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# Dec-12

JJ205
ENGINEERING MECHANICS

CHAPTER 4
Structure Analysis

## COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES :

Upon completion of this course, students should be able to:

Prepared by:
Siti Syazwani Binti Ilmin

## CLO 1. apply the principles of statics and dynamics to solve

engineering problems (C3)
CLO 2. sketch related diagram to be used in problem solving (C3)
CLO 3. study the theory of engineering mechanics to solve related
engineering problems in group (A3)

CLO 1. apply the principles of statics and dynamics to solve engineering problems (C3)
CLO 2. sketch related diagram to be used in problem solving (C3)

Introduction

## An engineering structure is any connected system of members built to

support or transfer forces and to safely withstand the loads applied to it.
Two types of engineering structures, plane truss and frame, will be
discussed in this lesson.
To determine the forces internal to an engineering structure, we must
dismember the structure and analyze separate free-body diagrams of
individual members or combinations of members.
In this statics class, only statically determinate structures, which do not
have more supporting constraints than are necessary to maintain an
equilibrium configuration, will be considered.
The analysis of trusses and frames under concentrated loads constitutes a
straightforward application of the material developed in the previous two
topics, force systems and equilibrium.

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Definitions

Trusses

## Consist exclusively of straight

members connected at joints
located at the ends of each
member. Member of a truss,
therefore, are two-force
members that is, members each
acted upon by two equal and
opposite forces directed along
the member.

Gusset plate

Pin

Large bolt
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## 1-Bridge (Figure 1a)

Planar Trusses
Lie in a single plane & are often used to
support roofs and bridges.

## In the case of a bridge ,such as shown in

Figure 1a,the load on the deck is first
transmitted to stringers, then to floor
beams, & finally to the joints B,C, & D of
the two supporting side trusses.
The bridge truss loading is also coplanar,
like arrow in the Figure 1a.

C
B

Figure 1a
Figure 1b
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Plane Trusses

## 2-Roof (Figure 1b)

Figure 1b is an example of a typical roofsupporting truss.
The roof load is transmitted to the truss at the
joint .
Since the imposed loading acts in the same
plane as the truss.
The analysis of the force developer in the truss
members is two dimensional.
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Simple Truss

## Truss - structure consisting of two-force members

(represented as pin connected) designed to support loads large
in comparison to its weight and applied at joints connecting
members
Simple trusses - build on triangles
simplest stable geometric shape
add two members and one joint at a time
Plane Trusses:
all members lie in a single plane
forces parallel to plane of truss, but not in the plane can
be transmitted via non-coplanar load bearing members

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## In contrast, the truss of figure (b), which

is made of three members connected by
pins at A, B, and C, will deform only
slightly under a load applied at B.
The truss of figure (b) is said to be rigid
truss, that is, the truss will not collapse.

## Consider the truss of

figure (a), which are
made of four members
connected by pins at A,
B, C, and D.

## As shown in figure (c), a larger rigid

truss can be obtained by adding two
members BD and CD to the basic
triangular truss of figure (b).

## If a load applied at B, the

truss will greatly deform,
completely losing its
original shape.

## A truss which can be constructed in this

manner is called simple truss.
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Method of Joints

## Techniques for Truss Analysis

Method of joints - usually used to determine
forces for all members of truss.

## Method of sections - usually used to

determine forces for specific members of truss.

## Do FBDs of the joints

Forces are concurrent at each joint no moments, just
Fx = 0 ,
Fy = 0
Procedure:
1) Choose joint with
at least one known force
at most two unknown forces
2) Draw FBD of the joint
draw just the point itself
draw all known forces at the point
assume all unknown forces are tension forces and
draw
positive results tension
negative results compression

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Method of Sections
3) Solve for unknown forces by applying equilibrium
conditions in x and y directions:
Fx = 0 ,
Fy = 0

## Do FBDs of sections of truss cut through various members.

Procedure:
1) Determine reaction forces external to truss system.
Draw FBD of entire truss.
Note: can find up to 3 unknown reaction forces.
Use Fx = 0, Fy = 0, M = 0 to solve for the
reaction forces.
2) Draw a section through the truss cutting no more than 3
members.
3) Draw an FBD of each section .one on each side of the cut.
Show external support reaction forces
Assume unknown cut members have tension forces
extending from them

## 4) Note: if the force on a member is known at one end,

it is also known at the other (since all forces are
concurrent and all members are two-force members)
5) Move to new joints and repeat steps 1-3 until all
member forces are known

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Space Truss
4) Solve FBD for one section at a time using :
Fx = 0, Fy = 0, M = 0

When several
straight members
are joined together
at their extremities
to form a threedimensional
configuration, the
structure obtained is
called a space truss.

