learners by


challenging them to give clear explanations
of how forces affect the shape of materials
and why some materials are affected
differently. They might also be challenged by
expecting greater autonomy when designing
and carrying out tests. Exercise 6.2 in the
Activity Book is particularly suitable for this
group of learners.

Talk about it!


This question is quite challenging and could
feature as part of the discussion after
Activity 6.2b.
Landscape features such as cliffs, beaches,
rivers, mountains, etc. are all the result of
natural forces in one form or another. Cliffs and
beaches are the result of erosion of the land by
water. Rivers are another feature where the force
of water has carved out a channel in the land
which has been filled with water. Mountains

Teaching ideas Unit 6


are formed when plates on the Earths surface
collide, but then they are shaped by wind and
water.

pulling and twisting


forces shaped
balloons

Homework ideas

Ask the learners to make a paper or metal


foil sculpture. Ask them to make a note of
the shape of the sheet of paper at the start
and how they applied forces to shape it.

balloons
pushing force
smashed cup

Some will but it depends on how hard the


material is for example, stone will not
change shape if it is pulled or pushed by
hand.
Examples are bakers, potters, builders,
carpenters.

Wood: sawing, chiselling, etc.


Sandcastle: patting, pushing.
Elastic band: pulling

Answers to Worksheets

Topic 6.3 How big is that force?


This topic asks learners to begin to think about
the size of pushes and pulls. They have the
chance to compare pushes, make predictions
and a qualitative judgement, as well as describe
and record results.

Learning objectives

ts

Worksheet 6.2c

pushing and pulling


forces shaped clay

Collect evidence in a variety of contexts to


answer questions or test ideas.

Suggest ideas, make predictions and


communicate these.

Ideas for the lesson

Show the learners a video or picture


illustrating a large force, for example, an
elephant pushing a tree. Contrast this with
tiny forces. For example, ask a learner to
push a matchstick or sheet of paper or a
balloon. Explain that these tiny forces are
so small that some people think there is no
force at all. Explain that to make anything
move, a force is required.

On page 62 of the Learners Book, there are


pictures of a boy pulling toys with an elastic
band. Ask learners how they can tell that
some toys are being pulled with more force
than others (longer elastic band for some
than others).

dr

modelling clay

pushing force
squashed can

aluminium can

Know that pushes and pulls are examples of


forces and that their sizes can be compared.

How the shape was


changed

af

Object

broken cup

am

Answers to Activity Book exercise

pl
e

Answers to Learners Book


questions

Cambridge Primary Science 3

147

Unit 6 Teaching ideas

Ask a learner to demonstrate a tiny push


to a table that is put against a wall, then a
slightly larger push and then again a slightly
larger push. Ask the rest of the class if they
can tell exactly how big these pushes are.
(They cannot as they are not visible.) Ask
the learner to repeat the pushes by pushing
with an inflated balloon. Everyone should
now see the greater pushing as the balloon
will be squashed more with a greater push.

could challenge this by comparing how much


force is needed to move a pencil and a heavy
book. Remember to ask learners to make a
prediction first.

Internet and ICT

Activity 6.3 in the Learners Book discusses


the use of a balloon (or other soft item) as
a means of seeing how large a force is being
used.

com/technology/2011/08/nasa-juno-jupiteratlas-v.html shows the launch of Juno to


Jupiter and the website http://www.bbc.co.uk/
learningzone/clips/elephant-pushes-over-anacacia-tree/2442.html shows an elephant

Notes on practical activities


Activity 6.3

Can learners compare forces? Can they talk


about the effects of different forces? Can
they talk about bigger forces and smaller
forces?

am

objects to push.

moving an acacia tree to reach the leaves.

Assessment

Each pair or group will need:


an inflated balloon

It will be helpful to find links to show large


forces being applied such as elephants
working, rockets blasting off, etc. The
following website http://latimesblogs.latimes.

pl
e

Learners should not attempt to move


heavy objects or move objects in a way
that would present a risk to themselves
or others.

Ask the learners to discuss Activity 6.3.


What two things did they do well? What
would they like to have done better?

