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SPE 92407

Overbalanced Pre-Khuff Drilling of Horizontal Reservoir Sections With Potassium


Formate Brines
M.A. Simpson, S.H. AbdRabAlreda, S.A. Al-Khamees, S. Zhou, M.D. Treece, and A.A. Ansari, Saudi Aramco
SPE Members

Copyright 2005, Society of Petroleum Engineers Inc.


This paper was prepared for presentation at the 14th SPE Middle East Oil & Gas Show and
Conference held in Bahrain International Exhibition Centre, Bahrain, 1215 March 2005.
This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE Program Committee following review of
information contained in a proposal submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as
presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to
correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any
position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Papers presented at
SPE meetings are subject to publication review by Editorial Committees of the Society of
Petroleum Engineers. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper
for commercial purposes without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is
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acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper was presented. Write Librarian, SPE, P.O.
Box 833836, Richardson, TX 75083-3836, U.S.A., fax 01-972-952-9435.

Abstract

This paper describes the use of a 90 pcf (12.0 ppg)


sodium/potassium (Na/K) formate brine to drill a 1556 ft build
to horizontal section across the Unayzah-A formation at
13,900 ft tvd, with 820 psi overbalance and 295F BHST in
TINT-3, a 92 pcf (12.3 ppg) potassium (K) formate brine to
drill a 1761 ft horizontal section across the Jauf formation at
14,500 ft tvd with 302F BHST in HWYH-201 and the use of
a 102-105 pcf (13.6-14.0 ppg) Na/K-formate system with
calcium carbonate used as a bridging and supplementary
weighting agent to drill a 1646 horizontal section across the
Unayzah-B formation at 13,900 ft tvd, with maximum
overbalance of 1600 psi and BHST of 323F in HRDH-658.

Interbedding of hard shale and sandstone sequences across


the Lower Permian Unayzah and Jauf formations of Saudi
Arabia which usually occur between 12,900 to 14,600 ft tvd,
present unique drilling fluid density requirements such that
90-102 pcf (12.0-13.6 ppg) drilling fluids are often required to
mechanically stabilize the shales while only 66-89 pcf (8.811.9 ppg) is needed to balance the Unayzah and Jauf reservoir
pressures.

One of the wells exhibited greatly improved drill


string/wellbore lubricity, bit performance, reduced torque and
drag, ECDs and pump pressures whilst inadequate drilling
fluid density masked the full benefits of formate brine use on
the other two. However, differential sticking did not occur in
any of the wells.

Review of offset wells drilled with similarly high


overbalances indicated that the differential sticking forces
effected drilling 5-7/8 horizontal hole with conventional KClpolymer water based drilling fluids or halide brines weighted
up with calcium carbonate can easily exceed the allowable
overpull on 5 drillpipe if as little as 200 ft of high
permeability virgin reservoir is traversed and drilling fluid
HTHP filtrate, HTHP filter cake; bridging material particle
size distribution and lubricity are not properly maintained;
resulting in differentially stuck pipe, expensive fishing and or
sidetracking operations.

Pre-Khuff horizontal drilling at 13,000-17,000 ft in Saudi


Arabia presents a number of major challenges including, hard
and abrasive sandstone drilling with unconfined compressive
strengths ranging from 3000 to 34,000 psi, AITs from 25 to
63 and high bottom hole temperatures in the 250 to 350F
range, as formally addressed in recent publications on the
subject 1, 2. The specific problems directly related to required
drilling fluid properties are:

The requirement to drill 1500 to 5000 ft horizontal sections


across the pre-Khuff with 250 to 350F BHSTs which
severely degrade the aforementioned fluids properties;
catalyzed Saudi Aramcos search for an alternative drilling
fluid which was also non-damaging to the sensitive pre-Khuff
sandstone reservoirs.
Formate brine drilling & completion fluids appeared to meet
all of the above criteria and were therefore selected for field
trials.

Introduction

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Differential sticking i.e., stuck pipe due to large


overbalances (820-1600 psi) sometimes required to
stabilize sloughing shales interbedding the main gas
reservoirs of the Unayzah A, B, C and Jauf
formations.
Downhole fluid and barite losses near the end of the
horizontal section and during the completion phase
when the KCl/polymer drilling fluids lose their
suspension properties at high bottom hole
temperatures (in excess of 240F) due to fluid loss
and viscosifying polymer degradation.
Excessively high rheological properties, resulting in
unacceptable surface pump pressures when
conventional non-damaging brines such as calcium

SPE 92407

chloride and calcium bromide are used as base fluids


with calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as a weighting and
slugging agent.
Although safe allowable overbalances across thin highly
depleted sandstones in mature producing regions like the
Tuscaloosa Trend of South Louisiana3 in vertical wells have
been increased with oil base muds, the unique problem of
drilling across long horizontal sections with this degree of
overbalance is rarely addressed in the literature. However,
industry use of formate brines in HTHP applications has been
widely documented 4-15.
Industry Formate Brine Use
The formate brines were originally developed by Shell
Research in the early-1990s for use as the foundation of lowsolids drilling fluids for deep slim hole drilling 4.
Shell discovered that the alkali metal salts; sodium, potassium
and cesium; of formic acid have exceptionally high
solubilitys in water, creating dense alkaline solutions of
relatively low viscosity commonly referred to as formate
brines. These benign, low-solids organic brine systems could
be tailored for drilling fluid use with a minimum number of
additives since density, shale stabilization and lubricity
characteristics were inherent to the base fluid. Just as halide
salts used in clear solids free drilling and completion brines,
the formates could be mixed in any ratio to arrive at the
required density. Commercial formate brine weights and
temperature ranges are as follows:

Sodium formate up to 85 pcf - 329F BHST


Potassium formate up to 98 pcf - 329F BHST
Cesium formate up to 143 pcf - 400F BHST

Well productivity improvements recorded to date by users of


formates5 have been, without exception, far beyond the
expectations of the original formate development team or what
might have been anticipated from laboratory core flooding
(return permeability) test results 6.
The first full-scale field test of a formate brine some 11 years
ago by Shell in Norway involved using sodium formate brine
as a combined drill-in and completion fluid base for several
short horizontal open-hole oil wells in the North Sea 7. These
wells were neither deep nor particularly extreme, but the trials
confirmed the utility of formate brine as a non-damaging drillin and completion fluid for horizontal open-hole constructions
in oil reservoirs. Some years later Shell in the Netherlands
proved that sodium formate brine could be used for drilling
long (2950 ft) multi-laterals in gas reservoirs.8-10 Shell noted
that the high ROPs resulting from drilling with formate brine
reduced their drilling time by 35% and the minimal residual
drilling-induced damage increased production capacity 40%
over that expected, with a near-zero mechanical skin.
Between October 2000 and March 2001, Shell UK drilled
three long (up to 7000 ft) horizontal wells in the North Sea

