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# PRECIPITATION

GEOLOGY
P recipitation refers to all form of liquid or solid water particles that form in
the atmosphere and then fall to the Earths surface.
Types of Precipitation:
Hail
Sleet
Snow
Rain
Drizzle
Formation:
The formation of precipitation may occur at temperatures above and below
the freezing.
Warm Precipitationis formed at temperatures entirely above freezing.
Cold PrecipitationInvolves ice and at stage of the process
Problems

1. Assuming rain falling vertically, express the catch of the gage inclined 20 from the vertical
as a percentage of the catch for the same gage installed vertically.
Solution:
% catch = cos 20 (1/1) x 100%
% catch = 94%
2. With a z value of 300,000 mm / m , what are the rainfall rates, in mm/hr, indicated by z-R
relationships with a and b values of
a. 200 and 1.6 ?
b. 300 and 1.4 ?
Solution:
z = aR
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a. a = 200
b = 1.6

b. a = 300
b = 1.4

z = aR

z = aR

R = ( z/a) = 300,000 mm / m
200
R = 96.62 mm/hr

## R = (z/a) = 300,000 mm/m

300
R = 138.95 mm/hr

3. Precipitation station X was inoperative for part of a month during a storm occurred. The
respective storm totals at three surrounding stations, A,B and C were 98, 80, and 110mm. The
normal annual precipitation amounts at stations X, A, B, and C are, respectively, 880, 1008, 842
and 1080 mm. Estimate the storm precipitation for station X.

Solution:
Px = 1/3 P + P + P
Nx
N
N
N
Px = 880/3 ( 98/1008 + 80/842 + 110/1080)
Px = 86.27 mm
4. The average annual precipitation for the four sub-basins constituting a large river is 73, 85,
112, and 101 cm. The areas are 930, 710, 1090 and 1680 km , respectively. What is the average
annual precipitation for the basin as a whole ?
Solution:
P A
A

## = PA+ PA+ PA+ PA

= ( 930 + 710 + 1090 + 1680) km = 4410 km

## = [ 73 (930) + 85 ( 710) + 112 ( 1090) + 101 (1680) ] / 4410 km

= 95.24 cm

5. Compute the mean annual precipitation for the data shown below. Use the arithmetic average
and Theissen network. Then compare your answers. Which of the two is the most accurate ?
Gage Station
A
B
C
D

Precipitation (mm)
81.5
73.00
75.25
76.25

By Arithmetic average:
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Area (m)
120,000
200,000
200,000
280,000

## = P + P + P + P = ( 81.5 + 73 + 75.25 + 76.25 ) mm

4
4

= 76.5 mm

By Theissen Method:

= PA + P A + P A + P A + P A
A

## = 81.5 ( 120000 ) + 73 ( 200000 ) + 75.25 ( 200000 ) + 76.25 ( 280000 )

800,000

= 75.98 mm
Theissen Method is more accurate than that of Arithmetic Average.

STREAMFLOW
WATER STAGE
Manual Gages
River Stage is the elevation above some arbitrary zero datum of the water surface at
the station. The datum is sometimes taken as mean sea level but more often it is slightly
below the Point of zero flow in the stream.
The simplest way to measure the river stage is by means of staff gage, a scale set
so that a portion of it is immersed in water at all times.
If no suitable exist in a location accessible at all stages, a sectional staff gage may
be used.
Wire-weight gage has a drum with circumference such that each revolution unwinds
30 cm of wire. A counter records the number of revolutions of the drum while a fixed
reference point indicates tenths of a millimeter on a scale around the circumference.
Recording Gages

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Continuous chart recorder motion of the float moves a pen across a long strip chart.
When the pen reaches the edges of the chart, it reverses direction and
records in

## the other direction across the chart.

Crest-stage Gage
-

Crest gage provide low cost, supplementary records of crest stage at locations where
records are not justified and where manually read staff gages are inadequate. The
gage used by the U.S. Geological survey consists of a length of pipe containing a
graduated stick and a small amount of a ground cork.

## Miscellaneous stage gages

Water or mercury-filled manometers can be used to indicate reservoir water levels or to
actuate recording devices.
Selection of Station Site
The relation between stage and discharge is controlled by the physical features of the
channel downstream from the gage. When controlling features are situated in a short
length of channel, a section control exists. If the gage discharge relation is governed by
the slope, size, and roughness of the channel over a considerable distance, the station is
under the cannel control
DISCHARGE
Current Meters
Price meters is the most common current meter in the United States.
-

## Consist of six conical cups rotating about a vertical axis.

Propeller type Current meters employ a propeller turning about a horizontal axis.
The location between revolution per second N of the meter cups and water velocity V is
given by an equation of the form.
V = a + bN
Where b is the constant of proportionality and is the starting velocity or velocity required
to overcome mechanical friction.
Current-Meter Measurements
A discharge measurement requires determination of sufficient point velocities to permit
computation of an average velocity in the stream. Cross sectional area multiplied by
average velocity gives the total discharge.

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Stage-distance relations
Rating curve or stage-discharge relations
-

## A calibration curve where periodic meter measurements of flow and simultaneous

stage observations provides data.

The dispersion of the measured data about the mean rating curve should be small
(generally less than two percent)

## A larger dispersion indicates either

a. That the control shirts more or less continuously with scour and deposition in bed
and banks or the growth of vegetation
b. That the water surface slope at the control varies as the result of varying
backwater from tides, reservoirs fluctuations, or variable tributary inflow
downstream.
c. That the measurements are not carefully made

Shifting control
-

## Discharge is usually estimated by noting the difference between the stage

at a time of a discharge measurement and the stage on the mean rating
curve w/c shows the same discharge.

## If the correction changes between measurements, a linear variation with

time is usually assumed.

## The basic approach is presented by:

q/qo = (s/so)m = (f/fo)k
Where:
Q = discharge
S = slope
M = expected to be
F = fall, difference in water surface elevation between two fixed sections
and is usually measured by two conventional river gages
f/l =s
k = need not to be and must be determined empirically.
Slope-stage-discharge relation
-

## Requires a base gage and an auxiliary gage

Gages should be far enough apart for f to be at least 30cm to minimize the
effect of observational errors.

## Normal fall rating

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Can be used when fall varies over a wide range and is correlated with stage.

fall and stage.

## Change in stage rating

-

Eliminate the need for auxiliary gage. Slope is equal to Sb + Sr, where Sb is
the slope of the channel bottom (or the slope of the water surface in uniform
flow) and sr + dg/11dt

-

## There is no completely satisfactory method for extrapolating a rating curve

beyond the highest measured discharged. It is often assumed that the equation
of the rating curve is
Q = k (g a )b

## Effect of Ice on Stream

-

When ice covers a stream, a new friction surface is formed and the stream
becomes a closed conduit w/ lower discharge because of the decreased

The underline of the ice sheet may be extremely rough if ice cakes are tilted
helter-skelter and then frozen together.

If the stage falls, leaving the ice is as a bridge across the stream, the stagedischarge characteristics return to those of a free stream.

If the stream is frozen over, the flow is usually small since there will be little
snowmelt or other source of run-off w/ in the tributary area.

Frazil ice the first ice to form in the turbulent streams, small crystal are suspended in the
turbulent flow.
Anchor ice frazil ice collecting on rocks on the streambed.

## Other Methods Obtaining the Stream-flow Data

-

The discharge at dams can be determined from calibration of the spill way,
sluiceway, and turbine gates.

computed.

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## On small streams, flow measurements may be made w/ weirs or flumes.

Slope-area computation
-

## Chezy-manning formula ordinarily used to compute discharge

Q = 1/n ( AR2/8S1/2)
Where:
n = roughness coefficient
Average value for natural stream is about 0.035, an error of 0.001
represents about 3% in discharge
Moving-Boat-methods a boat traverses the streams at a constant speed on a course normal to
the flow.
Ultrasonic and electro magnetic methods can provide continuous discharge measurement.
Ultrasonic method - sonic pulses are emitted from transducers on opposite banks and located on
a line about 450 from the direction of flow.
-

## Planning and stream flow network

-

The design of a stream flow network is a problem both of statistical sampling over
area and of the locations where data and most likely to be needed.

## THREE TYPES OF STATIONS

Operational Station required for stream flow forecasting, project operation, water allocation,
etc.
Special Stations installed to secure data for a project investigation, special studies or research
location is determined by the special need, and they are operated until the
study is

completed.