Differentiation

Cater for lower achieving learners by


providing support such as providing clear
instructions, and providing a table for them
to complete. As suggested previously, ask
them to tell you what they have to do before
they do it. Make sure that you are willing
to reduce the support and challenge these
learners where appropriate. Exercise 6.3 in
the Activity Book is particularly suitable for
this group of learners.

Cater for higher achieving learners by


expecting them to suggest how to conduct
and record predictions and tests.

ts

Explain that, because the balloon is elastic it


can be used to indicate the size of the forces.

af

Allow everyone, perhaps working in pairs, to


have a go with a balloon or similar item. Warn
learners to take care. Ask them to agree a
language to describe the magnitude of the push,
for example, tiny push, gentle push, push, hard
push, big push. Check that they can see how the
balloon (or equivalent) shows how hard they are
pushing.

dr

Now ask them to predict, investigate and


record the magnitude of the force required
to push a range of safe objects, for example,
books, small boxes, footwear, a ball, boxfile,
box of sand, etc. Warn them to take care. You
may need to talk with learners about how they
can judge a force to be small, medium or large.
Explain that this is not a precise measure.
Worksheet 6.3 provides a grid for a bar chart on
which they can record results.
Ask learners to feedback results and to discuss
any patterns they see. For example, larger
objects require more force to move them. You

148

Cambridge Primary Science 3

Talk about it!


Ask learners to suggest how their observations
in this topic help them to compare the sizes of
forces. Have they been able to find the precise
value of a force? (No, for that you need a
forcemeter which they will meet in the
next topic.)

Teaching ideas Unit 6

Common misunderstandings and


misconceptions
Some learners think that all circular/
spherical things are able to move by
themselves.

Some learners think that very small objects


require no force at all to make them move.

Homework ideas

Ask learners to list the things at home that


require big, medium and small forces to
move them.

Exercise 6.3 in the Activity Book.

Answers to Learners Book


questions
2

train pulling wagons, horse pulling cart, girl


lifting book, bird picking up leaf
a pulling force

Ask the class whether they thought the


balloon and elastic were helpful. Ask if they
have ever seen a machine that will measure
forces. Show them a forcemeter.
Activity 6.4 in the Learners Book asks
learners to use their forcemeter to test
different pulling forces in the classroom or
around school. They can use Worksheet 6.4
to record their results.

am

Now do a similar activity but pull on the


box or a similar object. Begin with a very
small pull. Again the force is not visible, so
ask the learners to pull using a strong elastic
band. (Please note that the elastic must be
firmly fixed to the box and learners should
wear safety goggles.)

pl
e

still not be able to move. Ask the other


learners if they can tell how much pushing
is happening. (They cannot because the
amount of pushing is not visible.) Ask the
learners to suggest how they could see how
much pushing is happening (they should
refer back to the previous topic).

Answers to Activity Book exercise

Exercise 6.4 in the Activity Book asks


learners to match objects to the size of force
needed to move them. This is a challenging
exercise and will be most suitable for the
more able learners.

ts

Small force: ant pulling leaf, hand using scissors.


Big force: train, child pushing door, elephant
pushing log, swing.

Topic 6.4 Forcemeters

af

The activities in this topic allow learners to


explore forces in a familiar setting. They will
have the opportunity to compare the size of
forces using a forcemeter.

Learning objectives

Know that pushes and pulls are examples of


forces and that they can be measured with
forcemeters.

dr

Measure using simple equipment and record


observations in a variety of ways.

Ideas for the lesson

Ask a learner to demonstrate pushing


against a door using a piece of foam (use the
classroom door).

Ask a learner to give a very small, careful


push to a box of equipment or books. The
box should not move. Ask the learner to
increase the push slightly, the box should

Notes on practical activities


Activity 6.4
Each pair or group will need:
access to forcemeters

objects to push or pull (for example,


a plastic brick, a book, a sheet of paper,
a shoe, a coin, a door).

Learners have the opportunity to pull objects


here using a forcemeter to investigate the force
need to move it.
Talk with the learners about how to take
their measurements. Perhaps they will repeat
a measurement to check that it is right?
Support learners with reading the scales on the
forcemeters and give advice about selecting the
right forcemeter with the correct scale to use.
They should note the results and then put them
in order from the lowest force to the highest
force.

