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Bus-Bar Modules

The Bus-Bar modules are either with single phase or three phase enclosure. Three-phase enclosures
are compact and have lesser eddy current
losses. Single phase Bus-Bars are necessary to suit other components having single phase enclosures.
The three Bus-Bars are conveniently
staggered by a distance equal to centre spacing.
The diameter of enclosure depends on rated voltage and internal clearance requirements.
The main conductors are aluminum or copper tubes. The contact areas
are silver plated. There is a provision of expansion joints which permits axial elongation at higher
temperatures. The tubular conductors are
supported on epoxy resin cast insulators Fig (13) the shape of insulators is such that the field
distribution is uniform.
The dimensions of conductor tubing depend upon the mechanical strength corresponding to short
circuits forces. The size so obtained is generally
adequate for carrying normal current without excessive temperature rise.

Bus-Bar dismantling principle


1 - Bus-Bar Disconnector
2 - Removable contact
3 - Bellows
4 - Bus-Bar conductor

Modular components fitted in Bus-Bar lengths and bays.


Depending upon particular local requirements, the following standard
elements are included in the assembly Fig. below.
(a) Lateral mounting unit.
(b) Axial length compensator (for Bus-Bars of straight length)
(c) Parallel compensator (for joint between Bus-Bars at an angle)
(d) Bellow compensator

Axial length compensator (for Bus-Bars of straight length)

2-F

1- L - unit (9o junction)

4 - Ang

3- T-unit with flange for Earthing switch


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Circuit Breaker
The Circuit Breakers are automatic Switches which can interrupt fault currents.
The part of the Circuit Breakers connected in one phase is called the pole.
A Circuit Breaker suitable for three phase system is called a triple-pole
Circuit Breaker. Each pole of the Circuit Breaker comprises one or more interrupter or arcextinguishing chambers. www.sayedsaad.com
The interrupters are mounted on support insulators. The interrupter encloses
a set of fixed and moving contact's
The moving contacts can be drawn apart by means of the operating links
of the operating mechanism. The operating mechanism of the Circuit Breaker gives the
necessary energy for opening and closing of contacts of the Circuit Breakers.
The arc produced by the separation of current carrying contacts is interrupted by a suitable
medium and by adopting suitable techniques for arc extinction. The Circuit Breaker can be
classified on the basis of the arc extinction medium.
The Fault Clearing Process
During the normal operating condition the Circuit Breaker can be opened or closed
by a station operator for the purpose of Switching and maintenance.
During the abnormal or faulty conditions the relays sense the fault and close
the trip circuit of the Circuit Breaker. Thereafter the Circuit Breaker opens.
The Circuit Breaker has two working positions, open and closed.
These correspond to open Circuit Breaker contacts and closed Circuit Breaker
contacts respectively.
The operation of automatic opening and closing the contacts is achieved by means

of the operating mechanism of the Circuit Breaker.


As the relay contacts close, the trip circuit is closed and the operating mechanism
of the Circuit Breaker starts the opening operation.
The contacts of the Circuit Breaker open and an arc is draw between them.
The arc is extinguished at some natural current zero of a.c. wave.
The process of current interruption is completed when the arc is extinguished
and the current reaches final zero value. The fault is said to be cleared.
The process of fault clearing has the following sequence:
1- Fault Occurs. As the fault occurs, the fault impedance being low,
the currents increase and the relay gets actuated.
The moving part of the relay move because of the increase in the operating
torque. The relay takes some time to close its contacts.
2 - Relay contacts close the trip circuit of the Circuit Breaker closes and trip coil is energized.
3 - The operating mechanism starts operating for the opening operation.
The Circuit Breaker contacts separate.
4 - Arc is drawn between the breaker contacts. The arc is extinguished
in the Circuit Breaker by suitable techniques. The current reaches final zero
as the arc is extinguished and does not restrict again.
The Trip-Circuit
Fig (1) below illustrates the basic connections of the Circuit Breaker control for the opening operation

STANDARD RATINGS OF CIRCUIT BREAKERS AND THEIR SELECTION


The characteristics of a Circuit Breaker including its operating devices and
auxiliary equipment that are used to determine the rating are:
(a) Rated characteristics to be given for all Circuit Breakers.
1. Rated voltage.
2. Rated insulation level.
3. Rated frequency.
4. rated current.
5. Rated short Circuit Breaking current.
6. Rated transient recovery voltage for terminal faults.

7. Rated short circuit making current.


8. Rated operating sequence.
9. Rated short time current.
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(b) Rated characteristics to be given in the Specific cases given below:
1 - Rated characteristics for short line faults for
three pole Circuit Breakers rated at 72.5 kV and
above, more than 12.5 kA rated short circuit breaking
current and designed for direct connection to overhead
transmission lines.
2 - Rated line charging breaking current, for three pole
Circuit Breakers rated at 72.5 kV and above and intended
for Switching over- head transmission lines.
3 - Rated supply voltage of closing and opening devices, where applicable.
4 - Rated supply frequency of closing and opening devices, where applicable.
5 - Rated pressure of compressed gas supply for operation and
Interruption, where applicable.
(c) Optional rated characteristics:
1. Rated out of phase breaking current.
2. Rated line charging breaking current, for three pole
Circuit Breakers rated at less than 72.5 kV and for single
pole Circuit Breakers.
3. Rated cable charging breaking current.
4. Rated single capacitor bank breaking current.
5. Rated small inductive breaking current.
6. Rated supply voltage of auxiliary circuits.
7. Rated supply frequency of auxiliary circuits
The type of the Circuit Breaker
The type of the Circuit Breaker is usually identified according to the medium of arc extinction. The
classification of the Circuit Breakers based on the medium of arc extinction is as follows:
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(1) Air break' Circuit Breaker. (Miniature Circuit Breaker).
(2) Oil Circuit Breaker (tank type of bulk oil)
(3) Minimum oil Circuit Breaker.
(4) Air blast Circuit Breaker.
(5) Vacuum Circuit Breaker.
(6) Sulphur hexafluoride Circuit Breaker. (Single pressure or
Double Pressure).
Type
1 Air break Circuit
Breaker
2 Miniature CB.
3 Tank Type oil CB.
4 Minimum Oil CB.
5 Air Blast CB.
6 SF6 CB.

