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INDEX

acceptance, 6, 144, 171, 180, 200, 208


accuracy, 17, 1921, 689, 84, 912, 111,
11314, 11822, 126, 135, 138, 149,
153, 1556, 158, 162, 165, 16970,
194, 207
acknowledgement, 2089
actor
non-human, 8, 190, 2056
adequacy, 83, 1024, 109, 156, 15960
agreement, 8, 13, 15, 19, 325, 38, 66, 71, 82,
110, 112, 117, 143, 155, 185, 187, 190,
200, 207
algebra, 613
Alzheimers Disease Neuroimaging Initiative,
211
American Bureau of Standards (BoS), 121
American Society for Testing and Materials
International (ASTM International),
192, 2001, 2034
American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T), 111
analysis
air analysis, 164
chemical analysis, 166
dimensional analysis, 59
multidimensional (MDA), 3951
of datasets, 135, 138, 202
of error, 83
respiration gas analysis, 164
sociological analysis, 176
statistical, 2, 83, 150, 195
uncertainty analysis, 83
apparatus, 119, 1617, 1702, 1813
respiration, 163, 168, 170

application, 3, 8, 23, 289, 39, 42, 47, 62, 64,


69, 71, 76, 83, 101, 118, 153, 162, 167,
171, 1923, 200, 21011
military, 117
approximation, 47, 1545
archaeology, 7, 3941, 44, 478, 50, 137
archaeometry, 51
artifact, 29, 31, 36, 44, 47, 106, 109, 140,
178, 187
astronomy, 58, 128
authority, 6, 8, 24, 134, 1445, 179, 181,
1902, 197, 200, 203, 207, 20911,
213, 215
average, 157, 170

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Berger, Peter L., 8, 1735
biochemistry, 71
biology
molecular, 212
synthetic, 2537
bio-industry, 190, 209
Bridgman, P. W., 25, 38
British National Physical Laboratory, 111
calibration, 95102, 105, 107
distance, 136
test, 1024, 10710
theory of, 7
calorimeter, 1645
Cambrosio, Alberto, 40, 212
Cartwright, Nancy, 153
certainty, 1314
Chang, Hasok, 126, 1367, 150, 15860
chemistry, 41, 71, 163
physiological, 8, 163, 165, 168
classification, 3, 13, 21, 39, 90, 150, 209

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Standardization in Measurement

clock
quartz, 111, 1223
tuning fork, 111, 1203
code, 8, 42, 1467, 14953, 15560, 212
coherence, 26, 175
Collins, Harry, 231
colour, 13, 16, 21, 212
commensurability, 171
communication, 5, 55, 112, 116, 118, 120,
122, 124, 183
telecommunication, 112, 117, 120, 124
wireless, 112
community, 21, 25, 37, 134
building, 67, 206
scientific, 33, 138, 20810
speech, 44
complexity, 40, 1623, 165
concepts
conceptualization, 97, 1513, 155, 205
latent concepts, 8, 149, 1512, 154
metrological concepts, 25, 38
consensus, 325, 38, 57, 70, 191, 2001, 204,
214
consistency, 32, 71, 152, 202
metrological, 323
constant
fundamental constants (of nature), 65,
187
Hubble constant, 8, 12531, 1338
control, 3, 27, 40, 44, 142, 146, 1635, 170,
174, 1912, 194, 2001, 2034, 214
convention, 173
coordination, 7, 11, 13, 15, 223, 55, 578,
124, 179, 1956, 203
cosmology, 1257, 1368
credibility, 3, 191, 1967, 201
culture
material, 8, 126, 1378