Brigantine field with sodium/potassium formate brines and


completed them using ESS (Expandable Sand Screen)
technology 11. The formate brine system was selected mainly
for its shale stabilizing properties. The three wells were
drilled and completed 32 days ahead of plan, achieving initial
gas production rates that were 23%-40% higher than expected.
Concurrently BP UK drilled a high-angle open hole gravel
pack well with, 310F BHST with a potassium formate brine
drill-in fluid 11. The reservoir consisted of a sand/shale
sequences with a net-to-gross of approximately 60%. The
intra-reservoir shale was comprised of various thicknesses. It
also contained a high level of reactive smectite clay (80% of
the clay content).
Mobil of Germany used formate brines as high temperature
drill-in fluids in a series of 15 deep horizontal gas wells in
Northern Germany 12. Mobil reported that the use of the
formates significantly reduced well costs 14. Major benefits
cited included:

Excellent polymer stability at 310F


Effective hole cleaning
ROP increased by 25%
No formation damage, leading to a 35% increase in
well productivity above expectations
Thin, easily removable filter cake
Good inhibition of formation clays
No corrosion
Low differential sticking potential
Low treatment costs during drilling

In 2001 BP chose a 105 pcf potassium/cesium formate


brine to drill the 3250 ft reservoir section of a horizontal
HPHT (300F) appraisal/development well in the Devenick
field 13. The low-permeability sandstone matrix of the
Devenick reservoir is very hard and deemed a significant
challenge to drill and complete. A long horizontal well bore
was required in order to yield sufficient productivity and to
penetrate the various reservoir segments. BP selected the
formate brine for its low formation damage characteristics,
low ECD, improved well control (no barite sag and no
diffusion of methane) and the potential for increased ROPs.
The reported results from the Devenick well after drilling
and completing with formate brine were promising; the
production rate was excellent with zero skin. Operationally
the project team felt that the well would have been difficult to
deliver without the use of the formate brine. In addition there
were no well control incidents, better integration between
drilling and completion, HSE benefits and waste management
cost savings 14.
Statoil reported that six HPHT wells in their Huldra field
have been drilled and completed with 119 pcf
potassium/cesium brines, and each well is producing with
excellent productivity indices 15.

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SPE 92407

Huldra is a HTHP (9900 psi BHP & 302F BHST) gas


condensate field in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea.
The difference between the pore pressure and fracture pressure
gradient in the reservoir is small. The reservoir consists of
interbedded shale/sand sequences with coal and limestone
stringers. The Huldra gas stream contains 3-4% CO2 and 9-14
ppm H2S. The wells were drilled at 45-50 inclinations
through the reservoir with average interval length of about 700
ft. The wells were completed with 300 micron wire wrapped
screens.

horizontal well riddled with mechanical problems, however,


1761 ft of 5-7/8 horizontal hole was drilled across the Jauf
formation to TD in the well with 820 psi overbalance at a
BHST of 302F and amazingly stable mud properties.
This paper presents a summary and analysis of formate brine
drilling fluid use across horizontal reservoir sections of three
Saudi Aramco pre-Khuff HTHP wells. Lessons learned from
these wells and conclusions are given at the end of the paper.
Drill-in Fluid Design

Altogether more than 400 wells have been drilled or


completed with formate brines since their commercialization
in 1993. Favorable applications abound.

Saudi Aramco Formate Brine Trial Test


In December 2003, Saudi Aramco initiated a trial test of
formate brines as drilling and completion fluids for deep, high
temperature horizontal gas wells to achieve the following
benefits observed in like drilling environments 13-15:

Maintain significantly lower total solids content in


the drill-in fluid (DIF), hence less damage to the
reservoir, particularly within the high overbalance
environment across the highly permeable and friable
'Unayzah and Jauf reservoir sandstones.
Maintain solids carrying capabilities at high
downhole temperatures, i.e., avail the formates ability
to thermally stabilize viscosifying and fluid loss
polymers above 240 F.
Increase mud lubricity; hence lower drillstring torque
& drag.
Lower circulating pressure because of thinner
rheological
characteristics
compared
with
conventional KCl/polymer drilling fluids.
The
former would facilitate the use high-speed turbodrills on selected applications without the associated
excessively high pump pressures, in addition provide
much lower pump pressures when PDMs were
utilized.
Reduce corrosion to tubulars and drillsting.
Environmentally friendly and readily biodegradable.

Initially two gas wells were selected for the formate brine trial
test. The results obtained after the first well was completed
and flow tested (Tinat-3, a pre-Khuff Unayzah-A Horizontal
Gas Producer) showed improved drilling performance as well
as better than expected flowback during clean-up. The results
from the second well however were mixed.
Drilling
performance appeared improved after the mud weight was
increased enough to stabilize the shales, interbedding the
Unayzah reservoir. The added lubricity of the 102 pcf formate
brine allowed a 1646 ft horizontal to be drilled with 1300 psi
overbalance without becoming differentially stuck. However,
the well flowback performance was disappointing, indicating a
poor reservoir or potential reservoir damage. Subsequently a
third trial test was carried out on HWYH-201, a Jauf

A tailored drill-in fluid was developed by Saudi Aramcos


Drilling Fluids group in conjunction with Egyptian Mud
Engineering Company (EMEC).
The sodium/potassium
formate drilling fluid was targeted for use on HRDH-658 a
Unayzah-B horizontal well with 323F BHST and Tinat-3 a
Unayzah-A horizontal with 295F BHST. Extensive pilot
testing was carried out to attain a cost effective temperature
stable formulation with optimum rheological behavior such
that effective hole cleaning could be achieved.
XC-Polymer (xanthan gum) was the primary drilling fluid
additive used for suspending solids under low shear rates and
extended static conditions, i.e., long bit trips from up to 20,000
ft (planned TD in HRDH-658). The base formate fluid along
with oxygen scavenger served to stabilize the XC-Polymer at
the elevated downhole temperatures.
PAC-R (regular polyanionic cellulose) and the lower
molecular weight PAC-L were used to control fluid loss.
Sized calcium carbonate (fine and medium) was used in the
formulation to produce effective external bridging of the
formation pores and enhance filter cake lift off. The
formulation was designed to have tight control of the drilling
fluid filtration characteristics as previous in-house studies had
shown that the Unayzah sandstones were prone to differential
sticking if the HTHP fluid loss was not maintained below 13
ml/30 min. Total solids content was minimized to reduce
ECDs and pump pressures and improve drilling rates.
The drilling fluid formulation along with the targeted
properties is shown in Tables 6 & 7. The calcium carbonate
added for bridging was sized based on a pore opening
distribution plot generated from core analysis from offset
wells and application of Abrahms rule.
Calcium carbonate fine was quality controlled to meet Saudi
Aramco specifications, i.e., a D-50 of 9-11, 100% passing
through a 100 mesh screen and 95% acid solubility in 15%
HCl at 150C. The calcium carbonate medium had to meet
the specifications of a D-50 of 135-165 with 100% passing
through a 60 mesh screen and 95% acid solubility in 15% HCl
at 150C.
Return Permeability Lab Tests
During the planning stage and subsequently during the
drilling operation, core samples from offset wells and the

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SPE 92407

wells being drilled were selected for return permeability


testing on the proposed Na/K-formate drilling fluid system
using both lab mixed and rig mud samples. Table 1 shows the
test results.