Basic Data Stations operated to obtained data for future used. The time and nature of this
future use are usually unknown when the station is established.
Bench Mark Stations should be maintained permanently on all streams that are substantially
unaffected by people.
INTERPRETATION OF STREAMFLOW
Water Years

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It is desirable to treat annual stream flow data in such way that the flood season is not
divided between successive years. Various water years have been used for special purposes: the
U.S. Geological Survey uses the water year, October 1 to September 30, for data publication.
Water years are customarily designated by the ending year, i.e., water year 1975 ends September
30, 1975.
Hydrographs
-

## is a graph of stage versus time

a graph showing the change over time in the amount of water flowing down a river

Many different methods of plotting are used, depending on the purpose of the chart.
Monthly and annual mean or total flow is used to display the record of past run-off at a
station.
For detailed analysis, discharge hydrographs are plotted by computing instantaneous flow
values from the water stage recorder chart. The visual shape of the hydrograph is
determined by the scales used, and in any particular study it is good practice to use the
same scales for all floods on a given basin.
Mean Daily Flow
-

Stream flow data are usually published in the form of mean daily flows from
midnight to midnight.

## Adjustment of Stream flow Data

Before publication, stream flow data should be carefully reviewed and adjusted for errors
resulting from instrumental and observational deficiencies until they are as accurate a
presentation of the flow as it is possible to make.
Storage reservoirs, diversions, levees, etc., cause changes in either total flow volume or
rate of flow or both. An analysis of the effects on the record at a given stations requires a
careful search to determine the number and size of reservoirs, the number and quantity of
diversions, and the date of their construction.
Land-use changes, urbanization, deforestation, or reforestation affect streamflow and
cause apparent shifts in the flow record.
Mean Annual Runoff
The figure is a map of mean annual runoff in the United States.
Stream flow Variations
1. Variations in total runoff from year to year
2. Seasonal variations in runoff
3. Variations of daily rates of runoff throughout the year
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SAMPLE PROBLEM
Problem No. 1
Determine the flow through a trapezoidal concrete lined canal having a side slope of 3H
to 4H and bottom width of 2m if the depth of floe is 2 m. The channel is laid on a slope of 3m
per 2 km. Use n = 0.013

x
2m

x
5

2m
Sol:
Q = A(1/n)R2/3S1/2
y = (5/4)2
y = 2.5 m
By ratio and proportion:
(2.5/5) = (x/3)
x = 1.5
[2 + 2(1.5)] + 2
2
A=

(2)

A = 7 m2
R = A/P
P = 2 + 2(2.5) = 7 m
R = 7m2/7m = 1 m
S = 3/2000 = 0.0015
Q = (7)(1/0.013)(1)2/3(0.0015)1/2
Q = 20.85 m3/s
Problem No. 2
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ans

Given the stream section shown in table and the following measurements, calculate the
total discharge and the average velocity throughout the station.
Measurement

Distance

Width

Depth

Mean

Area

Discharge

Station

across stream

w(ft)

D(ft)

velocity

wxD

cfs

A
B
C
D
E
F

in (ft)
0
14
26
38
49
61

0
1.1
2.6
3.5
3.2
3.1

V(ft/s)
0
0.43
0.61
1.54
1.21
1.13

7
13
12
11.5
11.5
14.5

0
14.3
31.2
40.25
36.8
44.95
Total

0.0
6.15
19.03
61.99
44.53
50.79
= 182.49 cfs

SOL:
w = 0.5 x (49 38) + 0.5 x (61 49) = 11.5 ft
Q = w + Di x vi =
Q = 11.5 x 3.2 x 1.21
Q = 44.53 cfs
Average velocity = 0.98 ft/s
Problem No. 3
For particular stream, estimate the floe rate (runoff for this case) using the following data
for velocities measured at two depths (0.2 & 0.8 of the total) and the cross-sectional area
corresponds to the velocity measures.
Section

Sample

Velocity

Depths
0.5D
0.8D

0.4
0.3

0.8
0.6

1.2
1.3

1.0
1.2

0.6
0.6

10

(m/s)
Area(m2)

Q = Q = AV = A(V0.2 + V0.8)/2
Q = 3(0.35) + 6(0.70) + 10(1.25) + 8(1.1) + 4(0.6)
Q = 1.05 + 4.20 + 12.50 + 8.8 + 2.4
Q = 29.00 m3/s

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1. EVAPORATION

## FACTORS CONTROLLING THE EVAPORATION PROCESS

Meteorological Factors. If natural evaporation is viewed as an energy-exchange process,
it can be demonstrated that radiation is by far the most important single factor and that
the term solar evaporation is basically applicable.
The rate of evaporation is influence by solar radiation, air temperature,
vapor pressure, wind, and minimally by atmospheric pressure.
Nature of Evaporating Surface. All surface exposed to precipitation, such as immersion,
bulb lines, and pave streets are potentially evaporation surfaces.
The Rate of Evaporation from soil surfaces is limited by the availability of
water or evaporation opportunity.

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Effects of Water Quality. The effect of salinity, or dissolved solids, is brought about by
the reduced vapor pressure of the solution. The vapor pressure of sea water (35,000 ppm
dissolved salts) is about 2% less than that of pure water at the same temperature.
WATER-BUDGET DETERMINATION OF RESERVOIR EVAPORATION

## The direct measurement of evaporation under field conditions is not feasible, at

least in the sense that one is able to measure river stage, rain fall, etc.
E = (S1-S2) + I + P - O Og
Where:
E evaporation
S storage
I surface inflow
O - surface outflow
Og subsurface seepage

## At lake Hefner at Oklahoma-correction as large as 10 mm per month were

required for changes in density. It was found that daily evaporation from lake Hefner,
Oklahoma, could be reliably computed from a water budget. Lake Hefner was selected,
after a survey of more than 100 lakes and reservoir as one of the 3 or 4 best meeting
water-budget requirements.

## ENERGY-BUDGET DETERMINATIONS OF RESERVOIR EVAPORATIONS

The energy-budget approach, like the water budget, employs a continuity equation

## and solves for evaporation as the residual required to maintain a balance.

The energy-budget equation for a lake or reservoir may be expressed as:
Qn Qh Qe = Q Qv
Where:
Qn net (all-wave)
Qh sensible-heat transfer (conduction) to the atmosphere
Qe energy used for evaporation
Q increase in energy stored in the water body
Qv - advected energy (net energy content of inflow and outflow elements)
Another approach to the determination of net radiation involves the application of the
energy-budget to an insulated evaporation pan (radiation integrator).
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## Qir = Qir = Qn + (o)4

Where:
Qir the incident minus reflected all-wave radiation for the tank
o absolute temperature.
stefan-boltzman constant (5.67 x 10-8 W m 2 K-4)
= 0.97
The energy content per gram of water (with respect to 0 0C) is the product of its specific
heat and Celsius temperature. Assuming the values of density and specific heat of water are
1000 kg/cu.m and 4.19 x 10-3MJ/ kgoC.

## Qv Qo = 4.19/A (ITI + PTp OTo OgTg ETE + S1T1 S2T2)

COMBINATION METHODS OF ESTIMATING RESERVOIR EVAPORATION
When it becomes necessary to take advection and energy storage into account, the
adjusted lake evaporation EL, can be computed from
EL = E + (Qv - Q)
Where:
E - evaporation
(Qv - Q) - net advection
ESTIMATION OF RESERVOIR EVAPORATION FROM PAN EVAPORATION AND
RELATED METEOROLOGICAL DATA
Pan Observations. There are 3 types of exposures employed for pan installations sunken, floating, and surface and divergent views on the best exposure persist.
Sunken pans collect more trash; they are difficult to install, clean and repair; leaks are not
easily detected; and height of vegetation adjacent to the pan is quite ethical.
Evaporation from Pan Floating in the lake more nearly approximates evaporation from the
lake than from an on shore installation, but even so, the boundary effects are appreciable.
Pans exposed above ground experience greater evaporation than sunken pans, primarily
because of the radiant energy intercepted by the wide walls, and heat exchange.
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1)

2)

## To estimate missing pan records.

3)

To estimate data for station at which pan observations are not made.

4)

5)

## To aid the study of lake pan relations.

Pan Coefficients. The ratio of the annual lake-to-pan evaporation. Water- budge, energybudget, and aerodynamic techniques can be use to estimate evaporation from existing reservoirs
and lakes.
Effects of advected energy on pan evaporation. Observations demonstrate that the
sensible-heat transfer through the pan can be appreciable and may flow in either direction,
depending upon water and air temperatures.
Making the further assumption that the pan coefficient is 0.7 when air and pan water
temperatures are equal:
E = 0.7[Ep 0.0064pp (0.37 + 0.00255 vp){To Ta}0.88]
Where:
p - pressure (kpa)
vp - velocity(km/day)
Ta - air temperature
To - water-surface temperature
Ep - pan evaporation

2. TRANSPIRATION
Only minute portion of the water absorb by the roots systems of plants remain in the
plants tissues; virtually all is discharge to the atmosphere as vapor through transpiration.
This is the process where an air enters the leaf and the waters escapes through the open
stomata.
FACTORS AFFECTING TRANSPIRATION
The rate of transpiration is largely independent of plant type, provided there is adequate
soil water and the surface is entirely covered by the vegetation about 95 % of daily transpiration
occurs during daylight hours, compared with 75 to 90% for soil evaporation.
Wilting Point moisture content at which permanent wilting of plants occurs.
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The relative transpiration is not proportional to cover density, however, for 2 reasons;
1) An isolated plant receives radiation on the side facing the sun which would fall on an
adjacent plant were there solid cover.
2) A portion of radiation reaching the ground is subsequently transmitted to the plants
(oasis effect).
PLANT TYPES:
Xerophytes dessert species which have fewer stomata per unit area and less surface
area expose to radiation.
Phreatophytes have root systems reaching to the water table and transpire at rates
largely independent of moisture contents in the zone of aeration.
Mesophytes have some ability to reduce transpiration during periods of growth.
Hydophytes cannot pumps water into the atmosphere at rates in excess of those
controlled by available radiant and sensible energy.
MEASUREMENT OF TRANSPIRATION

Measured by Phytometer, a large vessel filled with soil in which one or more

## plants are rooted.

3. EVAPOTRANSPIRATION

Total evaporation (or evapotranspiration) - the evaporation from all water, soil,
snow, ice, vegetation, and other surface plus transpiration.