Medium
Voltage, Breaking Capacity
Air at atmospheric pressure (430 600) V (5-15)MVA
(3.6-12) KV - 500 MVA
Air at atmospheric pressure (430-600 ) V
Dielectric oil
(3.6 12) KV
Dielectric oil
(3.6 - 145 )KV
Compressed Air
245 KV, 35000 MVA
(20 40 ) bar
up to 1100 KV, 50000 MVA
SF6 Gas
12 KV, 1000 MVA
36 KV , 2000 MVA
145 KV, 7500 MVA

7 Vacuum CB.
8 H.V.DC CB.

Vacuum
Vacuum , SF6 Gas

245 KV , 10000 MVA


36 KV, 750 MVA
500 KV DC

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Bulk Oil Type Breaker


In Bulk Oil Circuit Breaker oil serves a two-fold purpose, i.e., as means of extinguishing
the arc and also for providing insulation between the live parts and the metallic tank.
This is the oldest amongst the three types having been developed towards close
of the nineteenth century.
In its simplest form the process of separating the current carrying contacts
was carried out under oil with no special control over the resulting arc
other than the increase in length caused by the moving contact's
As the power systems began to develop resulting in higher voltages and higher
fault levels, plain break type breaker could no longer keep pace with the requirements.
Various methods of controlling the breaking process were investigated and developed.
This led to the development of controlled break oil Circuit Breaker.
This employed pressure chamber and is still widely used because it is relatively
cheap to make and gives greatly improved performance in terms
of final extinction, gap length and arcing time, as against the plain break
oil Circuit Breaker. Various designs exist according to the preferences
and requirements of individual manufacturers and designations such
as Cross Jet Type, Explosion Pot and Baffle pot, etc.
Many oil Circuit Breakers feature special arc control devices most of which are based
on the simple pressure chamber principle but incorporate certain modifications
aimed at improving the breaking capacity.
Depending on the working principle of these special pressure chambers
the breakers are designated as: impulse oil Circuit Breakers deign grid breakers,
breakers with double arc pressure chambers and axial jet pressure
chamber oil Circuit Breakers.
For general illustration, a view of the contact actuating mechanism of 33 kV,
type OKM, bulk oil breaker manufactured by M/s English Electric Co. is shown in Fig (1)
The contacts are actuated by a lever assembly L housed within the top-plate
and connected to the lifting bridge N by links M.
The beam lever assembly is pivoted on a shaft H fixed in bearings in the top-plate and is operated by a tie
rod G connected by an adjustable coupling J to the vertical pull-rod K from the Circuit Breaker operating
mechanism. An oil seal F is fitted to prevent leakage from top-plate and an indicator arm is operated by a
pin E on the driven end of the beam lever. The lifting bridge N which carries the lift rods Q and moving
contacts R moves vertically on guide I, rods D fixed in the top-plate, At the top end of each guide rod and
fastened to the top plate by clips A is an accelerating spring C.
These springs are compressed by the lifting bridge during the closing stroke and provide a throw off force
when the breaker is tripped open. The mechanism is prevented from over traveling the closed position by
adjustable stops B in the top-plate. At the lower end of each guide rod is an oil dashpot assembly P.
These oil buffers arrest the downward or contact opening movement. The working part of the breaker is
cylindrical chamber known as an interrupter pot. The view of the interrupter is shown in Fig (2) the

interrupter pot is screwed and locked on to an interrupter top block. The interior of the chamber is fitted
with insulating dividing plates which form labyrinths and oil flow passages. Assembled in the top of the
chamber is the fixed spring loaded cluster type contact, the fingers of which are arranged in a circular
formation to engage with the moving contact which is of the solid rod of candle type.
Alternate cluster fingers are extended to form arcing contacts.
These parts carry the arc current and protect the normal current carrying parts from burning. The moving
contacts are clamped by pinch bolts at each end of a cross bar which is bolted to the lift rod.
The separation of the contacts and drawing out of the arc take place in the interrupter pot which almost
completely restricts the movement of the oil within it.
The internal space available for gas is thus little more than that swept out by the moving contact, and a
pressure is set up which depends upon the rate of gas production and its rate of flow through the vents.
The pressure rise and the condition resulting there from are believed to play a large part in giving this type
of oil Circuit Breaker a very much higher breaking capacity than the plain break type.

Fig (1)www.sayedsaad.com

Fig (2)www.sayedsaad.com
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Small Oil Volume Breaker


As the system voltages and fault levels increased the Bulk Oil Breakers required huge quantities of
insulating oil and
became unwieldy in size and weight.
This added enormously to the cost of a power system. Simultaneously improvements were made in
the technique
of ceramics.
The function of oil as insulating medium in the Bulk Oil Breakers was transferred to the porcelain
containers.
Only a small quantity of oil was used to perform its functions as arc quenching medium. This led to
the development
of small oil volume or low oil content breakers in the continent of Europe.
Like the Bulk Oil Breakers these have also since then passed through many stages of development
with varying designs
of the arcing chambers. Today the small oil volume breakers are available for voltages up to 36 kV
and the fault levels
associated therewith.
Contrary to the operation of the impulse type Circuit Breaker, such as air blast Circuit Breaker, in
which arc extinction
and dielectric recovery
are affected by means of an external quenching medium, the process of arc extinction in the small
oil volume
Circuit Breaker is of internal
thermo- dynamic origin.
During the tripping operation an arc strikes in oil between the moving contact and the fixed
contact's
This arc is elongated vertically in the explosion pot until the distance traveled is sufficient to
withstand the
voltage between contacts.
The increase in internal pressure due to the Splitting up

and vaporization of oil by the arc creates a rapid movement of the extinguishing
medium round the arc This self-quenching effect causes a rapid cooling of the ionized column along
its whole
Length due to partition of the explosion pot and the dielectric recovery is sufficiently rapid.
To prevent the arc restricting after a natural Passage Through zero. The electric arc itself has,
therefore,
Supplied the necessary energy for its own extinction. There are now numerous
manufacturers of small oil volume breakers
However, to illustrate the principles of working, the sectional view of working portion of 170 kV
3500 MVA.
Breakers of

Fig (4)
M/s Delle France have been shown in Fig. (4) the most important part of the breaker is its
extinguishing chamber.
This takes the form of an insulating cylinder containing oil, in the axis of which moves the contact
rod and within
which breaking occurs.
The arcing chamber is supported at its base by a casing enclosing a mechanism whose function is to
move the contact rod According to the impulses given by the control mechanism. In the on position,
the current flows from
the Upper current terminal (1) to the contact fingers, (2) Follows the movable contact rod (7) and
reaches the current terminal (10)
across the lower contact fingers (8). At the beginning of the stroke and before breaking, the contact

rod strongly pulled down.