quantitative, 1, 301, 357, 54, 56, 60,


78, 88, 93, 1413, 146, 149, 194
decision making, 70, 79, 191, 205
definition, 71, 76, 80, 82, 85, 879, 91,
1012, 107, 130, 144, 146, 1534, 157,
1823, 185, 194, 214
atomic, 186
democracy, 8, 14960
dependency, 63, 70, 77, 103, 145, 1523, 193
determination, 13, 75, 82, 93, 101, 125, 127
8, 130, 136, 169
dimension, 53
dimensional analysis, 59
discipline, 4, 28, 35, 3940, 44, 50, 70, 191,
197
disciplinary boundaries, 1, 4, 6, 44
drugs
nanodrugs, 202

engineering, 267, 29, 33, 35, 37, 119


biological, 6, 33
electrical, 117
genetic, 279, 31
US Synthetic Biology Engineering
Research Centre, 26
epistemology, 2, 4, 7, 25, 34, 40, 57, 138
equations, 5, 536, 5867, 85, 89, 91, 93
error, 2
measurement, 823
theory, 81
ethnography, 26, 40, 44
evaluation, 8, 30, 74, 98, 1456, 155
evidence, 191
exactness, 114, 183
exchange, 68, 145, 164, 171, 190
experiment, 166
experimental design, 213
experimental reduction, 162
experimentation, 2, 165
data
Minimum Information About a Microardatabase, 30, 135, 211
ray Experiment (MIAME), 21314
data-driven research, 214
expert, 69, 116, 123, 209
dataset, 42, 456, 129, 149, 1513, expertise, 3, 6, 113, 11819, 124, 1412,
1569
1445, 161, 183, 193, 206, 210
mining, 2
formalization, 3, 7, 39, 73, 187
model, 83, 85
qualitative, 26, 567, 60, 1423, 1456, Fourier, Charles, 545, 58, 60, 224
Fraassen, Bas van, 11, 224
149, 157

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Index
frequency, 7, 11124
input, 113
Fujimura, Joan, 3, 190, 214

253
epistemic, 8, 138, 150, 1589

Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology


( JCGM), 72
justification, 4, 21, 23, 61, 69, 136, 205

Galison, Peter, 135, 137


Gauss, Carl Friedrich, 81
General Conference on Weights and Meas- Kant, Immanuel, 1
Keating, Peter, 40, 212
ures (CGPM), 62
Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in knowledge
knowability, 88, 92
Measurement (GUM), 81, 87, 92
production, 137, 142, 14950, 158, 190,
Haggard, Stephan, 15560
203
harmonization, 71, 81, 206
Kula, Witold, 140, 210
history, 2, 44, 70, 95, 1257, 161, 174, 178
laboratory
9, 185
Carnegie Nutrition Laboratory, 161, 166,
Hubble, Edwin, 125
168
Huntington, Samuel, 153, 156
industrial research, 112
idealization, 21, 28, 35, 46, 70, 75, 813, 89,
laboratory medicine, 71
912, 96, 142, 208, 210, 214
language, 175
identification, 26, 8992, 97, 1289, 147,
artificial, 47
149, 158
Laplace, Georges, 41, 43, 81
implementation, 39, 64, 141, 183, 197, 208 Latour, Bruno, 190
9, 213
law
infrastructure, 139, 170, 176, 1967, 203,
law of nature, 5
2056
phenomenological, 90, 92
institution, 14, 1745, 192, 201, 203
legitimacy, 41, 144, 1467, 187
institutionalization, 8, 1401, 1745, 187
Liebig, Justus, 163
International Committee for Weights and Luckmann, Thomas, 8, 1734
Measures (CIPM), 185
luminometer, 31
International Electrotechnical Commission
mathematics, 1, 7, 1213, 41, 54, 56, 61, 68,
(IEC), 701
139
International Federation of Clinical Chemmathematization,
54, 60
istry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC),
Maxwell, James Clerk, 53, 604
71
International Laboratory Accreditation measurand, 7480, 823, 8791
measurement
Cooperation (ILAC), 71
axiomatic theory of, 69
International Organization for Standardizacriteria, 146
tion (ISO), 701
frequency, 113
International Organization of Legal Metrolrange, 130
ogy (OIML), 70
science, 7, 6972, 801
International Union of Pure and Applied
theory, 2, 23, 86
Chemistry (IUPAC), 71
unit of, 5, 12, 14, 23, 173, 1767, 184
International Union of Pure and Applied
medicine
Physics (IUPAP), 71
biomedicine, 212, 21415
International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM),
nanomedicine, 193, 196
7, 7082, 87, 90, 92, 173
metabolism, 16172
iteration
metric, 8, 149

