You are on page 1of 10

ITIL 2011 Notes

An Introductory Overview of ITIL 2011....................................................................3
Service Lifecycle: concept and overview.................................................................3

Service strategy................................................................................................ 6
The 4 P's of ITIL Service Strategy.........................................................................6
Key processes and activities................................................................................7


Service Design.................................................................................................. 8
Five aspects of Service Design.............................................................................8
The four Ps of service design...............................................................................8
Design processes................................................................................................. 8

An Introductory Overview of ITIL 2011

ITIL provides a framework of best-practice guidance for IT service management. ITIL offers a systematic
approach to the delivery of quality of IT services.
All organizations that use IT depend on IT to be successful. If IT processes and IT services are
implemented, managed and supported in the appropriate way, the business will be more successful, suffer
less disruption and loss of productive hours, reduce costs, increase revenue, improve public relations and
achieve its business objectives.

Service Lifecycle: concept and overview

Service is a means of delivering value to customers by facilitating outcomes customers want to achieve
without the ownership of specific costs and risks. In other words, when we do something for another party
that gives them something they want or value, we're providing a service.
From the customers perspective value consists of two core components: utility and warranty. Utility
is what the customer receives, and warranty is how it is provided. A service value is defined by fit to
purpose (utility) and fit to use (warranty). Fit to purpose, or utility, means that service needs to fulfill
customer needs. Fit for use, or warranty, means that service is available when a user needs it.
Service warranty for a service provides the customer a level of reassurance and guarantee to meet
agreed requirements.
Service utility defines the functionality of an IT service from the customers perspective (i.e. what the
service does).
The ITIL v3 definition of quality is "the ability of a product, service, or process to provide the
intended value."
Service management is a set of specialized organizational capabilities for providing value to
customers in the form of services.
A system is a group of interacting, interrelating, or interdependent components that form a unified
whole, operating together for a common purpose.
A function is a team or group of people and the tools they use to carry out one or more processes or
activities. For example the Service Desk.
A process is a structured set of activities designed to accomplish a defined objective. ITIL Processes
are performed by one or more functions.
Processes possess the following characteristics:
They are measurable - because they are performance-oriented.
They have specific results.
They provide results to customers or stakeholders.
They respond to a specific event - a process is indeed continual and iterative, but is always
originating from a certain event.
It can be difficult to determine whether something is a function or a process. According to ITIL,
whether it is a function or process depends completely on the organizational design. A good example of a
function is a service desk, a good example of a process is change management.
A procedure is a specific way to carry out an activity or a part of a process.
ITIL approaches service management from the lifecycle aspect of a service. The Service Lifecycle is
the overall framework used to identify, define, manage, and retire IT services.
The Service Lifecycle consists of five phases. Each volume of the new ITIL books describes one of
these phases:
1. Service Strategy - the phase of designing, developing and implementing service management as a
strategic resource

2. Service Design - the design phase of developing appropriate IT services, including architecture,
processes, policy and documents; the design goal is to meet the current and future business
3. Service Transition - the phase of developing and improving capabilities for the transition of new
and modified services to production
4. Service Operation - the phase of achieving effectiveness and efficiency in providing and
supporting services in order to ensure value for the customer and the service provider
5. Continual Service Improvement - the phase of creating and maintaining the value for the customer
by design improvement, and service introduction and operation

Figure 1. The Service Lifecycle.

Figure 2 illustrates how the service lifecycle is initiated from a change in requirements in the business.
These requirements are identified and agreed within the service strategy stage within a change proposal
and service charter. This passes to the service design stage, where a service solution is produced together
with a service design package (SDP) containing everything necessary to take this service through the
remaining stages of the lifecycle. The SDP passes to the service transition stage, where the service is
evaluated, tested and validated, the service knowledge management system (SKMS) is updated, and the
service is transitioned into the live environment, where it enters the service operation stage. Wherever
possible, continual service improvement identifies opportunities for the improvement of weaknesses or
failures anywhere within any of the lifecycle stages, across all processes.

Figure 2. Integration across the service lifecycle.