Wards by the tripping springs, starts a high speed opening motion.
Then, an arc strikes between the contact rod tips (6) and the stationary
Arcing ring (3) protecting the upper contact fingers.
At this moment gases escape without hindrance towards top of the apparatus.
The contact rod rapidly reaches a very high linear speed; it moves
the arc downwards and forces it to enter the explosion pot (5) where it is maintained rectilinear and
is elongated in a direction opposite
to the release of gases towards fresh oil. Since the arc is as short as possible the arc voltage is
minimized and the energy dissipated is
reduced.
Still, since the gases can no longer develop freely, they generate a considerable pressure in the
explosion pot (5), thus producing a violent
upward axial blast of oil vapor, exhausting the highly ionized gaseous mass.
The optimum distance is thus obtained, the jet of oil causes the dielectric strength to be rapidly
increased, and at the
following current zero, the arc is impeded from restricting and the breaking is thus achieved.
The explosion pot (5) is intended to withstand high pressures.
It is partitioned into several components by means of discs whose function is to retain a certain
quantity of fresh oil while the first break
is proceeding; this allows a second break to occur with complete
safety at the full short circuit current. The low oil content Circuit Breakers require separate current
Transformers of wound type. Still at
all voltages from 33 kV and above the costs of these breakers
inclusive of current Transformers compete favorably with that of the Bulk Oil Breakers.
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In addition there are certain other advantages which may be summed up as under:
(I) Light and reduced size rendering transport
(ii) Simple construction making erection easy.
(iii) Quick and simple maintenance.
One of the limitations put forward against this class of breakers is frequent maintenance, owing to reduced
quantity of oil and consequent liability to quick carbonization, on circuits susceptible to frequent trappings
because of too many faults.
Interruptions on lines carried on pin insulators are rather too many on account of poor workmanship,
inadequate
and improper maintenance.
However, for this reason alone, it may not be worthwhile to reject these breakers unless the difference in
cost
with Bulk Oil Breakers is meager. For this very reason doubt was expressed about the ability of these
breakers
for rapid reclosing duty. However, low oil content breakers have been designed and constructed for rapid
reclosing duties by established makers of this class of breakers. Rated breaking capacities in general are
covered securely by a circuit breaking of any design but, depending on the arc extinguishing principles
employed,
difficulties are sometimes encountered in performing certain specific duties.
The situations where the small oil volume breakers are, presently,
considered at disadvantage are:
(I) Switch unloaded lines.
(II) Evolving faults.

(III) Out of phase disconnection.


The small oil volume breakers have distinct advantage over the air blast breakers under the following
conditions:
1 - Kilometric faults.
This is because the oil Circuit Breakers are much less
sensitive to the natural frequency of the restricting voltage.
2. Disconnection of Transformers on load.
The current chopping phenomenon which causes over voltages,
before natural zero, is not serious in this class of breakers as the arc extinguishing
Energy is always proportional to the broken current. Restricting voltage

1 Circuit Breaker pole


2 Mechanism housing
2a cover of mechanism housing
3 Pole head
4 Pole cylinder
5 Crank housing
6 Upper main terminal
13 Bottom main terminal
22 Vent housing
23 0il level indicator
39a square on charging shaft
47 Spring condition indicator
82 off push - button
88 on push button
98 Circuit Breaker indicator
99 Operation counter
119 Lifting hole for transport

Fig (5) Small Oil Volume Breaker type OD4 makes BBC
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Vacuum Circuit Breaker


Sectional view of a Vacuum Circuit Breaker, marketed by M/s Driescher Picnicker Madras is shown is Fig.
(6) the most important part is the vacuum interrupter, blown up view of which is given in Fig. (7) When the
contacts separate, the current to be interrupted initiates a metal vapor arc discharge and flows through this
plasma until the next current zero.
The arc is then extinguished and the conductive metal vapor condenses on the metal surfaces within a
matter of microseconds.
As a result, the dielectric strength in the break builds up very rapidly.
The self generated field causes the arc root to travel, thereby preventing local overheating when large
currents are being interrupted. Certain minimum current is necessary to maintain the metal vapor arc
discharge.
Current of a lesser value is chopped prior to current zero, causing unduly high voltages, as may happen
during interruption of no load magnetizing currents of unloaded Transformers.
The rapid build up of the dielectric strength in the break enables the arc to be safely extinguished even if
contact separation occurs immediately prior to current zero the maximum arcing time for the last pole to
clear is stated to be 15 ms.
Further the arc voltage developed in vacuum interrupter is low (say between 20 to 200 V) due to high
conductivity of metal vapor plasma.
For there reasons the arc energy developed in the break is very small. High Switching life is claimed on this
account. Performance is claimed to be immune to pollution because of interrupters being hermetically
sealed.
The manufacturing range of M/s Driescher Panicker covers Vacuum Circuit Breakers up to rated voltage of
36 kV.
Vacuum Circuit Breakers are specially suited in industrial applications, where the Switching frequency is
high combined with high degree of pollution. www.sayedsaad.com

Fig (6)
1 - Vacuum Interrupter
2 - Terminal
3 - Flexible connection .
4 - Support insulators.
5 - Operating rod.
6 - Tie bar. www.sayedsaad.com
7 - Common operating shifts .
8 - operating corn .
9 - Locking cam.
10 - Making spring .
11 - Breaking spring.
12 - Loading spring.
13 - Main link.