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Unit 6 Teaching ideas

Differentiation

Topic 6.5 Friction

The activities in this topic allow learners to


experiment with objects and the friction the
objects experience when they are moved.

Cater for higher achieving learners by


expecting more independence. Challenge
them to come up with several suggestions
for things that they might test using a
forcemeter.

Talk about it!

Exercise 6.4 in the Activity Book.

Answers to Learners Book


questions

Answers to Activity Book exercise


20 newtons
1 newton
10 newtons
5 newtons
10 000 newtons
25 newtons

dr

brick
book
box of paper
shoe
car
heavy door

150

Suggest ideas, make predictions and


communicate these.

With help, think about collecting evidence


and planning fair tests.

Measure using simple equipment and record


observations in a variety of ways.

Curriculum links

There are clear links to be made with Unit 5


on material properties. Encourage learners
to think about the properties of materials
that cause a lot of friction and those that
cause very little friction.

There are strong links with Mathematics


with regards to the investigative work where
learners gather, present and interpret data.

Ideas for the lesson

Explain that friction is a force that acts


when two surfaces are in contact with each
other. Some materials cause more friction
than others. At this stage, concentrate on
the friction between objects that are moving
relative to each other, for example, a tray
being pulled across a table.

Ask the learners to rub their hands together


and describe what they feel.

Activity 6.5 in the Learners Book gives


learners the opportunity to explore friction.

After the activity, ask learners if they can


suggest ways to reduce friction, for example,
by placing a sheet of paper under the object.
Try one suggestion. Ask the learners to
measure the force this time and attempt to
explain why the force has changed.

Try moving a chair on different floor


surfaces in class if you have more than one
type of surface, or on a P.E. mat or other
mat if not. Ask learners to predict what the
change will be and discuss in pairs why they

newton
so that it does not break in use

af

1
2

Explore how forces, including friction,


can make objects move faster, slower or
change direction.

ts

Homework ideas

am

Learners can use objects that change shape


when pressed against things. These might
include a soft ball, a balloon, a sponge and
modelling materials. Encourage learners to
think and talk about examples such as this.
They hold a balloon against a box. As they
push on the balloon it is squashed. They can see
how much it is squashed and this indicates the
amount of the force applied.

Learning objectives

pl
e

Cater for lower achieving learners by


providing clear examples at each stage. Give
them time to look for other examples such
as, do we push or pull a computer mouse?
Ensure that these learners are involved in
your demonstrations. Ask them to tell you
what they need to do before they do it. You
may need to suggest what these learners test
with their forcemeter.

Cambridge Primary Science 3

Teaching ideas Unit 6


6.5a provides a frame that the learners can use
for guidance. Learners should record results,
discuss them and report back to class.

Worksheet 6.5b shows learners how friction


can be used to change the direction of an
object. You might ask learners to work
with a partner to do this Worksheet. The
discussion about what has happened will be
beneficial to learners understanding. Take
feedback after the learners have done this
worksheet and make sure that the concept
has been understood.

Show the learners a range of shoes with


different soles. Ask them whether they have
shoes which can be slippery and do not have
a good grip. Ask them to explain this using
the word friction. Worksheet 6.5c could be
used here. You could introduce the extension
activity (see notes below) at this point.
(Note that there may be cultural sensitivities
around the soles of feet. This part of the
lesson should therefore concentrate on shoes
and not involve learners in taking off their
shoes.)

After the activity, ask learners to explain what


happened by talking about the forces, the
direction and size of the forward forces and
friction. (The friction force acts in the opposite
direction to the dragging force. If the dragging
force and the friction force are the same size
then the object being dragged will not move.
The object will only move when the dragging
force is larger than the friction force. The size
of the friction force depends to a certain degree
on the material from which the surface is made.
It is not expected that learners will give all this
detail they may simply talk about the friction
force and the dragging force but it is included
for completeness.)

am

Exercise 6.5 in the Activity Book asks


learners to identify where friction is acting
in different situations. This activity is
designed to check that learners appreciate
that friction acts between two surfaces.