Consumptive use is the total evaporation from an area plus the water use directly in
building plant tissue.
The concept of potential evapotranspiration introduced by Thornthwaite is widely
used. He defined the term as water loss which will occur if at no time there is a
deficiency of water in the soil for the use of vegetation.
LYSIMETER DETERMINATION OF EVAPOTRANSPIRATION
Many observations of evapotranspiration are made in soil containers variously known
as tanks, evapotranspirometer, and lysimeters. The first 2 terms customarily refer to
containers with sealed bottoms, while there has been an attempt to restrict the word
lysimeter to containers with pervious bottoms or with a mechanism for maintaining
negative pressure at the bottom.

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## EQUATIONS FOR EVAPORATION COMPUTATIONS

The following equation for , the portion of net advected energy contributing to

evaporation:

0.0066p

T0 273 108

0.177 0.00143v 4

0.00815T0 0.8912 7

Where:
p - pressure, Kpa
To - water temperature
v4 - 4-m wind movement, km/day

## The derivation of an equation for p applicable to the Class A pan involves

additional assumptions, and the result is not particularly suited to computer use. The
following equation is an adequate approximation:
p = 0.34 + 0.0117To - 3.5 x 10-7(To + 17.8)3 + 0.0135(vp)0.36
Where:
To - water temperature, C
vp - wind movement, km/day

## ANOTHER EQUATION FOR SOLVING EVAPORATION

A commonly used empirical equation has been developed by Meyer. This equation takes
the form:
W

E C eo e a 1
10

Where:
E = daily evaporation in inches depth
eo and ea = as previously defined but in units of inches of Hg
W = the wind velocity in mph measured about 25 ft above the water surface
C = an empirical coefficient
For daily data on an ordinary lake, C will be about 0.36. For wet soil surfaces, small
puddles, and shallow pans, the value of C is approximately 0.50

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Example Problem: Find the daily evaporating E from a lake for a day during which the
following mean values were obtained: air temperature 87F, water temperature 63F, wind speed
10 mph, and relative humidity 20%.
Table. Water Vapor Pressure at Various Temperatures
Temp
(F)
32
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

Vapor Pressure
(in. Hg)
0.18
0.25
0.36
0.52
0.74
1.03
1.42
1.94

60

63

70

## (70 - 63) / (70 - 60) = (0.74 - x) / (0.74 - 0.52)

0.52

0.74

eo = x = 0.58 in Hg

80

87

90

1.03

1.42

E C e0 ea 1
10

10
10

## E = 0.23 in/day x 2.54 cm/in x 10 mm/12 m

= 5.85 mm/day

Example Problem: For a given month, a 300-acre lake has 15 ft 3/s of inflow, 13 ft3/s outflow,
and a total storage increase of 16 ac-ft. A USGS gage next to the lake recorded a total of 1.3 in.
precipitation for the lake for the month. Assuming that infiltration is insignificant for the lake,
determine the evaporation loss, in inches, over the lake.
Given: I = 15 ft3/s
O = 13 ft3/s
P = 1.3 in.
S = 16 ac-ft
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Req: E = ?
Solution:
I

## 15 ft3 s 3,600 s hr 24 hr day 30 day month 1month

300acre 43,560 ft 3 acre

O

## 13 ft3 s 3,600 s hr 24 hr day 30 day month 1month

300acre 43,560 ft 3 acre

## O = 2.578 ft. x 12 in./ft = 30.94 in.

S

16ac ft 12 in ft
300acre

0.64 in.

E = I - O + P - S
E = (35.70) - (30.94) + (1.3) - (0.64) in.
E = 5.42 in.
Example Problem: A clear lake has a surface area of 708,000 m2. In May, the building brook
flows into the lakes at an average rate of 1.5 m 3/s. The Meandering River flows out of clear lake
at an average rate of 1.25 m3/s. The evaporation rate was measured as 14.0 cm/mo. A total of
22.5 cm of precipitation fell in May. Seepage losses are negligible. The average depth in the lake
on May 1 was 19 m. What was the average depth on May 30th?
Given: I = 1.5 m3/s
O = 1.25 m3/s
P = 22.5 cm/mo.
E = 14.0 cm/mo.
Req: S = ?
Solution:
I

708,000m 2

708,000m 2

## P = (22.5 cm/mo)(1m/100 cm)(1 month) = 0.225 m

E = (14.0 cm/mo)(1m/100 cm) (1 month) = 0.14 m
S = I - O + P - E
S = 5.49 - 4.58 + 0.225 - 0.14 = 0.995 m
The new average depth on May 30th would be: 19 + 0.995 = 19.995 m
Example Problem: Determine the evaporation rate per month of a lake 500,000m 2, with a total
average inflow of 3.5 m3/s, outflow downstream is 3.2 m3/s. Before the large content is 180,700
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m3/month, due to higher inflow it has increased to 220,000 m 3/month. Precipitation rate is 15 mm
/month.
Given:
I = 3.5 m3/s
O = 3.2 m3/s
S2 = 220,000 m3/month
S1 = 180,700 m3/month
P = 15 mm/month
Solution:
E = P + I - O - S
E = 15 mm (1/1000)(500,000 m2) + 3.5 m3/s(60)(60)(24)(30) - (3.2 m3/s)(60)(60)(24)(30)
- (220,000(m3/month - 180,700 m3/month)
E = 7500 m3/month + 9,072,000 m3/month - 8,294,400 m3/month - 39,300 m3/month
E=

745,800 m3 month
500,000m 2

E = 1.492 m/month

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SUBSURFACE WATER
6-1 Occurrence of subsurface
Water table is the lows of points( in unconfined materials) where hydrostatic pressure
equals atmospheric pressure.
Vadose zone Above the water table, soils pores may contain either air or water.
Phreatic zone Below the water level interstices are filled with water.
-Local saturated zones sometimes exists as perched ground water above an impervious layer of
limited extent.
- Sometimes ground water is overlain by an impervious stratum to form confined or artesian
water.
Soil water- ranging to 10 m below the soil surface.
6-2 Soil-Water Relationship
Soil moisture may be present as gravity water in transit in the large pore spaces as
capillary water in the smaller pores, as hygroscopic moisture adhering in a thin film to soil grains
and as water vapor.

MOVEMENT OF GROUNDWATER
In 1856 Darcy confirmed the applicability of principles of fluid flow in capillary tubes,
developed several years earlier by Hagen and Poiseveille, to the flow of water in permeable
media.
Darcys Law:
V = ks
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where
v = velocity of flow
k = coeffocient having the units of v
s = slope of the hydraulic gradient

where

q = kpAs = KAs
q = product of area and velocity
p = porosity
K = coefficient of permeability or the hydraulic conductivity

where

K = k w/ = Cd2 w
/
K = intrinsic permeability of the medium
w = specific weight of the fluid
= absolute viscosity
C = factor involving the shape, packing, porosity, and other characteristics of
the medium
d = average pore size of the medium

It is convenient to use the transmissibility (T) to represent the flow rate per day through
unit area under unit hydraulic gradient:
where

T = KY
T = transmissibility
K = hydraulic conductivity
Y = saturated thickness of the aquifer
q = TBs

where
B = the width of the aquifer
6.7

DETERMINATION OF PERMEABILITY

## Laboratory measurements of permeability are made with permeameters. A sample of

materials is subjected to water under a known head, and the flow through the sample in a known
time is measured.

6.8

SOURCES OF GROUNDWATER
Connate Water present in the rock at its formation and is frequently highly saline.
Juvenile Water formed chemically within the earth and brought to the surface in
intrusive rocks, occurs in small quantities.

21 | P a g e

Connate and juvenile waters are sometimes important sources of undesirable minerals in
groundwater.
Influent Streams streams contributing to groundwater. Such streams are frequently
ephemerical.

6.9

DISCHARGE OF GROUNDWATER
Effluent Streams streams intersecting the water tale and receiving groundwater flow.
Spring or Seep form where an aquifer intersects the earths surface.
Types of Springs:
1.
2.
3.
4.

