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Final Project 2012


Final Project

Modern Merchandising Management Techniques

A Study On
APEX Holdings Limited
For the Degree of
B.Sc. Hons in knitwear Manufacture & Technology


Final Project 2012

Prepared for
Md. Jamal Uddin
Associate Professor
Cell: 01715003599
Head of Department
Knitwear Manufacture & Technology
BGMEA University of Fashion &

Prepared by
Md. Khalid Amin
Batch: 091 (KMT-2)
Knitwear Manufacture & Technology
BGMEA University of Fashion

Date of Submission: Saturday 30th June, 2012


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Saturday, 30th June 2012

Md. Jamal Uddin
Associate Professor
Head of Department
Knitwear Manufacture & Technology
BGMEA University of Fashion Technology

Subject: Letter of Transmittal

Dear Sir,
I am very glad to submit this report to you on the Modern Merchandising Management Techniques - A case
study on Apex Holdings Limited. The report deals with a brief view of garments industry of Bangladesh and
current scenario of a RMG business evolved with garments business in Bangladesh.

It has been a great experience of working on this report and I have got a glimpse of a thrust sector of
Bangladesh. I have tried my best to make this report a high quality one. Some data, which were available, are
included in this report. There may be some lack of sufficient data that I could not collect from desire authority.

I thank you for any supplementary interpretation or clarification that may be required. I hope this report will
satisfy you & meet the requirements for the B.Sc. Hons in knitwear Manufacture & Technology. I would like to
request you to accept my report & oblige thereby.

Sincerely Yours
Md. Khalid Amin
Batch: 092(KMT-2)
Head of Department
Knitwear Manufacture & Technology
BGMEA University of Fashion & Technology


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At the very beginning, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to almighty ALLAH for giving me the
strength and composure to finish the report. It certainly it would not have been possible without the help of
many people. I would like to acknowledge my appreciation to all those who had helped me during the process.
First, I must express my gratitude to Mr. Jamal Uddin, Associate Professor. & Head of the department of
Knitwear Manufacture & Technology (KMT) - my Honorable faculty, who helped me to choose a topic that was
of interest and could be of use to my organization. His guidance in helping me to separate the important and
necessary details from the unnecessary certainly helped me to stay on the correct track (and reduced my work
Second, I also give thanks express to the entire employee of Apex Holdings Limited in every department those
who really very much helpful.

Lastly, I would like to thank my family who has been with me. Without such a wonderful family, I do not think I
could have withstood all these four, extremely difficult, years of university, let alone complete this report.


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The B.Sc. Hons in knitwear Manufacture & Technology is designed to meet the needs of the
students who want to develop their career as executives in the fields of different business
areas as well as teaching and doing job in Apparel Industry. To obtain this degree, Internship
program is an integral part.
The report is prepared on the basis of 2 (two) months and onward practical experience at the
Apex Holdings Limited as well as the touch of Garments Sector of Bangladesh. The internship
program helped me a lot to learn about the practical environment and situation of a Garments
Sector and also make up a bridge between the theoretical and practical aspects.
For any technical education, practical experience has almost equal importance in association
with the theoretical knowledge. By means of practical knowledge it is possible for the students
to apply theoretical knowledge. The industrial training course is engineered in such a way that
it enhances understanding power, skills of the performer. It helps the students to be familiar
with technical matters, various stages of the production and modern machinery used in the
production. It also provides clear conception about management system, work study,
efficiency, production planning and control, cost analysis, inventory management,
procurement, utilities, their operation techniques and maintenances of machinery. It is true
that the above mentioned matters cannot be achieved successfully only with theoretical
knowledge. This is why it should be accomplished with practical knowledge in which it is based
on. This makes the students familiar with industrial environment which ultimately encourage
them, and makes self-confident as well.
I believe that 90 days long industrial training made me hard worker, innovative and
enthusiastic and very punctual. Now I realize that I shall be able to work in the industry
adopting the environment.


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Chapter One : Introduction

Chapter Two : An Overview of Garment Industry of Bangladesh
Chapter Three : Factory Profile of Apex
Chapter Four : Fabric Inspection & related all details
Chapter Five : Store Room Management
Chapter Six : Cutting Department
Chapter Seven: Pattern, Sample & Design Department
Chapter Eight : Sewing Section
Chapter Nine : Finishing & Packing
Chapter Ten : Quality Control Department
Chapter Eleven : Merchandising Department
Chapter Twelve : Commercial Department
Chapter Thirteen : Conclusion


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Ready Made Garments in Bangladesh
The ready-made garment (RMG) industry of Bangladesh started in the late1970s and became a
prominent player in the economy within a short period of time. The industry has contributed
to export earnings, foreign exchange earnings, employment creation, poverty alleviation and
the empowerment of women. The export-quota system and the availability of cheap labor are
the two main reasons behind the success of the industry. In the 1980s, the RMG industry of
Bangladesh was concentrated mainly in manufacturing and exporting woven products. Since
the early 1990s, the knit section of the industry has started to expand. Shirts, T-shirts,
trousers, sweaters and jackets are the main products manufactured and exported by the
industry. Bangladesh exports its RMG products mainly to the United States of America and the
European Union. These two destinations account for more than a 90 per cent share of the
countrys total earnings from garment exports. The country has achieved some product
diversification in both the United States and the European Union. Recently, the country has
achieved some level of product upgrading in the European Union, but not to a significant
extent in the United States. Bangladesh is less competitive compared with China or India in the
United States and it is somewhat competitive in the European Union.
The phase-out of the export-quota system from the beginning of 2005 has raised the
competitiveness issue of the Bangladesh RMG industry as a top priority topic. The most
important task for the industry is to reduce the lead time of garment manufacturing. The
improvement of deep-level competitiveness through a reduction in total production and
distribution time will improve surface-level competitiveness by reducing lead time. Such a
strategy is important for long-term stable development of the industry, but its implementation
will take time. In contrast, the establishment of a central or common bonded warehouse will
improve surface-level competitiveness by reducing lead time, but deep-level competitiveness
will not be improved and long-term industry development will be delayed. Therefore, granting
permission to establish in the private sector such warehouses with special incentives, such as
the duty-free import of raw materials usable in the export-oriented garment industry for
reducing the lead time in garment manufacturing is a critical issue for Bangladesh. Second,
Bangladesh needs to improve the factory working environment and various social issues
related to the RMG industry. International buyers are very particular about compliance with
codes of conduct. Third, issues related to product and market diversification as well as
upgrading products needs to be addressed with special care. Moreover, the Government of

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Bangladesh needs to strengthen its support. The development of the port and other physical
infrastructure, the smooth supply of utilities, a corruption-free business environment and
political stability are some priority concerns for the Government to consider in its efforts to
attract international buyers and investors.

Garment industries at present Bangladesh

After the emergence of Bangladesh radical change has come to our garment sector. Garment
industries started working from the 10's of the late century. At present there are about 5000
garment industries in the country and 75 percent of them are in Dhaka. The rest are in
Chittagong and Khulna. These Industries have employed fifty lacks of people and 85 percent of
them are illiterate rural women. About 76 percent of our export earning comes from this

Reason of Development:
The prime reason why garment industries have come out to be the champion in the field of
export is obviously the cheap labor. Labor is not as cheap anywhere in the world as it is in
Bangladesh. Women contribute to the working force in these garment factories, as they are
relatively cheaper than men. A worker works here long hours free or cheap meals. But this
has not prevented thousands of women from work. It has given them a steady income,
economic independence, self-reliance and dignity, because they are earning their own living
and managing their family expenses.

Garments of Bangladesh in the world-market:

Over the last twelve years or so the garments industries have emerged as the largest source
of earning foreign currency. About half of the foreign currency from the ready-made garments
is earned from European Union and the U.S.A. Besides, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand;
Russia etc. also are other garments importing countries. At present about 20 countries of the
world are importers of our garments. Its market is being expanded in the Middle East, Russia,
Japan, Australia and many other countries. Now days it is increasing day by day to export all
over the world with doing well repudiated brand. Peoples of the world feel relax when they
saw that the product was made from Bangladesh.


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According to EPB report 2008 the Bangladesh Garments circumstances is well. Though there
have some obstacles, Bangladesh is developing itself in the Garments Manufacturers countries
day by day.

Here is a simple statistics about Bangladeshi garments:

1. Garments Industry : About 4500 (only registered)
2. Man Power : About 25 Lac At present (4 million)
3. Foreign Currency : 12 Billion USD
4. Nationally Earned % : About 81%
5. Knit Fabric : 90% Locally Produced
6. Woven Fabric : 30% Locally Produced.
7. Backward Linkage : Woven Fabric
Future Challenge of Bangladeshi Garments:
1. Lead Time: Lead Time for the Bangladeshi Garments is very crucial. Bangladeshi garments
are not developing as per its expectation due to the lead time of its raw material collection
and vessels problems. For instance, in Bangladesh L/C is done for 120 days. But in this
competitive world L/C is done for 90 days. That means the Bangladeshi Garments
Manufacturers get only 30 days to collect raw material, 30 days for garments production, 30
days for shipment.
2. Competitive Price: Due to the insufficiency of the raw materials Bangladeshi garments are
to import necessary equipments and raw materials from other country like china, India etc.
This increases total production cost. Whereas China can produce same garments with
comparatively lower prices.
3. Product Diversification: It is seen in Bangladesh that the R & D department (Research &
Development) rarely exist in the garments factory. So experiment of new products and design
are not occurring. It affects the fashionable market drastically.
4. Buyers Compliance: Buyer compliance also put an important role on the total production.

Future of Bangladesh Garments:

Bangladesh is a developing country. Ready Made Garments industry will grow rapidly if
government can provide a good environment such as power supply, gas, and good
transportation with traffic jam free road. We hope that Bangladesh will be the no.1 Ready
Made Garments Export country with all of our true effort.

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Here, At a Glance total procedure of Apparel Manufacturing is shown above. Every

department is important but as Merchandising is the key factor of the total procedure so
Merchandising Management & Techniques are shortly briefing below.
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Apex Holdings Limited

Apex Holdings Limited (AHL) was formed out of necessity as a management
company for the management of a wide range of export oriented manufacturing
enterprises. The company was formed and registered in Bangladesh in 1998. The
sponsors of AHL were running a number of different manufacturing enterprises,
ranging from Frozen Foods, Textiles & Apparels, and Specialty Chemicals &
Laboratory Testing Services. The sponsors of AHL had setup its first export
oriented manufacturing enterprise in 1980 and have ever since grown into a
sizable group consisting of five manufacturing enterprises in three broad divisions
of Industry. As the number of Companies under the Management increased, the
need for a management company to facilitate coordination and to maintain
control over the individual company became necessary. Apex Holdings Limited
(AHL) was formed as a Management Company for all the companies under the
control of AHL sponsors, i.e., the Directors of Apex Holdings Limited have
controlling share holdings of all the individual companies.
Other companies of this group are given below

Apex Foods Limited

Apex Spinning & Knitting Mills Limited
Apex Lingerie Limited
Apex Yarn Dyeing Limited
Matex Bangladesh Limited
Apex Textile Printing Mills Limited

Here, Other Department Detail Information Are Describing

Shortly Below.
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Apex Spinning & Knitting Mills Limited (ASKML)

This is a fully vertical setup to manufacture high quality Knit-garments for Children, Ladies and
Mans, using in-house fabrics. ASKML is equipped to produce a wide range of solid dyed fabrics
and all-over printed fabrics (reactive, disperse, acid and pigments) using a variety of designs
provided by the buyer and/or from ASKMLs own design department. The fabric can be circular
knit or warp knit, 100% cotton, polyester, nylon or various blends, with or without elastine,
yarn dyed or solid dyed, all from in-house source. Profile of the Textile Complex of Apex
Holdings Limited

The 42 sewing lines are equipped to produce garments starting from the basic childrens items
to ladies / mens hooded sport jackets based on designs and specifications and accessories as
required by the buyer. The total production capacity of the ASKML is 1,300,000 pieces per
month, as shown below, with sufficient flexibility to allow 25-40% additional capacity of any
one of the item.
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Apex Yarn Dyeing Limited (AYDL)

AYDL is leader in
Bangladesh. At a
time when the
RMG sector of
the country is
having difficulty
in meeting the
export dead line
sewing threads
etc., and are looking for import substitutions, products of AYDL has brought a refreshing
change in the market. AYDL started commercial production in January 2003 and presently has
a production capacity of producing 2,000 MT per year. The company produces dyed cotton,
Embroidery thread for the export-oriented RMG industry in Bangladesh.

AYDL has achieved the international standard ISO 9001:2000 quality management system
certification accredited by UKAS. AYDL has also achieved OEKO Tex 100 standard certification.
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Apex Textile Printing Mills Limited (ATPML)

ATPML is a fully vertical setup to manufacture high quality Knit-garments and both ladies &
mans underwear using in-house fabrics. High quality knit-garments for infant and children are
manufactured in one floor. In a separate floor Mans and ladies underwear and others
are made. Both the sewing
floors use in-house fabrics
manufactured within the
Apex textile complex.
The plant is equipped with
garments starting from
the infant sleep sack /
body suits to ladies /
jackets, based on designs, fabrics and accessories as required by the buyer. The garments can
be from basic to complicated cut & sew, with placement prints, embroidery or both.
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Apex Lingerie Ltd

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Executive Summary
Apex Lingerie Limited (ALL) is setup as a specialized plant for brassieres and
brassiere panty sets manufacturing and exporting to Europe and USA. It is a
company under management of Apex Holdings Limited, a 23 years old group
of 100% export oriented manufacturing enterprises in textiles, Knit apparels
and frozen food in Bangladesh.

After extensive training for over a year under 8 expatriate experts from
Triumph (Philippines), the project went into commercial production with a
capacity of about 20,000 dozens / month in January 2000. Recently, it has
expanded the capacity to 55,000 dozens / Month and moved into a new
multistoried building. The sewing floor has been air-conditioned to maintain
appropriate conditions for intimate apparels. The management, employees
and workers of Apex Lingerie are trained to follow high quality standards and
the compliance standards of ILO on workers rights & welfare, and the
environmental laws.

Apex Holdings Limited (AHL), the groups management company (see flow
chart 1), AHL will provide services of computerized and networked data
management, computerized payroll services, computerized accounting setup,
internal audit services, computerized commercial documentation, and
efficient office and display space, and Legal services. ALL will have its own
accounts, commercial, merchandizing and purchase, administration and
factory management.