220 gpm to an actual value of 3,400 psi operating a high-speed


4-3/4 steerable turbo-drill. Rotating torque and drillstring
drag were also reduced from their normal levels as recorded
when drilling with a KCl/polymer based drilling fluid.

The return permeability testing included lift-off pressure tests


and screen plugging test to optimize the final drill-in fluid
design. The return permeability to gas, measured in the static
mode using lab mixed potassium formate drilling fluid was
found to be 77%, more than twice that attained with
conventional KCl/Polymer muds normally used across the preKhuff.

Drag at 16,747 ft (end of the 1,556 ft long 5-7/8


build/horizontal section) was only 10,000 lbf compared to up
to 50,000 lbf observed on some of the 5-7/8 horizontal
wellbores using KCl/polymer muds.

The lab tests also indicated that the rig mud samples tended to
exhibit lower return permeabilities. Subsequent analysis of rig
mud samples for particle size distribution showed that the
mean particle size (D50) is roughly close to fine CaCO3, which
indicated that the medium CaCO3 used as part of the bridging
material in the rig mud system was pulverized due to
continuous drillpipe rotation in the horizontal section of the
well. Because of this, less than optimal bridging material
particle size distribution was present in the rig mud samples
collected at the surface. The mud tended to form an
impermeable filter cake on the core face; as such, filtrate
invasion occurred and resulted in lower return permeability.
Additional test were performed with 230 micron sand screens
on top of the core sample. The test results indicated a 9%
reduction in return permeability.

Field Drilling Fluid Tests


Saudi Aramco mud technicians monitored the mud on a
twenty-four hour basis at the wellsite and prior to mixing, ran
pilot tests, freeing the mud engineer to concentrate on mixing
material and operational problems. In addition to a standard
API drilling fluid test, iron content, calcium carbonate loading,
and screen plugging tests were run on the rig. Samples from
upstream and downstream of the shakers were sent in to the
lab every 300-500 ft for particle size distribution testing,
return permeability and other test.

Drilling and Completing with Na/K-Formate Brines


Tinat-3 Trial Test
Tinat-3 was the first 5-7/8 horizontal drilling/workover
well in the Tinat field. Significant effort was made including
geomechanical modeling by an outside consulting firm to
determine the optimal mud weight and trajectory to ensure
wellbore stability. A 90 pcf sodium/potassium (Na/K) formate
brine was selected based on offset well drilling performance
and the wellbore stability analysis, as well as the formate
brines expected non-damaging characteristics to the highly
friable and permeable Unayzah reservoir sandstones.
Use of the Na/K-formate system in Tinat-3 significantly
reduced surface pump pressure from a calculated 4,200 psi at

Rotating torque was only 7,600 ft-lb at the end of the


horizontal section as compared to 9,700 ft-lb the same
distance out in WDHY-1 that was drilled with a 72 pcf
KCl/Polymer mud system.
At the end of the horizontal section total mud solids were only
5%. In TINT-3, calcium carbonate was added as a bridging
agent and to aid in to forming a tight non-damaging filter
cake.
Table 2 shows the overall drilling performance in Tinat-3 with
respect to bit types used and days required to drill the section.
Figure -1 shows the daily drilling footage vs. daily mud
treatment cost.
The sodium/potassium formate drilling fluid proved cost and
operationally effective in this horizontal sidetrack. The fluid
cost was lower than anticipated due to minimal losses
estimated at 0.12 bbl per foot including both surface solids
control equipment losses and downhole losses to the
formation, and utilizing a mixed Na/K formate system to
obtain the requisite 90 pcf, as opposed to a potassium formate
system alone.
After conditioning the sodium/potassium formate brine drill-in
fluid, the well was completed with 1410 ft of 230 micron 4
expandable sand screens with 705 ft of 5.5 blank pipe. The
sand screens however held up 141 ft off bottom. Due to the
fragility of the screens with maximum allowable hole drag of
60,000 lbf, they were not pushed any further, set and expanded
off bottom without problems (Figure-2).
After completing the well with expanded sand screens, the
well was flowed back for three days with the rig on location.
The well exhibited the best flowback/clean-up performance to
date in the Tinat field. However, a 4-1/2 Full-Bore Isolation
Valve (FBIV) in the tubing tailpipe partially closed while the
well was being flowed back which effectively halted the flowback operation as the shifting tool required to re-open the
FBIV was unavailable. The rig was therefore released and
flowback planned for rigless operations at a later date.
The initial drilling fluid and maintenance cost to drill the
1,556 ft 5-7/8 build/horizontal section was $439,000 for
2,400 bbl of 90 pcf sodium/potassium formate brine. At the
end of the well 1800 bbl of the sodium/potassium formate
drilling fluid was recovered for storage and reuse on other
wells. This reduced the actual mud cost for the section to
$106,000, i.e., from $182.92/bbl to $44.17/bbl, which is
substantially cheaper than expected. Drilling fluid product cost

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SPE 92407

breakdown as presented in Figure-5 shows that the major cost


items for the Na/K formate system were the formates that
totaled 57.85%; Na formate powder (5.31%), Liquid Kformate (49.28%) and K-formate powder (3.21%).

A pre-perforated 3-1/2 x 4-1/2 production liner was run in


hole to TD without problems. After setting the production
packer, the hole was displaced with 95 pcf K-formate brine. A
total of 630 bbl of 102 pcf K-formate mud was recovered for
storage, reconditioning and reuse on other wells.

Haradh-658 Trial Test


This well started drilling its 5-7/8 horizontal section about
50 days ahead of Tinat-3; however it experienced considerable
difficulties in its progress.
Table 3-A shows the overall drilling performance of the first
5-7/8 horizontal hole in Haradh-658 with respect to bit types
used and days required to drill the section respectively. After
building inclination to about 89 drilling continued mainly
with IADC 6-2-7/6-3-7 TCIs run on PDMs to 17,252 ft
where a twist-off occurred in the 4 drillpipe about 4 below
the top of the box connection. This left 2,221 ft of fish down
hole. Subsequent fishing operations were unsuccessful, so the
hole was plugged back and sidetracked.
Drilling of this first hole section was marred by inadequate
start-up mud weight (92 pcf) this resulted in the sloughing
shales in the top of the Unayzah-B causing numerous
instances of tight to extremely tight hole which required
extensive reaming operations to control. The drilling fluid was
subsequently weighted up to 105 pcf in order to keep the hole
stable. The prognosed formation pressure across the Unayzah
was only 88.5 pcf, equivalent mud weight. The eventual
1,600 psi overbalance at 13,600 ft TVD served to considerably
increase the actual rock compressive strength across the
Unayzah-B. This may be the reason for the slow rate of
penetration observed when the mud weight was raised to 105
pcf.
After the well was sidetracked, potassium formate drilling
fluid weight was cautiously decreased from 105 to 102 pcf,
drilling performance improved substantially (see Table 3-B).
However, the last TCI bit run in the 5-7/8 ST section only
drilled 36 ft in 15.5 total rotating hours, and lost all three
cones on bottom. The decision was made to proceed with
logging operations without attempting to fish the cones.
A total of 1614 ft was drilled with 12 bits in the sidetrack hole
vs. 2837 ft in the original 5-7/8 hole with 35 bits. The
sidetracked hole benefited by having a lower sail angle of 75
as compared to 86 in the original hole. Also, the formate
system was better maintained in the sidetrack hole as shown in
Figure-3.
Amazingly, while drilling operations continued in the 5-7/8
horizontal sidetrack hole with the required mud weight of 102
pcf to hold the Unayzah-B shales open, which is 1300 psi
overbalance to reservoir pressure, no differential sticking
occurred over the 1,646 ft of quasi-horizontal hole drilled.
This is envisaged due to the lubricity of the potassium formate
drilling fluid i.e., its low coefficient of friction, low HTHP
filtrate, ultra low low-gravity solids content and bridging off
of formation pore throats by the excess CaCO3 in the system.