## Water hole or dimple spring

Anticipating spring
Perched spring
Spring from solution channel

Phreatophytes plants deriving their water from groundwater, often have root systems
extending to depths of 12m or more.

6.10

## EQUILIBRIUM HYDRAULICS OF WELLS

Flow toward the well through a cylindrical surface at radius x must equal the discharge of
the well.
From Darcys Law:
q = 2 xyK dy/dx
Where
2 xyK = area of cylinder
dy = slope of the water table
dx
Integrating with respect to x from r, to r2 and y from h1 to h2:
q = K (h1 2 h22) / In (r1/ r2)
where
h = height of water table above the base of the aquifer at distance r from the
pumped well
In = logarithm to the base e
Assuming that the drawdown (Z) to be small compared with the saturated thickness
22 | P a g e

(h1 h2 Y):
t =

## q In(r1/ r2) / 2 (Z2 Z1)

Equations (6-9) and (6-9a) can be used to estimate T or K given q and z, provided that the
assumption of equilibrium is satisfied.

6.11

## NONEQUILIBRIUM HYDRAULICS OF WELLS

In 1935 theis is presented a formula based on the heat flow and which accounts for the
effect of time and the storage characteristics of an aquifer.
Zr =

q / 4T e-u du/u

Where:
Zr = drawdown of an observation well at distance r from the pumped well
q = flow in cubic meters per day
T = transmissibility in cubic meters per day per meter
Where:
t

U = r2Sc / 4Tt

= times in
days since pumping
began
Sc = storage constant of the aquifer, or the volume of water removed from a
column of aquifer 1 meter square when the water table or pielometer
surface is lowered 1 meter.

The integral in equation, written as W(u) and called the well function of u, can be
evaluated from the series
W(u) = -0.5772 In u + u u2 /2.21 +

u3 / 3.31

## Equation can be solved graphically by plotting a type curve of u versus W (u) on

logarithmic paper.

r2 / t = 4Th / Sc
When u is small, the terms of equation (6-12) following in u are small and may be
neglected. Equation (6-11) indicates that u will be small when t is large, and in this case a
modified solution of the theis method is possible by writing:

23 | P a g e

T =

## 2.3q / 4TZ log t2 / t1

Where:
Z = change in drawdown between t, and t2.
The drawdown z is plotted on an arithmetic scale against time to on a logarithmic scale.
If Z is taken as the change in drawdown during one log cycle, Log 10 (t2/t1) = 1, and T is
determined from equation 96-14), when z = 0,
Sc = 2.25 Tto /r2
Where:
to = intercept (in days) if the straight line portion of the curve is extended z 0

6.12

BOUNDARY EFFECT
When several are close together, their cones of depression may overlap or interfer.

When wells are located too close together, the flow from the wells is impaired and the
drawdowns increased.
Method of Images devised by Lord Kelvin for electrostatic theory.
- is a convenient way to treat boundary problems.
Resultant cone of depression found by subtracting the drawdown caused by image well
from that caused by real well (assuming mo boundaries)
Boundaries across which no flow is transmitted, such as faults can be represented by
pumping wells.

6.13

AQUIFER ANALYSIS
Hele-shaw Apparatus
-

consisting of closely spaced glass plates with a viscous fluid between them
often convenient for solving two-dimentional ground flow problems.

Three dimensional problems are commonly treated with a digital; or analog computer

## Analog computer consist of a network of resistors and capacitors

Current is analogous to flow and voltage to potential
Permeability is simulated by the reciprocal or resistance
Elaborate analogs representing large aquifer have been constructed

In finite-difference form using the grid notation of fig. 6-14 this becomes

24 | P a g e

a2
a2

0
0

2

## Potential of a Groundwater Reservoir

5
6.14

SAFE YIELD
Safe yield is defined by Menzer  as The rate at which water can be withdrawn for
human use without depleting the supply t such an extent that withdrawal at this
rate is no longer economically feasible
- Kazmann has suggested that it be abandoned because of its frequent
interpretation as a permanent limitation on the permissible withdrawal.
- Must be recognized as a quantity determined for a specific set of controlling
conditions and subject to change as a result of changing economic or physical
condition.

The safe yield of a grounded basin is governed by many factors, one of the most important being
the quantity of water available. This hydrologic limitation is often expressed by the equation

G = P Qs ET + Qg Sg Ss
Where:
G = safe yield
P = precipitation on the area tributary tot he aquifer
Qs = surface stream flow from the same area
ET = evapotranspiration
Qg = net groundwater inflow to the are
Sg = change in groundwater
Ss = change in surface storage

Hint: if the equation is evaluation on a mean annual basis, __ Sg will usually be zero

## Mining the permanent withdrawal of groundwater from storage

- the term being used in the same sense as for mineral resources.

25 | P a g e

6.15

SEAWATER INTRUSION
Ghyben Herzberg Lens the lens of fresh water floating on salt water

About 1/40 unit of fresh water is requires above sea level for each unit of fresh water
below sea level to maintain hydrostatic equilibrium.

6.16

ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE
Methods employed for artificial recharge
1. Storing floodwaters in reservoirs constructed over permeable areas
2. Storing floodwaters in reservoirs for later release into the stream channel at rates
approximating the percolation capacity of the channel.
3. Diverting streamflow to spreading areas located in a highly permeable formation.
4. Excavating recharge basins to reach permeable formations
5. Pumping water through recharge wells into the aquifer
6. Over irrigating in areas of high permeability
7. Construction of wells adjacent to a stream to induce percolation from steam flow.

6.17

ARTESIAN AQUIFERS

If the permeability of the aquiclude confining an Artesian Aquifer is 0.04 m/day and the
hydraulic gradient is unity, the daily seepage would amount to 40,900 m3/km2.

Hantush - has demonstrated a procedure which accounts for such leakage in the analysis of
pumping tests on artesian aquifers.

6.18

## TIME EFFECTS IN GROUNDWATER

Flow rates in the groundwater are normally extremely slow, and considerable time may
be involved in groundwater phenomena.
Werner suggested that several hundreds years might be required for a sudden increase
in water level in the recharge area of an extensive artesian aquifer to be
transmitted through the aquifer.
Jacob found that the water levels on long island were related to an effective
precipitation which was the sum of the rainfalls for the previous 25 years.
McDonald and Langbein found long-term fluctuations in streamflow in the Columbia
basin which they believe are related to groundwater fluctuations.

26 | P a g e

STREAMFLOW HYDROGRAPHS
Engineering hydrology is concerned primarily with three characteristics of streamflow:
1. monthly and annual volumes available for storage and use
2. low-flow rates which restricts in-stream uses of water
3. floods
Hydrograph is a continuous graph showing the properties of streamflow with respect to time
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HYDROGRAPH
7-1 Components of Runoff
Three main routes of travel:
1. overland flow ( or surface runoff)
- is that water which travels over the ground surface to channel
2. interflow (or subsurface storm runoff)
- the water which infiltrates the soil surface that move laterally through the upper soil
layers until it enters a stream channel
- moves more slowly than the surface runoff and reaches the streams later
3. groundwater flow ( also called base flow and dry-weather flow)
- precipitation that percolate downward until it reaches the water table
- is the discharge groundwater accretion into the streams, if the water table intersects the
stream channels of the basin

## The hydrograph differs for each type of basin.

The total flow is divided only into parts:
a. storm or direct runoff is presumed to consist of surface runoff and a substantial
portion of the interflow
b. base flow is considered to be largely groundwater

## 7-2 Streamflow Recessions

A typical hydrograph resulting from an isolated period of rainfall consist of a rising limb,
crest segment, and falling segment, or recession.
q1 = q0Kr
where:
q0 - is the flow at any time
q1 - is the flow one time unit later
Kr - is a recession constant which is les than unity
27 | P a g e

where:
qt - is the flow t after
e - is the napierian
- -ln Kr

qt = q0Ktr = q0e -t

St = -

q0
base

qt / ln Kr = qt /

where:
St - is the storage remaining in the basin at time t
7-3 Hydrograph Separation
Hydrograph separation or hydrograph analysis the division of hydrograph into direct and
groundwater runoff as a basis for subsequent analysis
N = bA 0.2
where:
N = time in days
A = is the drainage area (in sq. km)
b = is the coefficient maybe taken as 0.8
7-4 Analysis of Complex Hydrographs
- This type of event easier to analyze than the complex hydrographs resulting from two
or more closely spaced bursts of rainfall.
- Some other methods have been developed may also have some advantages where
groundwater is a relatively important component of runoff and reaches the stream
fairly quickly.
7-5 Determination of Total Runoff

there is a need to determine the total streamflow resulting from a particular storm or
group of storms

this can be done by computing the total volume of flow occurring during a period
beginning and ending with the same discharge and encompassing the rise under
consideration, making certain that groundwater recession conditions prevail at both times.
HYDROGRAPH SYNTHESIS
7-6 The Elemental Hydrograph
Surface detention is the temporary storage where the rainfall goes since sheet flow over the
surface cannot occur without a finite depth of water on the surface.
7-7 The Unit-Hydrograph Concept
-