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Manufacturing Process of Apex Lingerie Limited
Manufacturing Process of Apex Lingerie Ltd.
Raw Material

Raw Material

Raw Material

Deliver To





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Deliver to Sewing
& Packing


1.Chalan of all Material.

2.For outside material test report.

1.All raw material Inspection report

(Fabric,trims & accessories etc)

1.Data entry in oracle/Oracle


1.Issue & balance report of raw


1.Cutting Production report

2.Quality inspection report in
bandknife,stright knife,bundling & molding.
3.Molding production report,Issue &
delivery report.

1.Daily production report.

2.Hourly production report.
Monthly production report,Input recieve & balance
3.Daily efficiency report,Loss production
report,operation breakdown,Layout sheet etc.
4.Inline,endline,AQL reports etc.

1.Packing production report.

2.Material recieve & balance report.
3.Shipment Summery etc.

1.Shipment Record & related


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Production Facilities
Pattern, sample and design department
Cutting department o Molding &die-cutting section Laminating
Sewing department
QAD department
Machine Maintenance & attachment-making department
Captive power & steam generation
Embroidery and printing facilities in Apex Spinning & Knitting Mills
Limited and dyed yarn / thread from Apex Yarn Dyeing Limited Raw
Materials source
Both, imported and local, fabrics and accessories can be used if
desired by the final buyer.
Synthetic warp knit* or woven fabrics are imported under duty-free
bonded warehouse facility.
Cotton and cotton-elastin fabrics are locally made in Apexs Knitting
& dyeing plant. Yarn dyed strips, checks and other designs are being
produced with dyed yarn from Apex Yarn Dyeing Limited.
Narrow fabrics, such as, straps, trimming elastics, tapes etc are
made in ALLs backward linkage section. Yarn dyed narrow fabrics
are also produced. * Under wires, Hook & eye tape, Ring & buckle
and some special items are imported in bulks.
Hangers, poly-bags, printed individual boxes, woven & printed labels
etc are locally available to make various shop presentations.
By end 2004, ALL will start commercial production of the warp knit
fabric production section to become fully a vertical operation for
intimate apparels.
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Intimate apparels are unique because it has to accomplish the demand of anatomical function
as well as meet the intimate fashion desires of the individual. During the last half of the 20th
century intimate apparels broke away from the social constrains and became the domain of
women. Brassiere and panty design has derived new vitality from the entry of large number of
women into the work place and better health awareness. Modern brassieres are much lighter
weight and fits comfortably to the contours of modern women. The concept of perfect fit
brassiere evolved only in the last few decades from the new fabrics and CAD based designs. A
modern brassiere is one that is manufactured to fit perfectly and yet fulfills your intimate
fashion desires. Apex Lingerie Limited's philosophy is to produce modern brassiere for the
modern women. ALL has focused on the mid to up market product quality, materials and
styles, but at a lower to mid market price range.

To maintain compliance standards for the European, the USA and Japan market, Apex Lingerie
has setup a separate Quality Assurance Department. Under the leadership of a highly
experienced quality manager, a team of well-trained quality inspectors operate QA
Department independently from the production team and reports only to the upper
management. The basic approach to good quality is to use good quality materials, right
methods, use correct attachments and use properly adjusted machines during production.
With this setup Apex has been able to maintain an AQL of less than 2.5
Inspectors from QA Department and each of the departments quality controllers inspect at all
the stages and records are maintained at all levels of the production and quality control,
including, complete broken needle records and needle detection records etc. Apexs other
factory has been using the OKO-TEX label for the last 6 years.

Apex Lingerie Limited specializes in brassieres and brassiere-panty sets. The plant has 16 lines;
each line capacity is 125 to 130 dozens per day. The total production capacity of the plant is
52,000 to 55,000 dozens of brassiere and brassiere-panty sets per month.

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Technical Team
Our production team was initially developed with the help of 8 expatriate experts and some
highly experienced local technical personnel. Presently, most of the technical team is made up
of experienced local personnel.
The workers of Apex Lingerie Limited have been extensively trained for 12 months and have
been running commercial production since January 2000. Currently 1300 workers are engaged
with the production.

Raw Materials Source

In the plant both imported and local fabrics and accessories are used for making brassiere and
panty. The synthetic fabrics like the fabrics made with micro-fiber mixed with elastine, lace,
tricot, Carmeuse, simplex, satin net, power net etc are imported from East Asia and Europe
under duty-free bonded warehouse facility. Fabrics made with cotton mixed with elastine are
locally made in Apex Knitting & Dyeing plant using high quality combed cotton yarn and Lycra
from DuPont.
In addition to the expansion of the sewing capacity, Apex Lingerie Limited is also implementing
its planned backward linkage. In the 1st Phase, the Narrow fabrics production and dyeing
facilities are being setup. It is expected to go into commercial production by November 2003.
Under this production facilities most of the accessories like shoulder strap, sandwich elastic,
trimming elastic, tunnel elastic, hook & eye Tape, narrow lace elastic, tunnel elastic, narrow
lace etc will be produced in our plant. Only some of the accessories like, Ring & Slide, Underwire etc will be imported from different sources.
In the 2nd phase, Warp knit fabric production and dyeing facilities will be setup. It is expected
to be completed by the middle of 2004. And, in the 3rd phase, Wide Lace fabric and dyeing
facilities will be setup. The 3rd phase will be completed by middle of 2004.
Moreover, in house screen-printing and embroidery facilities are available in our plant, which
help ALL to produce varieties styles.

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Narrow Fabric Section

NFS is the narrow fabric production section is equipped with needle loom; crochet machine,
rubber/ lycra covering machine, dyeing and finishing machine. All of these machineries are
technologically advance and selected very carefully by expert technician. By end of 2003, this
section will be fully operational to produce narrow fabrics like shoulder strap, trimming elastic,
tunnel elastic, sandwich elastic, narrow elastic or rigid lace etc. The capacity of narrow fabric
section is about 65,000 meters/day from fabric to dyeing & finishing. Any design of the elastics
and narrow laces can be knitted in the Needle loom or in the crochet machine as per buyers
requirement. The output of these machines, i.e. greige narrow fabrics will be dyed in the
dyeing machine to match with the wide fabric or lace which will reduce the color and shade
problem enormously.

Garments Section
This section is organized and fully equipped to inspect up to 50% of the fabrics and 100% of
the accessories upon delivery to the factory. The fabric inspection machine and the other
inspection setup like light box for shade matching, GSM checking machine are located near the
warehouse, where the raw materials are stored until ready for cutting. The quality controllers,
QAD personnel and Cutting department ensure that all raw materials meet customer
specifications. The pattern, sample and design department makes the initial pattern, checks
by making samples and then prepares the final pattern and marker for the cutting department
using CAD system (Lectra systems).

Sample, Pattern and Design Department

The department in each of the garment
manufacturing units is equipped with
CAD (Lectra and/or Garber) systems and
between 48 to 64 sewing machines to
produce samples according to buyers
specifications and /or Apexs own
designs. All samples are fitted on
appropriate fitting-forms and on live
models before sending to the buyers.
From digitized patterns, all production
markers are produced with optimum
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Cutting department
The cutting department for each of the sewing floors is equipped with fabric inspection, 6 to 8
cutting tables, straight knife, band knife and stripe fabric pilling or lace pilling setups. The
capacities of each cutting departments are carefully matched with the respective sewing
capacities, between 45,000 to
100,000 pieces each day. All cut
pieces are hecked and are
prepared into bundles of 12 to 24
pieces. The bundle baskets are
sent to the sewing section.
Before cutting 100% of the
fabrics are inspected and laid for
sufficient time on cutting tables
for relaxation.

Finishing department
Completed garments in size lots are cleaned of loose threads, dust etc in vacuum suction
Garments are transferred
into an enclosed humidity
controlled (air conditioned)
room, where, for the Bra
garments are inspected and
for the knitwears, the
garments are finished with
steam iron on vacuum
tables. After putting all
packaging accessories each
piece is checked with
needle detector before
packing for shipment. For
all orders, internal AQL is
determined before buyers
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Molding & Laminating

Apex Lingerie Limited mainly
uses the molding & laminating
facility. This section is
equipped with foam molding,
elastic fabric molding, rigid
fabric molding, die-cutting
(for both foam & fabric) and
fiber fill-fabric Laminating
machinery. Foam molding
Capacity: 50,000 pairs/day
and fabric molding capacity:
70,000 pairs/day.

Hook & eye tape making

Apex Lingerie Limited mainly uses
the hook & eye tape making
facility. This section is equipped
with fully computerized machinery
to produce both hook tape and
eye tapes of up to 4 rows. The
Hook & eye capacity is about
64,000 pieces /day.

The factory is situated in its own newly built multi-storied building with a built floor space of
91,800 square feet (8528 square meter) in 3 floors, with a provision for building another 4
floors (122400 sq ft or 11370 sq m). The ground floor houses the narrow fabrics knitting,
dyeing and finishing department and the first floor houses the cutting, molding & laminating;
pattern, sample & design; Machine maintenance & attachment making departments and Raw
materials warehouse. The second floor houses the complete sewing to packing departments.
In addition, finished goods warehouse and workers facilities are in either attached or nearly
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buildings. The list of machinery in Apex Lingerie for the 16 (sixteen) lines is given in the next
page. Sewing machines in all critical steps are equipped with automatic thread trimmers,
needle positioned, automatic fabric trimmers as required. The oiling system in all the
machinery is such that no garment will have oil spot.

Cutting Machineries


Fabric Inspection Machine

1 Sets

Spreading Machine with 12 meter spreading table

1 Sets

Straight Knife Machine

6 Sets

Round knife Machine

1 Sets

Band knife cutting Machine

17 Sets

Bias cloth cutting Machine

2 Sets

Bias and vertical cloth winding machine

2 Sets

Automatic tape cutter

3 Sets

Hydraulic press cutter

1 Sets

Molding & Laminating Machineries:



Elastic Fabric Molding Machine

6 set

Adjustable Elastic Fabric Molding Machine

2 set

Rigid Fabric Molding Machine

5 sets

Foam molding Machine

5 sets

Vacuum Forming Machine

1 sets

Laminating Machine

1 sets

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Sewing machinery


1- Needle lockstitch machine


2- Needle lockstitch machine


Bar tacking machine


1- Needle Zigzag lockstitch machine


1- Needle Zigzag lockstitch machine with under cutter


1- Needle 3 step Zigzag lockstitch machine


Over lock machine with fabric trimmer


Over lock machines


Flat lock with thread trimmer


Covering machine with fabric trimmer


Motif attaching machine

Fagoting machine

Double Chain stitch Machine

Embroidery Machine

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Narrow Fabric Machineries

Needle loom Section
Type-KYF Series
Type-KFN Series



Type of KYF Series

Plain M/C

Rubber take off roller


Total KYF Machines


Double Weft Double Latch

Double Weft Single Latch
Warp picot device
Weft picot device
Rubber feeding device

Type-KFN Series
Plain M/C
Double Weft Double Latch
Double Weft Single Latch
Warp picot device
Total KFn Machines
jacquard machine
Total needle loom machines


Crochet Section
Crochet Knitting machine
1.15 G
2.18 G
3.20 G


Covering Section
Double Covering
Single Covering
Spool Winder


Warping Section
Rigid Warping Machine
Elastane Warping Machine

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Ordering Info
How can you place order at Apex
to start with us, you or your representative can visit our factory to see our production facilities, products and
compliance issues.
Alternatively, can send us any of the following along with the sizes & colors you want and target date(s) for the
A sample of the item(s) you want.
A sketch of the item(s) you want with complete measurement chart.
You can ask us to send you samples from our collections
Our merchandizing will give you our costing(s) and send counter sample(s) as soon as it can be done and
possible shipment date(s).
Delivery time and other Commercial issues
Typically an order can be made ready for shipment in 30-90 days depending on approvals of the buyer. Prior to
the confirmation of an order, order details and buyers desired delivery dates are sent to the PPIC (Production
Planning and Inventory Control) department. Upon receiving the export Letter of Credit, Apex Lingerie Limited's
merchandizing and commercial department issues purchase orders for the required raw materials. After supplier
confirmation of shipment date(s), PPIC department confirms. The production management team, PPIC
department, and QA Department coordinate the production and the commercial department oversees the
export and documentation

Advantages of Bangladesh as a source

Apex Lingeries product is of mid to up market quality, materials and styles, but at a lower to mid market price
range. This is possible because:
>> No cost of quota for export of brassiere from Bangladesh and the lower cost of labor in Bangladesh.
>> Most developed countries offer GSP (Generalized System of Preference), i.e., import duty exemption or
rebate on value added imports from Bangladesh.
>> In conjunction with more than 20 years of experience of garments manufacturing and export, the work
force in Bangladesh is ready to produce high quality brassieres. Several factories are already exporting high
quality brassieres from Bangladesh to the markets of Europe and the USA.
>> The economy of Bangladesh is heavily dependent on apparel and textile exports as it provides about 65% of
the foreign exchange earnings of the country.
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Compliance With
Delivery time and other Commercial issues:
Typically an order can be made ready for shipment in 30-90 days
depending on approvals of the buyer. Prior to the confirmation of an
order, order details and buyers desired delivery dates are sent to the
PPIC (Production Planning and Inventory Control) department. Upon
receiving the export Letter of Credit, Apex Lingeries merchandizing and
commercial department issues purchase orders for the required raw
materials. After supplier confirmation of shipment date(s), PPIC
department confirms. The production management team, PPIC
department, and Quality Assurance Department (QAD) coordinate the
production and the commercial department also oversees the export and

Workers wages and welfare compliance:

Apex complies with the international labor law and environmental law.
The floor space of the plant is with open ventilation and airflow system,
which makes it a very comfortable, working condition. There is no child
labor in any of Apexs production plants. Most wages are better than
legal minimum wages and workers benefits include free transport,
medical facilities, companys equal contribution to workers Provident
Fund (PF), yearly leave, medical & maternity leave with full pay, yearly
bonus (1-2 months salary) etc are given. These facilities keep worker
migration to almost nil and encourage them to work hard for their future.

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Apex has produced lots of Lingerie product of different Buyer of different international Brand.
The product list of Apex Holdings Limited given below.


The Buyers List of Apex is given below.