A brief clean-up/flow-back was conducted with the rig on


location. Unfortunately, the well produced a disappointing 3
MMSCFD of gas. Resistiviy logs had indicated a significant
length of payzone had been traversed at the top of the 5-7/8
horizontal section; the low flow rate was an unexpected
outcome. Possible causes included low permeability formation
(8.97 md), reservoir damage, induced by the 1300 psi
overbalance between the mud weight and formation, and
incompatibility between the various combinations of Na/Kformate brine, formation water and well water used to prepare
the drilling fluid.
An XRD analysis was made on the formate filtrate left on the
core sample surfaces by the Saudi Aramco R&D Lab Center,
which indicated scale formation from the formation brine had
produced KCl precipitation, together with a residual thin layer
of formate filter cake. The former may have damaged the
reservoir. Further investigation is planned to diagnose the root
cause of the observed lower than expected flow rate and to
identify remedial actions required to revive the well, if it was
actually damaged to an appreciable degree.
Hawiyah-201 Trial Test
After the mixed results obtained using a Na/K-formate
drilling fluid in Tinat-3 and the K-formate/CaCO3 system on
HRDH-658, another gas workover well was selected for an
additional trial test, because of its high BHST of 350 F and
potential for formation damage if conventional water based
drilling fluids were used. This trial would serve as a more
definitive test of the potassium formates reported ability to
thermally stabilize fluid loss and viscosifying polymers in this
higher temperature range.
Drilling of the 5-7/8 horizontal hole section in HWYH-201
started in mid-September 2004 with an 82 pcf K-formate
drilling fluid. After reaming out the old 8-3/8 hole, gas cut
mud was observed and the drilling fluid density was increased
to 86 pcf. While drilling from 15,392 ft to 15,557 ft the mud
was again gas cut and the mud weight raised to 87 pcf. Upon
drilling 5-7/8 hole to 15,651 ft, a rig mechanical failure
resulted in 3,784 ft of drill string being left on bottom while 16
days were required for rig repair.
After the initial rig repair, a fishing assembly was RBIH. After
circulating bottoms up from the top of the fish, it was found
that the K-formate drilling fluid was still in good shape with
mud properties remaining more less unchanged. After the fish
was retrieved drilling resumed, however, tight hole was
experienced at 15,880 ft, but was jarred out of. POH and
found drill pipe pup joint had a 3.5 bend in it. RBIH with a
TCI bit and encountered more tight hole, but worked the pipe
through it OK. A large amount of sand came back over the
shale shakers upon circulating the hole at bottom. POH, and

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SPE 92407

found HWDP slightly bent 9 ft from the PDM top stabilizer.


RBIH and reamed tight spot, hole packed off at 15,415 ft,
reamed down to 15,633 ft, then POH. RBIH with 5-7/8 bullnose hole-opener washed and reamed tight hole and circulated
a large amount of shale cuttings (cavings) out over the shale
shakers. POH and found 3-1/2 HWDP twisted off 12 ft from
the NBRR, leaving 27 ft of fish in the hole. The decision was
then made to set a cement plug above the fish and sidetrack
the well.
After setting the sidetrack plug, a clean-out assembly was run
and cleaned out cement to 15,200 ft in preparation for setting a
Whipstock inside 7 csg. After cutting window and milling
out 10 ft of formation, sidetracking operations ensued and
drilling of the 5-7/8 sidetrack hole continued to 15,864 ft
where a small gas kick was taken with 100 psi SICP. The mud
weight was then increased to 91 pcf. Drilling continued to
16,417 ft with 91-92 pcf K-formate mud, experiencing high
torque and drag, difficulties sliding, PDM and MWD failures.
Upon POH, found the 4 drillpipe twisted off again at about 3
ft from box end of the tool joint, leaving 922 ft of fish in the
hole. Attempted to fish for eight days without success, it was
then decided to set another cement plug and sidetrack the well
again.
After setting the cement sidetrack plug and cleaning out, the
rig successfully initiated the open-hole sidetrack 10 ft below
the Whipstock with a PDC sidetrack bit. Resumed drilling
with a TCI bit and 92 pcf K-formate mud, however the bit
only drilled 26 ft in 15.5 total rotating hours, with ROP
dropping to 1 fph. A 100 psi pump pressure increase was
observed after which the drilling assembly was POH finding
that the 5-7/8 TCI bit had lost all three cones in the hole.
Attempted to fish and mill for three days recovering only one
cone, in spite of coring 6 ft of formation. Drilling continued
from that point without major problems. Three PDC bits were
used to finally drill from 15,351 ft to TD at 16,971 ft.
However each bit run experienced 4-3/4 PDM failure with
lots of stator rubber coming back over the shakers.
A summary of drilling performance for the three 5-7/8 hole
sections is presented in Tables 4-A, 4-B and 4-C. Figure-4
shows the daily footage vs. daily mud cost. Hawiyah-201 is
currently being completed as a horizontal Jauf producer.
Initial clean-up and flowback rates will give a clearer
indication of the non-damaging characteristics of formate
brines across the pre-khuff sandstone reservoirs in Saudi
Arabia.

combination of minimal occurrences of tight hole and required


reaming, a record breaking PDM/PDC bit run and the fastest
4-3/4 steerable Turbo-Drill/impregnated diamond bit run to
date resulted in Tinat-3 achieving the highest average daily
footage of 121 ft/day as shown in Figure-8.
A strong
correlation between poor drilling performance and (high
torque and drag) is clearly evident in Figure-9. Also note that
the 90 pcf Na/K formate brine in Tinat-3 exhibits more less
the same torque and drag values as the 71 pcf KCl-Polymer
drilling fluid in GHZL-12 across the Unayzah-A due to the
formates inherently high lubricity.
Lessons Learned
Following the three field applications of Na/K-formate
brines as drilling and completion fluids in horizontal preKhuff wells, some valuable lessons learned were captured and
highlighted as follows:
1.

