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FABRIC AND

GARMENT FINISHES

SUBMITTED TO:
MS. T. SRIVANI
SUBMITTED BY :
1. ANIKET ANAND
2. GYANENDRA KUMAR
3. RIYA GUPTA
4. RAHUL RAMAN
5. VISHAL ANAND DAS

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY

INTRODUCTION

Washing is generally used to remove all the spots and stains from the fabrics and garments. Washing
can affect the hand (feel) of the fabric by addition of softener.
Washing can also provide pre-shrink treatment. Special effects, such as weathering, stone washing,
acid washing, distressing, etc. can also be produced.
Different types of stains can be removed from the fabric.
Softeners can be added to affect the hand (feel) of the fabric.
Special finishes like weathering, stone washing, acid washing, distressing can be produced by
washing.

PRINCIPLE OF WASHING

Periodic mechanical forces are exerted on the fibers. This causes tiny flows in and out of the
pores in the fibers.
Soap is drawn through the outer layer of the fiber, reaching the dirt through Diffusion.
There is a convection flow through the fiber with moving layers of soap molecules along the pore
walls that loosen the dirt particles from within the fiber.

CLASSIFICATION OF WASHES
1. DRY CLEANING

It's a process that cleans clothes without water. The cleaning fluid that is used is a liquid, and all
garments are immersed and cleaned in a liquid solvent -- the fact that there is no water is why the
process is called "dry.
The solvent used is typically tetrachloroethylene which the industry calls "perc" or "PERC". It is
used to clean delicate fabrics that cannot withstand the rough and tumble of a washing
machine and clothes dryer; it can also eliminate labour-intensive hand washing.
Helps to return garments to a "like-new" condition using precautions to prevent shrinkage, loss of
color, and fabric distortion.
Can be efficiently reused and recycled.
Less effective for washing dirt that are easily soluble in water.
Hazardous air pollutant .
Toxic in nature.
Expensive.

MODERN DRY CLEANING MACHINES

Combination of a domestic washing machine, and clothes dryer.


Garments placed into a washing/extraction chamber which containing horizontal, perforated
drum that rotates within an outer shell.
Shell holds the solvent, rotating drum holds the garment load.
Capacity 20 and 80 lb (9-36 kg) of garments.

INDUSTRIAL DRY CLEANING MACHINES

Stainless Steel Inner Cylinder


Solvent filter provides maximum clean solvent recovery.
Its all welded, belt driven, dual motor.
Low energy consumption.
Auto timed, auto reverse.
No-sag perforated basket.

WASHING MECHANISM

During the wash cycle the chamber is filled approximately 1/3 full of solvent.
Temperature 85F.
A typical wash cycle lasts for 8-15 minutes depending on the type of garments and amount of
soiling.
In the rinse cycle, the garment load is rinsed with fresh distilled solvent from the pure solvent
tank.
After the rinse cycle the machine begins the extraction process, which recovers dry-cleaning
solvent for reuse.
During the drying cycle, the garments are tumbled in a stream of warm air (145F/63C).
After the drying cycle is complete, a deodorizing (aeration) cycle cools the garments and
removes the last traces of solvent.

2. WET CLEANING

Wet-cleaning is an alternative to dry cleaning. It is a solvent-free method to care for garments.


Professional wet cleaners use specialized equipment to safely clean in water those garments
previously cleaned in chemical solvents.
Wet-cleaning is better for the environment and better for your health. There is no chemical smell
from off gassing dry cleaning solvents. Wet cleaning produces whiter whites and is often more
effective in removing water-based stains.
Clothes that can be wet-cleaned include cottons, wools, silks, suedes and leather. Wet cleaning can
also be suitable for fragile garments such as beaded and sequined fabrics, wedding dresses and fine
suits.
Although it is always a good idea to check with the wet cleaner, garments that may be difficult to wet
clean include: acetate linings, highly tailored wools, antique satins and garbardines.
Wet cleaning does not require hazardous chemicals, avoiding environmental harm to the air, water
and soil. With the exception of increased use of water, wet cleaning is profoundly better for the
environment than dry cleaning. The wet cleaning process is not a significant concern to wastewater
treatment officials.