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Fabric Inspection
Fabric quality is a very important factor to produce quality garments, because most of the garments defect
caused by the fabric. On the other hand fabric is the main raw material for a garment and about 60 % costs of a
garment is the fabric cost. Fabric quality is based on the quality of each components used to produce and finish
the fabric as well as the way in which various components interact. Quality control personnel must have
knowledge about fabric defect.
My company have good inspection department with full of quality and expert inspector. Before cutting they
check fabric with full concentration. They check all the fabric which will be cut. There are two methods they
use to inspect the fabric.
Inspection machine
At first they use light inspection machine to inspect and sometime they also check it manually and ensure 0 %
of fabric defect are going to cut. During work I see that a lots of fabric defect has come by their inspection. Now
I am discussing about those defect. Any nonconformance or deficiency of fabric within its specific requirements
is fabric defect. How many defects they get it are classified with four categories, in below detail of them are
The purpose of fabric inspection is to determine the quality and acceptability for our garments. It also allow us
to prevent loss of material and time during the garment manufacturing process. Fabric inspection, mapping or
marking defects is important prior to spreading and cutting because:
Spreading can be done more quickly because the spreader is not also inspecting the fabric.
A cutters productivity will increase because the defects are already marked.
Nordstrom requires that all production fabric to be inspected according to the 4-Point System.
Fabric inspection is conducted at the mill, and the cutting and sewing facility.
The 4-Point System assigns 1, 2, 3 and 4 penalty points according to the size and significance ofthe defect.
Points are assigned according to the following criteria:

Assigned Points


Size of Defects
In inches

In cm

< 3"

< 8cm

> 3" < 6"

> 8 cm < 15 cm

> 6" < 9"

> 15 cm < 23 cm

> 9"

> 23 cm


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No more than 4 penalty points can be assigned for any single defect.
No linear yard or meter can contain more than 4 points, regardless of the number of
Defects within that yard or meter.
A continuous running defect which exceeds 9 inches (23 cm) should be assigned 4
Points. In the event there is an additional defects within the same linear yard or meter
Should be considered as a separate defect and assigned defect point accordingly.
Any continuous defect (i.e., roll to roll shading, narrow or irregular width, creasing,
Uneven finish, barre, skew, etc.) should be assigned a maximum of 4 points for
Yard or meter within a shipment.

Each full width defect should assign 4 points.

Obvious, noticeable and severe defects are to be assigned 4 points for each yard or
Meter in which they occur, regardless of size.


The following sampling plan lists the minimum quantity of fabric for each pattern, color way, or Print, which
must be inspected. All rolls to be sampled will be randomly selected by the inspector. Once a roll has been
selected, no adjustments will be made.

Lot Size


Lot Size


Percent of
Total Lot

0 - 2,500

not less than 500

0 - 2,300

not less than 460


2,501 - 5,000

251 - 500

2,301 - 4500

230 - 450


5,001 - 20,000

400 - 1,600

4,501 18,300

360 - 1465



20,001 1,200 - 1,800

18,301 27,400
1,100 1,645
30,000rolls will be identified with an inspection tag. This tag may not be removed by anyone prior to the
All inspected
production cutting.
For an Individual Roll:
Points per 100 Square Yards =

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Total Points for the roll x 3600

Inspected Yards x Cut Table Fabric Width (inch)

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Points per 100 Square Meter =

Total Points for the roll x 100,000

Inspected Meters x Cut Table Fabric Width (MM)


Individual rolls exceeding the points allowed are removed from the shipment. A shipment rejected if the point
total exceeds the allowable limit.



Dress Shirtings - >50/1

All Tailored Suiting Fabrics
Open End Denim 12-16 oz./ yd
All Synthetics
Filament Rayon
Poplin/Oxford/Gingham Shirting
Light weight Denim 4-8oz./yd
Mid weight Denim 9-12oz./yd

20 points/100 yard
24 points/100 meter

Ring spun Denim 12-16oz./yd.2

Wovens with Spandex/Elastane
Seersucker, Dobby, Jacquard
Chambray/Indigo Yarn Dyes
All Silk
Basic Knits

25 points/100 yard
30 points/100 meter

All Specialty Knits

30 points/100 yard
36 points/100 meter

25 points/100 yard
30 points/100 meter

Linen Blends
Rayon Blends

40 points/100 yard2
48 points/100 meter2

32 points/100 yard2
38 points/100 meter2


60 points/100 yard
72 points/100 meter

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15 points/100 yard
18 point/100 meter

20 points/100 yard
24 points/100 meter

50 points/100 yard
60 points/100 meter

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To ensure proper documentation on the Inspection report the following should be correctly recorded.

Mill Name

Fabric P.O. Number

Mill / Supplier roll number

Roll length
Difference between ticketed and actual
Recorded cut bale width
1st Measurement At the start of the roll at least 2 meters or yards into the roll
2nd Measurement At the middle of the roll
3rd Measurement At the end of the roll at least 2 meters or yards before the end
Number of defect points per roll by 4 point system
Defect result calculated by roll in points/ 100 Sq Yards/Meters
Inspector comments if any per roll.
Note: Nordstrom reserves the right to request copies of documentation at any time

Construction defect: Any nonconformance or deficiency in construction of the fabric such as density, Count of
yarn, Fiber content, Wales/ inch, Course/ inch etc.
Latent defect:

These are hidden defect in the fabric and it is not found visually. These defects can be
identified by testing or other process. Such as color fastness, shrinkage, Tensile strength

Paten defect:

These defects can be observed in visual examination and can be quantified by using
grading system. Such as Slab, Hole, Missing yarn etc.

Other defect:

Some other defect may occur in the fabric which is considered as different as above 3
categories such as Length, Width, and Shade etc.

It can also be classified as Major

and Minor defect:

Major defect:

A defect that if conspicuous on the finished product would cause the item to be second or
can be rejected.

Minor defect:

A defect that would not cause the produce to be termed a second either because of
severity or location

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Now I am mentioned some defect name:
Broken pick
Coarse end
Fly / Foreign body
Double pick
End out
Jerk- in/ Lashed in weft
Harness break down
Burl mark
Short pick or dropped pick
Soiled filling
Mixed end
Stop mark
Mixed filling
Thin place or irregular weft density
Snag or hang pick
Snarl or looped yarn
Temple mark
Double end
Skew ness or bias filling
Bowed filling
Tight end
Miss red or red mark
Mixed yarn
Stripe or weft streak
Dropped stitch
Needle line
Broken color pattern
Mixed yarn
Missing yarn
Press of
Coarse yarn
This is the entire defect I mentioned they use different types of method to inspect it such as automated light
inspection machine, shrinkage test machine, GSM Measurement machine etc. After checking they just give to
the fresh fabric for cutting.
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About Store room
Store room is a specific place where materials or items are received & issued. The object of the store is to
carry out the above functions in a most efficient & economical manner so that the costs incurred are kept to the
minimum. This activities is a part of material management & to setup a store is depends on the basis of material
management. Sometimes it is found that the stores functions are neglected area of a material management in the
industry or company. Store room can make an industry profitable & to ensure the market share.

Importances of Storeroom
Helps to smoothly run the industry.
Helps to ensure Quality of the product
Helps to ensure in time delivery.
Helps to increase the productivity of the industry.
Helps to make the industry profitable.
Helps to make the customer satisfied.
Helps to increase the market share.
Helps to improve sustainability of the industry.

Basic store room organ gram

Director Production / General Manager / Factory Manager / Production Manager

Manager Store / Store In-charge

Assistant Manager Store / Assistant Store In-charge

Senior Store officer

Store officer

Store Assistant

Worker / Labor
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Record keeping

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Activities of a storeroom
Planning for the store [ Space, layout, storage, handling equipments etc]
Receipt of materials / items.
Inventory for incoming & existing stock items.
Proper handing & systematically storing all items / materials.
Give entry all incoming items in the register book.
Ensure security & safety of the stocks.
Proper swatch / Trim card & get approval from the merchandiser.
Shade grouping.
Sample prepares & sends it to the testing laboratory.
Perform Inspection on incoming materials.
Issue materials to the concern section / dept.
Ensure proper delivery of finishing products as per the shipment date.
Adequate maintenance & preservation of materials.
Effective use of store space & manpower.
Implementation of 5s system for better housekeeping.
Coordination with other section / dept.
Attend in the preproduction meeting.
Comply with the Buyers on the compliance issues.
Prepare updated statement / Order wise report.
Keep all records properly.

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Types of Store
Store can be classified based on general concept
Raw materials Store.
Finished Goods Store.
Maintenance Store.
Property Store (Furniture, Fittings etc).
Stationary Store.
Chemical Store.
Explosive Store.
Agro items Store.
Food Grain Store.
General Store.
Lived items Store.
Tools Store.
Electrical & Electronics Store.
Hardware & sanitary Store.
Machinery & equipment Store.
Automobile Store.
Clothes, wearable & fashionable items Store.

Store can be classified based on location, distribution arrangement & seasons

Central Store.
Sub Store.
Unit wise Store.
Operation Store.
Dispatch Store.
Seasonal Store.

Store can be classified based on manufacturing organization

Raw material Store.
Component Store.
Finished Goods Store.
Bought out items Store.
Sub assemblies Store.
Office supplies Store.
Stationary Store.
Safety items Store.
Scrap Store.
Leftover Store.

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Store Room in Apex Holdings LTD
In this factory they store there materials in many sections. Like fabric store room, accessories store room & etc.
They keep all the record by using modern software. The name of the software is SAP software. There have
many BIN card on every specific section. Because of it is quite difficult to keep all the records manually or
using office excel. During storing the material they remain very careful & across many stages or process.

Process sequence of Fabric Store

Proforma & commercial invoice


Verify QTY width, color of receiving

With commercial invoice

Prepare a receiving
report with reported

In found ok

Prepare a receiving
report with ok status

Stack receiving Fabric with

proper identification & test

Issue Fabric as per requisition

Stock / left over Fabric

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If not

Fabric receiving report F / ST / 01

Yellow / Green / Red / Orange / color & BIN card

Fabric requisition form F / ST /02

Stock lot Fabric registers F /ST /28

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Machine And Equipment of Store room used by Apex Holdings Limited

Elastic scale machine

Light Box
Testing machine

Fabric Inspection machine
Different type of form
Note Book
Different types of record card
Table for inspection
Different types of Carrier

System and Method used in Store room

There are different types of system and method which are being used in store room for maintaining the store
room activities. Almost all the factories which are familiar as qualitative and conscious to maintain the quality
use different kind of system for the improvement of the factory status. Some of the systems and methods have
been mentioned below:

Inventory: When a factory makes an incoming inventory they apply two kind of inventory. These are
single inventory and join inventory.

Single inventory is completed only by the one or more factory people. There is no personnel is applied
from the supplier.

Another Process is applied which is known as joint inventory. In this process, both personnel are
applied like factory people and also from the suppliers.

Inspection: To complete this system 4 point system is applied for the inspection of the materials.
Moreover 10 point system is also applied for the inspection. The result of the inspection is found out in
accordance with the percentage.

Testing: All most all the materials are tested in store room. Among them GSM test, Button Pulling test,
Shade variation test, Shade sorting and many more testing is done in store room.

Shade Grouping: One of the most important activities of store room is shade grouping. It is done by
collecting the samples from the roll and checked with light box.

Issue and Delivery: Fabric and other material are issued and delivery properly in accordance with the
requisition form.

Transportation: Manual transportation or automated transportation is used to convey the materials

from one place to another place.
To make the activities of store room more effective, more demandable requirements are also
implemented in store room.

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Different types of Report maintained by Apex Holdings Limited












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Apex Holding LTD
Raw Material Requisition Format(Fabrics)




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Accessories Stock Lot Register
Apex Holding LTD
Stock Lot Register


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Buyer Name

Order No.

Item Name


Stock Qty

Date of Issue


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Purchase Order (Packing Materials)
Form No ..

Attn .

Supplier ..

Ordered By ...

Date ..
Com Rate

Name of Item

Prepared By

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Garments Qty

Order Qty

Checked By

Unit Price

Present Stock

Order No.

Approved By

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Causes and Remedies of Wastage in the Store Room
Poor Planning and design
Defective planning is one of the causes of wastage. For example, a defective layout involves extra
transportation of material and men, resulting in loss of manpower and emergency.
Defective purchasing practice
Materials account for 60% of the cost of production. Any wastage of materials of materials will have a
profound influence on the cost of production.
Going for cheapest materials o three quotation principles.
Sacrificing quality for reducing first cost.
Buying huge quantity for the sake of obtaining quantity discount.
Transportation wastage
Another major cause of wastage is the damages during transportation including handling during
load and transshipment. Wastage also occurs due to pilferage.
Effective supervision.
Use of standard package size and weights
Point to point transportation.
Use of appropriate transportation means.
Storage Wastage
This accounts for a considerable portion of industrial wastage. This is due to following reasons.
Deterioration due to poor storage condition.
Damages due to poor handling.
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Cutting department
The cutting department for each of the sewing floors is equipped with fabric inspection, 6 to 8 cutting
tables, straight knife, band knife and stripe fabric pilling or lace pilling setups. The capacities of each
cutting departments are carefully matched with the respective sewing capacities, between 45,000 to
100,000 pieces each
day. All cut pieces are
prepared into bundles
of 12 to 24 pieces. The
bundle baskets are
sent to the sewing
section. Before cutting
100% of the fabrics
are inspected and laid
for sufficient time on

1. Production process flow chart:

Fabric Received

Quality Inspection

QC Passed Fabric Stored For Relaxation

Moved For Bulk Cutting

Bundling or sticker Attaching

Level Control Sheets

Input For Sewing

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Cut Panel Check

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2. Fabric relaxation:

After dyeing the fabric is required to be relaxed for a certain time. When the fabric is checked
by the quality inspector, it is stored in the store for relaxation. During the relaxation period,
fabric comes in its normal condition after dyeing. Relaxation is important for avoiding the
shrinkage after cutting. Usually the relaxation time is 8 hours. But for lycra fabrics the
relaxation time can be 10 or 20 hours. No chemical is used here. Only air is passed through the
room. The GSM is also measured here. The allowable tolerance of GSM is about +/- 5 for the
fabric relaxation. There are 7 racks of various sizes to store the fabric.
3. Laying:
The garments production is mass production. We cant cut the fabric piece by piece. We cut
the fabrics for thousands of pieces for sewing. So we need to arrange the fabric. It is called
laying. It means to place the fabric one over another. Auto spreader and traditional method
are used for laying. Mainly Tubular fabrics are laid manually.
Total 5 groups formed for laying fabrics. 1 group is assigned for manual spreading of tubular
fabric. Another two are set with the automatic spreader machine. And another two groups are
busy to lay the yarn dyed fabric. Each of the groups contains 5 workers including the cutting
The lay height should be maintained according to the rule. But due to the pressure of
production, it is not always possible to maintain the lay no and height. Some Important
Guideline for Laying:
1. Lay height must be below 2.5 inch while fabric is Lycra or Rib.
2. Lay height must be below 3.5 inch while fabric is Single Jersey, Interlock or others.
3. If the GSM of any fabric is high, then the number of fabric in laying fabric height will be
The main function of the spreader is as follows:
1. To make exactly flat position of all fabrics.
2. To unfold the fabrics if any fabric is in folding condition.
3. To ensure the alignment of the laying fabric.