Fig (7)

1- cast resin post insulator


2- upper connection
3- upper contact support
4- 5- fastening nuts
6- Rear pull strap
7- Front pull strap
8- vacuum Switching chamber
9- contact Switch with toroidal
contact Lower contact support
Consisting of :10.1 transmission lever
10.2 burn-off indicator
10.3 actuation crank
10.4 actuation lever
10.5 telescope rod with contact spring
11 hook stick

Fig (8)
Construction of the Switch pole type VA, VXC

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SF6 Circuit Breaker (GIS)


Construction
A triple-pole 8D.2 breaker is illustrated in Fig. (1) for example Used in 132 KV
Each breaker pole consists of a chamber 11. Containing an interrupter unit 22. Fig (1) an adapter housing
15. And an operating mechanism 14. Complete with oil tank 14.3.
The breaker chamber is sealed gas-tight by two bushings 29. Fig (2- Next page). the breaker thus forms an
independent gas filled compartment.
The gas pressure in the breaker poles is indicated by a gauge in the control and monitoring unit and is
monitored by a density monitor. www.sayedsaad.com
The control and monitoring unit is installed in the control cubicle. It contains the pump set, all the devices
for electrical and hydraulic control and monitoring of the breaker poles and also the terminal blocks.
The operating energy is produced by compressing nitrogen in a storage cylinder 13. Fig (1) each pole is
fitted with a rupture diaphragm 11.3 fig (2- Next page) as a protection against unduly high gas pressure.
A static filter 11.31 fig (2- Next page) is fitted in the breaker chamber. Its purpose is to absorb SF6
decomposition products and to keep the SF6 dry. Each pole rests on a ball-type support 11.4. Fig (2- Next
page) in this way, the flanged joints of the modular assemblies is relieved of strain. A section through a
breaker pole is shown in Fig (10)

Fig (1) Type 8D.2 breaker


Make SIEMENS. www.sayedsaad.com
11. Breaker chamber
11.4 support. www.sayedsaad.com
13. Hydraulic storage cylinder
14. Operating mechanism
14.3 Oil tank
15. Adapter chamber
22. Interrupter unit.
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Each breaker pole consists of a chamber 11. Containing an interrupter unit 22. Fig (1) an adapter housing
15. And an operating mechanism 14. Complete with oil tank 14.3.
The breaker chamber is sealed gas-tight by two bushings 29. Fig (2- Next page). the breaker thus forms an

independent gas filled compartment.


The gas pressure in the breaker poles is indicated by a gauge in the control and monitoring unit and is
monitored by a density monitor.
The control and monitoring unit is installed in the control cubicle. It contains the pump set, all the devices
for electrical and hydraulic control and monitoring of the breaker poles and also the terminal blocks.
The operating energy is produced by compressing nitrogen in a storage cylinder 13. Fig (1) each pole is
fitted with a rupture diaphragm 11.3 fig (2- Next page) as a protection against unduly high gas pressure.
A static filter 11.31 fig (2- Next page) is fitted in the breaker chamber. Its purpose is to absorb SF6
decomposition products and to keep the SF6 dry. Each pole rests on a ball-type support 11.4. Fig (2- Next
page) in this way, the flanged joints of the modular assemblies is relieved of strain. A section through a
breaker pole is shown in Fig (2- Next page)
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Fig (2) Section through an 8D.2 (one pole)


11. Breaker chamber
.1 - Cover
.3 - Rupture diaphragm
.11 - Connection
.12 - Connect ion
.31 - Filter
14. - Operating mechanisms
3. - Oil tank
15. - Adapter chamber
22. - Interrupter unit
29. - Bushing
13. Storage cylinder
.1 Distributors
14.12.2 Venting valve
.13.1 HP pipe (Storage cylinder / pilot control valve)
.13.2 HP pipe (Storage cylinder/operating mechanism)
.49 HP pipe (Storage cylinder / pump)
.51 Oil monitoring pipe (Storage cylinder/control unit)
Fig (3) Hydraulic storage cylinder
Interrupter unit
A section through an interrupter unit is shown in Fig (4) The current flows through top coupling contact
22.3.1, contact support 22.3, fixed contact tube 22.9, contact fingers 22.7.4 (arranged in a circle) in moving
contact 22.7, guide tube 22.11, terminal pad 22.21 and bottom coupling contact 22.21. 1.
At the break, contact tube 22.9 and guide tube 22.11 are fitted with arc-quenching nozzles 22.9.1 and
22.11.1 of arc-resistant material which keeps contact wear to a minimum.
Guide 22.7 and blast cylinder 22.5 are rigidly coupled with each other and connected with operating rod
15.9 by connecting rod 22.17. The blast piston 22.13 is fixed to terminal pad 22.21 by stay bolts 22.1 3.8.
The operating rod 15.9, which is connected with piston rod 14.7.1 of mechanism 14. Transmits the
operating energy in the vertical direction, i.e. to the interrupter unit (see under Electro hydraulic operating
mechanism).
On opening of the contacts, the blast cylinder is moved to wards the fixed piston and the trapped SF6 is
thereby compressed. When the moving contact opens the break, the compressed SF6 flows through the
nozzle and extinguishes the arc. The opening operation is illustrated in Fig (5).
15.9 - Operating rod
22.3 - Contact support

.3.1 - Top coupling contact


.5 - Blast cylinders
.7 - Guide (moving contact tube)
.7.4 - Contact finger
.9 - Fixed contact tube
.9.1- Arc-quenching nozzle
.11 - Guide tube
.11.1 - Arc-quenching nozzle
.13 - Blast piston
.13.8. . Stay bolt
.17 - Coupling rod
.21 - Bottom terminal pad
.21.1 Bottom coupling contact
Fig (4)Interrupter unit

a) Closed position

b) Compression stage

c) Arc extinction

d) Open position

Fig (5)Opening operation shown schematically


22.5 - Blast cylinder.
.7.4 - Contact finger
.9.1 - Arc quenching nozzle *
22.11.1 - Arc quenching nozzle
.13 - Blast pistons Arc
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Electro hydraulic operating mechanism


The Electro hydraulic operating mechanism consists of cylinder 14.9 with piston rod 14.7.1, main valve
14.5 (mounted on the cylinder), an oil tank and a release block in the control and monitoring unit.
The operating cylinder, main valve and oil tank from a subassembly (Fig. 6) from the oil tanks, pipes run
to the low-pressure side of the pump in the control and monitoring unit. Heaters in the oil tank prevent
condensation.
Fig (6) Electro hydraulic operating
mechanism
14.3 Oil tank
.3.1 Filter
.5 Main valves