PROFESSIONAL LAUNDERING

Cleaning any fabric or garment requires the presence of four elements: solvent, detergents,
agitation and, under most circumstances, heat. Professional wet cleaning perfectly balances these
elements to create the optimal cleaning environment. The entire process is computer controlled
based on the type of fabric being cleaned. Nontoxic detergents and conditioners are used to
remove dirt and revitalize the fabric. The garments are agitated in the machine just enough to
extract the dirt from the item, but not enough to alter the structure, size or colour.
The items being cleaned are then transferred to a high-tech dryer that senses humidity as many as
400 times per minute. To prevent shrinkage, the dryer automatically stops once the prescribed
level of moisture is reached. During drying, the conditioners that were added earlier are heatactivated to soften and freshen the garment.

HOME LAUNDERING

Detergents are used for home laundering. Detergents are chemical compounds that
contain wetting agents and emulsifiers.
Technically detergents are called "Synthetic Detergents" as they are not made from fats
from which soap is made.
Garment may be laundered through the use of hottest available water, detergent or soap,
agitation, and a machine designed for this purpose.
Initial water temperature should not exceed 30C or 65 to 85F.

General purpose laundry detergents work well on most washable fabrics.


Some detergents take more product for each wash as fillers are used by the detergent
manufacture.
Whiteners can be either bleach or bluing agents. More expensive is not always better.

WASHING MACHINE

A washing machine also called Laundry machine, Clothes washer, or Washer.


Designed to wash laundry, such as clothing, towels and sheets.
Mostly uses water as the primary cleaning solution, very different from dry cleaning (which uses
alternative cleaning fluids, and is performed by specialist businesses or even ultrasonic cleaners).
A washing machine (laundry machine, clothes washer, or washer) is a machine used to
wash laundry, such as clothing and sheets. The term is mostly applied to machines that use
water as opposed to dry cleaning (which uses alternative cleaning fluids, and is performed by
specialist businesses) or ultrasonic cleaners.

WASHING CYCLE

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TYPES OF WASHING MACHINE

Semi-automatic
Fully automatic
Fuzzy control
Manual
Front Loading
Top Loading

1. SEMI- AUTOMATIC MACHINE

A semi-automatic washing machine is undoubtedly the most popular type of washing machine in
India. It is more immune to water shortages and erratic power supply that is so rampant in India.
These entry-level washing machines can only be loaded from the top. Generally, they are of two
types:
A semi-automatic machine has twin tubs and performs all the three functions of washing, rinsing and
spin-drying
One tub takes care of washing and rinsing and the other performs spin-drying
Once the wash and rinse cycles are completed in the wash tub, the clothes have to be manually
transferred to the spin tub for drying

2. FULLY AUTOMATIC MACHINE

A fully automatic washing machine is an electrical appliance that controls all aspects of clothes
washing, from water level and temperature to agitation time and intensity. All that a user must do
is put clothes in and tell the machine which settings to use.
A fully automatic washing machine completes the entire clothes washing cycle without any effort
from the user. It will rinse, wash, agitate, and spin dry clothes all on its own. When time is up, the
user need only retrieve the washed laundry from the machines basin, and either place it in an
automatic dryer or hang it out.
There are many different styles of fully automatic washing machine. Some load from the front,
and others from the top; some are high efficiency, or are designed for industrial or professional
use. Despite their differences, most work in the same basic way. Users control the settings, but
the machines normally do the rest.

3. MANUAL

Person is in charge here


He/she has to decide what he/she wants the machine to do for him/her
The wash cycle, the water level as well as the detergent amount needs to be selected and set by
him/her

4. FUZZY CONTROL

Fuzzy logic washing machines are gaining popularity. These machines offer the advantages
of performance, productivity, simplicity, productivity, and less cost. Sensors continually monitor
varying conditions inside the machine and accordingly adjust operations for the best wash results.
As there is no standard for fuzzy logic, different machines perform in different manners.
Typically, fuzzy logic controls the washing process, water intake, water temperature, wash
time, rinse performance, and spin speed. This optimises the life span of the washing machine.
More sophisticated machines weigh the load (so you cant overload the washing machine), advise
on the required amount of detergent, assess cloth material type and water hardness, and check
whether the detergent is in powder or liquid form. Some machines even learn from past
experience , memorising programs and adjusting them to minimise running costs.

MODERN WASHING MACHINE

Modern washing machines are available in two configurations

Top loading
Front loading

1. TOP LOADING
This design places the clothes in a vertically mounted perforated basket that is contained within a
water-retaining tub, with a finned water-pumping agitator in the center of the bottom of the
basket. Clothes are loaded through the top of the machine, which is usually but not always
covered with a hinged door.
During the wash cycle, the outer tub is filled with water sufficient to fully immerse and suspend
the clothing freely in the basket.
The movement of the agitator pushes water outward between the paddles towards the edge of the
tub. The water then moves outward, up the sides of the basket, towards the center, and then down
towards the agitator to repeat the process, in a circulation pattern similar to the shape of a torus.
The agitator direction is periodically reversed, because continuous motion in one direction would
just lead to the water spinning around the basket with the agitator rather than the water being
pumped in the torus-shaped motion.
Some washers supplement the water-pumping action of the agitator with a large rotating screw
on the shaft above the agitator, to help move water downwards in the center of the basket.