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4. Bulk cutting:
There are 5 different groups to lay down the
fabrics on the cutting table. Among those 5
groups, 2 groups are assigned for yarn dyed
fabrics cutting and the remaining 3 groups are
assigned other fabrics cutting. Among the 3
groups for other fabrics cutting, 2 groups are
assigned for auto spreader and the remaining 1
group is assigned for tubular fabrics. There are
Two long tables in the cutting room for the auto
spreading machine. The cutting process for
garments is called bulk cutting. Thousands of
pieces are cut at a time. The fabric length is
determined by the CAD.

For High Production used in RMG


section. From the main pattern,

And the measurement is checked. An Important
factor is Joint. The position of the joint is
measured also. Then the marker is taken off and
the fabric laying is started. After laying the
fabric, the marker is placed again. Some points
of the marker are torn off and scotch tape is
attached to fix the marker with the fabric. Then
the cutting operator starts cutting manually.
Another option is the GARBER automatic cutter.
It is fully computer controlled process. The
marker from the CAD is directly inserted to it.
Then the automatic cutter cuts the fabric.

Manual Cutting

Specifications of the manual cutting machine:

5. Scissor cutting:
Scissor cutting is the process of fabric cutting using scissor. Normally cutting machines are
used for bulk cutting. But when little no of pieces are required; then fabric is cut manually with
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scissors. 3 or 4 lays of fabric can be cut easily with scissors. During bulk cutting there may be
whole or some other defects in a lay. Then the defected lay is removed and stored for further
cutting with scissors.
6. Yarn dyed fabric cutting:

Most concentration is required to cut the yarn dyed fabric. Matching of stripes is very much
important for cutting. Two spikes are used to match the stripes of fabric. Otherwise the whole
fabric will become waste.
The spreading and cutting is done manually. Two groups of 10 people are assigned for this
task. Fabric length is fixed according to the pattern. No marker is produced for this cutting. The
marking is also done manually. First, the pattern is placed on the laying fabric and then it is in
lined with white color. Then normal cutting process is continued. Here the wastage of the
fabric cant be controlled by CAD.
7. Bundling:
It is very much important for matching parts of a same piece. The process of matching parts is
controlled by putting stickers on various parts. Suppose, 50 lays are placed and the fabric is
cut. Now, the marker contains 2 L size. Each size has 1 front part and 1 back part. Now the
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front part is started numbering from 1 to 50. Then the back part will be the same. Then the
front part no1 and the back part no1 will be a pair. Otherwise there will be a shade
Another important point is the no of parts in a bundle. When the fabric is spread and a roll is
completed, a sticker is placed. Suppose a 50 lay fabric is placed. After 13 lay the first roll was
finished. After 15 lay the 2nd roll was finished. After 12 lay the 3rd roll was finished. And the last
roll placed 10 lays. So the bundle no will be 4 and the first bundle will contain 10, 2nd contains
12, 3rd contains 15 and 4th will contain 15 pieces. The bundle is made after putting the stickers.
There are 26 people for bundling. 14 sticker machines are available for attaching sticker. The
capacity is 3000pcs/m/c/hour.
8. Numbering part and lot numbers:
It is very much important to numbering the
bundles for matching parts. Otherwise there
will be massive confusion in the sewing
section. If the front part and the back part
does not come from same role, then there will
be shade problem. It is confirm that the color
shade of two different roles does not match.
So, each bundle of the same piece is tied with
a lot number.
9. Fabric inspection, Quality problem types and terminology:
Fabric coming from dyeing or yarn dyed fabric is inspected before cutting process started. The
remarkable problems found in fabric inspection are as follows:
Yarn fault:
1. Slub
2. Stripe/ Barre
3. Thick and thin
4. Yarn contamination
Knitting fault:
1. Star mark
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2. Sinker mark
3. Needle line
4. Holes
5. Lycra/yarn missing
6. Knot
7. Drop needle
8. Fly
9. Others
1. Dyeing spot
2. Crease
3. Machine spot
4. Streak
5. Shade change
6. Miss print
7. Others
1. Bias & bow
2. Abrasion
1. strain
2. Oil & grease
3. Dirt/ Soil
1. Running (Dyeing problem)
2. Side center side (Dyeing problem)
3. Roll to roll (Dyeing problem)
The origins of these problems are the knitting and dyeing section. Most of the problems are
found from the knitting. So the quality check of knitting should be very effective. If any
defective fabric is passed from the knitting, then the total cost of dyeing for this fabric will be a
loss. Because dyeing cant check all the fabric coming from knitting. They are able to check only
25% of total fabric received.
If these problems are found in the fabrics, then concerned persons take decision whether the
fabric will be rejected or not. If the problem hampers only one part of a piece, then the
rejected piece is replaced with another one to minimize the losses.
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Cutting Room Efficiency of Apex

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Marker efficiency is the important part of garments manufacturing. Direct cost of garments
could be utilized by marker efficiency. Salary of a marker planner truly depends upon the
capability to increase the marker efficiency. Marker efficiency is determined by fabric
utilization, the percentage of the total fabric that is actually used in garment parts. The area
not used in garment parts is waste. Marker efficiency depends on how tightly the pattern
pieces fit together within the marker. The total surface area of the pattern pieces is compared
to the total area of the marker to calculate the percentage of fabric that is used. This is
determined automatically by marker-planning software. If marker-making and marker
planning technology is not available, the area of each pattern piece may be determined by a
plain meter a mechanical device that calculates the surface area as the outline of the pattern
is traced. Factors that affect marker efficiency are fabric characteristics, shape of the pattern.
Objectives of marker efficiency:

-Examine how fabric utilization affects marker efficiency

-Enumerate the factors affecting material utilization

Fabric characteristics that affect utilization include differences in face and back, lengthwise
directionality, crosswise symmetry, need for matching the fabric design, length of design
repeat, and fabric width. These fabric characteristics frequently limit the arrangement of
pattern pieces. Matching fabric designs requires special marker preparation and extra piece
goods. Stripe or plaid lines must be indicated on pattern pieces and markers for accurate
alignment and matching to corresponding pieces. The greater the length between repeats
increases the potential for fabric waste.
Characteristics of pattern pieces may limit fabric utilization. Generally the fabric utilization percentage
increases when a variety of garment sizes are used in the same marker and when the marker contains both
large and small pieces. Smaller pieces can often be nested with larger pieces. The shape of the pattern pieces
determine hoe close they can be fit together (interlock). Irregular shaped pieces are difficult to fit together
with other pieces. Large pattern pieces are less flexible and often dictate the placement of other pieces.
Patterns are sometimes modified to increase fabric utilization although modification may not always be
feasible. Some pattern adjustments that may be used to improve fabric utilization by marker efficiency are:
-Splitting pattern pieces and creating a seam
-Rounding or slanting corners
-Reducing seam allowances and/or hem width
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Marker Efficiency:
Which is a good marker we can identify by marker efficiency calculation?
Area of pattern in the marker *100
Marker efficiency =
Total area of the marker
Here, 1 sq meter pattern board wt = 125 gm
Total pattern board wt = 900 gm
Fabric width = 200cm
Desired efficiency = 90%
We know that,
1m = 100cm
1m sq = (100*100) cm
= 1000cm
1000cm = 125gm
1cm = 125 / 1000 gm
=0.0125gm/cm sq
Total pattern set wt = 900 / 0.0125
= 72000cm sq


Area of pattern in the marker *100

Marker efficiency =
Total area of the marker



= 90%
So, Marker Efficiency is 90%

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Pattern, Sample and Design Department

Garments sample production unit is the incubator for the whole production unit. It is an
important section which contains all types of sewing machines, cutting facility, quality check
table, finishing and packaging facilities. To adjust samples for bulk production the sample
responsible must have a good knowledge of production and work closely with the production
team. Samples must be produced with same machinery as the coming bulk production.
Sample plays a very vital role in garments. There is a saying in this trade that 'No Sample No
Business. We need to make lot of samples to get a order on the other hand lot of sample we
need to handle to execute any order as such all merchandiser and all related person must
understand Sample Management in garments business. There are lot of instances that due to
non submission of sample on
time the garments has been
delayed resultant of which
the order has been aired,
All samples are not of same
importance and not made
from same materials; some
are made with available
fabric and accessories, some
are with all Actual as
everybody must understand
the preparation, submission
and management of all
ITs a mini garments where
actually product is produced
from development stage.
Apex The department in each of the garment manufacturing units is equipped with CAD
(Lectra and/or Garber) systems and between 48 to 64 sewing machines to produce samples
according to buyers specifications and /or Apexs own designs. All samples are fitted on
appropriate fitting-forms and on live models before sending to the buyers. From digitized
patterns, all production markers are produced with optimum efficiency.
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Flow Chart of Sample Making Procedure has given below

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Apex lingerie Limited
Sample Department Working Procedure
1. Purpose:
To ensure
The systematic way of sample making procedure & to generate proper technical
information that will become fruitful for bulk production.
2. Scope:
This is applicable in all procedure from pattern making to sample approval process.
3. Responsibilities:
Documented in the procedure.
4. Procedure:
Sample room procedures are given bellow:
4.1 Costing
Sample room is responsible for providing competitive costing as request by the
merchandisers. Once sample room receive the basic information such as sketch,
BOM etc pattern makers has to calculate the fabric consumption. All these
information or inquiry must first come to the sample room coordinator. He/she is
responsible for obtaining necessary data from the merchandisers provide them to
the responsible persons in the sample room.
Elastic and other consumptions are providing by the sample room technician and
Once complete the consumption, it has to communicate to relevant merchandiser
by the sample room co-ordination.
SMV cost for the style must be provided by work study officer assigned to sample
All the costing information must be kept in customer wise, style wise etc for
future reference.
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4.2 Pattern development
Referring to the customers data pattern maker must develop initial pattern for
costing and sample making. Once the first sample approved grading has to be
done following the grading rules. Final graded pattern must be fit to the all
concerns of the customers.
Once receive the buyers size chart Cad room has to prepare the fabric booking
After size set approved (grading confirms by customer), Cad room has to make
markers for the production. The Cad room in-charge is responsible for the higher
marker efficiency.
Based on the customer PO quantity, number of cuts (lays) has to plan with cutting
team and ensure to issue necessary markers.
4.3 Sample making
Sample making is start with the request from the merchandiser. Sample room
coordinator is responsible of planning and control of the whole sample process.
He is responsible for planning, providing necessary information for sample making
and preparation of the sample cut for sewing.
Sample room operators, supervisor, quality team, technician, mechanic and the
sample room in-charge are responsible of making sample as per the customers
specifications and as per the plan.

4.4 Sample approval

Finish samples on time is prime responsibility of the entire crew of the sample
room and getting approval first time is responsibility of pattern makers, technical,
quality , mechanic and sample room in-charge.

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4.5 Bulk ordering
Once the fit sample approved and after received customers order sheet cad room
is doing the grading and calculates fabric consumption for fabric booking.
Sample room in-charge is responsible for trim consumptions such as elastic,
ribbons, and button etc.
Work study officer is making the thread consumption based on the operation
breakdown & thread details provided by the technician and the sample room
Finally sample room in-charge is providing all these information to the planning
department in one package for order bookings.
4.6 Information
Sample room is the one which bridge customer technical requirements and the
production. Sample room process ends with the PP meeting. At the PP meeting
sample room provide complete tech pack and the accurate sample to refer during
the production.
The tech pack includes construction details, buyers specifications, final sample
comments, operation break down, how to measure, critical points, bulk
consumption sheet and other information where necessary.
4.7 Meetings
Before start sample making sample room team is conducting a tech pack meeting
to understand customer requirement and to aware other special or critical points
which should follow during the sample making.
Second meeting is held after size set approved with production technical team to
communicate the special operations which will be difficult during the production.
This meeting is not mandatory calling up a meeting is fully responsibility of the
sample room in-charge and depend on the style too.
Apex quality assurance is being start with the above two meetings.
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Sample room in-charge is responsible for attending PP meeting with approved
sample and the tech pack. Same time Apex management is holding weekly and
monthly performance meeting to review the department progress.
4.8 Performance
Two major criteria are being measure here such as on time Delivery of the sample
and the Sample approval rate.
4.9 Quality Assurance and Control
To assure the pattern accuracy, sample room do test run with the developed
pattern. Based on the test result amended final pattern will release for the
sample cutting.
Before start sample sewing tech pack meeting is carried out to ensure the
understanding of the customers requirements.
During the sewing sample room technician and quality supervisor do random
inspection to assure the specifications are being met.
Sewing operators are trained to check and measure during the sewing before
moving to the next operation.
Before dispatch the samples 100% inspection will be done by the sample room
quality controllers and being supervised by the quality supervisor.
5. Documents:
Buyer Comments documents.
Spec sheet.
Tech pack.
Quality report.
Sample test report.

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Apex Sample room is very much organized. Here, Also
This section is organized and fully equipped to inspect up to 50% of the fabrics and 100% of
the accessories upon delivery to the factory. The fabric inspection machine and the other
inspection setup like light box for shade matching, GSM checking machine are located near the
warehouse, where the raw materials are stored until ready for cutting. The quality controllers,
QAD personnel and Cutting department ensure that all raw materials meet customer
specifications. The pattern, sample and design department makes the initial pattern, checks by
making samples and then prepares the final pattern and marker for the cutting department
using CAD system (Lectra systems).Here lots of sewing m/c for doing sample properly.
List of sewing machine is given below:

Machine name

No of machines

1- Needle lockstitch machine



2- Needle lockstitch machine



Bar tacking machine



1- Needle Zigzag lockstitch machine



1- Needle Zigzag lockstitch machine with under cutter



1- Needle 3 step Zigzag lockstitch machine


SL no.