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Standardization in Measurement

biometric, 162
equivalency, 185
metrication, 179, 1814
reform, 55, 58, 177
system, 17687
metrology, 2, 57, 11, 15, 225, 302, 347,
40, 44, 702, 816, 92, 116, 172, 176,
1789, 184, 186, 190, 194
micrometer, 87
microscope, 1089, 192
model, 14, 17, 501, 634, 767, 80, 845,
8990, 99101, 1049, 127, 133, 136,
160, 166, 214
modelling, 2, 30
multivibrator, 11216, 119, 123

physics, 2, 5, 50, 5364, 668, 71, 90, 93,


112, 117, 121, 135, 193
physiology, 8, 163, 1668
pluralism, 14950, 155, 200, 203
plurality, 212, 214
political science, 14950, 155, 158, 191
population, 145, 157, 170, 1767, 182, 187,
204
animal, 142
power, 9, 123, 137, 140, 142, 15960, 175,
180, 187, 190, 201, 204, 207, 210, 214
explanatory, 15960
precision, 2, 7, 69, 98, 101, 11415, 11820,
124, 126, 131, 135, 1378, 1656, 172,
185, 189, 192, 194, 197, 2015, 207,
210
nomenclature, 178, 213
prehistory, 41
norms, 6, 8, 28, 34, 37, 1612, 16771, 184, probability, 79, 835, 92
2078, 21012, 214
property, 5, 56, 61, 66, 724, 778, 89, 107
normalization, 3, 25, 207
9, 1545, 193, 202, 204, 233
normative, 4, 6, 28, 13940, 174, 2078, protocol, 83, 145, 194, 2014, 2089, 212
210
13
nutrition, 8, 161, 1634, 1678
prototype, 97, 1058, 161, 178
purity, 114, 184
object, 89, 91, 106, 129, 203
conceptual, 98
quantity
epistemic, 7
calculus, 613
material, 197
physical, 81
of calibration, 97
quantification, 8, 30, 13940, 142, 149
of measurement, 74
value, 756, 78, 80
scientific, 194
rationalization, 50
standard object, 1923, 1957, 200
objectivity, 46, 67, 79, 140, 1446, 1745, realism, 75, 86, 93
18990, 207
scientific, 81
observation, 5, 56, 74, 89, 12930, 153
reference data, 209, 212, 214
organization, 32, 55, 150, 176, 183, 187, 192, reference material, 195
200, 203, 214
Gold Nanoparticle Reference Material
(gold RM), 192, 1968, 2005
parameter, 84, 1289, 193, 197
regulation, 23, 118, 189, 191, 200
participation, 1512, 1912, 211
representation, 2, 67, 23, 54, 84, 106, 142,
Peirce, Charles S., 180
149, 153, 207
phenomenology, 91
mathematical, 55
phenomenon, 25, 73, 77, 83, 155, 171, 179, reproduction, 5, 175
210, 212
research, 125, 131, 1548, 171, 179, 209
natural, 124
acoustical, 117
physical, 122
breeding, 144
philosophy, 23, 11, 15, 86, 95
mechanical, 111
military, 112