Notes on practical activities


Activity 6.5

Each group or pair will need:


a tray

af

Can learners explain why some surfaces require


more force? Can learners talk about patterns in
their observations/results?

Extension activity: Investigating the


grip of shoes
Each group or pair will need:
a slope
footwear.

Ask learners to think about shoes that grip well


and others they have worn. Make the link with
friction: good grip means high friction.

ts

pl
e

think this is so. Explain that any difference


is explained by friction and that they should
use that word.

some string

a forcemeter

Ask them to do a thought experiment. Can they


close their eyes and imagine this experiment
with a slope and shoes? Ask them to talk about
the headings on Worksheet 6.5c in their pairs or
groups. Ask selected learners to report back and
then prepare plans as a drawing with labels.

Care is required with activities such


as this not to cause trip hazards or to
drop items.

This exercise has more meaning if learners carry


out the experiment.

dr

sheet materials or different floor materials


over which to drag the tray.

Can they explain how they would determine


the shoe with most friction? Ask them to draw
the sole of a shoe and explain why it would be a
grippy sole (material, pattern).

Show learners examples of objects sliding on the


floor. Explain that friction is a force slowing the
objects down. Demonstrate a tray sliding, and
ask them to suggest how you would measure the
force required using a forcemeter.
Ask learners to devise a question and make
predictions. Learners can plan and carry out
the investigation for themselves. Worksheet

Internet and ICT

Use a computer microscope or visualiser to


enable learners to observe the roughness of
seemingly smooth surfaces.

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Unit 6 Teaching ideas

Cater for lower achieving learners by


providing clear instructions. You can also
help these learners by making the forces
explicit, for example, by using a number of
cut out arrows of different sizes that can
be held in position with examples to show
where forces are, their direction and size. As
always, ask them to tell you what they have
to do in practical activities as it is useful
to check that they have understood the
instructions.
Cater for higher achieving learners by
expecting them to explain their observations
using the scientific terms given. Challenge
them to make accurate predictions and to
explain these. Challenge them by expecting
a range of suggestions for surfaces that they
could test in Activity 6.5.

Talk about it!

1
2

between two surfaces


Less friction between slide and cotton
clothes than between slide and woollen
clothes.

Answers to Activity Book exercise


between car and surface
between hands
between wheel and brake pads
between ground and knee

Answers to Worksheets
Worksheet 6.5b

There is friction between the bike and the path.


The puddle made the path wet. This reduced the
friction between Samirs tyres and the road as
she changed direction, and so her bike slipped
and she fell off. Kali was on the dry path as she
changed direction and so the friction was not
reduced. She changed direction safely.

am

Answers to Learners Book


questions

pl
e

Differentiation

Worksheet 6.5c
foot
covering/
surface

carpet

polished
floor

ice

shoes

good grip

fair grip

not much
grip or no
grip
depending
on shoes

socks

fair grip

no much
grip

not much
grip

no foot
covering

fair grip

not much
grip

no grip

ts

This relates to ideas for the lesson section where


learners explored different soles. For a sole to
have a good grip on the ice, it needs to be able
to create as much friction as possible between
the sole and the ice. Soles which are smooth
will not be able to do this and so shoes with
smooth soles will not be very safe to wear in icy
conditions.

Common misunderstandings and


misconceptions

Some learners may find it difficult to see


friction as a force as it appears to be passive,
unlike pushes and pulls.

af

Homework ideas

Ask the learners to draw their home and


add drawings to show at least four examples
where friction features. For example, on the
floor, mats or carpets as they walk, holding
onto handles, holding onto banister rails,
opening jars, bottles, etc.

dr

152

Exercise 6.5 in the Activity Book.

Cambridge Primary Science 3

Teaching ideas Unit 6

Topic 6.6 Check your progress


Learning objectives

Review the learning for this unit.

Ideas for the lesson

Answers to Learners Book


questions

2
3
4

a
b

catch it
push it in another direction using, for
example, a bat
forcemeter C
a grass
b stone
grass, it requires more force to pull a
skateboard over grass than the other
surfaces which suggests that grass creates
the most friction.

am

pl
e

Learners can be asked to answer the questions


on the Check your progress pages of the
Learners Book (pages 6869) and the
Language review on page 40 of the
Activity Book.