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Over lock machine with fabric trimmer



Over lock machines



Flat lock with thread trimmer



Covering machine with fabric trimmer



Motif attaching machine



Fagoting machine



Double Chain stitch Machine




Apex Holdings Limited

Buyer wise Sample Status

Sample type
Initial sample
Gold seal sample

Pre-production sample
Photo sample

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Sample type
Fit sample
PPA sample

Mock up sample
FOP sample

Pierre Cardin
John Lewis
Hunk emoller


Sample type
Design/Fit/Quotation sample
Size set sample
Gold seal/Pre production sample

Sample type
Color proto sample
Design sample
Size set sample


Pre production sample

Internet sample
Merchandising sample
Testing sample

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Sample type
Fit sample


Size set sample

Production sample


Sample type
Fit sample
Counter sample
Size set sample

Photo sample
Press sample
Production sample

Sample type
Style sample
Counter sample
Counter wash sample


Size set sample

Photo sample
In house test sample
Shipping sample

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Sample type
Fit Sample
Size set sample
Red tag sample
Ad sample
Imaging sample

Dot com sample
Yellow seal sample
Pre-production sample
Production sample
MTL test sample


Sample type
Prototype sample
White seal sample


Green seal sample

Red seal sample
Black seal sample
Gold seal sample


Sample type
Development sample


Quotation sample
Photo sample

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Size set sample
Pre-production sample
Counter sample
Collection sample
Counter wash sample
US lead test sample
Production sample
CN test sample
Korea sample
Production wash sample
Fashion sample
Workshop sample

What is photo sample?

A Photo Sample is used for mail order and internet sales and must therefore look like actual
bulk production on photo .Main purpose is photo session. For H&M buyer the order is not
valid until the Photo samples have reached Sweden Buying Office on time.
What is Proto Sample?
To see product quality buyer want it and if buyer satisfy with its quality then buyer want
salesman samples.
What is Development Sample?
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A Development Sample marks the start of the Pre-order process. This sample will help to set
up a development environment and experiment with available resources.
For H&M buyer the D/S request is given to several suitable H&M suppliers for developments.
H&M compare and evaluate the different D/S before order is placed. The D/S must be as close
to the request as possible.
Already at this time it is the H&M suppliers responsibility to consider and ensure that the
product will be workable in bulk production.
What is fit Sample?
Fit samples are samples produced by a manufacturer so that the buyer purchasing the
product can review the garments to make certain they fit properly to the human body. In
other words, the primary function of a fit sample is to evaluate fit.
A member of the buyer that is buying the product (buyer, merchandisers, designers, fit
technicians, or another member of the staff), will view the samples on either a fit model (a
real person) or on forms (mannequin for fitting garments). Many companies will evaluate fit
on both a form and a fit model (person).
If fit models are not utilized and a buyer does not have the appropriate forms, they will at the
very least use a tape measure to evaluate the garment to make certain that the measurements
match the original size spec file. Also, they may request samples in their own personal size
and try the garment on themselves to review fit. Most of the buyer will conduct fit sessions
with fit models to determine if the garment fits and drapes properly. If the garment measures
properly as per the size spec, but does NOT properly fit, the designer will most likely alter the
spec measurements to compensate. They will then issue a revised spec file to the factory.
The manufacturer will then produce another set of fit samples, and the review process will
begin again. After the designers are happy with the fit, they will approve the factory to
proceed to pre-production samples.
Note: Fit samples should be in the same type of fabric that is going to be used for production
(same fabric construction & same fabric weight). However, the fabric does not need to be
dyed or printed to match final colors. The purpose of fit samples is to review the fit. They do
not need to be reviewed for color, ticketing, labeling etc. Unless, the buyer requires everything
to be submitted at one time under normal circumstances, first buyers review fit samples, then
pre-production samples, and then final production samples.

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What is Size Set Sample?
A Size Set consists of a sample in each size or a jumping size set as specified on sample order.
Fabric/yarn/trims/labels must be bulk when possible; second best are sample meters, or a
quality similar to bulk. In case of a new quality, the composition, construction, weight and
hand feel must be as close as possible to bulk. Color on fabric/yarn/trims/accessories/labels
should be similar to color standard.
Wash or other finish must be correct.
Placements of accessories/labels etc. must be correct.
Size of accessories should be correct.
Print and/or embroidery should be correct.
The SS/S must be approved by regarding.
Grading- garment, details, print/embroidery etc.
Wash or other finish.
Print and/or embroidery.
According to:
Comments on previous samples.
Measurement list
Specification of details, technical sketches.
What is Pre-Production Sample?
A pre-production Sample is to provide to buying office with a correct sample for final approval,
before the production can start.
Approved pre-production Samples must be displayed throughout the factory, and be
available in all production units.
What is Counter Sample?
A Counter Sample is to provide to buying office with a correct sample for final approval, before
the production can start.
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Actual bulk fabric/yarn/trims/accessories/labels must be used.
C/S must be made in every color ordered.
Wash or other finish must be correct.
Placements of accessories/labels etc. must be correct.
Print and/or embroidery must be correct.
The C/S must be approved by regarding:
Print and/or embroidery.
Wash or other finish.
Test results on various tests performed by an independent company.
According to:
Comments on previous samples.
Measurement list
Specification of details, technical sketches.
It is the suppliers responsibility to perform all necessary tests on Counter Sample. An
approved counter sample is no disclaimer from the suppliers responsibility to observe and
The production may start only after receiving Counter Sample approval and the Sealed
Counter Sample.
What is Bulk Production Sample?
The production sample must be taken from the actual production line. This will be done by
one of the buyer quality controllers as soon as the first goods are totally completed. All labels,
price tags, etc. must be attached. Retail packaging must be the same as for the actual delivery.
The production sample must reach and be approved by buying office before the goods may be
delivered. Various tests will be made. The production must correspond to the approved
counter sample, H&M order contract and official documents in all aspects.
What is collection sample?

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For many orders H&M Buying Office requires samples for collection coordination. A Collection
Sample must therefore look like actual bulk production. The collection samples can never
replace or be considered as one of the other required samples.

Sample Approval
While fabric and trim ordering is happening, simultaneously the sample approval procedure is
also underway. The moment a style is selected it goes to the tech department for fitting. Here
models wear the samples and they are evaluated in terms of fit, construction, measurement.
The buyer then sends out comments, which are called as fit comments. In case another sample
is requested the factory makes the same incorporating the comments and send again to buyer.
This process is called fit cycle.
It is very important to have all approvals on time to be able to ship the order on time.
Merchandiser should pay special emphasis on the following up on the approvals. Any delayed
approval can hamper the entire production schedule of the style, resulting in delayed
In order to get the approval on time, the merchandiser has to insure that the item to be
approved is ready on time and the approving authority is also available at that time. Hence the
merchandiser has to do a co-ordination function to get everything together so that the
approval is faster. The moment a style is selected it goes to the tech department for fitting.
Here models wear the samples and they are evaluated in terms of fit, construction,
measurement. Sample room in-charge is responsible for attending PP meeting with approved
sample and the tech pack. Same time Apex management is holding weekly and monthly
performance meeting to review the department progress.
For example:
As detailed earlier, fitting happens on a live model and hence happens either once or twice a
week only. Let us take a situation where the fitting session happens on every Thursday of the
week in New York.
In such a situation a merchandiser of a factory in South East Asia should ensure that the
sample is dispatched latest by Saturday so that the sample reaches the buyer by Tuesday or
Wednesday and is then fitted on Thursday.

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In case the sample is dispatched on Tuesday, it will not reach the buyer by Thursday and hence
will be scheduled for the next Thursday fitting session. This results in un-necessary loss of
Hence the merchandiser should have tried to pre-pone the dispatch of sample by 1 day and
should have used an overnight courier to get the sample to buyer on time.
Besides having timely approvals, some of the key points that every merchandiser should take
care while getting or making an approval are:
The quality for which the item is being approved for should be clearly mentioned and counter
For example:
In case a fabric is only approved for the design and not for the colors, the merchandiser should
mention approved for design only, not approved for color
Also the next steps to be taken should be mentioned there and then or the corrective steps
required should be mentioned. Following the above example: the next statement should be
please re-submit for color approval
Next the merchandiser should also lay down the timeline for the next submission; meaning to
say the next date of submission should be advised there and then to avoid any confusion.
Once the approval is granted, the same should be conveyed to all concerned parties or
For example:
A fabric approval should be conveyed to fabric stores, Inspection team and production team.
Not only the communication should be my means of e-mail etc, but a fabric swatch signed by
the merchandiser should be sent to these departments so that they are aware of the approval
and can always refer to the same in case of a doubt. Similarly for a sample, a counter sample
should always be available with the production (sewing, finishing & packing) departments and
the Quality Control department.

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The merchandiser for future reviews and discussions should retain all communication with
regards to approvals.
There are various samples for approved, such as
PP Sample:
Once the fit sample is approved the factory makes a PP (Pre-production) sample. This can be
called by different names such as sealer sample, green tag sample etc. This sample is sent out
the buyer for final approval and once approved becomes the final sample on the basis of
which entire production is made and audited. This is the most important sample and one
should take care that everything on this sample is correct as this then becomes the standard.
Size set:
Once PP sample is approved the next step is to make a SIZE SET. All the fit samples and the PP
samples are in the medium size, now the medium size is graded into the different sizes as per
the purchase order. The basic purpose of size set is to ensure that grading between sizes is
Pre-Production meeting:
In this meeting everybody concerned with the style sits together to make sure that everybody
is on the same page and understands the product. Hence, this meeting has the merchandiser,
production in-charge, cutting, finishing, fabric in-charge, line supervisor, pattern master,
sample master etc. All tentative problems are discussed and solutions sought to execute the
order smoothly.

Pilot run:
Once pre-production meeting is done the factory does PILOT RUN. Factory cuts 100-200
garments based on the order quantity. The pilot run is done on the assembly line and is aimed
at ensuring that the operators of the assemble line understand the required quality levels. This
is very essential since all samples prior to the pilot run (fit samples, PP & size set) are made in
the sampling unit. Once PILOT RUN is approved the factory goes into bulk production. In line
and interim inspections are preformed during the production process to ensure that the final
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final audit is done. This helps in taking corrective action if required before the final audit.
Generally since the final audit happens very close to the shipment date, the pre-final gives
factory a chance to amend problems if any.
Final audit:
This is the last checkpoint before shipment. All aspects (packing, packaging, measurement,
construction & visuals) are evaluated. Once the garments adhere to the required quality
standards in all the parameters the shipment is passed and then the shipment is moved to
thee logistic team. Now the merchandiser interacts with the logistic department takes the
shipment schedule and sends the same to the customer.

Risk assessment analysis for sample make

Fabric, elastic and complete garments (sample) s/b passed as per risk assessment test
requirement of buyer. All test requirements of risk assessment are done in the lab and given
below for H&M buyer.

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SAMPLE Comments Given by Buyer

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SAMPLE Comments Given by Buyer

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SAMPLE Comments Given by Buyer

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SAMPLE Comments Given by Buyer

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Comments Given by Buyer

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Sewing Section
1. Sewing input:
The output of cutting is the input for sewing section. All the cutting parts are checked and the no of sticker no
are matched. Normally helpers are used for this purpose. If the matching is required in case of sleeve attach or
bottom join, then the matching operation is done by the operator itself. Matching parts is very important to
avoid the shade problem. Some styles are so important that the parts are paced as closer as possible. So the
sticker matching is a vital issue for the input of sewing. Sometimes the input comes from the printing section.
Then the printing quality should be checked before sewing.

Sewing machinery


1- Needle lockstitch machine


2- Needle lockstitch machine


Bar tacking machine


1- Needle Zigzag lockstitch machine


1- Needle Zigzag lockstitch machine with

under cutter
1- Needle 3 step Zigzag lockstitch machine


Over lock machine with fabric trimmer


Over lock machines


Flat lock with thread trimmer


Covering machine with fabric trimmer


Motif attaching machine

Fagoting machine

Double Chain stitch Machine

Embroidery Machine


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Apex Holdings Sewing Flow Chart

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In the sewing section I have observed the below style of running production in Apex.
The spec sheet and related other documents are given below

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Sewing sequence of BOXER MEAW12AF27:



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Here Also Sewing Sequence with M/C Layout & SMV is given below









































































Grand Total


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The sewing production system of Apex holdings limited is Unit Production System. Here I have enclosed
a sewing procedure of making under wears in Apex Holdings Limited. This is a full sequence of another
operation of a style when I was calculating the SMV.

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Different types of sewing defects are discussed below:
1. Wrong SPI:
There is a fixed SPI for different buyers. For example Wall-marts requirement is 11 to 12 SPI
and for H & M it is 12 to 13 SPI. So any variation of that range is called wrong stitch per inch.
According to buyer requirement, SPI may be changed. It is mainly occurred for tension
2. Broken stitch:
Sometimes the stitches are missed from the sewing line for some small area and missing
thread is visible. It is mainly occurred for tension misadjusting.
3. Skip stitch:
In skip stitch the unsown thread is visible and it is not torn. Its mainly occurred for pulling
fabric or tension misadjusting.
4. down stitch:
If the sewing line is not following the measurement, then it is called down stitch.
5. Join stitch:
Joint measurement is not okay or uneven.
6. Uneven stitch:
If the sewing is not according to measurement, then its called down stitch.
7. Insecure stitch:
This type of stitch is not enough strength; it may break before allowable strength. It may fail in
the strength test.
8. Open seam:
If the seam / joint is open for broken or skip stitches, then it is called open seam. It is mainly
occur when needle is blunt. When the needle cant take the thread from bobbin, open seam
occurs. Open seam is occurred at hem.
9. Tension band:
If the SPI is not correct then tension problem occurs.
10. Puckering:
It is mainly found in neck and body hem. When one part of joint is not same as the other part,
then a gathering is found in the joint. It is sometimes removed by iron of the garments.
11. Twisting:
Problems in side seam/hem. If the length or measurement of two parts (such as front and back
part) is not accurate, the operator makes it equal by hand. Then the twisting problem is found.
12. Needle mark:
Sometimes needle mark is found in a garment. For example the top stitch is open and done
again. As a result there will be a needle mark
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13. Raw edge:
This is the excess part of garments which is not removed in flat lock machine. These problems
mainly occur in hem joint.
14. Sew allow:
The sewing allowance is not accurate. Its mainly cutting problem. If the sewing allowance is
not enough, then the final measurement will be altered.
15. Shading:
The color difference of two parts is called shading. It starts from the laying or sticker
mismatching. Dyeing can cot make 100% accurate color matching. So color shading is very
much important for fabric.