## The unit hydrograph is a typical hydrograph for the basin

unit hydrograph can be defined as the, hydrograph of one centimeter or millimeter of
direct runoff from a storm of specified duration

1. Duration of rain
- theoretically, the ideal unit hydrograph has a duration approaching zero, the
instantaneous unit hydrograph.
2. Time-intensity pattern
- if one attempted to derive a separate unit hydrograph for each possible time-intensity
pattern, an infinite number of unit hydrographs would be required
- unit hydrograph can be based only on an assumption of uniform intensity of runoff
28 | P a g e

## 3. Arial distribution runoff

- the areal pattern of runoff can cause variations in hydrograph shape
- if the area of high runoff is near the basin outlet, a rapid rise and sharp peak usually result
- higher runoff in the upstream portion of the basin produces a slow rise and a lower
4.
amount of runoff
- Inherent in the unit hydrograph concept is the assumption that ordinates of flow are
proportional to volume of runoff for all storms of a given duration that the time bases of
all such hydrographs are equals
7-8 Derivation of Unit Hydrographs
The unit hydrograph is best derived from the hydrograph of the storm of reasonably
uniform intensity, duration of desired length, and a relatively large runoff volume.
The steps are:
1. separate the base flow from direct runoff
2. determine the volume of direct runoff, and the ordinates of the direct runoff hydrograph
3. then, divide by the runoff depth
4. the adjusted unit ordinates form a unit hydrograph

The proper procedure is to compute the average peak flow and time to peak.

The average unit hydrograph is the sketched to confirm to the shape of the other graphs,
passing through the computed average peak, and having the required unit volume.
7-9 Derivation of Unit Hydrograph from Complex Storms
- If individual bursts of rain in the storm result in well-defined peaks, it is possible to
separate the hydrographs of several bursts and to treat these hydrographs as
independent storms. See Fig. 7-4.
- If the reconstructed hydrographs does not agree with the observed hydrograph, the
assumed unit hydrograph is modified and the process repeated until a unit hydrograph
which seems to give the best fit is determined.
7-10 The Conversion of Unit Hydrograph Duration
- There is frequently a need to convert an existing unit hydrograph for one storm duration
to another-shorter to better scope with spatial and intensity variations, or longer to
reduce required computations and possibly in recognition of the coarseness of available
data.
S-curve Method (or summation-curve method)
-

## allows the construction of a unit hydrograph of any duration

assumed that a unit hydrograph of duration D is known and that we wish to generate a
unit hydrograph for the same watershed with duration D
is the hydrograph that would result from an infinite series of unit runoff increments
qe =

2.78A / tR

where:
qe = equilibrium at flow (m3/s)
Instantaneous unit hydrograph (IUH)
-

the flow is determined by weighing the antecedent rainfall excess, where the weight
applied to rainfall occurring to hour ago is the IUH ordinate hour after the beginning
of rainfall.

29 | P a g e

qt =
where:

f() i e(t ) d

## f() = IUH ordinate at time

i e = intensity of rainfall at time (t )
= time in the past.
By analogy with the S-curve technique for deriving a short-duration unit hydrograph, it
will be seen that the IUH ordinates are the function of the slope of the S-curve and its
duration:
f() = tR (dq/dt)

the required ordinate at any time is simply the average flow during the previous tR hr.

## 7-11 Synthetic Unit Hydrographs

- This requires a relation the physical geometry of the area and the resulting hydrographs
three approaches the have venues formulas relating hydrograph features to basin
characteristics, transposition of unit hydrograph and storage routine.
-

in a study of basins in the Appalachian Mountain region, Snyder  found the basin log
(in hours) to be a function of basins size and shape:
tp = C (LLc)0.3
where : L - main stream distance from outlet to divide and L c is the stream distance
from outlet to a point opposite the basin centroid.

## Snyder found that tha unit-hydrograph peak qp could be estimated from:

qp = CpA / tp

where: A - drainage area. The coefficient Cp range from 0.15 to 0.19 with A in square kilometers
qp in m3 / sec
-

## Snyder adopted as the time base of unit hydrograph (days )

T = 3 + 3 ( tp / 24)

## For any duration tR he used an adjusted lag

tpR = tp + [ ( tR tr)/4 ]

## from Eq. 7-8 a general

expected to take the form

## expression for basin lag might be

tp = Ct (LLc / s) n
where : s - weighted channel slope
7-12 Application Of Units Hydrographs
- The unit hydrograph has been a main stay of the hydrologist even though some of the
techniques may offer more flexibility and accuracy in many applications.
30 | P a g e

- Care should be taken not to apply the unit hydrograph without considering the advantages
and the disadvantages of the other techniques.
7-13 Hydrograph of Overland Flow
-

## overland flow is supplied by rainfall and depleted by infiltration.

Overland flow is spatially varied and unsteady. It may be turbulent laminar or a
combination and depths maybe subcritical or supercritical.

## Problem 1. (SNYDERS METHOD)

Use Snyders method to develop a unit hydrograph for the area of 100 mi square described
below. Sketch the approximate shape. What duration rainfall does this correspond to?
Ct = 1.8
Cp = 0.6

L = 18 mi
Lc = 10 mi

SOLUTION
tP = Ct(LLc)0.3 = 1.8(18-10)0.3 hr
tP = 8.6 hr.
Qp = 640CpA/tp
Qp = 640(0.6)(100)/8.6
Qp = 4465 cfs.
For a small shed,
Tb = 4tp (app.)
Tb = 4(8.6)
Tb = 34.4 hr.
D = tp / 5.5
D = 8.6/5.5
D = 1.6 hr
Problem 2. (UNIT HYDROGRAPH)
Convert the direct runoff hydrograph shown into (a) a 2-hr Unit Hydrograph the Rainfall
hyetograph is given i8n the figure and the diameter index for the storm was 0.5in/hr. The base
flow in the channel was 100 cfs constant. What are Tp and tb for the storm?
TIME (hr)

Q(cfs)

Q-BF(cfs)

2-hr UH, Q

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

100
100
300
700
1000
800
600
400
300

0
0
200
600
900
700
500
300
200

0
0
100
300
450
350
250
150
100

31 | P a g e

9
10
11

200
100
100

100
0
0

50
0
0

The 2 hr UH graph as shown in figure . Tb, the time of this storm is, is 9 hr and the time
to peak tp, measured from the center of mass of rainfall is 2 hr.
Problem 3. (S-curve method)
Convert the following tabulated 2-hr unit hydrograph to a 3-hr unit hydrograph using the
S-curve method.
TIME
(hr)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

2-HRUHORDINATE
(cfs)
0
75
250
300
275
200
100
75
50
25
0

Solution:
TIME
(hr)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

TIME
(hr)
0
32 | P a g e

2-HR UH
0
75
250
300
275
200
100
75
50
25
0

0
75
250
300
275
200
100
75
50
25

0
75
250
300
275
200
100
75

S-CURVE

S-CURVE LAGGED

ORDINATE
0

3 HR

0
75
250
300
275
200

0
75
250
300

SUM

0
75

DIFFERENCE
0

0
75
250
375
525
575
625
650
675
675
675
675

D/D

3-HR UH

2/3

ORDINATE
0

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

33 | P a g e

75
250
375
525
575
625
650
675
675
675
675

0
75
250
375
525
575
625
650
675

75
250
375
450
325
250
125
100
50
25
0

2/3
2/3
2/3
2/3
2/3
2/3
2/3
2/3
2/3
2/3
2/3

50.0
166.7
250.0
300.0
216.7
166.7
83.3
66.7
33.3
16.7
0

## RELATION BETWEEN PRECIPITION AND

RUNOFF
Primarily variations in precipitation control the flow of steam.
THE PHENOMENA OF RUNOFF
Discussion w/c follow will be limited to process w/c retain water in the catchments until it
is removed by evapotranspiration.
SURFACE RETETION
A part of storm precipitation retained on or above the ground surface.
Types of Surface Retention:
1. Interception - first part of storm stored.
2. Depression storage - continues falling rain.
3. Evaporation - during the storm.
4. Interceptometers - are placed at random in an attempt to measure average interception
for an area.
Application of the data requires detained knowledge of the cover density over the area
of interest.
The Interceptometers are place on its project.
Trimble and Weitzman found that mixed hardwood about 50 years old and typical of
considerations are in the Southern Appalachian Mountain interest about 20% of the rainfall both
summer and winter.
It is likely that net interception is nearer 18% for storm with rainfall in the order of 13mm.
Qualitative, it can be said that annual interception by a well-developed forest canopy is
10 to 20 percent of the rainfall
The storage capacity of the canopy is range from 0.8 to 1.5-mm.
Horton derived a series of empirical formulas for estimating interception (per storm)
by various types of cover. Applying these formulas to 25-mm storm and assuming normal cover
density give values of interception.

