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JJ205 Engineering Mechanic

JJ205 Engineering Mechanic

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JJ205

ENGINEERING MECHANICS

CHAPTER 4

Structure Analysis

Upon completion of this course, students should be able to:

Prepared by:

Siti Syazwani Binti Ilmin

engineering problems (C3)

CLO 2. sketch related diagram to be used in problem solving (C3)

CLO 3. study the theory of engineering mechanics to solve related

engineering problems in group (A3)

CLO 1. apply the principles of statics and dynamics to solve engineering problems (C3)

CLO 2. sketch related diagram to be used in problem solving (C3)

Introduction

support or transfer forces and to safely withstand the loads applied to it.

Two types of engineering structures, plane truss and frame, will be

discussed in this lesson.

To determine the forces internal to an engineering structure, we must

dismember the structure and analyze separate free-body diagrams of

individual members or combinations of members.

In this statics class, only statically determinate structures, which do not

have more supporting constraints than are necessary to maintain an

equilibrium configuration, will be considered.

The analysis of trusses and frames under concentrated loads constitutes a

straightforward application of the material developed in the previous two

topics, force systems and equilibrium.

Dec-12

Definitions

Trusses

members connected at joints

located at the ends of each

member. Member of a truss,

therefore, are two-force

members that is, members each

acted upon by two equal and

opposite forces directed along

the member.

Gusset plate

Pin

Large bolt

5

Planar Trusses

Lie in a single plane & are often used to

support roofs and bridges.

Figure 1a,the load on the deck is first

transmitted to stringers, then to floor

beams, & finally to the joints B,C, & D of

the two supporting side trusses.

The bridge truss loading is also coplanar,

like arrow in the Figure 1a.

C

B

Figure 1a

Figure 1b

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Dec-12

Plane Trusses

Figure 1b is an example of a typical roofsupporting truss.

The roof load is transmitted to the truss at the

joint .

Since the imposed loading acts in the same

plane as the truss.

The analysis of the force developer in the truss

members is two dimensional.

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Simple Truss

(represented as pin connected) designed to support loads large

in comparison to its weight and applied at joints connecting

members

Simple trusses - build on triangles

simplest stable geometric shape

add two members and one joint at a time

Plane Trusses:

all members lie in a single plane

forces parallel to plane of truss, but not in the plane can

be transmitted via non-coplanar load bearing members

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is made of three members connected by

pins at A, B, and C, will deform only

slightly under a load applied at B.

The truss of figure (b) is said to be rigid

truss, that is, the truss will not collapse.

figure (a), which are

made of four members

connected by pins at A,

B, C, and D.

truss can be obtained by adding two

members BD and CD to the basic

triangular truss of figure (b).

truss will greatly deform,

completely losing its

original shape.

manner is called simple truss.

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12

Dec-12

Method of Joints

Method of joints - usually used to determine

forces for all members of truss.

determine forces for specific members of truss.

Forces are concurrent at each joint no moments, just

Fx = 0 ,

Fy = 0

Procedure:

1) Choose joint with

at least one known force

at most two unknown forces

2) Draw FBD of the joint

draw just the point itself

draw all known forces at the point

assume all unknown forces are tension forces and

draw

positive results tension

negative results compression

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Method of Sections

3) Solve for unknown forces by applying equilibrium

conditions in x and y directions:

Fx = 0 ,

Fy = 0

Procedure:

1) Determine reaction forces external to truss system.

Draw FBD of entire truss.

Note: can find up to 3 unknown reaction forces.

Use Fx = 0, Fy = 0, M = 0 to solve for the

reaction forces.

2) Draw a section through the truss cutting no more than 3

members.

3) Draw an FBD of each section .one on each side of the cut.