## Note: choose pt for moments that isolates one

unknown if possible
5) Repeat with as many sections as necessary to find
required unknowns

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## The most elementary rigid

space truss consists of six
members joined at their
extremities to form the edges
of a tetrahedron ABCD (figure
(a)).

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Frames
Designed to support loads.
Usually stationary, fully constrained
structures.
Frames always contains at least one multiforce
member, that is, a member acted upon by
three or more forces which, in general, are not
directed along the member.

## By adding three members at a

time to this basic configuration,
such as AE, BE, and CE,
attaching them to three existing
joints, and connecting them at
a new joint, we can obtain a
larger rigid structure which is
defined as a simple space truss.
(figure (b)).
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Analysis of Frames
Consider figure (a).
The crane is carried a given load W.

## The free-body diagram of the

entire frame is shown in figure
(b).

## Summing moments about A, we first determine

the force T exerted by the cable; summing x and
y components, we then determine the components
Ax and Ay of the reaction at the pin A.

## This diagram can be used to

determine the external forces
acting on the frame.
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## First, the two-force member should be

considered.
In this frame, member BE is the only twoforce member.
The forces acting at each end of this
member must have; same magnitude,
same line of action, and opposite sense.
They are therefore, directed along BE and
will be denoted, respectively by FBE and
FBE.
Their sense is as in the figure shown.
later, the sign obtained for the common
magnitude FBE of the two forces will
confirm or deny this assumption.

## In order to determine the internal forces

holding the various parts of a frame together,
we must dismember the frame and draw FBD
for each of its components parts.
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## Next, consider the multiforce members, which is the

members which acted upon by three or more forces.

sense.

## According to Newtons third law, the force exerted at B

by member BE on member AD must be equal and
opposite to the force FBE exerted by AD on BE.
force exerted at B by
member BE on member AD

## Similarly, the force exerted at E by member BE on

member CF must be equal and opposite the force FBE
exerted by CF on BE.

the force
exerted at E
by member
BE on
member CF

## Thus, the forces that the two-force member BE exerts

on AD and CF are respectively, equal to FBE and FBE.
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## At C, two multiforce members are

connected.
Since, neither the direction nor the
magnitude of the forces acting at C is
known, these forces will be
represented by their x and y
components.
The components Cx and Cy of the
force acting on member AD will be
arbitrarily directed to the right and
upward.
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## Since, according to Newtons third law, the

forces exerted by member CF on AD and by
member AD on CF, are equal and opposite.
The components of the force acting on
member CF must be directed to the left and
downward.
They will be denoted respectively, by - Cx and
-Cy .

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## Whether the force Cx is actually directed to

the right and the force Cx is actually directed
to the left will be determined later from the
sign of their common magnitude Cx.

## The internal forces can now be determined by

considering the FBD of either of the two
multiforce member.

## A plus sign indicating that the assumption

made was correct and a minus sign that it was
wrong.

## Choosing the FBD of CF, for example, we

write the equations MC=0, ME=0 and
Fx=0, which yield the values of the
magnitudes FBE, Cy, and Cx, respectively.

## The FBD of the multiforce members are

completed by showing the external forces
acting at A, D, and F.

## These values can be checked by verifying that

member AD is also in equilibrium.
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## For example: a pair of cutting pliers used to

cut a wire.

Machines
Designed to transmit and
modify forces and are structures
containing moving parts.
Machines like frames, always
contain at least one multiforce
member.
Whether they are simple tools
or include complicated
mechanisms, their main
purpose is to transform input
forces into output forces.

## If we apply two equal and opposite forces P

and P on their handles, they will exert two
equal and opposite forces Q and Q on the
wire.
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## To determine the magnitude Q of the output

forces when the magnitude P of the input
forces is known (or, conversely, to determine P
when Q is known);

## However, since a pair of pliers forms a nonrigid

structure, use one of the component parts as a
free body in order to determine the unknown
forces.

## Draw FBD of the pliers alone, showing the input

forces P and P and the reactions Q and Q that
the wire exerts on the pliers.

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For example;
Taking moments about A.
The relationship Pa = Qb is obtained, which
defines the magnitude Q in terms of P or P in terms
of Q.
The same FBD can be used to determine the
components of the internal force at A; Ax = 0 and
Ay = P + Q can be found.

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## In the case of more complicated machines, it

generally will be necessary to use several FBD
and, possibly, to solve simultaneous equations
evolving various internal forces.
The free bodies should be chosen to include
the input forces and the reactions to the
output forces, and the total number of
available independent equations.
Before attempting to solve a problem,
determine whether the structure considered
is determinate.

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