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# Lecture 5:

## Time-Domain System Analysis

ENB342 Signal, Systems and Transforms
Karla Ziri-Castro
Queensland University of Technology
CRICOS No. 00213J
Queensland University of Technology

Announcements
Assignment 1A (due 9th April by 5pm)
Assignment 1B released next week

## CRICOS No. 00213J

Queensland University of Technology

Overview
Topic Today:
Discrete-Time System Response
Convolution

## CRICOS No. 00213J

Queensland University of Technology

System Response
Once the response to a unit impulse is known, the
response of any LTI system to any arbitrary
excitation can be found
Any arbitrary excitation is simply a sequence of
amplitude-scaled and time-shifted impulses
Therefore the response is simply a sequence of
amplitude-scaled and time-shifted impulse
responses

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## Simple System Response Example

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## More Complicated System

Response Example
System
Excitation
System
Impulse
Response
System
Response
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## The Convolution Sum

The response y n to an arbitrary excitation x n is of the form
y n L x 1h n 1 x 0 h n x 1h n 1L
where h n is the impulse response. This can be written in
a more compact form
y n

x m h n m

## called the convolution sum.

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## A Convolution Sum Example

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## A Convolution Sum Example

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## A Convolution Sum Example

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## A Convolution Sum Example

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## Convolution Sum Properties

Convolution is defined mathematically by

y n x n h n

x m h n m

## The following properties can be proven from the definition.

x n A n n0 A x n n0

Let y n x n h n then

y n n0 x n h n n0 x n n0 h n

y n y n 1 x n h n h n 1 x n x n 1 h n
and the sum of the impulse strengths in y is the product of
the sum of the impulse strengths in x and the sum of the
impulse strengths in h.
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## Convolution Sum Properties

Commutativity
x n y n y n x n
Associativity

x n y n z n x n y n z n
Distributivity

x n y n z n x n z n y n z n

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## CRICOS No. 00213J

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Numerical Convolution

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Numerical Convolution
nx = -2:8 ; nh = 0:12 ;

## x = usD(nx -1) - usD(nx - 6) ; %

Compute values of x

h = tri((nh- 6) / 4) ;

Compute values of h

y = conv(x,h) ;

%
%

## Generate a discrete - time vector for y

%
ny = (nx(1) + nh(1)) + (0:(length(nx) + length(nh) - 2)) ;
%
%

## Graph the results

%
subplot(3,1,1) ; stem(nx,x,'k','filled') ;
xlabel('n') ; ylabel('x') ; axis([-2,20,0,4]) ;
subplot(3,1,2) ; stem(nh,h,'k','filled') ;
xlabel('n') ; ylabel('h') ; axis([-2,20,0,4]) ;
subplot(3,1,3) ; stem(ny,y,'k','filled') ;
xlabel('n') ; ylabel('y') ; axis([-2,20,0,4]) ;

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Numerical Convolution

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## Perform Linear Convolution by hand

General Procedure
1. Construct a table for x[n] and h[n].
2. Write the definition and simplify it.
3. Evaluate y[n] for n = 0; 1; ;N1 + N2 - 2.

Note:
In step 3: We start at n = 0, and so the number of
points between n = 0; 1; ;N1 + N2 - 2 is N1 + N2 - 1.
The mathematics will take care of the flipping and
shifting.

## CRICOS No. 00213J

Queensland University of Technology

## CRICOS No. 00213J

Queensland University of Technology

## CRICOS No. 00213J

Queensland University of Technology

## CRICOS No. 00213J

Queensland University of Technology

## CRICOS No. 00213J

Queensland University of Technology

## CRICOS No. 00213J

Queensland University of Technology

## Stability and Impulse Response

It can be shown that a discrete-time BIBO-stable system
has an impulse response that is absolutely summable.
That is,

h n is finite.

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System Interconnections

## The cascade connection of two systems can be viewed as

a single system whose impulse response is the convolution
of the two individual system impulse responses. This is a
direct consequence of the associativity property of
convolution.
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System Interconnections

## The parallel connection of two systems can be viewed as

a single system whose impulse response is the sum
of the two individual system impulse responses. This is a
direct consequence of the distributivity property of
convolution.
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## Take Home Points

Convolution:
Every LTI system is completely characterized by its impulse response.
The response of any LTI system to an arbitrary input signal can be
found by convolving the input signal with its impulse response.

System Interconnections:
The impulse response of a cascade connection of LTI systems is the
convolution of the individual impulse responses
The impulse response of a parallel connection of LTI systems is the
sum of the individual impulse responses

Stability:
A discrete-time LTI system is BIBO stable if its impulse response is
absolutely summable.

## CRICOS No. 00213J

Queensland University of Technology

Next Week
Semester Break
Assignment 1A due Thursday 9th April by 5pm
(submit online)

## CRICOS No. 00213J

Queensland University of Technology