2.

3.

4.
Comparison
horizontals

with

previous

Pre-Khuff

5-7/8

Only five slim-hole Pre-Khuff horizontal wells have been


drilled to date as illustrated in Table-6 that summarizes the 57/8 data in the tangent section for each wellbore. Graphs of
the pertinent data from the table appear in Figures 7, 8 and 9.
The data indicates that the lowest overall drilling cost of
$393/ft and the lowest mud treatment cost of $41/ft were
obtained in Tinat-3, where a 90 pcf Na/K-Formate Brine was
used to drill the 5-7/8 hole section from start to finish. The

5.

www.petroman.ir

Calcium Carbonate should not be used to increase the


weight of potassium formate brine above its
saturation weight of 98 pcf. Further, calcium
carbonate loading should never exceed 50 ppb if
optimal formate benefits are required. If additional
weight is required to mechanically stabilize the hole
the required volumes of cesium formate should be
blended into the system such that all beneficial
formate properties are preserved and temperature
stability enhanced.
Formate brine pH must be maintained from 10-11 at
all times to prevent corrosion. The pH should be
measured with a pH meter as opposed to litmus
paper. In addition, prior to formate brine use on a
well, compatibility test between drilling fluid makeup water, the formate brine and formation brine
should be conducted. The drillstring and BHA to be
used should be thoroughly inspected prior to starting
the section. Torque, drag and fatigue analysis on the
actual/planned trajectory and drillstring to be used
should also be conducted to establish maximum safe
operating limits. Real-time Drillstring torque and
drag monitoring as well as annular pressure loss
monitoring would also be helpful.
High viscosity hole sweeping pills should be isolated
from the active system. If necessary, the yield point
of the pill should be adjusted such that a significant
increase of the active systems viscosity does not
occur after the pills are pumped.
Use 80-100 mesh shale shaker screens for the first 24
hours drilling to allow the polymer to adequately
shear and build-up the wellbore filter cake quickly
for effective bridging. Then utilize the finest mesh
shaker screens compatible with the circulation rate
used. A combination 200, 265 and 325; mesh screens
are recommended for the 5-7/8 hole section across
the Pre-Khuff. A mud cleaner with 200 mesh screens
can be run as well.
After reaching TD, reduce the size of the shaker
screens to remove all the solids prior to running the
completion. Lower the yield point of the mud and

SPE 92407

circulate at the highest rate practical to thin the filter


cake.
6. The formate brine should be recovered and
transferred into storage tanks. Active mud volume
during the drilling operation should be kept as small
as practical to reduce mud treatment cost. Prior to reusing the formate brine it should be thoroughly
centrifuged.
7. The drilling performance in Haradh-658 and
Hawiyah-201 was hindered by inadequate start-up
mud weights and subsequently experienced tight to
extremely tight hole requiring hours of reaming and
backreaming each bit trip to keep the wellbore open.
The tight hole in these wells resulted in rotating
torques in the 12,000 15,000 ft-lb range with drag
from 15,000 to 65,000 lbf over prolonged periods and
was probably the root cause of the 4 drillpipe twistoffs; and as such quite unrelated to any type of
corrosion or poor drilling fluid properties. It should
be noted that Tinat-3 which started with an
appropriate/adequate mud weight with a similar
Na/K-formate brine did not experience any twist-offs
or major hole problems.
8. The available 4-3/4 PDMs are not suitable for
drilling in the 300-350F BHSTs experienced in the
Pre-Khuff, as demonstrated by the numerous and
repetitive downhole PDMs failures observed in
Haradh-658 and Hawiyah-201. The PDM failures
also adversely affected bit performance, already
challenged by the hard and abrasive nature of the
Unayzah sands and siltstones. Use of all-metal
turbo-drills, reportedly fully functional up to 400F
may be the best solution for the near turn.
9. When overbalance was greater than 800 psi, TCI bit
performance on steerable PDMs was generally poor
in the horizontal Unayzah and Jauf reservoir sections
due to increased rock compressive strength caused by
the high overbalance. The situation is worsened by
the additional risk of lost cones from abrasive gauge
wear.
10. Further study is urgently needed to identify clean-up
fluids (such as citric acid, enzymes and other possible
candidates) for jetting across the reservoir to
effectively remove the thin rubber-like formate filter
cake.
Conclusions
1.

Sufficient drilling fluid density across the shale


intervals of the pre-Khuff is the central requirement
for successful and cost effective wells. Use of ~70
ppb of CaCO3 in HRDH-658 to achieve this
requirement of sufficient drilling fluid density to keep
the hole open nullified the low solids
characteristics/benefits of the K-formate brine.
Although it appeared to be less costly to bring the
system up to weight with calcium carbonate than
adding cesium formate; the use of a
potassium/cesium formate brine drilling fluid for
horizontal wells, typically across the Unayzah-B and

Jauf may be more cost effective over time if the


improved drilling performance and well productivity
increases observed in like wells across the industry
can be achieved.
2.

Use of the 90 pcf Na/K-Formate brine drilling and


completion fluid across the Unayzah-A in Tinat-3
mitigated the tight hole/pipe sticking problems
previously experienced in similar wells.
The
formates inherently high lubricity and lower effective
pump pressures allowed the overbalance required to
stabilize the troublesome shales to be achieved
without differentially sticking pipe. The low solids
content of the system provided better bottom hole
cleaning, improved ROPs and bit performance
yielding the highest average daily footage of
121/day and lowest overall cost $343/ft of any preKhuff horizontal well to date. In addition Na/Kformate brine cost after reclamation was only
$44.17/bbl for the 2400 bbl system used.

3.

Rotating torque in excess of 10,000 ft-lb and hole


drag in excess of 30,000 lbf are sure precursors to
twist-offs and stuck pipe in pre-Khuff 5-7/8
horizontal wellbores. Plots of these parameters vs.
time and depth show they start to uniformly increase
two or three days prior to twist-off or the onset of
stuck pipe. The increased torque can be due to the
hole trying to close in due to inadequate mud weight
to mechanically stabilize the shales or from excessive
differential pressure across permeable zones. Hence
the keen importance of mud weight selection in these
wells which should be aided by geomechanical
modeling.