.5.2 Sealing ring


.5.3 Sealing ring
.7.1 Piston rod
.9 Cylinder
.9.1 HP pipe (cylinder / main valve)
.9.2 sealing ring
.9.3 sealing ring
.9.4 sealing ring
.9.6 plug
.9.9 USIT ring
.10 Leakage oil pipe
.12 vent plug
.13.2 HP pipe (storage cylinder / operating mechanism)
.13.3 Pipe (pilot control valve / oil tank)
.13.5 control pipe (pilot control valve / main valve)
.31.1 pipe (oil tank / pump)

Fig (16) Fig (7) Release block for 1 -pole operation


Fig (17) Fig (8) Release block for 3-pole operation, coupled
With auxiliary Switch and On/Off indicator

The release block (Figs (7) and (8) contains all the valves necessary for pilot control. A closing solenoid Y1
and one or two opening solenoids (Y 2, Y3) are mounted on the block. The closing and opening solenoids are
of identical design, each having two separate windings. www.sayedsaad.com
The release block is connected with the 3 auxiliary Switches by couplers. The auxiliary Switch shafts are
provided with markings at their front ends to indicate the On" and, Off positions.
For 3-pole operation the release block is equipped with 1pilot control valve and 1 auxiliary Switch actuator.
For 1-pole operation it is provided with 3 pilot control valves and 3 auxiliary Switch actuators.

Fig (9)
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Hydraulic System
Y1 Closing solenoid
Y2 Opening solenoid
14.58 Auxiliary Switch actuator
15.7 On /off indicator
.8 Auxiliary Switches

Fig (10) Control and monitoring


unit for
1-pole Operation
1 Frame.
2 Hydraulics set.
3 Contactor plate.
4 Oil-pressure monitoring facility.

Fig (11)control and monitoring unit


for 3- pole Operation

5 SF6-pressure monitoring facility.


6 Terminals with on/off indicator.
7 Oil filter.
8 Release block.
9 Auxiliary Switch assembly.
10 SF6 monitoring facility for Switchgear compartments.
X2 ... X41 Plug connectors.
Hydraulic set (example for d.c.)
ml
Motor
S2, S3 Limit Switches
x5
Plug connector
14.33 oil pump
.43 Gearing
.45 Cam disc

Oil monitoring facility


14.37 Pressure release screw
.39 Locking screw
.41 Safety valve
.53 HP-connection for
Hand-operated pump
B1. B2 Pressure monitor
M2
Measuring point, M 16 x 1.5
x2
Plug connector
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SF6-pressure monitoring facility


B4 Density monitor
M1 Measuring point 1/4 p.t.
R Coupling with non-return valve
v1 SF6 shut-off valve
W1 Maintenance connection 1 1/4 p.t.

Oil filter 14.31


14.31.1 Connection for oil return
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Filling the Breaker with SF6 and checking the


operating values of the SF6 density monitor B4

This is best done by using a service unit, which contains all the fac
If a service unit is not available, the SF6 can be taken direct from
using the SF6 filling device.
A vacuum pump must then be available to evacuate the breaker pr
being filled in. Density monitors react to changes in pressure and t

To obtain accurate operating values both the pressure and the temperature
of the SF6 in the breaker must be measured.
In practice it will generally suffice to measure the breaker's ambient temperature.
As a result, the readings indicated by the density monitors may differ by a few
tenths of a bar from the reference curves shown in
Fig (1) in addition. Check each of the indications at the control point.
However, the difference between the filling pressure and the operating
pressure for the "Loss of SF6" indication must never drop below 0.3 bar
and that between the "Loss of SF6" and "General lock-out" indications
below 0.1 5 bar If there is too little difference between the filling pressure
and the operating pressure for the "Loss of SF6" indication,
but if the "Loss of SF6" and "General lock-out" indications are far enough
Apart, the SF6 filling must be adjusted. Replace the density monitor
if the "Loss of SF6" and "General lock-out indications are given too
close together. Readjustment at site is not possible.
Filling by using a service unit:
Connect the service unit' to the SF6 maintenance connection W1 on the control unit
Fig. (1) Open the valve in the control unit and evacuate the breaker to a level
of =< 20 mbar. Switch the service unit to filling. At a pressure of about 1 bar,
stop the pump and fit the test gauge
to the measuring point 12.4. The required filling pressure and operating values
are dependent upon the temperature and can be taken from chart.
Stop filling at a pressure which is 0.2 bars above the operating point for
the General lockout. Gradually lower the pressure and check
the "General lockout" indication.
Continue filling until the general lockout is cancelled. Raise the pressure above
the operating point of the "Loss of SF6" indication. Gradually release SF6 into
the service unit and check the operating point of the density monitor.
Fill the breaker to the nominal pressure and then prepare the electro
hydraulic system for operation as described below.
Let the SF6 settle for twelve hours and then correct its pressure
by letting some of it escape or by replenishing the filling.
Fig (1)
M1 Measuring point SF6 1/4 p.t.
V
SF6 shut-off valves for other
gas-filled Sections
V1 SF6-Shut-Off Valve 1 1/4 P.t.
W1 Maintenance connection
Fig (1) SF6 connection points
and shut-off valves

Fig (2 )
Filling with SF6 from the gas cylinder
The complete SF6 filling device (A21 for checking the density monitors (84) and for
filling the gas compartments from SF6 cylinders is shown in
Fig (2). to check the operating values of a density monitor, undo the SF6 pipe
at the SF6 monitoring unit and connect the gas cylinder to the density monitor via an adapter.
The operating values can be checked by raising the gas pressure
(on pressure reducer 6) or lowering it Fig. (2) SF6 filling device, W 294
(At distributor, using valve 2) as
Described under "Filling by using a service unit".

Legend to Figs. (2) and (3)


1. Gas cylinder with connection
2. Distributor with valve
.1 Connector
3. Adapter for density monitors B4
4. High-accuracy pressure gauge with shut-off valve and vacuum protector
.1 Bearing
5. High-pressure measuring hose
6. Pressure-reducing valve
12.4 SF6 measuring point
.5 Connection point for test adapter

A, B and C SF6 control pipes to the poles


B4 Density monitor
V1 SF6 shut-off valve
W1 Service flange for SF6
Connect the vacuum pump to the service flange W1 and the vacuum gauge to
the measuring point M 1 on the control unit Fig, (1) Open the shut-off valve in the contor1 unit,
evacuate the breaker to a pressure of = < 20 mbar and reclose the Shut-off valve.
Detach the vacuum gauge; disconnect the vacuum pump from the service flange, connect up the gas
cylinder as shown in Fig. (3) And open the shut-off valve in the control unit.
Open the pressure-reducing valve on the gas cylinder only a little to prevent icing-up of the fittings. d I7
The filling pressure depends upon the temperature and can be taken from chart. Fill the breaker to a
pressure of 6.5 bars and prepare the hydraulic system for operation as described below.
Let the SF6 settle for twelve hours and then correct its pressure by letting some of it escape or by
replenishing the filling.