Answers to Activity Book exercise

dr

af

ts

force a push or a pull


newton the unit of force
pull opposite of push
forcemeter a machine for measuring forces
friction a force which acts when two surfaces
are incorrect
push opposite of pull

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Worksheet 6.1a

Worksheet 1.2a


Pushing
and
pulling
Day

Name:
Day ________________________
Name:
________________________


Date: ________________________

Date: ________________________

Day Ranjit is in his room he pulls and pushes things.


When

When Luiz is in his room he pulls and pushes things.

Identify which things he can push and which things he can pull.
Which objects can he push and pull?

af

ts

am

Draw and label the plants at the end.

pl
e

Identify which things he can push and which things he can pull.

dr

Conclusion

Do plants need water to grow? ____________________________________________


What happens if plants have no water? _____________________________________


______________________________________________________________________

154

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Cambridge University Press 2014

Worksheet 6.1a

Complete
the table.
Plant hunt
Push

Name: ________________________

Pull

Date: ________________________

What plants can you find outside the classroom?

pl
e

Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.
Example

Small plant

am

flower

leaves

ts

stem
roots

Another plant

dr

af

Large plant

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155

Worksheet 6.1b

Worksheet 1.2a


Push
or pull?
Day
Push or pull?



Name:
Day ________________________


Date: ________________________

Name: ________________________

Date: ________________________


Day of these are pushes and which are
Which
pulls?

Which of these are pushes and which are pulls?

pl
e

Write push or pull under each picture.

ts

am

Draw and label the plants at the end.

af

Write them in the correct column of the table.


Push

dr

Conclusion

Pull

Do plants need water to grow? ____________________________________________


What happens if plants have no water? _____________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

156

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Worksheet 6.2a

Investigating forces
Name: ________________________
Name:
________________________

Date: ________________________

Date: ________________________

55

10

am

10

dr

af

ts

pl
e

Height in
/ cm
What the ball of clay looked like
Height
cm What the ball of clay looked like

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Worksheet 6.2b

Worksheet 1.2a

a ball onto different



Dropping
objects
objects
Day

Name:
Day ________________________
Name:
________________________


Date: ________________________

Date: ________________________

what happens.
Object

Prediction

Result

Result

am

Object
Draw and label the plants at Prediction
the
end.

pl
e




Day
In
this activity you will drop a ball (safely) onto different objects and materials to observe
In
thishappens.
activity, you will drop a ball (safely) onto different objects to observe
what

af

ts

dr

Conclusion



Do plants need water to grow? ____________________________________________
What happens if plants have no water? _____________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

158

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Worksheet 6.2c
Forces
change the shape of things
Plant hunt
Name: ________________________
Name:
________________________

Date: ________________________

Date: ________________________

What plants can you find outside the classroom?

pl
e

Look at the objects in the table. The shape of each has been changed by a force.
Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.
Explain how the shape of the object was changed by forces.
Example

Small plant

leaves

ts

modelling clay
stem

How the shape was changed

am

flower

Object

roots

Large plant

Another plant

dr

af

aluminium can

balloons

broken cup
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Worksheet 6.3
Worksheet 6.3a
Worksheet 6.3a

this force?

How
is
Plant
hunt
Day big
How big is this force?
Name:
________________________
Day big
How
is this force?
Name:
________________________

Worksheet 1.2a


Date: ________________________

Date: ________________________

Name: ________________________
Date: ________________________



Name:
________________________
Date: ________________________
Day plants
What
can you find outside the classroom?