4. In these high temperature wells ~250-350F, the use


of high-speed 4-3/4 steerable turbo-drills is advised
to preclude the limited on bottom drilling time
incurred due to failed PDMs.
Turbo-drills,
impregnated diamond bits and potassium formate
brines have a niche application for HTHP PreKhuff horizontal wells, their combined use is
generally complementary albeit mutually exclusive.
Acknowledgements
The authors wish to thank Saudi Aramco Management for
permission to publish this paper, the Drilling & Workover
Department for their encouragement, Mohammad Ahmed
Mohammad of EMEC, John Downs of Cabot Corporation and
the Saudi Aramco Gas Drilling & Workover Operations
Department for their help and support. A very special note of
thanks is given to the late Colin Nell and to David Stonestreet
for their important contributions to formate brine use at Saudi
Aramco.

www.petroman.ir

SPE 92407

Nomenclature
API American Petroleum Institute
AIT-Angle of internal friction, degrees
Bbl Barrel
BHA Bottom hole assembly
BHST Bottom hole static temperature
CaCO3 Calcium Carbonate
CPF Cost per foot
DIF Drill-in fluid
ECD Equivalent circulating density
FBIV Full bore isolation valve
Fph Feet per hour
Gpm Gallons per minute
HTHP High temperature and high pressure
HWDP Heavy weight drill pipe
IADC International Association of Drilling Contractors
K - Potassium
KCl Potassium chloride
Lbf Pounds force
Impreg Impregnated diamond bit
LSND Low solids non-dispersed
MD Measured depth
MWD Measurement while drilling
Na/K Sodium/potassium
NBRR Near bit roller reamer
Pcf Pounds per cubic foot
PDC Polycrystalline diamond compact bit
PDM Positive displacement motor
POH pull out of hole
Psi Pounds per square inch
RIH Run in hole
ROP Rate of penetration
RPM Revolutions per minute
SICP Shut-in casing pressure
TCI Tungsten carbide insert bit
TD Total depth
TVD True vertical depth

5. Howard, S.K. and Downs, J.D.: Formate Fluids Optimize


Production Rates, AADE-05-NTCE-05, AADE 2005 National
Technical conference and Exhibition, Houston, Texas, April 5-7,
2005.
6. Byrne, M., Patey, I., George, E., Downs, J.D. and Turner, J.:
Formate Brines: A Comprehensive Evaluation of Their
Formation Damage Control Properties Under Realistic Reservoir
Conditions, SPE 73766, SPE International Symposium and
Exhibition of Formation Damage Control, Lafayette February
21-22, 2002.
7. Brikhorst, J.W.: Optimisation of Drilling Fluid and Clean-Up
Operations in Rogan South, Draugen Field, Norway, presented
at the Horizontal Well Technology forum, Aberdeen, January
22-24, 1994.
8. Hands, N. et al.: Optimising Inflow Performance of a Long
Multi-Lateral Offshore Well in Low Permeability, Gas Bearing
Sandstone: K14-FB 102 Case Study, SPE 50394 presented at
SPE International Conference of Horizontal Well Technology,
Calgary, November 1998.
9. Weekse, A., Grant, S., Urselmann, R.: Expandable Sand Screen:
Three New World Records in the Brigantine Field, SPE 74549,
presented at IADC/SPE Drilling Conference, Dllas 2002.
10. McKay, G., Bennett, C.L., Gilchrist, J.M.: High Angle OHGPs
in Sand/Shale Sequences: A Case History Using a Formate
Drill-In Fluid, SPE 58731, SPE International Symposium on
Formation Damage Control, Lafayette 2000.
11. Sundermann, R. and Bungert, D.: Potassium-Formate Fluid
Solves High Temperature Drill-In Problem, Journal of
Petroleum Technology (November 1996) 1042.
12. Abou-Sayed, I.S., Chambers, M.R. and Mueller, M.W.: Mobil
Completes Deep, Tight, Horizontal Gas Well in Germany,
Petroleum Engineer International (August 1996) 1042.
13. Rommetveit, R., Fjelde, K.K. Aas, B., Day, N.M., Low, E.,
Schwartz, H.: HPHT Well Control; An Integrated Approach,
SPE 15322, Offshore Technology Conference.

References
1. Simpson, M.A., Zhou, S., Rondon, C.J. and Treece, M.D.:
Optimal Horizontal Drilling of Hard and Abrasive Unayzah
Sandstones, SPE 85331 presented at the 2003 SPE/IADC
Middle East Drilling Technology Conference and Exhibition,
Abu Dhabi, October 20-22, 2003.
2. Simpson, M.A., Zhou, S., Treece, M.D., Rondon, C.J., Emmons,
T., Martin, C. and Tahir, M.: Breakthrough Horizontal Drilling
performance in Pre-Khuff Strata with Steerable Turbines, SPE
90376 presented at the 2004 SPE Annual Technical Conference
and Exhibition, Houston, September 26-29, 2004.
3. Shaughnessy, J., Fuqua, R. and Rorno, L.: Successfully Drilling
Highly Depleted Sands, SPE/IADC 67744 presented at the
SPE/IADC Drilling Conference held in Amsterdam, The
Netherlands; February 27 March 1, 2001.
4. Downs, J.D.: Formate Brines: New Solutions to Deep Slim Hole
Drilling Fluid Design Problems, SPE 24973 presented at the
1992 European Petroleum Conference, Cannes, France,
November 16-18, 1992.

14. Anon, High Performance Formate Brines for Drilling and


Completion, Product Brochure published by Cabot Specialty
Fluids, Aberdeen.
15. Saasen. A., Jordal, O.H., Burkhead, D., Berg, P.C., Loklingholm,
G., Pedersen, E.S., Turner, J., Harris, M.J.: Drilling HT/HP
Wells Using a Cesium Formate Based Drilling Fluid,
IADC/SPE 74541, IADC/SPE Drilling Conference, Dallas 2002.
16. Bungert, D. et al: The Evolution and Application of Formate
Brines in High-Temperature/High-Pressure Operations,
Drilling Conference, New Orleans, February 23-25, 2000.

SI Metric Conversion Factors


psi x 6.894 757 E + 00 = kPa
pcf x 9.928 450 E + 02 = kPa
ft x 3.048*
E 01 = m
cf x 2.831 685 E 02 = m3
*Conversion factor is exact

www.petroman.ir

SPE 92407

Table 1: Return permeability measurements


well
core sample base permeability
TINT-6 (TINT-3 offset)
Unayzah-A
37.4 mD
HRDH-658
Unayzah-B
8.49 mD
HWYH-206 (HWYH-201 offset)
Jauf
0.256 mD

return permeability
77%
51.2 %
31%

Table 2: TINT-3 bit performance summary in 5-7/8" horizontal hole


PDC
Impreg
TCI
Total

# of bits used
3
1
2
6

cummulative footage (ft) cummulative drill days


961
7
360
4
235
4
1556
15

best run (footage / hrs)


497 / 41.5
360 / 50
139 / 14

Table 3-A: HRDH-658 bit performance summary in 5-7/8" horizontal hole


PDC
Impreg
TCI

# of bits used
1
10
24
Total
35

cummulative footage (ft) cummulative drill days


29
1
1509
31
1299
40
2837
72

best run (footage / hrs)


29 / 4.5
470 / 78.5
115 / 18

Table 3-B: HRDH-658 bit performance summary in 5-7/8" sidetrack


PDC (sidetrack bit)
Impreg
TCI
Total

# of bits used
1
6
5
12

cummulative footage (ft) cummulative drill days


50
2
1387
17
177
9
1614
28

best run (footage / hrs)