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Checks before putting into Operation


Measuring the moisture content of the SF6 Before putting the breaker into operation check the moisture
content of the SF6.
This can be done with a conventional dew point measuring device.
The maximum permitted dew point temperatures at operating pressure,
Which correspond to the permitted moisture content is given below:
- Critical limiting value:
Dew point -5 C
- Maximum permitted moisture in operation: Dew point -7 C
- Moisture on putting into operation:
Dew point -15 C
If the dew point is below -7 C but not equal to, or below, -15 C when the breaker is put into operation,
repeat the readings after two or three months in order to test the effect of the static filters. Replace the filters
if the moisture content is not noticeably lower
Measuring the air content of the SF6
When filling the breaker. With fresh SF6 and after carrying out maintenance, the air content should not be
more than 5 %.
Operating values of the SF6 density monitor B4
If the operating values of B4 were not checked oil filling in the SF6, such a check must be made before
putting the breaker into operation.
Connecting up a test gauge f o r checking the oil pressure
Connect up the test gauge (class =< 1 %) only when all pressure has been released from the hydraulic
system.
This is done by stopping the oil pump and opening the pressure release valve 14.37. When the pressure in the
storage cylinder has been discharged removes the plug sealing the measuring point M2 (M 16 x 1 5 mm) and
connects up the test gauge
N2 - filling and the display of the "Loss of nitrogen" indication
Close the pressure release valve, disconnect the leads of limit contacts S2 and S3 and start the oil pump.
When the pointer has come to rest (shortly after the oil pump has been started), it indicates the priming
pressure (guide value: 200 bar at 20 C). The relationship between the pressure and the temperature is
indicated in fig. (1)

Fig (1)
Checking to see that the indications are cancelled
Start the oil pump, and read off the values on the manometer when the indications General lockout,
Minimum pressure lockout On and Auto-reclosure lockout are cancelled The values are about 3 to 6 bar
above those at which the indications are initiated.
Start the oil pump. When the Loss of nitrogen indication appears, the oil pump must stop and the General
lockout becomes effective. Open the pressure release valve 14.37 and lower the oil pressure gradually to the
nominal level.
Both the indication and the General lockout are cancelled by Switching off the control supply. Reconnect the
limit Switches S2 and S3 and Switch on the control supply.
Checking the pump control circuit
Slowly reduce the oil pressure still further and check the test manometer to see at which value the oil pump
is started by the control circuit.
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Checking the auto-reclosure lockout
Stop the pump motor and slowly reduce the oil pressure until the auto-reclosure lockout operates. Read off
the pressure on the test manometer, and check the indication and the effectiveness of the lockout.
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Checking the Minimum pressure lockout
Gradually lower the oil pressure still further until the indication appears. Read off the operating pressure and
test the effectiveness of the lockout: an electrical closing command must not be executed.
Enforced triple pole Operation feature.
Close all three poles of the breaker and open one of them by manually actuating the opening solenoid Y2.
After the time set or the enforced www.sayedsaad.com
Triple-pole operation relay has elapsed the other two poles must also trip, Carry out this test in a similar
manner on the other two poles. Now dose one breaker pole by manually actuating the closing solenoid Y1
When the reset time has elapsed the pole must re-open. This check should be carried out on all three poles
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Checking the General lockout Start
The pump motor and let it operates until the lockout is cancelled. Close the breaker, stop the pump motor and
slowly reduce the oil pressure until the General lockout indication is initiated. Read off the pressure on the
test manometer and check the effectiveness of the lockout by imparting electrical off and Emergency off
commands:
The breaker must not trip.
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Removing the test manometer and reestablishing nominal pressure in the hydraulic system

Open valve 14.37 and release the hydraulic pressure altogether. Remove the test manometer and firmly
tighten the sealing plug on
Connection M2. Check the oil level and replenish as necessary, i.e.
up to the upper mark.
Close valve 14.37 hand, firmly tighten locking screw 14.39 and start the pump motor. Raise the pressure
in the hydraulic system to the nominal value and check to see that all lockouts have been cancelled. Let the
oil
Settle for about 10 minutes and then carry out five operations, using all tripping channels to test the tripping
performance of the breaker.
Anti-pumping feature
With the breaker closed, impart opening and closing commands simultaneously The breaker may only open,
close and reopen Repeat with the breaker open The breaker may only close and open
Anti-condensation heaters
Check the supervisory circuitry for the anti-condensation heaters if provide for correct functioning. If the
heaters are not correctly monitored, measure their current input.
Leakage test
Check all the flanged joints of the Switchgear and SF6 pipes for any signs of leakage using an SF6 leakage
detector. If no such detector is available, a check for major leaks can be made by applying a soapy solution to
the joints. Better still; apply the special spray marketed by Wobst.
After tracing and eliminating any leaks in this manner, all the tested joints should be thoroughly cleaned and
treated with WD 40 or Ritzol corrosion protection agent 7-2 (formerly Tecto 7-2). The pressure of the SF6
filling must then be checked daily for a number of weeks. If a drop in pressure is noticed, the leak must be
located and sealed in order to prevent any further SF6 loss and the ingress of moisture.
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Technical data
The 8D.2 circuit-breaker is of the puffer type using Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) for insulating and arcquenching purposes. It is of single-phase encapsulated design and intended for installation indoors.
The gas pressure required for arc-quenching is produced during opening by a puffer device.
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Each breaker pole has an electrically controlled hydraulic operating mechanism and is suitable for singlepole and /or triple- pole auto- reclosure depending on the type.
The 8D.2 breaker meets the following standards:
VDE 0670 Parts 101 to 108/1075 (circuit4reakers) and the following IEC standards:
IEC No. 56, 3rd edition 1971/72 (AC circuit-breakers).
IEC No. 517, 1975 (metal-enclosed Switchgear).
IEC No. 267, 1st edition 1968 (guide to the testing of Circuit Breakers with respect to out-of-phase
Switching).
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1 - Electrical Data according to IEC standard