34 | P a g e

## Assuming sufficient rainfall to satisfy the interception-storage capacity, an equation for Vi

total-storm interception.
Vi =Si + EtR
Where;
Si storage capacity per unit of projected area,
E evaporation rate,
tR duration of rainfall.
Assuming that the interception given is approached exponentially as the rainfall increase
from zero to some high value, then
Vi =(Si + EtR )(1 e kP)

Where;
e napierian base,
P amount of rain,
k equal to 1/ (Si + EtR)
Blind drainage is individual depressions of appreciable area relative to the drainage basin
under consideration.
The flood hydrograph moderate to;
Stock ponds
Terraces
Contour.
The volume of water in depression storage Vs can be expressed as
Vs =Sd (1 e -kpe)

Where;
Sd depression-storage of the basin, Sd the value most basin lie between 10 and 50mm.
k has the value 1/ Sd,
Pe value of precipitation
The eq. neglects evaporation from depression storage during, a factor w/c is usually unimportant.

35 | P a g e

RUNOFF MECHANISMS
Most hydrologists considered that all storm runoff was generated by this mechanism.
Hortonian overland flow is one of several mechanisms, and that is not necessarily the
dominantone.
Infiltration
Two Phenomena
1. Infiltration is the passage of water through the soil surface into the soil.
2. Percolation is the gravity flow of water within the soil.
Infiltration Capacity is the max. Rate w/c water can enter the soil at a particular pt. under a
given set of conditions.
Infiltration capacity depends on many factors such as soil type, moisture content, organic
matter, vegetative cover, and season.
Of the soil characteristics affecting infiltration, noncapillary porosity is perhaps the most
important.
Infiltration-capacity formulas curve approximate form;
p= c + (o c)e-kt
Where;
p is at a max. o at the beginning of a storm and approaches a low.
c constant rate of the soil profile becomes saturated.
k is empirical constant.
t time from beginning of rainfall.

The equation is applicable only when Is p throughout the storm. Phillip suggested the eq.;

## Infiltration capacity depends on

p = ( bt-1/2 )/2 + a

## type, moisture content, organic matter, vegetative cover, and season.

Of the soil characteristics affecting infiltration, noncapillary porosity is perhaps the most
important.
Infiltrometer is a tube or other boundary designed to isolate a section of soil.
36 | P a g e

## Saturation overland flow

Primary at the base of slope marginal to stream channels.
Saturation storm flow
Discussed in chapter 7.
THE RUNOFF CYCLE is the descriptive term applied to that portion of the hydrologic cycle
between incident precipitation over land areas and subsequent discharge of this water through
stream channels or evapotranspiration.
ESTIMATING THE VOLUME OF STORM RUNOFF
As a fixed percentage of rainfall is the most commonly used method in design of urban
storm-drainage facilities, highway culverts, and small water-control.
INITIAL MOISTURE CONDITIONS
1. The moisture conditions of the catchment at the onset of the storm.
2. The storm characteristics rainfall amount, intensity, and duration.
In other words, the soil moisture should decrease logarithmically w/ time during periods of
no precipitation;
It= Iok

I1=kIo

Io I1= Io (1 k)

Where;
It reduce value t days later,
Io is the initial value of the antecedent-precipitation index.
k is a recession factor ranging normally between 0.85 and 0.98.
STORM ANALYSIS
The storm rainfall w/c produced runoff being considered only included.
Shower occurring before the rain storm should be excluded from the storm rainfall and
included in the antecedent-precipitation index.

37 | P a g e

Runoff also depends upon rainfall intensity, an average intensity as reflected by amount and
duration is usually adequate.(250km2 Rainfall). In this case duration can be estimated with
suffusion accuracy from 6-hr rainfall data.

## Multivariate Relations for Total Storm Runoff

It is convenient to calculate computed by subtracting storm rainfall by the storm runoff.
Development Three Variable Relation
1. Plotting antecedent precipitation versus recharge.
2.

## 3. Fitting a smooth family curves representing the week.

Analytical Correlation Technique/method it have result generally slightly better tan the
graphical solution.
Ips=c + (a+dIs)

e-bl

Q= (P +I ps)

1/n

- Ips

Where;
Ips runoff index (approx. first quadrant of coaxial plot).
Is fixed function of week range between +1 and 1.
I antecedent-precipitation index.
E base of napierian logarithmic.
P storm rainfall.
Q direct runoff.
a, b c, d and n statistically derived coefficients.
RELATION FOR INCREMENTAL STORM RUNOFF
In other to determine increments of runoff throughout a storm for application of a unity
Hydrograph may be used the accumulated in equation
INFILTRATION APPROACH TO RUNOFF ESTIMATES
It assumes that the surface runoff from is equal to the portion of rainfall that is not
disposed of through;
1. Interception and depression storage
2. Evaporating during the storm
3. Infiltration

38 | P a g e

When the supply rate, Is, is at or in infiltrating capacity, surface runoff is equivalent to the
storm rainfall less surface retention and the area under capacity curve.
If is < p, the increment of soil mixture is lea than assume and the drop in the infiltration
curve correspondingly less.
Applicable infiltration capacity curve-varies from point depending on soils, vegetation, and
antecedent moisture.

INFILTRATION INDEXES
Infiltration index sample, and the approach is cloaked in an aura of logic.
The W index is the average infiltration rate during the time rainfall intensity exceeds the
capacity rate, i.e.,
W = F/t = (1/t)(P Qs S)
Where:
t- time
P- total precipitation
Qs- surface runoff
S effective surface retention.

## ESTAMITING SNOWMELT RUNOFF

Plays important role in the hydrology in some areas.
Reliable predictions of the rate of melt and release of liquid water from snow pack are
requisite to the efficient design and operation of water resources projects and the issuance
of river forecast and warnings.
Modeling is simplified if interest is restricted to periods of melt when the pack is ripe
(saturated and isothermal at 0).
PHYSICAL OF SNOWMELT
Snow and evaporation (including sublimation) are both thermodynamic processes, and
both are amenable to the energy-balance approach.
Percentage of the solar and diffuse radiation reflected by the surface. .
1. The energy for snowmelt is derived
39 | P a g e

3. Conducting and water vapor from the transfer of sensible heat from the overlying
air.
4. Condensation of water vapor from the overlying air,
5. Conduction from the underlying soil,
6. Heat supplied by incident rainfall.
Two processes can be described by similar equations for melt;

Mh= kh (T To)

Me = ke (e eo)

Where;
kh = ke exchange coefficient.
To =
e =0.611kPa.
The melt (mm) from rain given by;
Mr = 4.19 P Tw / 334
Where;
P- rainfall in mm.
Tw wet-bulb temp. in .
344 is the latent heat of fusion in joules/gram.
4.19 is the specific heat of water in joules/gram/ .
ESTIMATING SNOWMELT RATES AND COSEQUENT RUNOFF
Air temperature is the single most reliable index to snowmelt.
PRECIPITATION-RUNOFF RELATIONS
A simple plotting of annual precipitation versus annual runoff will often display good
correlation, particularly in areas where the major portion of the precipitation falls in the
winter months.

40 | P a g e

Example:
The Infiltration rate for excess rain on a small area was observed to be 4.5 in/hr at the
beginning of rain, and it decreased exponentially to an equilibrium of 0.5 in/hr after 10 hr, A total
of 30in of water infiltrates during the 10-hr internal, Determine the value of k in,
HOSTORS EQUATION: F = Fc + (Fo-Fc)e -kt
Given:
t = 10 in
Fc = 0.5 in/hr
Fo = 4.5 in/hr
F = depth = 30in
Time

=3in/hr

10hr

Solution:
F = Fc + (Fo-Fc)e -kt
3in/hr =0.5in/hr + (4.5in/hr + 0.5in/hr)e k(10hr)
3in/hr - 0.5in/hr = (4.5in/hr + 0.5in/hr)e k(10hr)
2.5in/hr =(4in/hr) e k(10hr)
2.5in/hr = e k(10hr
(4in/hr)
ln 0.625 = -k(10hr)
-k =0.47 /10
k=

- 0.047

Example:
The initial infiltration capacity of a watershed is estimate as 1.5 in/hr, and the time
constant is taken to the 0.35 hr -1. The equilibrium capacity fc is 0.2in/hr. Use the Hortons
Equation to find a.) the values of fo at t =10min, 30min, 1hr, 2hr, and 6hr, b.) The total values of
infiltration over the 6hr period.
Given:
fc = 0.2in/hr
fo = 1.5in/hr
41 | P a g e

k = 0.35 hr -1
t = 10min (1hr/60min) =0.167hr
Solution:
a.)f = fc + (fo-fc)e kt
Substituting Values:
f = 0.2in/hr + (1.5 -0.2) e 0.35 hr -1 (0.167 hr)
f = 1.43in/hr
b.) V= f dt ; but t1 =0hr,t2 =6hrs
= (0.2 +1.3 e -0.35t)dt
= [0.2 + (1.3/0.35)e -0.35t]6
-2.1
= [0.2 (1.3/0.35)e ]