50 / 19.5
320 / 52.5
46 / 12.5

Table 4-A: HWYH-201 bit performance summary in 5-7/8" horizontal hole


PDC
Impreg
TCI
Total

# of bits used
1
0
6
7

cummulative footage (ft) cummulative drill days


74
2
0
0
414
10
488
12

best run (footage / hrs)


74 / 12
N/A
128 / 17

st

Table 4-B: HWYH-201 bit performance summary in 1 5-7/8" sidetrack


PDC
Impreg
TCI
Total

# of bits used
2
0
9
11

cummulative footage (ft) cummulative drill days


306
6
0
0
901
20
1207
26

nd

Table 4-C: HWYH-201 bit performance summary in 2


PDC
Impreg
TCI
Total

# of bits used
4
0
2
6

best run (footage / hrs)


253 / 22.5
N/A
155 / 21

5-7/8" sidetrack

cummulative footage (ft) cummulative drill days


1709
17
0
0
52
6
1761
23

www.petroman.ir

best run (footage / hrs)


611 / 53
N/A
26 / 12

10

SPE 92407

Table 5: Drilling Fluid Type, ROP, Cost, Torque and Drag Comparison for 5-7/8 Pre-Khuff Horz. Wells
WELL
NUMBER
DRILLING FLUID
TYPE
FORMATION
TRUE VERTICAL
DEPTH, FT
MEASURED DEPTH
RANGE, FT
AVERAGE
INCLINATION,
DEGREES
SPUD DATE
MUD WEIGHT, PCF
RESERVOIR
PRESSURE, PCF
RESERVOIR
PRESSURE, PSI
OVERBALANCE TO
FORMATION, PSI
BHST, DEGREES F
TANGENT SECTION
LENGTH, FT
BITS USED, #
AVERAGE
FOOTAGE/BIT
TIME IN SECTION,
DAYS
AVERAGE FT/DAY
AVERAGE ROP, FPH
TOTAL SECTION
COST, $
OVERALL $/FT IN
TANGENT SECTION
MUD TREATMENT
COST, $
MUD TREATMENT
COST, $/FT
MUD TREATMENT
COST, $/DAY
STRING WT, LBF
PICK UP WT, LBF
SLACK-OFF WT, LBF
DRAG, LBF
ROTATING TORQUE,
FT-LB

HWYH-201
ST#2

TINAT-3

GHZL-12
UPPER L.

Na/K-formate

Na/K-formate

KCl-Polymer

GHZL-12
LOWER L.
KCl-Polymer

WDHY-1
ST#1

WDHY-4
ST#2

KCl-Polymer

KCl-Polymer

HRDH-658
K-formate
w/CaCO3

HRDH-658
ST#1
K-formate
w/CaCO3

Jauf

Unayzah-A

Unayzah-A

Unayzah-B

Unayzah-B

Unayzah-B

Unayzah-B

Unayzah-B

14,516

13,912

13,406

13,627

13,933

13,960

13,592

13,932

15,29616,971

15,29916,747

13,96518,898

13,89419,645

14,72017,076

14,80119,803

14,73516,876

14,81916,064

89

81

89

89

90

89

86

75

7/9/04
92
88.5

3/25/04
90
81.5

3/1/04
71
67.6

3/1/04
70
66.3

8/7/03
72
68.1

3/23/03
75
68.2

9/10/03
93
88.5

9/10/03
102
88.5

8920

7870

6300

6270

6590

6612

8350

8560

353

821

317

350

377

659

425

1309

302
1675

295
1448

250
3366

250
3542

290
2356

291
5002

323
2141

323
1245

6
279

6
241

25
135

24
148

14
168

40
125

16
134

7
178

21

12

42

47

35

58

47

18

80
8.6
1,015,688

121
9.3
569,000

80
10.4
1,933,054

75
9.5
2,131,481

67
7.2
1,850,263

88
10.2
2,687,537

46
5
2,087,953

69
4.8
858,901

606

393

574

802

785

537

975

690

163,543

59,166

147,291

192,741

115,000

179,325

330,446

153,895

98

41

44

54

49

36

154

124

7788

4931

3507

4101

3286

3092

7031

8550

300,000
340,000
275,000
40,000
8000

315,000
325,000
310,000
10,000
7600

265,000
270,000
260,000
5000
7400

290,000
340,000
220,000
50,000
13,000

265,000
270,000
260,000
5000
9700

290,000
300,000
270,000
10,000
5000

300,000
350,000
270,000
50,000
15,000

300,000
365,000
200,000
65,000
13,000

www.petroman.ir

SPE 92407

11

Table 6: Formulation and order of addition for Na/K formate drilling fluid
Formulation & order
Of Addition (One Barrel)

Concentration

Fresh Water
Sodium Formate
Potassium Formate
Defoamer
XC-Polymer
PAC
Soda Ash
Sodium Bicarbonate
CaCO3 sized
Oxygen Scavenger

Unit

As required
As required
As required
0.1
0.5-1.25
1.0-2.0
0.2-0.3
0.2-0.5
As required
0.2-0.3

Bbl
Lb
Bbl
Gal
Lb
Lb
Lb
Lb
Lb
Lb

Table 7: Target properties for Na/K-formate drilling fluid


Parameter

Average properties

Unit

Density

92-105

Pcf

Plastic Viscosity

15-38

Cp

Yield point

12-24

Lb/100 sq. ft

10 sec gel

3-6

Lb/100 sq. ft

10 min gel

5-8

Lb/100 sq. ft

Filtrate HPHT
(280-350F/500 psi)
Filtrate API

12-14

ml/30 min

1.3-2.9

ml/30 min

Filter Cake - HTHP


(280-350F/500 psi)
Filter Cake - API

32nd in

32nd in

Total Solids

5.6-8.6

Vol%

Drilled Solids

4.61-8.5

Lb/bbl

CaCO3 Loading

30-50

Lb/bbl

MBT

1.5

Lb/bbl

Iron content

1.0-2.25

Mg/L

www.petroman.ir

12

SPE 92407

Figure-1
TINT-3: 5-7/8" horizontal drilling daily footage vs daily mud cost
400

40,000
Add 19 blks K-formate & 160 sxs Na-formate

350

35,000
add 18 blks K-formate

300

30,000

25,000

200

20,000

150

15,000

100

10,000

50

5,000

0
0

10

11

12

13

14

15

drilling days

Figure-2

Successful Installation of 1410 ft of


Expandable Sand Screens in TINT-3
Running
6' EXY Tieback PBR, 5.625" OD 8TPI S.Acme
Threaded Down
7" Liner
Hanger top @ 13465 ft

M. Depth of 7" Liner Shoe : 15191 ft


M.Depth/Length of 5-7/8" O.H. : 16747 ft
Total Length of O.H. : 1556 ft
5-7/8" O.H. Max Inclination : 84.5 deg
Mud : 90 pcf (Na/K/Formate)
Total ESS Run Length : 1410 ft (37Jnts)