To undertake the processes and activities involved in each lifecycle stage, ITIL recognizes that an
organization needs to clearly define the roles and responsibilities required. These roles are assigned to
individuals within an organization structure of teams, groups or functions.
- Process owner; the process owner is responsible for the process results. Here are a few
responsibilities of the role: ensuring that the process is performed in accordance with the agreed
and documented process, documenting and publicizing the process, defining and reviewing the
measurement of the process using metrics such as key performance indicators (KPIs), etc.
- Process manager; a process owner is accountable for the process, but may not get involved in the
day-to-day management of the process. This is a separate role often allocated to a different person:
the process manager. The process manager is responsible for the realization and structure of the
process, and reports to the process owner. A process manager is responsible for operational
management of a process. The process managers responsibilities include planning and
coordination of all activities required to carry out, monitor and report on the process. There may
be several process managers for one process and the process manager role is often assigned to the
same person carrying out the process owner role.
- Process practitioner is responsible for carrying out one or more process activities. The process
practitioner role may be combined with the process manager role, if appropriate. The process
practitioners are responsible for defined activities, and these activities are reported to the process
- Service owner is responsible to the customer for the initiation, transition, and ongoing
maintenance and support of a particular service; and accountable to the IT director or service
management director for the delivery of a specific IT service. Service ownership is critical to
service management and a single person may fulfil the service owner role for more than one

When setting up a service or a process, it is imperative that all roles are clearly defined and that it is
clear who does what. For this purpose, a responsibility model like RACI can be used. RACI provides an
authority matrix to define the roles and responsibilities in relation to processes and activities. RACI is an
acronym for the four main roles:
- Responsible The person or people responsible for correct execution for getting the job
- Accountable The person who has ownership of quality and the end result. Only one person
can be accountable for each task.
- Consulted The people who are consulted and whose opinions are sought. They have
involvement through input of knowledge and information.
- Informed The people who are kept up to date on progress. They receive information about
process execution and quality.


Service strategy

The objective of service strategy is to offer better services than the competition. Service Strategy
determines which types of services should be offered to which customers or markets. Strategic thinking
aims to define a plan that, using a clear set of principles, will provide a solution to a business problem in a
particular situation. It is focused on the value to the customer and identifies strategic assets that will be
used for competitive advantage.
Service Strategy sets out guidance to all IT service providers and their customers, to help them operate
with a precise understanding of:
- What services should be offered
- To whom the services should be offered
- How the internal and external marketplaces for their services should be developed
- The existing and potential competition in these marketplaces, and the objectives that will
differentiate the value of what the service provider does or how it is provided
- How the customer(s) and stakeholders will perceive and measure value, and how this value
will be created
- How service sourcing decisions can be made with respect to use of different types of service
- How visibility and control over value creation will be achieved through financial management
- How robust business cases will be created to secure strategic investment in service assets and
service management capabilities
- How the allocation of available resources will be tuned to optimal effect across the portfolio of
- How service performance will be measured.

The 4 P's of ITIL Service Strategy

Service Strategy defines the following to meet business outcomes:
- Perspective: Having a vision of what the company wants to deliver, and is attained through
conversations with your stakeholders.
- Position: is how you will differentiate from your competitors; that is, what is your unique value
proposition? As sound position guides you in both what to do and what not to do based on your
ability to differentiate yourself from the competition.
- Plans: creating a detailed plan on how you're going to make it all happen. It focuses on financial
budgets, your portfolio of services, new service development, investments in service assets and
improvement plans.
- Patterns: knowing which patterns and actions are good for the company.

The 4 Ps in Action. A well-known computer companys perspective is building to customer

specifications quickly and inexpensively. Its position is variety-based, initially delivering only laptops and
desktops, with a wide variety of potential configurations. Key to the companys plan (initially) is to take
orders only via the Web and phone. And the pattern is a high level of customer service and competitive

Key processes and activities

As per ITIL 2011, the following main processes are part of the ITIL stage Service Strategy:
1. Strategy Management for IT Services
Process Objective: To assess the service provider's offerings, capabilities, competitors as well as current
and potential market spaces in order to develop a strategy to serve customers. Once the strategy has been
defined, Strategy Management for IT Services is also responsible for ensuring the implementation of the
- Perform strategic assessment
- Generate strategy
- Execute strategy
- Measure and evaluate
2. Service Portfolio Management
Process Objective: To manage the service portfolio. Service Portfolio Management ensures that the
service provider has the right mix of services to meet required business outcomes at an appropriate level
of investment.
Service portfolio: The complete set of services that is managed by a service provider. The service
portfolio is used to manage the entire lifecycle of all services, and includes three categories: service
pipeline (proposed or in development), service catalogue (live or available for deployment), and retired
Service portfolio management involves proactive management of the investment across the service
lifecycle. It is an ongoing process, which includes the following steps:
- Define: Make an inventory of services, ensure business cases exist, and validate portfolio data
- Analyze: Maximize portfolio value, align and prioritize, and balance supply and demand
- Approve: Finalize proposed portfolio, and authorize services and resources
- Charter: Communicate decisions, allocate resources and charter services.
3. Financial Management for IT Services
Process Objective: To manage the service provider's budgeting, accounting and charging requirements.
4. Demand Management
Process Objective: To understand, anticipate and influence customer demand for services. Demand
Management works with Capacity Management to ensure that the service provider has sufficient capacity
to meet the required demand.
5. Business Relationship Management
Process Objective: To maintain a positive relationship with customers. Business Relationship
Management identifies the needs of existing and potential customers and ensures that appropriate services
are developed to meet those needs.
- Handle requests
- Handle complaints
- Identify opportunities
- Manage business relationships throughout the service lifecycle