Show external support reaction forces

Assume unknown cut members have tension forces

extending from them

it is also known at the other (since all forces are

concurrent and all members are two-force members)

5) Move to new joints and repeat steps 1-3 until all

member forces are known

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16

Dec-12

Space Truss

4) Solve FBD for one section at a time using :

Fx = 0, Fy = 0, M = 0

When several

straight members

are joined together

at their extremities

to form a threedimensional

configuration, the

structure obtained is

called a space truss.

unknown if possible

5) Repeat with as many sections as necessary to find

required unknowns

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space truss consists of six

members joined at their

extremities to form the edges

of a tetrahedron ABCD (figure

(a)).

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Frames

Designed to support loads.

Usually stationary, fully constrained

structures.

Frames always contains at least one multiforce

member, that is, a member acted upon by

three or more forces which, in general, are not

directed along the member.

time to this basic configuration,

such as AE, BE, and CE,

attaching them to three existing

joints, and connecting them at

a new joint, we can obtain a

larger rigid structure which is

defined as a simple space truss.

(figure (b)).

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20

Dec-12

Analysis of Frames

Consider figure (a).

The crane is carried a given load W.

entire frame is shown in figure

(b).

the force T exerted by the cable; summing x and

y components, we then determine the components

Ax and Ay of the reaction at the pin A.

determine the external forces

acting on the frame.

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considered.

In this frame, member BE is the only twoforce member.

The forces acting at each end of this

member must have; same magnitude,

same line of action, and opposite sense.

They are therefore, directed along BE and

will be denoted, respectively by FBE and

FBE.

Their sense is as in the figure shown.

later, the sign obtained for the common

magnitude FBE of the two forces will

confirm or deny this assumption.

holding the various parts of a frame together,

we must dismember the frame and draw FBD

for each of its components parts.

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24

Dec-12

members which acted upon by three or more forces.

sense.

by member BE on member AD must be equal and

opposite to the force FBE exerted by AD on BE.

force exerted at B by

member BE on member AD

member CF must be equal and opposite the force FBE

exerted by CF on BE.

the force

exerted at E

by member

BE on

member CF

on AD and CF are respectively, equal to FBE and FBE.

25

connected.

Since, neither the direction nor the

magnitude of the forces acting at C is

known, these forces will be

represented by their x and y

components.

The components Cx and Cy of the

force acting on member AD will be

arbitrarily directed to the right and

upward.

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26

forces exerted by member CF on AD and by

member AD on CF, are equal and opposite.

The components of the force acting on

member CF must be directed to the left and

downward.

They will be denoted respectively, by - Cx and

-Cy .

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Dec-12

the right and the force Cx is actually directed

to the left will be determined later from the

sign of their common magnitude Cx.

considering the FBD of either of the two

multiforce member.

made was correct and a minus sign that it was

wrong.

write the equations MC=0, ME=0 and

Fx=0, which yield the values of the

magnitudes FBE, Cy, and Cx, respectively.

completed by showing the external forces

acting at A, D, and F.

member AD is also in equilibrium.

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cut a wire.

Machines

Designed to transmit and

modify forces and are structures

containing moving parts.

Machines like frames, always

contain at least one multiforce

member.

Whether they are simple tools

or include complicated

mechanisms, their main

purpose is to transform input

forces into output forces.

and P on their handles, they will exert two

equal and opposite forces Q and Q on the

wire.

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32

Dec-12

forces when the magnitude P of the input

forces is known (or, conversely, to determine P

when Q is known);

structure, use one of the component parts as a

free body in order to determine the unknown

forces.

forces P and P and the reactions Q and Q that

the wire exerts on the pliers.

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For example;

Taking moments about A.

The relationship Pa = Qb is obtained, which

defines the magnitude Q in terms of P or P in terms

of Q.

The same FBD can be used to determine the

components of the internal force at A; Ax = 0 and

Ay = P + Q can be found.

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34

generally will be necessary to use several FBD

and, possibly, to solve simultaneous equations

evolving various internal forces.

The free bodies should be chosen to include

the input forces and the reactions to the

output forces, and the total number of

available independent equations.

Before attempting to solve a problem,

determine whether the structure considered

is determinate.

36

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