Rated Voltage
Rated Frequency
Rated normal current
Rated Short circuit breaking current
Rated making current
Rated duration of short circuit
Rated operation sequence

145 KV
(132 KV )
50 HZ
1600 / 200 A
31.5 / 40 KA
2.5 X Rated Short circuit breaking
current
1 Sec.
O - 0.3s - CO - 3min - CO

2 - Insulating capacity according to IEC standard


Rated power frequency withstand voltage (KV rms. ) at 50 HZ
to earth
Rated power frequency withstand voltage (KV rms. ) at 50 HZ
across contact gap
Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage
(1.2 / 50 sec ) to earth
Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage
(1.2 / 50 sec ) across contact gap

275 KV
275 KV
650 KV
650 KV

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3 Operating times
Minimum command duration
Closing time
Opening time
Arcing time
Break time
Dead time
Make / break time

50 ms
95 +/-5 ms
45 +/-5 ms
15 +/- 5ms
60 +/-10 ms
300 ms
90 +/- 10 ms

4 - Arc-quenching medium SF6 at 20 C


Rated Short circuit breaking current
Weight per breaker pole filling
Capacity per breaker pole filling
Nominal pressure
Low Pressure alarm
Low Pressure trip

40 KA
29 Kg
600 dm3
6.5 (+ 0.2 /- 0.1) bar
5.7 (+/- 0.1) bar
5.5 bar

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5 Hydraulic pressure monitoring
Setting of pressure relief valve
Alarm loss of nitrogen
Pump On
Auto-reclosure lockout
Minimum pressure lockout On
General lockout
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350 + 50 bar
345 +/- 3 bar
313 +/- 3 bar
303 +/- 3 bar
273 +/- 3 bar
253 +/- 3 bar

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Current Transformer
Current Transformers comprise air insulated cores mounted inside a cylindrical enclosure.
The central main conductor forms the primary winding a second cylindrical enclosure,
Between the cores and the conductor, separates the cores from the SF6 thus preventing any risk of
leakage from the LV terminals.
The number and ratings of the cores are adapted according to customer requirements.
Current Transformers can be installed on either or both sides of the circuit-breakers and at the ends of
outgoing circuits.

Current Transformer (Make ABB)


1 - Gas tight enclosure
2 - Terminal box
3 - Secondary winding
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12-

Current Transformer (Make Alostom)


1- Main conductor.
2- Secondary winding.
3- Shunt Insulating .

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Voltage Transformer
Voltage Transformers are induction type and are contained in their own SF6 compartment, separated from
the other parts of the installation.
The active portion consists of a rectangular core, upon which are placed the secondary windings and the
high voltage winding.
Provision is made for up to two secondary windings for measurement and an additional open delta winding
for earth fault detection.
A synthetic film separates the different wraps of the windings. The Transformers can be installed Any where
on the substation.
Voltage Transformer Module
For rated voltage up to 145 kV inductive Transformer with cast resin coil For rated voltage of
245 kV inductive VT with SF6 gas as main insulation. For 300 kV and above, Capacitive Voltage
Transformers are preferred Inductive type Voltage Transformer.
The single-pole inductive type Voltage Transformers (Fig. 1) can be mounted either vertical or horizontal.
They are connected to the Switchgear with the standardized connecting flange via a barrier insulator.
The primary winding is insulated with SF6 gas and connected to the HV. by a flexible connection. The
primary winding (2) surround the core on which the secondary windings (1) are also wound.

The connection between the secondary winding and the terminals in the external terminal box is made
through a gas tight multiple bushing.
The Transformers are equipped with two metering windings and one tertiary winding for earth-fault
protection.
Capacitor Voltage Transformer
In Switchgear for voltage above 300 kV, Capacitor Voltage Transformers are also employed. Two systems
are available:
- Transformers with high capacitance connected to an intermediate Transformer. The oil-insulated capacitor
of conventional
design is accommodated in an enclosure filled with SF6 gas. The high-voltage connection to the GIS is
made through
a barrier insulator. The low-voltage choke and the intermediate Voltage Transformer are housed separately
in a cabinet
on the earth potential side.
- Transformers with a low capacitance accommodated in the current Transformer or in a separate housing,
connected to an
electronic

1 - Secondary winding
2 - Primary winding
3 - Terminal box
4 - Support insulator
5 - Filling valve
6 - Safety diaphragm
7 - Density Switch

(Fig. 1) Voltage Transformer (Make ABB)


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Earthing Switch
Earthing Switch is necessary to earth the conducting parts before
maintenance and also to provide deliberate short-current while testing. There
can be three types of Earthing witches in metal-clad Switches manually
operated automatic high speed Earthing Switch, protective Earthing Switch
for Earthing the installation.
There are several versions of Earthing Switches for following applications
1 - Maintenance Earthing Switches. These are single pole or three pole units;
manually operating mechanism with a provision of filling motor mechanism.
2 - High Speed Earthing Switches. These are operated by spring energy. Spring is
charged by motor-mechanism

Fig (1)

Fig (2) the one pole Earthing Switch


Earthi
ng
Switch:
1Movin
g
contact
2Operat
ing
lever
3Positio
n
indicat
or

Closed position

Open
position

The earth Switch is mounted direct on the enclosure Fig. (1) Earthing Switch
has to satisfy various requirements. For Earthing isolated sections of Switchgear
for protection of personal during maintenance and over-hauls or erection, the
maintenance Earthing Switches are employed. For Earthing higher capacitances

(cables, overhead line etc.) high speed Earthing Switch are employed.
Depending on the substation scheme, the Bus-Bars may be earthed either by
maintenance
or high-speed Earthing Switches.
Special high speed Earthing Switches with interrupting capability are also
available. These are suitable for interrupting capacitive and inductive currents
from parallel overhead lines. In certain cases, Earthing Switches are fitted to
the enclosure with interposed insulation.
This enables various tests to be performed on the Switchgear or item of
equipment, such as testing the current Transformer of measuring the operating
time of breakers, without having to open the enclosure. During normal
operation the insulation is bypassed by a short-circuit-proof link.
To check whether a point to be earthed really is dead, the Earthing Switch
can be equipped with a capacitive tap for connecting a voltage test unit. This
additional safety device reduces the risk of closing onto a live conductor.
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Disconnector switch
Isolating Switches are normally Switched only when not on load but they may also
interrupt the no load current of small Transformers as well as disconnect short pieces of
overhead lines or cables.