In this activity, you have to test objects to see if they need a small, medium or big

pl
e

the stem,
and
flowers
then
draw
how the
roots
mightmedium
look. or big push
InLabel
this activity
youleaves
have to
test
objects
to see
if they
need
a small,
push
to
make
them
move.
Record
your
results
as
a
bar
chart.
to this
make
them you
move.
Record
your
results
on this
graph.
In
activity
have
to test
objects
to see
if they
need a small, medium or big push
Example
Small
plant
to make them move. Record your results on this graph.
flower
Draw and label the plants
at of
the
end.
Size
of
forcetotomake
makeobjects
objects move
move
Size
force
Size of force to make objects move

am
roots

Another plant

af

medium
push
medium
medium push
Large plant

leaves

ts

stem
Size of push

Size
Size
of push
of push

large push
large
large push

dr

Conclusion
small push
small
small push

Do plants need water to grow? ____________________________________________


What happens if plants have no water? _____________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
Object
Object
Object

160

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Worksheet 6.4
Measuring
Plant hunt forces
Name: ________________________
Name:
________________________

Date: ________________________

Date: ________________________

dowelling
What
plants can you find outside the classroom?

pl
e

elastic band stretched


Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.
Example

Small plant

flower
carboard tube

elastic band

small object

am

Use a forcemeter to measure different pulling forces around your school.


Record the sizes of the forces in this table.
Object

Force needed in newtons

leaves

ts

stem
roots

Another plant

dr

af

Large plant

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Worksheet 6.5a

Forces
and
friction
Plant
hunt
Day

Name:
Day ________________________
Name:
________________________

Worksheet 1.2a


Date: ________________________

Date: ________________________



Day plants can
What
you find outside the classroom?

pl
e

In this activity, you will drag a tray over different surfaces. You will measure the
Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.
force (in newtons) needed to pull the tray. Use these questions to help you to plan
Example
Small plant
your
investigation.
flower
Draw and label the plants at the end.

What is your science question?


What is your prediction?

am

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
stemyou do?
What will

leaves

ts

_____________________________________________________________________
roots

_____________________________________________________________________
Large plant

Another plant

af

Draw the test.

dr

Conclusion

Do plants need water to grow? ____________________________________________


What happens if plants have no water? _____________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

162

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Worksheet 6.5a

What
were
your results?
Plant
hunt
Name:
________________________
Surface

Date:needed
________________________
Force
in newtons

What plants can you find outside the classroom?

pl
e

Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.
Example

Small plant

am

flower

stem you found out?


What have

leaves

ts

_____________________________________________________________________
roots

_____________________________________________________________________
Large plant
Another plant

af

_____________________________________________________________________

dr

_____________________________________________________________________

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Worksheet 6.5b

Friction
saves
Kali!
Plant
hunt
Day

Name:
Day ________________________
Name:
________________________

Worksheet 1.2a


Date: ________________________

Date: ________________________



Day plants can
What
you find outside the classroom?

pl
e

We can use the force of friction to change the direction of an object.


Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.
Kali and Samir have ridden down the path on their bikes. Kali kept to the dry side.
Example
Samir
rode on the wet side in the puddle.Small plant
flower
Draw and label the plants at the
end.
Samir

am
leaves

ts

stem

<art work WSN6.5.1 of a pathway which is


curved, one one side of the path is a puddle
and wet skid marks leading to a crashed
cycle. One girl (black) labelled Kali has
safely cycled to the end and is stopped
with one leg down and is smiling. Another
girl (asian) labelled Samir has skidded
in a puddle skidded o the path and is
sitting beside her crashed cycle rubbing her
shoulder , arm or leg>

Kali

roots

Another plant

af

Large plant

What has happened? Explain this using these words.

dr

Conclusion

puddle

path

wet

tyres

friction

reduces

Do plants need water to grow? ____________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
What happens if plants have no water? _____________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

164

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Worksheet 6.5c
You
Plantneed
hunta good grip
Name: ________________________
Name:
________________________

Date: ________________________

Date: ________________________

What plants can you find outside the classroom?

pl
e

Leela, Rabia and Mandisa are going to test different foot coverings (shoes, socks
Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.
and no foot covering) to see how much grip these have on different surfaces.

Example
Small plant
Fill
in the table to predict what their results
will be. Describe the grip in each case
as good grip, fair flower
grip, not much grip, or no grip.

carpet

polished floor

ice

am

Foot covering/
surface
shoes

leaves

ts

stem
roots

socks
Large plant

dr

af

Another plant

no foot covering

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