16. Size mistake:

The operator attaching care label sometimes may be careless. For his/her casual sewing, the
actual shape and the care label can be different.
17. Fabric pleat:
Sometimes naps or pleat is found on a fabric. When naps is removed from the fabric casually,
hole is created there.
18. Wrong neck shape:
Neck shape is too important for garments. Buyers never receive a single garments having
wrong neck shape. The problem may starts from the patternmaking. If the pattern master is
not enough careful about the neck shape, about the allowance, the shape will not be ok after
sewing. Its a very sensitive part for cutting. And finally the operator sometimes pull it too
much that the regular shape is altered.
19. Sleeve up down:
When the shoulder to shoulder is kept in a single point and the sleeve is measured in length,
sometimes difference is found. It means that the length of two sleeves is not accurate.
20. Points not match:
Garments contain various points like 2 points, 4 points etc in the body. These points should
match during sewing. Operators should be careful about the point matching.
21. Measurement defect: Each of the garments measurements are measured again after
sewing. Different size has different measurement. So the finished measurement is very much
22. Trimming defects:
The extra part of thread should be cut after sewing. Sometimes it is left away with the
23. Trim missing: sometimes helpers miss to trim the thread.
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24. Label mistake:
The place of attaching label should be followed carefully. It is defined by the buyer in spec
25. Uncut thread:
Sometimes uncut thread is found. It is cut after sewing but there may be mistakes.
26. Dirty mark:
Dirty mark is found the fabric for different reason. It can be washed out in the washing
27. Oil mark:
Sometimes oil falls on a fabric from sewing machine and oil spot is found on the fabric.
28. Fabric defect:
Sometimes fabric defect is found on the garments. For example crease mark, naps, pattern,
shine mark, hole etc.
29. Cutting defect:
There are various problems from cutting. Accurate size and shape should be maintained during
30. Printing or embroidery defect:
Printing may be mistaken. There are different types of print such as screen print, foil print,
pigment print, glitter print, rubber print, block print etc. Printing or embroidery may be
mistaken or may be wrong placement.
31. Lining defect:
This type of defects occurs in heat transfer or fusing machine. When lining is attached with
Cuff/ Collar/ Placket, then lining defect occurs.
32. Hole:
Finding hole in the fabric is the result of rejection of garments. Hole may be created in any
section from knitting to sewing. we discussed others before. When a wrong sewing is required
to remove and to sew it again, accident may occur during removing the thread.
33. Improper shape: The neck or sleeve or any other parts should be cut and sewn according
to the measurement. Sometimes there may be wrong measurement and the shape become
34. Biased fabric: if the grain line of the different parts of same garments mismatched, then it
is called biased fabric.
35. Slanted: when there is improper cutting of neck or sleeve, the sewing operator does not
notice it and sew as well. Thus the joint becomes slanted.
36. Thread color mistake:
Thread color is carefully selected for sewing. It must be matched with the fabric color as per
buyer requirements. This mistake is totally intolerable.
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37. Improper shade: The shade should match during cutting. Its a vital problem. After sewing
the garments, it may be rejected.
39. Up and down: If the two parts of the body dont match or the measurement is not
40. Label wrong placement: Label may be placed in wrong place.
41. Open stitch:
It happens when the bobbin thread is finished or the bobbin thread cant be picked up for
mechanical problem. It looks like a real sewing. But in the other side of the sewing has no
45. Loose thread: The parts of cut thread are called loose thread. It should be removed from
the garments.
Machine maintenance importance:
Machine maintenance is very important for any productive department or industry. But most
of the cases, we only consider corrective maintenance or cure after defect. We always forget
that prevention is better than cure. For JFL-1, there is a maintenance department which
maintains the machine or equipment when it falls in defect.
There are two types of maintenance preventive maintenance and corrective maintenance.
Preventive maintenance is also two types such scheduling maintenance and periodic
maintenance. We can apply scheduled maintenance here.
The importance of machine maintenance:
1. The product quality will be very excellent.
2. The production rate will be high.
3. There will be less defect
4. Wastage of time will be lower
Different types of sewing defects and precautionary measures:
Little problems with the sewing machine can be very irritating and time consuming. They can
happen to even the most experienced seamstress.
1. Sewing machine
suddenly stops
during sewing.
2. Light is on, and
hand wheel can be
turned easily by
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Root Cause
1. Sewing machine has
been run at a low
speed for an extended
period of time.
2. To prevent
overheating, motor
power is automatically

Corrective Action
Turn power off and wait about 20
minutes. Safety device will reset, and
machine will be ready to operate.

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Needle will not

Sewing machine will

not run.

Upper thread

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turned off.
1. Upper thread has
run out.
2. Presser foot is up.
3. Bobbin winder shaft
was left in winding
4. Buttonhole lever
was not lowered when
machine was placed in
buttonhole mode.
1. Presser foot is not
correct one, and
needle hits presser
2. Needle has come
out and is in hook of
1. Threading is not
2. Thread has a knot in
3. Thread tension is
too tight.
4. Needle is bent or
blunt or has a sharp
5. Needle is wrong
6. Needle has been
inserted wrong.
7. Needle and thread
does not match.
8. Starting to stitch too
9. Thread take-up lever
has not been

1. Replace empty spool and thread

2. Lower presser foot.
3. Move bobbin winder shaft back fully
to left.
4. Lower buttonhole lever.

1. Replace presser foot with new one.

2. Remove needle and insert new one.

1. Correctly thread machine.

2. Remove knot.
3. Correct thread tension.
4. Replace needle.
5. Replace needle with correct size.
6. Properly insert needle.
7. Start machine at a medium speed.
8. Use proper thread or needle.
8. Check threading order.

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Bobbin thread

Skipped stitches.

Stitches are not

formed properly.

Irregular stitches.

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1. Bobbin has not been

fully inserted in bobbin
2. Bobbin has been
incorrectly threaded.
3. Bobbin does not
turn smoothly in
bobbin case.
4. Lint in bobbin case
or shuttle.
1. Thread tension is
too tight.
2. Needle is bent or
3. Needle is wrong
4. Needle and thread
does not match.
5. Thread take-up lever
has not been
6. Light pressure on
presser foot.
7. Incorrect setting of
1. Thread has not been
pulled into thread
sensor guide.
2. Threading is not
3. Bobbin case has
been threaded wrong.
4. Spool cap is wrong
size for thread spool.
1. Incorrect size
2. Improper threading.
3. Loose upper thread
4. Pulling fabric.

1. Securely install bobbin into bobbin

2. Correctly thread bobbin case.
3. Check to see that bobbin has been
wound evenly.
4. Clean bobbin case and shuttle.

1. Correct thread tension.

2. Replace needle.
3. Replace needle with correct size.
4. Use proper thread or needle.
5. Check threading order.
6. Increase pressure on presser foot.
7. Reset needle.

1.Fully pull thread into thread sensor

2.Correct threading.
3.Correctly thread bobbin case.
4.Replace the cap with correct size.

1. Choose correct size needle for

thread and fabric.
2. Rethread machine.
3. Tighten upper thread tension.
4. Do not pull fabric; guide it gently.
5. Increase pressure on presser foot.

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5. Light pressure on
presser foot.
6. Loose presser foot.

Fabric puckers.

Bunching of thread.

Needle breaks.

1. Loud noise is
2. Knocking noise,
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7. Unevenly wound
1. Stitch length is too
long for material.
2. Needle point is
3. Incorrect thread
4. Light pressure on
presser foot.
5. Fabric is too sheer
or soft.
6. Using two different
sizes or kinds of
1. Upper and lower
threads not drawn
back under presser
2. Feed dog down.
1. A thin needle was
used for sewing a
heavy weight material.
2. Needle has not been
fully inserted into
needle bar.
3. Needle clamp screw
is loose.
4. Presser foot is not
correct one.
5. Presser foot is loose.
6. Pulling on fabric as
you sew.
1. Dust has
accumulated in feed

6. Reset presser foot.

7. Rewind bobbin.

1. Decrease stitch length.

2. Replace needle.
3. Reset thread tension.
4. Increase pressure on presser foot.
5. Use underlay of tissue paper.
6. Upper thread and bobbin thread
should be the same size and kind.

1. Draw both threads back under

presser foot.
2. Raise feed dog.
1. Use correct size needle.
2. Properly insert needle.
3. Securely tighten needle clamp
4. Use correct presser foot.
5. Reset presser foot.
6. Do not pull fabric, guide it gently

1. Clean machine.
2. Clean machine.
3. Disassemble machine and clean

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machine jammed.
1. Threading cannot
be done.
2. The needle
threaded will not
3. The threading
hook will not enter
needle eye.
1. Needle threaded
cannot be returned
and the sewing
machine stops.
2. The threading
hook is left in the
needle eye.
The machine does
not feed material.

2. Lint is in hook.
3. Thread caught in
1. The needle is not in
highest position.
2. The needle threader
is designed not to turn
to protect itself if the
needle is not up.

1. Turn hand wheel until needle
reaches its highest position.
2. Properly insert needle.

3. The needle has not

been fully inserted into
needle bar.
Sewing machine was
Slightly turn handle clockwise and
accidentally started
remove threader.
while threading hook
was still in needle eye
(during threading).

1. The stitch length has

been set to zero.
2. The presser foot
pressure is too low.
3. Feed dogs are
4. Threads are knotted
under fabric.

1. Reselect the proper stitch pattern

and length.
2. Set presser foot pressure
adjustment lever to "normal".
3. Raise feed dogs.
4. Place both threads back under
presser foot before beginning to stitch.

Types of sewing thread:

There are three types of sewing thread such as:
1. Polyester thread: 20/2, 20/3, 50/2 (Thinner thread), 40/2 (Thicker thread) counts etc.
2. Cotton thread: 20/2, 20/3, 50/2, 40/2 counts etc.
3. Nylon (Filamin) : 150 Denier, 300 Denier etc.
Another Classification
Sewing thread:
On the basis of fiber content there are 3 types of thread, namely:
1. Cotton thread
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2. Synthetic thread
3. Core spun thread.
1. Cotton thread:
Cotton thread is the most commonly produced and used. The features of cotton thread
are mentioned below:
Cotton thread has excellent sew ability.
Cotton thread is not highly durable. It has poor abrasion resistance capacity.
Cotton threads shrinks more after washing.
The color fastness of cotton thread is not so good.
The strength of cotton thread is less than other synthetic threads.
This thread is used only in the garments which are dyed after sewing.
2. Synthetic thread:
Most of the synthetic threads are composed of polyester or polyamide (nylon) fiber.
Their features are mentioned below:
Synthetic threads are highly durable. They are not affected by biological agents like
mildew, bacteria etc.
The strength of synthetic threads is more than other threads.
Synthetic threads have well to excellent resistance abrasion and have good dimensional
The synthetic threads are comparatively cheap.
Some synthetic threads have flame redundancy quality, fusion ret ardency quality etc
which are essential for sewing those type of garments.
3. Core spun thread:
This type of thread is manufacture with both filament and staple fibers. The continuous
filament remains at the centre of the thread and the staple fibers wrap around it.
Generally polyester is used as core filament and cotton fiber is used as staple fiber.
The features of core spun threads are mentioned below:
They do not shrink at high temperatures produced during sewing.
They can provide us with the strength of polyester thread as well as the qualities of
cotton thread.
Core spun threads have good elasticity.
The core spun threads are more costly. Because they gave to be dyed twice. Once for
the continuous filaments and second time for the staple cotton fibers.
In core spun method, we can produce very fine thread with which fine fabrics can be
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Finishing & Packaging
1. Finishing to packing process flow chart:

The garment is spread out clearly on the iron table as though no folding can occur there. After
spreading, vacuum is given by feet to stay with the table. Then front part of the garments and
sleeve is ironed with optimum temperature. If iron machine is kept on the garments long time,
then garments may burn out or shade may change. Some garments expand when ironed. As a
result the garments may reject. To control expand or plus, the pattern mark is given on the
iron table and carefully ironed within the control limit
For example, lycra fabrics expands when ironed.
During ironing of dark color such as navy blue, black etc we should be very careful about the
shiny mark. If we iron without the iron shoe there will be shiny mark on the fabric. So iron
shoe is must in this case.
Types: There are two types of iron table:
1. Vacuum iron table
2. Without vacuum iron table
Way of pressing:
Normally pressing or ironing does with the combination of heat, pressure and moisture.
The application of temperature, moisture and pressure depends on the ironing or pressing
machine. The pressing does with manually and with machine. The manual ironing does not
able to give uniform pressure. But it is possible with machine to give uniform pressure
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Pressing equipment and method:

There are different pressing equipment and methods.

Steam press
Steam air finish
Steam tunnel

In our company they use steam press method for ironing.

The garment finishing called to understand normally pressing folding and packing.
After ironing or pressing the garments are folded. And the shape of folding depends on buyer
After pressing for folding the garments with definite shape called folding.
There are four types of folding based on garments that is

Stand up
Semi stand up
Flat pack
Hanger pack

After folding the garment it take into the Polly bag. There are different types of Polly bag
which depend s on buyer requirement.

PE poly
SAP poly
PP poly
LDP poly

Then the garment takes into the cartoon. And the cartoon size and shape also depends on
buyer requirement.

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CVM (Carton volume measurement) calculation for transport:
After packing the garments according to buyer requirements, it is prepared for shipment. For
this the packed cartons need to carry on the cargo. Now the question is that what will be the
cargo size? The cargo size should be optimum so that there will be no loss of space. We should
keep it in mind that transportation cost is a vital factor for our profit.
For ordering the optimum sized cargo, we need to calculate the carton volume measurement.
For example

Let the required carton size is 602939 cm. and 1010 cartons are required to ship all the
garments. So the CVM will be:

60 29 39

68.53 = 69

So the CVM is 69. The standard cargo size is 25, 28 and 33 CVM. So we have to order three
cargo of 25 CVM sized. Because, another options are not feasible.

Defects at finishing section and precautionary measures.

Material handling equipment is not modern.

Misplacement of finished goods storage and cartooning section.
Work stations arrangement is not satisfactory.
Oil and dust spot which produces large amount of rework operation.
QCs should be expert and careful enough about the defects.
Size mistakes take place frequently.
Material flow is not smooth.