## 4.46 in over the

- [0.2 - (1.3/0.35)e0]
=

watershed

HYDROLOGIC ROUTING
Wave movement in naturals channels traditionally has been treated in design and prediction by
applying HYDROLOGIC ROUTING procedures. Such procedures solve the continuity
equation (or storage equation) for an extended reach of the river, usually bounded by selected
gauged points.
STREAMFLOW ROUTING
- is a general term applied to methods used to predict unsteadily flow in streams.
42 | P a g e

Given the flow at an upstream point, routing can be used to compute the flow at a downstream
point. The principles at routing apply also to computation at the effect of a reservoir on the slope
of a flood wave. Hydrologic storage occurs not only in channels and reservoirs but also as water
flowing over the ground surface.
9-1 WAVE MOVEMENT
One of the simplest wave form is the monoclinal rising wave in a uniform channel. Such a wave
consists of an initial steady flow, a period pf uniformity increasing flow, and a continuing steady
flow at the higher rate. From the flow of continuity and assuming negligible effects from any
changes in wave shape, the difference between inflow and outflow must equal the change in
storage within the reach:
U( A2 A1) = A2V2 A1V1
Where U and V are velocities of the wave and water, respectively and A is the cross-sectional
area of the channel. Solving EQ. (9-1)for the wave velocity and substituting the discharge q for
AV gives
The velocity of a monoclinal wave is thus a function of the area-discharge relation for the stream.
Since velocity usually increases with stage, area-discharge curves are usually concave upward.
U = dq/ dA = 1/B dq/dy
Where B is the channel top with. Equation (9-3) is known as seddons law after the man who first
demonstrated its validity on the Mississippi River.
From the Chezy formula for flow in a wide, open channel (assuming depth equal to hydrologic
V = cy1/2 s1/2
And
Q = V = UBY = CBY1/2S1/2
Where S is water-surface
Differentiating give

slope.
dq/ dy = 3/2 CBY1/2S1/2 = 3/2 BV

## Substituting Equation (9-6) into Equation (9-3),

U = 3/2V
The derived ratio between water and wave velocities depends on channel shape and the flow
formula used, and involves the implicit assumption that discharge is a single-valued function of
area.
9-2 WAVES IN NATURAL CHANNELS
43 | P a g e

Simple mathematical treatment of flood waves is necessarily limited to uniform channels with
fairly regular cross-section. The hydrologist must deal with non-uniform channels of complex
section with non-uniform slope and varying roughness. Most flood waves are generated by nonuniform lateral inflow along all the channels at the stream system. Thus natural flood waves are
considerably more complex than the simplified cases which yield to mathematical analysis, but
theoretical treatment is particularly useful in studies of surges in canals, impulse waves in still
water (including seiches and tides), and waves released from dams.
Natural flood waves are generally intermediate between pure translation and pondage, which
occurs in a broad reservoir or lake. Most natural flood waves move under friction control and
have time bases considerably exceeding the dimensions of the stream system.
9-3 THE STORAGE EQUATION
The continuing equation maybe expressed as
I O = ds /dt

or

s =S2 S1 = Idt - O dt

Where I is inflow rate, O is outflow rate, S is storage ( all for a specific reach of a stream), and t
is time. To provide a form move convenient for hydrologic routing, it is commonly assumed
that the average of the flows at times t1 and t2, the beginning and end of the routing period, t
equals the average flow during the period:

## (I2 + I2)/2 t ( O1 + O2) /2 t = S2 - S1

Most storage routing methods are based on Eq. (9-10). It is assumed that I 1, I2, O1 and S1 are two
unknown, a second relation between storage and flow is needed to complete a solution. The
assumption that ( I1 + I2/2 = I implies that hydrograph is a straight line during the routing period
t.
9-4 DETERMINATION OF STORAGE
Before a relation between storage and flow can be established, it is necessary to determine the
volume of water in the stream at various times. The obvious method for finding storage is to
compute volumes in two channel from cross-sections by using the prismoidal formula. The
water surface is usually assumed to be leveled between cross-sections. Storage elevation curves
for reservoirs are usually computed by plain metering the area enclosed within successive by
the contour interval gives the increment of volume from the midpoint of the next higher interval.
9-5 TREATMENT OF LOCAL INFLOW
One of the most annoying problems in flood routing is the treatment of local inflow which enters
the reach between the inflow and the outflow stations.
If the local inflow occurs primarily near the downstream end of the reach, it may be subtracted
from the outflow before storage is computed.
44 | P a g e

## 9-6 RESERVOIR ROUTING

A reservoir in which the discharge is a function of water-surface elevation offers the simplest of
all routing situations.
I1 + I2 + ( 2S1/t O1 ) = 2S2/t + O2
Routing in a reservoir with gated outlets depends on the method of operation. A general equation
is obtained by modifying Eq. (9-10) to

## (I1 + I2) / 2 t ( O1 + O2) / 2 t Ort = S2 S1

STORAGE COMPUTATIONS
1. Sample problem
Inflow and outflow for a reservoir are depicted in fig. E4.1 (a).
a.) Determine the average storage for each one day period (t =1 day).
Graph storage vs. time for the reservoir for the event. Assume that So = 0 (the reservoir is
initially empty.
b.)What is the (approximate) maximum storage reached during this storm event?
SOLUTION

a.) the rate of change in storm in storage is equal to inflow minus outflow. First we tabulate
values of I and Q and take their difference. Storage is equal to the area between the inflow and
outflow curves. Or S = Inflow
(I Q) dt.
Storage change
This integral can be simply approximates
by for
S =day
3(I Q) t.
Q (cfs)

45 | P a g e

Outflow

10,000

5,000

0
0 1

10

11

12

13

14

Time (Days)

where I and Q are average for each day. This method id used in Example 2.1 to determine
volumes under hydrographs. To minimize error, I and Q values are averaged at noon each day.
Time (day)
0.5
2.5
3.5
4.5
5.5
5.5
6.5
7.5
8.5
9.5
10.5
11.5
12.5
13.5

I(cfs)
500
3500
9000
9750
8000
4500
2250
1250
250
0
0
0
0
0

Q(cfs)
250
1000
3000
4500
5750
6000
5250
4250
3250
2500
1500
1000
750
0

S/t(cfs)
250
2500
6000
5250
2250
-1500
-3000
-3000
-3000
-2500
-1500
-1000
-750
0

Using t = 1 day, storage at the end od the first day, S1, S2, is S1 = So + (I1 Q1) t
= 0+ (250 cfs) (1 day) (24 hr ) (3600s) ( ac
)
(Day ) (Hr ) (43,560 ft)
= 496 ac-ft
for day 2, cumulative storage becomes
S2 = So + S1 + (I2 Q2) t,

46 | P a g e

50,000

25,000

6 7 8 9
Time day
S2 = 0 + 496 + (2500) (24) (3600) (1/ 43560) ac-ft

10

11

12

13

14

= 5455 ac-ft
The procedure is shown completed in the following table and the storage curve in Fig. E4.1(b).
Time
(Day)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

Storage
(Ac-ft)
496
5455
17,356
27,769
32,232
29,256
23,306
17,356
11,405
6,446
3,471
1,488
0
0

b) The maximum storage, as seen from the table in figure, is 32,232 ac-ft. This occurs at day 5
for this event, as seen from the equation.
dS =1 Q
dt
Smax will occur when dS/dt equal zero. At this point, 1 = Q which occurs at day 5 on their inflowoutflow hydrographs.
Muskingum Routing
Route the inflow hydrograph tabulated in the following table through a river reach for whigh x =
0.2 and k = 2 days. Use a routing period t= 1 day and assume that inflow equal outflow for the
first day.
TIME (day)

47 | P a g e

INFLOW (cfs)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

4,000
7,000
11,000
17,000
22,000
27,000
30,000
28,000
25,000
23,000
20,000
17,000
14,000
11,000
8,000
5,000
4,000
4,000
4,000
4,000

SOLUTION

First we determine the coefficients C0 , C1 and C2 for the reach (Eq. 4.9):
Co = - Kx + 0.5 t
D
C1 = Kx + 0.5 t,
D
C2 = K Kx 0.5 t
D
D = K Kx + 0.5 t
For K = 2 days ,t = 1 day , and x = 0.2
D = 2 2(0.2) + 0.5 (1)
= 2.1
Co = - (2)(0.2) + (0.5)(1)
(2.1)
= 0.0476,
C1 = (2)(0.2) + (0.5)(1)
(2.1)
= 0.4286,
C2 = 2 (2)(0.2) (0.5)(1)
(2.1)
= 0.5238,
We may check our computations by seeing if the coefficients sum to 1;
48 | P a g e

## (0.0476) + (0.5238) = 1.0000

We substitute these values into Eq. (4.6) to obtain
02 = (0.0476)12 + (0.4286)11 + (0.5238)01
For 1 = 1 day.
01 = 11 = 4000 cfs.
For 1 = 2 days.
02 = (0.0476)(7000) + (0.4286)(4000) + (0.5238)(4000)
= 4143 cfs.
For t = 3 days.
03 = (0.0476)(11,000) + (0.4286)(7000) + (0.5238)(4143)
= 5694 cfs.
This Procedure is shown completed for t = 1 to t = 20 days in the following table.\
TIME
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

INFLOW (cfs)
4,000
7,000
11,000
17,000
22,000
27,000
30,000
28,000
25,000
23,000
20,000
17,000
14,000
11,000
8,000
5,000
4,000
4,000
4,000
4,000

OUTFLOW (cfs)
4,000
4,143
5,694
8,506
12,789
17,413
22,121
25,778
26,693
25,792
24,319
22,120
19,539
16,758
13,973
10,934
8,061
6,127
5,114
4,583

## DETERMINATION OF THE MUSKINGUM ROUTING COEFFICIENTS

The values listed in the table for inflow, outflow and storage were measured for a particular
reach of a river. Determine the coefficients K and x for use in the Muskingum routing equations
for this reach.