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255

policymaking, 206
singularity of, 210
programme, 132, 16970
testing material, 201
radio, 113
users, 204
robustness, 140, 142, 1978, 204
standardization, 78, 149, 161, 171, 194, 201,
rule
203, 2057
of grammar, 12
international, 167
rule following, 6, 11, 1416, 23, 191, 198,
of parts, 30
203, 205
of procedure, 172
rule following , 189
ontology of, 203
process, 204
Sandage, Allan, 1267, 1312, 1345,
standardized parts, 29
1378
technical, 206
scale, 56, 59
statistics, 39, 412, 46, 48, 139, 143
atomic, 193
Bayesian statistics, 835
Cosmic Distance Scale, 133
studies, 170
nanoscale, 1923
Inter-Laboratory Studies (ILS), 192,
scheme, 125, 128, 132, 185
2015
Cartesian, 62
multicentre studies, 21113
Science and Technology Studies (STS), 191 system
2, 206
Bell system, 1203, 231
scope, 71, 80, 162
classification, 250
significance, 3
classificatory, 36
skill, 161, 165
concept system, 70, 73, 80
social construction, 139, 147, 1735, 177,
experimental, 196
190
labelling, 213
social science, 52, 140, 1501, 155, 159
metric, 177, 186
sociology, 4, 245, 34, 44, 50, 1767, 1912
metrological, 78
sovereignty, 8, 181
of knowledge, 136, 159
Spencer, Herbert, 180
of measurement, 35
stability, 119, 121
of representation, 58, 66
stabilization, 23, 97, 1056, 109, 162, 207
of units, 65, 86
8, 211, 214
of weights and measures, 176
standard
semiotic, 45
apparatus, 162
sign system, 175
candle, 125, 128, 131
typological, 43
certified, 195, 201
systematization, 154
collective, 204
deviation, 3, 201
technology, 23, 28, 32, 120, 209
experimental subject, 167
biotechnology, 28, 31, 190
format, 7, 20811
committee, 200
gauge, 207, 210
electronic, 11112
mass, 98
innovation, 189
metastandards, 208, 215
manufacturing, 3
methods, 190
mass, 124
metre, 12
nanotechnology, 8, 190, 1923, 196, 200,
metrological, 31
2023, 2056
official, 178
regulation, 189
setting, 209
stakeholders, 190

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Standardization in Measurement

technoscience, 192
wireless, 123
technoscientific system, 189, 205
telegraphy, 112, 117
radio, 11213, 11618
telescope, 135
temperature, 56, 76, 87, 91, 98, 119, 150,
1545, 1589, 1645, 1689, 210, 212
thermometer, 109
time, 21, 53, 5960, 67, 11522, 124, 1656,
176, 1847, 207
traceability, 78, 182
trust, 3, 33, 140, 203, 205
truth, 20, 856, 923, 155
tuning fork, 121. See alsoclock: tuning fork,
112, 11417, 11920
type, 98, 1567
typology, 43, 45, 51
uncertainty, 67, 712, 75, 7880, 823,
93, 989, 101, 135, 193, 195, 203
definitional, 8792
measurement, 91

International System of Units (SI), 65, 67,


956, 139, 178, 187
social construction of units. See social
construction
universality, 15, 19, 57, 97, 103, 1423, 147,
1513, 162, 1701, 180, 18991, 211
universe, 127, 137
US Food and Drug Administration (FDA),
1934, 196, 204, 2089
US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 1928, 2001, 2034,
206

validation, 3, 37, 192, 2078, 210


value
numerical value, 85, 989, 128
scientific value, 124
true value, 75, 813, 859, 92, 196, 201
variable, 63, 96, 130, 168
Vaucouleurs, Grard de, 1256, 1315,
1378
verification, 58, 182, 208
virtue, 61, 86, 155, 159
uniform, 6, 25, 2930, 33, 367, 97, 207,
epistemic virtues, 155, 159
211, 214
vocabulary, 67, 19, 701
parts, 29
Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 6, 1120, 234
regime, 141
uniformity, 141, 149, 171, 179, 18990
uniqueness, 869, 91, 106, 128, 130, 162,
166, 201
units, 589, 182, 184
base, 63, 65, 1778
electromagnetic, 116

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