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H&Ms packing ambitions

Reduce costs.
Utilize natural resources as efficiently as possible.
Preserve items quality level by a more efficient packing system.
Simplify the handling especially for all distribution centers and shop assistants.
Improve ergonomics for the staff.
Reduce the use of plastic bags, extra filling paper, silica gel and tissue paper.
Minimize waste and maximize recycling.

In order to achieve these objectives Packing responsible persons have been appointed at all
H&M Production Office. The packing responsible person and supplier must come to an
agreement on how to pack in the best way. A packing sheet will be filled out on order basis
and belongs to the order file (Not yet valid for Cosmetic Suppliers or suppliers working directly
with the Buying office).
Environmental requirements for all packaging materials
H&M is committed to minimizing the use of materials at source. This means that only the
minimum Amount of packaging material required to protect the item and its display packaging
should be used. This is also why it is not allowed to use needles, glue, pins or staples when
folding and packing individual Items. Tissue paper should be avoided in garment folds and on
hangers as well as interleaving paper and plastic clips. It may only be used when instructed by
the H&M technician or buyer. The total level of lead, cadmium, mercury and hexavalent
chromium present in packaging must not Exceed 100 ppm.
Exceptions to the environmental requirements
The only exception is retail packaging for mens classical white shirts where pins and metal
clips are allowed.

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Transport Packaging
Purchase of cartons
Cartons must be bought from H&M nominated suppliers. This requirement will gradually be
enforced when nomination is ready.
Environmental requirements on fiber origin
H&M cares for the environment and does not want to contribute to harvesting of tropical
rainforest. Therefore the corrugated board fibers originating from the following countries are
not allowed: Bolivia, Brazil, Central African Republic (CAR), Cameron, Colombia, Congo, CongoKinshasa, Ecuador, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Guyana, Indonesia, French Guiana, Malaysia,
Papua New Guinea, Peru, Surinam and Venezuela. H&M can only accept a fiber from above
mentioned countries if the fiber is FSC certified (Forest Stewardship Council).
Carton sizes
Carton size for each order should be according to information given on the packing sheet (part
of the order).All cartons must be fully packed to prevent items from moving inside the carton
in handling moments. It is of utmost importance for keeping the garments finish level and to
prevent the cartons from being crushed during transport. The maximum weight of each
carton is 20 kg (44lbs). Valid also for just Mail Order and Cosmetic.

Standard carton sizes:

50x30x40, 50x35x40, 50x40x40

54x30x40, 54x35x40, 54x40x40

58x30x40, 58x35x40, 58x40x40

Standard carton size should always be used as first choice. The carton sizes given are outer
measurements. The cartons may be smaller or lower in height if necessary, depending on
volume or difference in garments size range.

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Price tagging
The goods must always be price-tagged by the supplier (if no other instructions have been
given by the Merchandiser/buyer). Immediately upon receipt of the tags, a control must take
place that order number, color code, etc. is correct and that the number of tags corresponds
to the quantity to be delivered. If the price tags are incorrect, if not having received them in
reasonable time before the delivery date, or if receiving price tags twice for the same order
with different information, please contact the H&M merchandiser. If the goods are to be
packed without price tags, the packing must always be solid size/solid color which must be
approved by H&M merchandiser. The packing list and the cartons must be marked with
"Missing price-tags.
Before attaching the price-tags the
Order number
Color code according to orders P/T code,( price tag code) must be correct. Its of utmost
importance that price tags are not used as photo copies or that any information is changed
manually. H & M has currently three types of price tags
A big size: Type 01 = swing ticket and type 50 = sticker price tag.
A small size: Type 11 = swing ticket for accessories and type 51 = sticker price tag for
accessories and Cosmetic.
A smaller size: Types 60, 61, 62 = sticker price tags mainly used for Cosmetic
The price tags 11, 51, 60, 61 and 62 are not showing any information regarding size.
Orders for H&M Mail Order must never be price-tagged.

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Garments Accessories:
Which kind of price tag to be used for each order is indicated on the packing list of the order
sheet? Although the color code on the order sheet is a five-digit number, the price tag will
mention only the first two digits out of the five. The 5 digit H&M color code is mentioned as
well as the 2-digit P/T color code which is short for Price Tag Color code on order sheet as well
as on orders packing list. It is only the 2-digit Price Tag color code that shall be mentioned on
the carton marking as well as on Packing List. When describing the color in text on carton
and packing list it must be the correct color as described from order sheet and it shall have
the relevant Price Tag color code. If an order has 2 colors within the same sub group e.g. 45116 and 45-013 the first mentioned sub group color 45 will get 45 as price tag color code and
the second 2 digit number 45 will get another price tag color number e.g. 40. Another example
is brown 16-008 and 16-002 when 16-008 will be code16 and 16-002 will be e.g. code 10. In
these cases one of the codes on price tag will not correspond to the actual 5 digit color code.
The price tag should be attached with a plastic string of maximum 1.5 cm for underwear, 2 cm
for garments with a neck label, 4 cm in length when attached under the sleeve, side seam or
waist band. Circular plastic strings for accessories to be short and adopted to the item.

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Quality Control Department

There are three stage of inspection of garments production unit. They are:
1. Raw material inspection: for example: sewing thread, elastic, hook & eye, fabric etc.
2. In process inspection: marker making, fabric spreading, fabric cutting, fabric sewing,
finishing etc.
3. Final inspection: such as fitting, standard body measurement, acceptable tolerance etc.

Quality control in fabric receiving:

Four point system for fabric inspection:
In this system the defect point of fabric is identified for 100 square yards through inspection. If
the defect point is equal or greater than 40 per 100 square yards then the fabric is counted as
rejected one. The point system depends on the price of fabric.
The point system table is given below:

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The length of defect in fabric (both for Point distribution
the length and width of fabric)
Defect up to 3
Defect from 3 to below 6
Defect from 6 to below 9
More than 9
Area of opening or hole
Less than 1
Greater than 1
But the defect point should not be count more than 4 in 1 square yards.
Let a 50 width and 130yards long fabric is inspected. The defects and the points are
structured below:
Defect measurement
5 defects less than 3
4 defects between 3 to 6


2 defects between 6 to 9


1 defect more than 9

2 holes Greater than 1
Total points


= total defected points 100 36"

total length


31 100 36"

130 1

= 17.17defect point/100 square yards

As the defect point is less than 40 the fabric roll can be accepted.

Quality control in cutting:

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Quality garments are produced from good cutting. Bad cutting causes excessive alter which
hampers production. There are three points where QC inspection is essential in the cutting.
1. Spreading inspection
2. Cutting inspection
3. Cut panel inspection
1. As per JCP system of quality control inspector should check the work of each spreader for
the following.
Marker placement: To check that the marker is placed on the spread with the edge
parallel to the selvedge of the goods and to verify that all cut pieces will be completed.
Shading: To check for shading. Unless all parts are plymarked, it is essential to have a
system to control shading.
Table marks: To check the table marks as the table is marked not to allow any minus
tolerance for the splices.
Markers: To ensure that no markers are creased, damaged or have overlapped parts.
Splices: After completion of the spread , check splice laps to see that both plies extend
the marked splice by no less than half inch and no more than one inch.
Narrow goods: After completion of the spread, to check the far edge of spread to see
that all plies extend beyond the marker line.
Tension: To check tension during spreading
Count: To check the count after completion of the spreading and before cutting. to
count all plies at both ends and there is no tolerance.
Leaning: To check carefully to ensure that one edge of the fabric is squire to the table
top. Visually inspect the alignment of the edge of the table top.
2. The Quality control inspector should check each cutter at a 2.5 AQL based on the number of
parts being cut. The quality control inspector should check for
Miss-cut: Check for miss-cut or the failure of the cutter to split the line. Tolerance is
+/- 1/16 To report all defects for miss-cut to the cutting supervisor.
Matching plies: To check the top ply with the bottom ply. Compare both to a hard
pattern or the paper marker. Tolerance is +/- 1/8 To report for each defect found to
the supervisor.
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Ragged cutting: Check for ragged cutting according to the standard of product. This is a
judgment defect. It is more important on critical parts if the part has to be cut it is a
Notches: To check the notch location by placing the pattern over the top ply. Tolerance
is +/- 1/8. If the notch is more than 1/8 off , to contact the cutting supervisor.
Pattern check: To compare the pattern to marker paper to ensure that the marker was
3. All the rolls passed by fabric inspection may have some defects which is within tolerance on
the penalty point basis. But some of these defects may cause rejection of garments if those
are not removed before making garments. So it is wise to replace defective parts only instead
of whole garments, especially for costly garments. In that case all the important cut panels of
the garment are inspected one by one and defective cut panels are separated out and
replaced. This also helps the factory for claiming the fabric from the supplier for defective
fabric and to settle the amount of compensation. In case of less cost garments it is advised not
to inspects 100% cut panels in that case inspection is on the basis if sampling inspection plan.
If the lot is accepted it is then send to the swing dept. and if not accepted the lot is 100%
inspected defected panels are replaced by non defective panels.
Three formats of spreading inspection, cutting inspection and cut panel inspection report are
furnished below for reference.
Quality control in sewing:
In process quality control by traffic light chart:
Traffic light chart has a great importance for eliminating defects from the operators level. This
chart has color to use red, yellow and green i.e red is re-check, green is no defect and yellow
is follow up, it means that the operator is under observation. Most of the good garments
factories are using this chart successfully to control defects from the operator level. Statistical
control chart technique along with traffic light chart is a very effective method to produce
garments at a desired AQL.
From the control chart technique we are able to know whether the defects level is within the
desired level or not and traffic light pin points the source of defect from where it is originating
and to take measures for improvement. This chart should be maintained at every important
operation. one chart should be hanged with the machine at the beginning of the style. Line
Q.C inspector will fill up all the columns mentioning details of the operation, operators name,
buyers name, line etc. As this chart is the permanent record of operators monthly
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performance and every supervisory personal can easily find out bad operators at a glance also
what type of defect he/she is producing and to take corrective actions accordingly.
Steps to traffic light chart along with 7 pcs inspection
1. At the starting 7 pcs inspector ( JC penney system ) will fill up the traffic lighjt chart like
factory name, unit, line buyer, style, PO, month, product description, operator,
operation, then he will write down major points for inspection of that process and hang
the chart on the machine.
2. At the beginning he will write down inspection date on the first box and start 7 pcs
inspection. He will inspect the process minimum two times a day it may be extended up
to 4 times if it is required.
3. If inspector does not get any defect in 7 pcs inspection at the starting he will paint/draw
green color at the starting and he will continue green if does not get any defect at the
4. If he gets any defect he will paint red color in the box, write defect code, operation
code, and frequency in the same box.
5. He will give remaining pcs of the bundle to the supervisor for re-audit. After re-audit
supervisor will fill up re-audit form in the opposite side of the operators quality
performance chart.
6. After that 7 pcs inspector will conduct 3 conjugate follow up inspections and paint
yellow in three boxes, it indicates that the operator is under observation.
7. If no defect is found three follow up inspections, in the next inspection inspector will
paint green it indicates operator is performing up to the mark.
8. If defect is found in any of follow up inspections, inspector will conduct three more
follow up inspections and inform supervisor to take care of the operator.
9. 1 month inspection may be conducted by 1 operators performance chart.
10.After completion of the month through analysis we may find out the gradation of
operators, defect % of each operator, which operator is conducting what type of defects
etc from the analysis of operators performance chart.
Advantages operators quality performance chart:

Save card and format fill up time.

Save cost by reducing number of 7 pcs inspection format.
Increase inspection time as number of format fill up time has been reduced.
Bad operator can be identified at a glance with nature of defects.
Effective control of false reporting of 7 pcs inspectors.

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Quality performance of operators can be graded.

There will be effective control of defects in sewing.
Root cause of defects in sewing can be analyzed.
Priority may be given on high % of defects on the basis of ranking & corrective action
may be taken.
10.Comparison of defects may be conducted of table inspection & 7 pcs inspection.
11.Operators himself will be quality conscious & they will begin, not releasing of defective
Quality control in finishing:
Sampling procedures:
Determine the audit label normal, Tightened, Reduce
Normal inspection will be used as criteria for all first shipments for each buyer
Normal inspection will be used when a lapse of 6 months or more occurs between
Inspection will remain at normal level until such time as tightened or reduced is deemed
Tightened inspection will be implemented when 2 out of 5 consecutive shipments have
failed audit
Normal inspection will be re-instituted once 5 consecutive shipments have been accepted
Reduced inspection will be implemented when either 05 consecutive shipments have been
accepted or no more than 3 months has elapsed since last shipment.
Normal inspection will be re-instituted if one shipment is rejected
Normal inspection will be re-instituted if more than 3 months have elapsed since last
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Packing Section:

In-Line Inspection
Assort Table Inspection
Pre-Final Inspection
Final /In-house Inspection
Accessories Inspection:

The main purpose of this inspection is to assure the quality of received Accessories before
supplying in Sewing / Packing section. To do the inspection randomly we select 10%
accessories. Now we are doing the following accessories :Sewing Accessories

Trim lace
Ring & Slider
Jelly Pad
Air Pad
Hook & Eye

Packing Accessories

Price ticket
Hang tag
Declaration Sticker
Poly Bag
Poly sticker / Sizer.

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First we do 10% accessories inspection.

If Reject % is below 1.5 % we pass the lot.
If Reject % is over 1.5% then we do 100% inspection.
Q.C dept. will provide the report to merchandiser
Merchandiser will arrange the replacement.
Inspection at Packing Section:

In-line Inspection: When we start poly in packing section we do in-line inspection. The main
purpose of this inspection to check & confirm the folding method, hangering (If Need) ,Price
ticket placement, Hang tag placement, poly etc. this stage we are using below format.
In-line Inspection Report (Finishing)
Assortment Check: When we start assortment we do random assortment check. The main
purpose of this inspection is to check & confirm the assortment. In this Stage we also check
Shipping mark of Carton & item qty in a carton. To do this job we maintain the below format.

Assortment & Shipping Mark check repots

Pre-Final Inspection:
When finish 20% carton of any style then we do Pre-Final Inspection. The main object of this
inspection is to check & confirm garments workmanship, Measurement, packing accessories &
packing method before complete full boxing. In this stage we maintain MTL STD 105E,Single
sampling plan, Normal inspection level-II with AQL of 2.5. The report we are following is call

Final / In-house Inspection: After finish packing we do final Inspection in packing section. In
this stage we maintain MTL STD 105E, Single sampling plan, Normal inspection level-II with
AQL of 2.5.