49 | P a g e

SOLUTION

## To determine Muskingum coefficients, we guess a value of x and then plot xI + (1 x) Q vs. S.

The plot that comes closest to being a straight line is chosen to determine the coefficient values.
The average value is x = 0.2.
Avg.

Avg.
TIME

INFLOW

OUTFLOW

STORAGE

(Days)

(cfs)

(cfs)

(cfs days)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

600

59
93
129
205
210
234
325
554
627
526
432
400
388
270
162
124
102
81
60
51

x = 0.1

42
70
76
142
183
185
213
293
397
487
533
487
446
400
360
230
140
115
93
71

600

17
40
94
157
184
233
345
606
836
875
774
687
629
499
301
195
157
123
90
70

x = 0.2

600

500

500

500

400

400

400

300

300

300

200

200

200

100

100

100

50 | P a g e

x = 0.3

0
0

500

1000

0
0

500

1000

500

1000

for a natural stream. Therefore, we assume that x must lie between 0.1 and 0.3
using the values listed in the following table.

STORAGE
(cfs days )
17
40
94
157
184
233
345
606
836
875
774
687
629
499
301
195
157
123
90
70

(xI + (I x) Q) (cfs)
__________________________________
x = 0.1
x = 0.2
x = 0.3
43
72
81
148
186
190
224
319
420
491
523
478
440
387
340
219
136
112
89
69

45
74
86
155
188
195
235
345
443
495
513
470
434
374
320
209
132
108
86
67

47
77
92
161
191
200
247
371
466
499
503
461
429
361
301
198
1298
105
83
65

## STORAGE INDICATION ROUTING

The design inflow hydrograph shown in Fig. E4.5(a), developed for a commercial area, is to be
routed through a reservoir. Assume that initially the reservoir is empty (S0= 0) and there is no
initial outflow (00 = 0). Using the depth , storage, and outflow relationships given in the table,
route the hydrograph through the reservoir. What is the maximum height reached in the reservoir
for this inflow? Use t = 10 min.

DEPTH (ft)

0
1.0
2.0
3.0

51 | P a g e

STORAGE (ac-ft)

0
1.0
2.0
3.0

OUTFLOW (cfs)

0
15
32
55

4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
10.0
11.0
12.0

4.0
5.0
6.0
7.5
10.5
12.0
13.5
20.0
22.0

90
125
158
185
210
230
250
270
290

SOLUTION

First, we develop a storage indication curve for the reservoir. This is a plot of (2S/ t) + Q vs. Q.
For instance, at Q = 90 cfs, S = 4.0 as-ft and
43, 560 dt2
ac
(10 min) (60 s / min)

2 (4.0 ac-ft)
2S + Q
t

## + 90 cfs = 671 cfs.

Graphical and tabulated results for the storage indication curve are given and the following
table.
Q
(cfs)

2S/t + Q
(cfs)
0
15
32
55
90
125
158
185
210
230
250
270
290

0
160
322
491
671
851
1,029
1,274
1,735
1,972
2,210
3,174
3,484

## Equation (4.13) states:

(In + In + 1) = 2Sn Qn
t

= 2Sn+1 + Qn+1
t

HYDRAULIC ROUTING

## Hydraulic Routing - Based on a solution of the energy or momentum equations is an alternate

to the hydrologic methods.
Solution of these equations is a relatively complex task and generally
requires the use of a compute.
Governing Equations
Hydraulic routing rests on three assumptions
52 | P a g e

## 1. Water density is constant;

2. Stream length affected by the flood wave is many times greater than the depth
of flow;
3. Flow is essentially one-dimensional.
(Waves satisfying these assumptions are called shallow-water or translatory waves)
Principle of the Conservation of volume (mass) (eq.10-1);

X2
X1

## Principle of Conservation of momentum (eq.10-2);

X2X1[Q(x,t2) - Q(x,t1)]dx = g t2t1 [Qv (x1,t) - Qv(x2,t)]dt + g t2t1 [J(x1,t) - J(x2,t) +
X2X1 JvX dx ] dt + g t2t1 [ X2X1 Asodx - X2X1 Asfdx]dt

J= y0 (y-z) B (x,z) dz
sf = QIQI/K2

## JvX = y0 (y-z) B/x (x,z) dz

K = 1.49/n (AR)

Where:
A(x,t)- cross-sectional area of flow

K-conveyance

x-distance

v-average velocity

y-depth

## So- channel of the bottom slope

g-acceleration of gravity

Sf - frictional slope

## z-dummy integration variable

(all other forms of the shallow-water equation are derived from eq.10-1 and eq.10-2)
Major assumptions made in deriving the shallow-water equations:
1. hydrostatic pressure distribution;
2. one-dimensional flow;
3. fixed channel geometry,
53 | P a g e

## 4. small channel slope,

5. uniform velocity distribution; and
6. Friction losses in unsteady flow which can be approximated by the losses in steady
uniform flow.
Numerical Techniques
Numerical scheme the assumptions and the numerical methods used to define
the discrete equation.
Type of scheme:
1. Consistent in the limit, the discrete equations become the

continuous

## equations as time and distance steps approach zero.

2. Convergent the solution of the discrete equations approaches the solution of
the continuous equations as the time distance steps approach zero.
3. Conservative it mimics the conservation properties of the governing
equations.
4. Dissipative the attenuation of a wave in the discrete solution is greater then
the attenuation of a wave of similar length in the continuous solution.
5. Non dissipative it shows no attenuation.

## Stability of a scheme relates to the growth of round-off errors in the computations.

Unstable if the round-off errors become so large that the solution is destroyed.
Conditionally stable stable for a range of time and distance steps.
Unconditionally stable stable for all finite time and distance steps.

## Routing with Complete Equations

Boundary conditions must be specified to permit a solution at the boundary points. With
supercritical flow, velocity exceeds celerity and the trajectories have slopes of the same sign. The
interval of dependence of the downstream point is wholly within the solution domain, and no
boundary condition is needed. If one is specified, the solution will be unstable. Conversely, two
boundary condition must be supplied at the upstream boundary where the interval of dependence
falls outside the solution domain.

## Explicit and Implicit schemes.

54 | P a g e

Explicit scheme permits solution of the equations node by node using information within one
or two distance steps from the unknown node.
- one for which the order of computation of the unknown at the nodes may be
arbitrary.
Implicit scheme requiring a simultaneous solution for all unknown value.
-

## one for which the order of the computations is fixed, including

schemes requiring simultaneous solution of the equations.

- the computation must proceed from the upstream boundary to the downstream
boundary.
t x/u
Where:
u

## the wave velocity

ut/x -

Courant number

Courant condition- it requires that the time step be less than the time required for a small
amount disturbance to transverse x.
- does not apply to implicit schemes but the time step may be limited by
stability.
Courant number must be less than unity for explicit schemes.

Diffusing or Lax scheme not consistent with the governing equation since the limit of the
discrete equations contains terms dependent on t and x.
- useful in representing flows containing an abrupt water.

Preissman weighted four-point scheme an implicit scheme widely used for various forms.
Kinematic Routing
- Frequently used as the overland flow and stream flow routing component of
catchments models.
- Major forces affecting unsteady flow are pressure, gravity and friction.

55 | P a g e

- the kinematic flow approximation results if all factors other than friction and
gravity are ignored in the motion Equation

So =Sf = Q2/K2

## - Care must be exercised in kinematic routing to avoid unrealistic results.

- Rapid decreases in channel slope or flow capacity, or an increase in roughness
may increase the neglected terms sufficiently to invalidate the kinematic
assumption.
- Recent urban runoff model uses the Schaake modification for kinematic routing.

Zero-Inertia Routing
-

A less radical simplification of the complete equations results if only the inertial
terms are neglected in the momentum equation.

y/x = So - Sf
- Approximation has
applications and routing in streams

56 | P a g e