Disconnector Switch.
1 - Support insulator
2 - Fixed contact
3 - Moving contact
4 - Coupling contact
5 - Moving earthing contact
6 - Drive insulator
7 - Arcing contact
The BS: 3078-1959 on isolators distinguishes between off load and on load
isolator as under:
1 - Off Load Isolator is an isolator which is operated in a circuit either when the isolator
is already disconnected from all
sources of supply or when the isolator is already disconnected from the supply and
the current may be due to
capacitance currents of bushings, Bus-Bar connections, and very short lengths of
cable.
2 - On Load Isolator is an isolator which is operated in a circuit where there is a parallel
path of

low impedance so that no significant change in the voltage across the terminals of
each pole
occurs when it is operated.

Disconnector:
1- supporting insulator
2- fixed contact
3- moving contact
4- earthing Switch
5- driving insulator
To ensure that the off load isolators are not operated inadvertently under load it is
necessary that the isolators are suitably interlocked with the connected breakers.
Isolating Switches can broadly be divided into the three categories given ahead.
a) Bus isolator.
b) Line isolator.
c) Transformer isolating.
RATINGS AND THEIR SELECTION
An isolator may be constructed single pole or three poles and shall be rated in terms of:
1 - Voltage.
The rated voltage of an isolator or an earthing Switch shall be one of the highest system
voltages, given below:
3, 6, 7.2, 12, 24, 36, 72.5, 123, 145, 245, 300 and 420 kV.
2 - Insulation level.
The rated insulation level should be selected from standard Tables according
To IS: 9921
3 - Frequency
Rated frequency should be 50 Hz in Kuwait.
4 - Normal current (for Disconnector only)
The rated normal current of an isolator or an earthing Switch should have one of the
following
Standard values:
200 A, 400 A, 630 A (alternatively 800 Amps), 1250 A, 1600 A, 2000 A, 2500 A, 3150
A, 5000 A and 4000 A.
5 - Short time withstand current
The rated short-time withstands current of a Disconnector or earthing Switch should
have one of the following values:
8, 10, 12.5, 16, 20, 25, 31.5, 40, 50, 63, 80 or 100 KA.
6 - Duration of short circuit
The short time current rating of an isolator, unless directly associated with and protected
by a fuse or by a Circuit Breaker fitted with series releases or current Transformer
operated releases when it need not be assigned a short time rating, should not be less
than the short circuit current at the point of installation or the corresponding ratings of
the associated Circuit Breaker.
The rated maximum duration of short circuit is one second.
For short circuit duration greater than one second, the relation between current (I) and
time (t), unless otherwise specified, shall be assumed to be in accordance with the
formula:

I2X

t = constant

7 - Peak withstand current


The rated peak withstand current of a Disconnector or earthing Switch is that peak

current which it shall be able to carry in the closed position without material
deterioration. It shall have a value 2.5 times the rated short time withstand current.
8 - Short circuit making current (for earthing Switches only)
The earthing Switches to which a rated short circuit making current has been assigned
shall be capable of making at any applied voltage, upto and including that corresponding
to their rated voltage, any current upto and including their short circuit making current.
9 - Contact zone
Divided frame Disconnector and earthing Switches shall be able to operate within the
limits of their rated contact zone. For examples of rated contact zones, the reader may
refer to IS: 9921 (Part II)-1982.
10 - Mechanical terminal load
Disconnector and Earthing Switches should be able to close and open whilst subject to
their rated mechanical terminal loads, where assigned, plus wind loads acting on the
equipment itself.
11 - Supply voltage
closing and opening devices (where these operating devices are supplied separately) of
auxiliary circuits, peak power And total duration of operations.
The rated supply voltage shall preferably be one of the standard values given
below:
DC. Volts
AC. volts
24
110 Single phase
48
240 Single phase
110
240 /415 three phases
220
The operating device shall be capable of closing and opening the isolator at any value of
the supply voltage between 85 percent and 110 percent of the rated voltage.
12 - Supply frequency of closing and opening devices and of auxiliary circuits.
The rated supply frequency of an operating device or an auxiliary circuit is the frequency
at which the conditions of operation and heating are determined.
13 - Pressure of compressed gas supply for operation.
The rated pressure should correspond to the operating pressure of the associated air blast
Circuit Breakers, if installed and preferably have one of the following standard values:
500, 1000, 1600, 2000 or 3900 kPa.
The pneumatic operating device shall be capable of closing and opening the isolator
when the air pressure is between 85 percent and 105 percent of the rated supply pressure.
TESTS
1. Type Tests laid down in IS: 9921(part 4)-1985
A) Normal Type Tests
- Dielectric Tests Comprising Of.
1 - Lightning Impulse Voltage Tests
2 - Switching Impulse Voltage Tests for rated
3 - Power Frequency Voltage Tests.
4 - Artificial Pollution Tests.
5 - Partial Discharge Tests.
6- Tests on Auxiliary and Control Circuits.
B) Routine Tests
The following shall comprise routine tests:
1- Power Frequency Voltage Test,
2-Voltage Test on Auxiliary Equipment.

3- Operation test
4- Measurement of the Resistance of the Main Circuit.
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Cable connection
All cables, irrespective of their type of insulation (oil impregnated paper or XLPE)
and section, can be connected.
The cable sealing end is fixed inside the SF6 gas Filled compartment, in accordance
with the IEC 859 standard commonly used. Isolation of the Switchgear from the high
voltage cables during dielectric testing is achieved by removing the contact (1) and
the conductor (2).Safety is fully ensured by earthing of the cable Side through access
(3), in parallel with closing of the cable earth Switch.

Connection to Transformer
1 Removable contact's
2 Removable conductor.
3 Expansion bellows.
4 Bushing.
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Cable connection box


1 - Removable contact's
2 - Removable conductor.
3 - Access for Earthing rod.
4 - Gas tight bushing.
5 - High voltage.
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