2. FRONT LOADING
This layout mounts the inner basket and outer tub horizontally, and loading is through a door at
the front of the machine. The door often but not always contains a transparent window. Agitation
is supplied by the back-and-forth rotation of the cylinder and by gravity.
The clothes are lifted up by paddles on the inside wall of the drum and then dropped. This motion
flexes the weave of the fabric and forces water and detergent solution through the clothes load.
Because the wash action does not require the clothing be freely suspended in water, only enough
water is needed to moisten the fabric. Because less water is required, front-loaders typically use
less soap, and the repeated dropping and folding action of the tumbling can easily produce large
amounts of foam or suds.

Front-loaders control water usage through the surface tension of water, and the capillary wicking
action this creates in the fabric weave. A front-loader washer always fills to the same low water
level, but a large pile of dry clothing standing in water will soak up the moisture, causing the
water level to drop.
The washer then refills to maintain the original water level. Because it takes time for this water
absorption to occur with a motionless pile of fabric, nearly all front-loaders begin the washing
process by slowly tumbling the clothing under the stream of water entering and filling the drum,
to rapidly saturate the clothes with water.
More frequent and long-term usage than a consumer washing machine
Most commercial washers have a sharp-edged square appearance, often with stainless steel
exteriors to minimize rust and corrosion in a constantly moist environment
Built with large easy-to-open service covers, and the washer mechanisms are internally laid out
in a manner that does not require access to the underside of the unit for service
Built for use by the general public, and are installed in publicly accessible launderettes
Have automatic chemical injection of five or more different chemical types, for easy operations.
Some computer-controlled commercial washers offer the operator complete control over the
various wash and rinse cycles.
One special type of continuous-processing washer is known as the Tunnel washer which does not
have separate, distinct wash or rinse cycles, but combines them all in sequence inside a single
long large-diameter rotating tube

INDUSTRIAL WASHING MACHING

An industrial clothes washer extends from the commercial washer to include extremely large
capacities, severe-abuse textiles cleaning and processing, and automated robotic assembly-line
systems
An industrial clothes washer can be used to batch process up to 800 pounds (140 kg) of textiles at
once, and can be used for extremely machine-abusive washing tasks such as stone washing or
fabric bleaching and dyeing

OTHER WASHING PROCESSES


1. JIGGER MACHINE

Batch machine which handles fabric in open width.


Consisting of let-off and take-up rolls, a trough containing the processing liquor and
guide rolls which allow the fabric to pass from the let-off to the take-up roll.
After fabric transfers, the driving mechanism is reversed and the fabric makes a second
pass through the liquor by returning to the original let-off roll.
The cycle can be repeated as many times as it takes to achieve the desired effect..

2.PADDING MANGLE

Nip type pressure arrangement by cylinder for individual adjustment of top and bottom
pressure
Fabric can be fed inclined, vertical or horizontal
Gear box specially designed to minimize initial starting load so that low noise and better
durability can be obtained
Operating pressure for optimum squeezing of woven fabric to be 10 ton

3. ROPE WASHER MACHINE

Fabric fed in rope form and obtained back in open width form
Very high washing performance on the upper and back side of fabric for its whole width,
Efficient removal of unfixed dyestuff, gum and other chemicals from fabrics,
Tensionless washing of fabrics, all the driven rolls powered by constant load motors with
adjustable speeds
Has independent tanks, each one fitted with its own recirculation pump and filtering
device.

4.CONTINUOUS OPEN-WIDTH WASHING MACHINE

designed especially for tensionless washing of fabrics.


driven rolls powered by constant load motors with adjustable speeds.
Tanks can carry out impregnation, pre-washing, rinsing and chemical treatment.
Equipped with the exclusive rotary drum washing system with two drums in a
compartment. The system consists of specially shaped impeller in every drum in which
water jets uniformly hits the full fabric width
Efficient removal of unfixed dyestuff, gum and other chemicals from fabrics

BIBLIOGRAPHY

http://en.wikipedia.org

http://inventors.about.com

www.blogigo.de

www.thesmarttime.com