Service Design

The Design Stage takes a set of new or changed business requirements and develops a solution to meet
them. The developed solution is passed to Service Transition to be built, tested and deployed into the live
Key activities within this stage of the lifecycle include the planning and coordination of design
activities, ensuring consistent designs of services, service management information systems,
architectures, technology, processes, information and metrics, production of service design packages
(SDPs), management of interfaces, and improvement of service design activities and processes.
Service design starts with a set of business requirements, and ends with the development of a service
solution designed to meet documented business requirements and outcomes, and its SDP for handover
into service transition.

Five aspects of Service Design

ITIL formally recognizes five separate aspects that describe the Service Design Process (five main
"things" to be designed in the Service Design phase - STAMP):
- Service Solutions
- Service management systems and Tools, especially the service portfolio, including the service
- Technology Architecture and management systems
- Measurement methods and metrics
- The Processes required

The four Ps of service design

During service design, the 4 Ps need to be considered:
Service Design must have in mind the effective and efficient use of the four Ps:
- People human resources involved (people that work in the IT services, customers, and
- Processes what and how (processes, roles and activities involved in the provision of IT
- Products services, technology and tools. The technology and management systems used in
the delivery of IT services.
- Partners vendors, manufacturers and suppliers used to assist and support IT service
Service Design Package (SDP) - Document(s) defining all aspects of an IT Service and their
Requirements through each stage of its Lifecycle. A Service Design Package is produced for each new IT
Service, major Change or IT Service Retirement.

Design processes
Design Coordination - acts as the central point of communication and control for all processes in the
Design stage. It is in charge of all design activities, and it ensures consistent design of services aligned
with Strategy and their proper preparation for Transition.
Service Catalogue Management aims to ensure that a Service Catalogue is produced and
maintained. It is a management of information about all live services.
Service Level Management (SLM) this is a key Design process. It ensures that all services are
delivered according to agreement with the business. It is aligned with other processes emerged from the
Service Delivery group, especially Availability and Capacity. The main mission of SLM is to improve
communication and understanding of Service Provider and Business.

Service Level Requirements (SLR) Detailed recording of the customers needs. It is an

origin of the SLA content.
- Service Level Agreement (SLA) - An SLA is best described as a collection of promises. An
agreement between an IT service provider and a customer.
- Operational Level Agreement (OLA) - an agreement between an IT service provider and
another part of the same organization, governing the delivery of a infrastructure service.
Availability Management one of the oldest ITIL service delivery processes. Ensures that the
availability of delivered services is in alignment with the agreed levels, in a cost-effective, timely manner.
- Business Impact Analysis (BIA) - is the activity in Business Continuity Management that
identifies Vital Business Functions and their dependencies. BIA defines the recovery
requirements for IT Services.
Capacity Management ensures that IT infrastructure and services meet the agreed requirements in a
cost-effective and timely manner. Capacity management spans through all ITIL lifecycles.
IT Service Continuity Management (ITSCM) aims to manage risks that could seriously impact IT
services. ITSCM ensures that the IT service provider can always provide minimum agreed Service
Levels, by reducing the risk from disaster events to an acceptable level and planning for the recovery of
IT services.
Information Security Management (ISM) ensures that information security policy is aligned with
business security. ISM maintains and enforces the security policy.
Supplier Management ensures the fulfilment of contractual duties by the suppliers based upon
contracts supporting the business requirements of the IT Service Consumers. Activities included are:
negotiation, agreements, supplier performance management, seamless integration of underpinning
contracts and delivered services.

Figure 3. Expanded Incident Lifecycle.

Figure 4. Lifecycle of IT Service Continuity Management.

Continual Service Improvement

A combination of one main process and two approaches.
Seven-Step Improvement Process:
- Deming Cycle (for slow, steady improvement)
- Continual Service Improvement (CSI) Model