7" x 5-" EXP Deployment Hanger/Packer


5.625" OD 8TPI S.Acme Thread Up x 5-" 15.5 lb/
ft Vam FJL Pin Down

Top EXP @
14482 ft

4" ETC, 230 micron, 5-" 15.5#


Vam FJL Box x 4" ESS Pin

Whipstock top @ 13990 ft

4" EBC, 230 micron, 4" ESS


Box x 4-" Stub Acme Pin

ESS Screen
bottom at 1606 ft
(131 ft from TD)

5-7/8" hole, TD
@ 16747 ft

Bridge Plug top @ 14014 ft


7" Liner
Hanger top @ 14181 ft
9-5/8" Casing, 58.4 ppf
@ 14711 ft

7" Liner, 32 ppf


@ 15191 ft MD

Reservoir top
4" ESS 230 micron, 38ft, 4"
ESS Box x Pin

Sand Control
Circulating Valve,
4-" Stub Acme
Box Up

7" Liner Shoe


@ 15698 ft

www.petroman.ir

daily mud cost ($)

daily footage (ft)

Add 40 sxs K-formate & 412 sxs Na-formate


250

SPE 92407

13

Figure-3
HRDH-658: 5-7/8" sidetrack daily drilling footage vs daily mud cost
250

50,000
add 22 blks K-formate

225

45,000

add 22 blks K-formate

200

40,000

175

35,000

add 172 sxs K-formate & 80 Na-formate


add 84 sxs K-formate

150

30,000
add 240 sxs Na-formate

add 160 sxs Na-formate

add 8 sxs K-formate

125
add 84 sxs K-formate

25,000

add 160 sxs Na-formate

100

20,000
add 120 sxs Na-formate

daily mud cost ($)

daily footage (ft)

add 20 sxs Na-formate & 5 blks K-formate

add 80 sxs Na-formate & 4 blks K-formate

75

15,000
add 120 sxs Na-formate

50

10,000

25

5,000

0
0

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
drilling days

add 20 sxs Na-formate

Figure-4
HWYH-201: 5-7/8" 2nd sidetrack daily drilling footage vs daily mud cost
350

70,000
add 1176 sxs K-formate

325

65,000

300

60,000

275

55,000

250

50,000
45,000
add 11 blks K-formate

200

40,000
add 544 sxs K-formate

175

35,000

add 14 blks K-formate

150

30,000

125

25,000

100

20,000

add 6 blks K-formate

75

15,000

50

10,000

25

5,000

0
0

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

drilling days

www.petroman.ir

20

21

22

23

24

daily mud cost ($)

daily footage (ft)

225

14

SPE 92407

Figure-5

Drilling Fluid Material Cost for Tinat-3 5-7/8 Hole Section


Barit e

Material Cost

Marble " F"


Marble (30)

0.13%
0.08%
2.59%
1.12%
1.14%
0.87%

5.31%

0.11%

Marble (60)

0.41%

1.83%

Bent onit e

19.83%

Lime

3.21%

XC - Polymer

Bohramyl

1.11%
0.23%
1.93%
0.09%
0.23%

49.28%

Sod.
Bicarbonat e
Baravis

PAC - R

Solt ex
5.34%

Soda Ash
1.51%
0.14%
1.25% 0.23%
1.50% 0.26%
0.13%

Soda Ash

O2 - Scavenger

K. Format e

K. Format e

Na. Format e
EMEC PAC - K

0.12%

EMEC PAC K/U


Def oamer
Blacknit e
B

Figure-6

54

Drilling Fluid Material Cost for HRDH-658 5-7/8 Hole


Barit e

Material Cost

CaCO3 " F"

CaCO3 " M"

6.73%

3.50%

Bent onit e

0.00% 0.11% 0.47% 0.60%


0.55%
0.36%
0.12%
1.05%
0.40%
0.21%
0.07%1.09%
0.08%0.13%
0.09% 0.10%

Lime

HEC

Mica " F"


31.65%

Mica " C"

XC - Polymer

Bohramyl
PAC - R
Solt ex
KCL
KOH
K. Format e
K. Format e
3.44%
5.06%

31.51%

0.40%
0.97%

2.47%
2.35%

4.41%

0.12%
0.40%
0.05%0.13%

1.10%

Na Format e
EMEC - Pac R
sl
EMEC - Pac R
hv
EMEC- Carb 30
EMEC- Carb 60

0.29%

Soda Ash
S d

www.petroman.ir

SPE 92407

15

Figure-7 Drilling & Mud Treatment Cost Vs. Drilling Fluid Type in 5-7/8" Pre-Khuff Horizontals

975

1000
900
785

800

690

700
606

602

574

600

537

Cost, $/Ft

500
393

400
300
200
100

4
15
98
41

44

54

49

4
12

36

$/Ft
MTC/FT

Na/K
Formate

Na/K
Formate

KCl-Polymer KCl-Polymer KCl-Polymer KCl-Polymer K-Formate


w/CaCO3

K-Formate
w/CaCO3

HWYH-201
ST#2

Tinat-3

GHZL-12
GHZL-12
(Upper Lat) (Lower Lat)

HRDH-658
ST#1

WDHY-1
ST#1

Well-Drilling Fluid Type

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WDHY-4
S.T. #2

HRDH-658

16

SPE 92407

Figure-8 Avg. Daily Footage & ROP Vs. Drilling Fluid Type for 5-7/8" PreKhuff Horiz. Sections

140
121

100
86
80

80

75

80

69

67

60
46

4.
81

10
.2

2
7.

9.
51

10
.4
1

9.

20

40
8.
64

Footage, ft & ROP, fph

120

0
Na/K
Na/K
KClKClKClKClKKFormate Formate Polymer Polymer Polymer Polymer Formate Formate
w/CaCO3 w/CaCO3
HWYH- Tinat-3 GHZL-12 GHZL-12 WDHY-1 WDHY-4 HRDH- HRDH201 ST#2
(Upper (Lower
ST#1
S.T. #2
658 658 ST#1
Lat)
Lat)
Ft/Day
Avg ROP

Well-Drilling Fluid Type

www.petroman.ir

SPE 92407

17

Figure-9 Drilling Fluid Type Vs. Torque, Drag & Daily Footage
140
121
120

100
Rotating Torque thousand ftlb,
Drag thousand lbf
& Footage, ft/day

88
80

80

75

80

67
60

69

65

50

50

46

50

40
40

DRAG, LBF
20

ROTATING
TORQUE
Average
Ft/day

13
5 7.4

Na/K
Formate

Na/K
Formate

KClPolymer

KClPolymer

KClPolymer

KClPolymer

K-Formate K-Formate
w/CaCO3 w/CaCO3

HWYH-201
ST#2

Tinat-3

GHZL-12
Upr Lat

GHZL-12
Lwr Lat

WDHY-1
ST#1

WDHY-4
S.T. #2

HRDH-658 HRDH-658
ST#1

9.7

10

10

10 7.6

Drilling Fluid Type

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