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Apparel Merchandising & Quick Response of Merchandising

Merchandising is a process or function for what to buy & how to buy for sale? Merchandising
is part of marketing process where 4 processes are required to complete the process of
marketing: Product, Price, Place/distribution & promotion. Merchandising covers 3 process
(product/Price/place or distribution) Merchandising word has been generated from Merchant
or Shopkeeper. The duty of the shopkeeper is to arrange the right products with right price
before the consumer decides to buy or knows about the product from promotion/media. If he
fails to supply goods on time or fails to supply the right packaging his customer will go to other
shops & buy the products from competitors who have them in stock. This process involves 2
major ideas First to decide, what to buy or produce (product detail, Packaging, pricing, timing etc).After
that, is sourcing, developments, ordering, follow up of production, shipping & distribution, as
well as storage.
To ensure sales, companies go to great lengths to make sure that their products are
visible/display in stores and are presented in an appealing, 'sellable' way and can make sure
about which products should be presented to which customers at what time?
Merchandising refers to the methods, practices and operations conducted to promote and
sustain certain categories of commercial activity.
Basically, apparel merchandising involved with apparel product - packaging, placement,
promotions and pricing to appeal to the target market.
On the other hand, Quick response of merchandising is also a process of merchandising which
helps to minimize the lead time of various processes of garment industries. Its a modern
computer based technology which can transfer information at the right time. Quick response
of merchandising can reduce lead time & costs.

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Definition of a Merchandiser:
The word came from the work Merchandise and its mean buying and selling something. The
person who is dealing with the merchandise is called Merchandiser. If it is apparel product
then the person is called apparel Merchandiser in the other way, the person who
merchandises the goods, specifically for export purposes. Merchandisers make sure that goods
are available in the right stores, at the right time and at the right price. They work closely with
buyers to forecast trends, plan stock levels and monitor how well goods are selling. Buyers
select the product ranges, while merchandisers aim to maximize profits by deciding which
lines will sell, how much to spend on stock, how much to buy and what price to sell at? The
merchandiser must be able to rigorously plan and control the functions involved in developing
product, sourcing it and getting it to the customers in time.

Qualifications of a Merchandiser
There are some basic qualifications which should have a merchandiser Good knowledge about fiber, yarn, fabric, dyeing, printing, finishing, dyes, colorfastness
and garments production etc.
Good knowledge about usual raw materials and apparel inspection system.
Clear conception of the usual potential quality problem in apparel merchandising.
Good command in English and adequate knowledge of technical terms for accurate and
efficient communication.
Knowledge of the buyers compliance and various standards.
Knowledge of the quota system, free-trade, shipping and banking documentations.

Responsibility of a Merchandiser
When an export order is placed to a merchandiser, he has to schedule the following main
functions Procurement of Export Orders.
Execution of Export orders.

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Flow Chart of how a merchandiser executes export orders by self what I have understood


Get Sketch

Delivery Date & Observe overall things

Given Price to Buyer

Confirmation price

Request for P.O.

Master LC open

Transfer LC to the respected Factory

Back 2 Back LC open by Factory

Monitor the factory for booking

PP. Sample & S.S. Sample for production

Inspection for Quality Approval

Final Inspection


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Quality Control of the whole process by following up the execution cycle.

Garments consumption in starts of order.
Cost Estimation
Swatch card Making and properly observing
Inventory Report
Fabric & accessories requirement calculation (consumption).
Sourcing of fabrics & accessories.
Garment analysis and production planning & controlling.
Swatch making and distribution to the production unit and quality concern people.
Arrange shipping documents and final inspection.

Fig - Job of a Merchandiser

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Marketing Strategy
Merchandisers should have a proper marketing strategy. They should examine the factors
involved in developing a detailed understanding a target market. Evaluate the importance of
market segmentation and alternate marketing and proper methods of data collection and
industry information sources. Merchandisers make key decisions that what can be created for
the next years fashion trends? This decision must be based upon an in-depth understanding
of their companies target market. This requires current, accurate and reliable information.
Apparel merchandisers must participate in developing the proper marketing mix for their
target markets. The primary variables involved in the marketing mix can be expressed by the
four Ps of marketing. They areProduct, creating the right garment in terms of silhouette, fabric, color and fit for the current
needs of the target market. Product also includes the proper product mix within a line of
Place, getting the right garment to the target markets Place, which is the retail outlet used
by the target market consumers. This may be a retail store or a direct purchase through
catalog or internet sales. The garment reaches the customer through a channel of distribution,
the process that moves it form the ultimate consumer.
Promotion, informing the target market about the product. The promotion function usually
falls under the preview of the marketing department. However the merchandisers are
frequently responsible for developing the theme and direction for presenting the right
product to retailers and consumers. In many companies merchandisers also present new
apparel lines to the marketing department in seasonal sales meetings, emphasizing how to
best sell the silent features of the line.
Price, need to establish the right price for the right product. The merchandisers must consider
the competition in the target market and the cost of producing each garment as well as
manufacturing overhead and general and administrative costs.

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Modern Merchandising (Merchandiser)
From the reference of books, modern apparel merchandisers must be constantly aware of
subtle changes occurring in their target market and be acutely sensitive to the market
environment. Social changes, work ethics, leisure-time activities, music, movies, the arts,
physical fitness, vacation choice, eating trends, attitudes, philosophies of life, geopolitics,
reading habits, language, the global economy and even climatic changes all have an effect on
fashion preferences. The merchandisers must be able to tune in to all these factors and project
how they will affect next years fashion choice.

Fig Modern Merchandisers Quality

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Vendor management in Merchandising
An industrial unit purchases a variety of items. Some of the items are required for
manufacturing of the main product, whereas others are required for maintaining the plant and
machinery and various support services and activities. The list of items purchased by the
industrial unit is so large that a very large number of vendors are required to meet the
requirements of the organization.
The pertinent question at this stage is how to identify the right source for materials required.
Right source for materials is one of the most important aspects in efficient purchasing. This is
the first step to ensure procurement of the items on time. The latest concept procurement
just in time largely depends on correct and reliable selection of vendors, who can be
depended on for supply of right material at competitive prices, at the right time and at the
right place.

Sources of vendors
The potential sources of survey for vendors are:

Trade directories
Regional directories issued by the chamber of commerce
Classified sections of telephone directories
Visit of representatives of various vendors
Exhibitions and trade fairs

Identification of vendors Some of the issues for consideration at this stage are:

Whether the vendors be selected each time of inviting offers or once a year?
How many vendors to be selected?
Who would decide on the selection of the vendors?
Whether to purchase from local/foreign vendor?
Whether to purchase from manufacturer or trade organization?
Whether to purchase form agents?
Whether to appoint regional agents?

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List of vendors A vendor list has the relevant information about each vendor, as detailed below -

Vendor number
Vendor name
Vendor address
Telephone numbers, fax, telex, e-mail details
Currency code
Payment terms (Advance, L/C, Telex-transfer, and Credit basis)

A vendor list can be different for different purposes. For example, a vendor list can be in
alphabetical order. A vendor list can be classified according to category of items. A vendor list
can be separate for local and foreign vendors. There can be separate vendor list of vendors of
each country.
A vendor list(s), therefore should be prepared keeping in view the requirements of each
organization. It is preferable to register a vendor formally to create his interest in buyers
purchases. Vendors, listed in the Vendor List are considered as qualified vendors for further
dealings. The purpose of maintaining a list of qualified vendors is to enable the company to:
- Have an approved group of bidders for solicitation purpose,
- Increase competition during the bid process, and
- Enable the company to anticipate satisfactory performance from all potential vendors
In case of dealing with a new vendor, it is better to verify the information given by him from
the references provided by him or from his bank. It is quite possible that the vendor under
consideration might have failed in the past to perform satisfactorily and might have been
blacklisted by some other customer for further dealings. It is very important to know the
reasons of blacklisting the vendor by his other client, before making a decision for selection or
rejection of the vendor.

List of vendor Operation The vendor list should be operated very judiciously. Enquiries should not be sent to some
selected vendors only. All the vendors empanelling should get an equal opportunity to
participate in the bids. Normally, inquiries are sent to three or four vendors. Sending enquiries
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to a large no of vendors is time consuming by evaluating their offers. At the same time,
sending enquiries to small no of vendors may result in inadequate response. A balanced
number of vendors should be selected, based on the nature of items to be procured. Different
vendors should be included at different times by rotation. Vendor for the last purchase order
should normally be included in the list to get competitive offers. This process will ensure
continues interest of the vendor in the vendor list and would create healthy competition
among them.

Vendor Blacklisting If a vendor, in spite of repeated advises, has failed to give quality products or to adhere to
agreed delivery schedule or has not given proper after sales services, he should be debarred
from future dealings. However, before debarring the vendor, the matter should be examined
thoroughly and impartially so that he is not penalized unnecessarily and it should be
established that the vendor has defaulted. Decisions for debarring a vendor should be taken at
the higher management level. A written communication should be sent to the vendor for
blacklisting him. All concerned departments and officials in the organization should also be
informed about the decision of black listing of the vendor.

Vendor list Updating Vendor list should not be seized for a long period and needs to be reviewed at regular
intervals, say after a year. In some cases, there may not be any business with some vendors for
a number of years. On the other hand, some vendors may be receiving orders regularly.
Weight age should be given to active vendors. Passive vendors should be deleted from the
approved list after proper evaluation.
Any change in the vendor list, whether addition or deletion of a vendor, should be done with
the approval of the management. in case any new vendor is to be tried without waiting for
formal approval of his empanelling, approval should be taken on a case-to-case basis.

Selecting of vendors It is improper to search for a vendor each time before sending an enquiry. The process to
search vendors just before sending an enquiry is very time consuming and the exercise may
miss the right vendor. A list of vendors should be readily available from where the vendors
should be picked up for inviting offers. Since there are large no of vendors for each category of
item, it is impossible to deal with all of them every time. A vendor, who is good for one
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organization, may not be good for another organization due to various reasons one of which
may be its location.

Number of vendors for each category

A reasonable number of vendors, say 8-10 in each category, is good to deal with. In some
cases, even more number of vendors can be listed.
Criterion for selection of vendorsSelection of vendors is a very important activity and should be done after evaluation of the
vendor on various criteria. Some of the aspects, which should be examined before selecting a
vendor, are -

The vendors product range

Technical competence of the vendor
Financial health
Location of the vendor. The location of the head office, regional office and distribution
Location of service center of the vendor
Are the vendors operations dedicated to the industrial sector of the buyer?
Is the vendor a single unit or multi-unit organization?
Is the vendor interested in a number of industrial sectors? If so, how important are his
interests in other industrial sectors in comparison to the industrial sector of the buyer?
What is the market reputation of the vendor?
What is the size of vendors operations in terms of assets.
Type of technical support provided by the vendor
Research and development facilities available in vendors organization
Is the vendor connected on line through a computer?
Does the representative of the vendor make regular visits to interact with the buyer or
the representative visits only when called, and
How is the pricing of his product when compared to others?

Purchasing from local / foreign vendors The issue whether to purchase from a local vendor or a foreign vendor is to be examined in
detail before making a choice for the vendor. The various aspects to be considered are
- How reliable is the quality of the material of the local vendor as compared to the quality
of the material from the foreign vendor?
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What is the difference in price of the local vendor and the foreign vendor?
How much is the difference in the lead-time?
The efforts required in resolving the issues with a foreign vendor?
How is the after sales service of the foreign supplier?

In some situations, it is unavoidable to buy materials from other than the foreign vendor. The
decision in favor or against any depends largely on the quality of the product offered,
technological factors and overall economy. In most of the cases, preference is given in
purchasing from the local vendor due to various advantages listed below -

Easy to handle
Easy communication
Quick response
Local sources are better know that foreign sources
Product quality from local sources can be easily checked prior to purchasing
Short delivery schedule, enabling to maintain low inventory levels
Low transportation cost
Better after sales services
Customs clearance is not involved, thus saving on effort, cost and time
Purchasing from local vendor normally works out economical on the whole

Trial order on a new vendor Special care should be taken in case of procurement of an important item or raw material.
Initial purchase from a new vendor, and especially in case of a foreign vendor, should be on
trial basis or after satisfying that the vendor is technically competent and financially sound. At
least two feedbacks on their performance with similar organizations should be considered
before dealing with such vendors.

Performance evaluation of vendors can be used for the following - To Choose vendors, to whom inquiry is to be sent
- To eliminate vendors whose performance is not up to an acceptable level
- To divide total order quantity to number of vendors, according to their performance
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Vendor evaluation normally looks into four parameters -


Vendor Development
There are often situation wherein vendors are not available for certain requirements. In order
to overcome such situations organizations should look at frequently developing vendors. This
vendor development is an important function and should be paid adequate attention.
Need for developing vendors The need for developing the vendors may be for various reasons. Some of which are - An item for which requirement has come up very recently and the item was no made
- Unusual requirements in the specifications to introduce unique features in the product,
- To try new and unusual materials,
- An item is available only from foreign sources and the lead time and the cost of the
item is exorbitant,
- Existing sources have fully occupied production capacity and are unable to supply the
The above situations force organizations to develop new vendors. In recent years, during war
between certain countries in mountain areas covered with snow, the soldiers had to fight in
extreme cold conditions. They needed special shoes and uniforms to withstand the tough
weather conditions. Though some of the items required were available in other countries, the
items were not available in adequate quantities. This led the government to think on
developing the vendors within their own country so that vital defense requirements could be
met with. This is one of the examples of a compelling situation to develop a vendor.

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What about Supply Chain
Its a system or technology of an organization which involved in moving a product or service
from supplier to customer. Supply chain activities transform natural resources, raw materials
and components into a finished product that delivered to the customer. Value chains are
linked with supply chain.
Key elements of Supply Chain
There are six elements of supply chain, such as Production, Supply, Inventory, location,
Transportation & Information.
Supply Chain Strategy
The strategy of supply chain is such as
Change organizational operations.
Roles &
Information system.
Stages & Functions of Supply Chain
A supply chain consists of all parties involved, directly or indirectly, in fulfilling a customer
request. The supply chain includes not only the manufacturers and suppliers, but also
transporters, warehouses, retailers, and even customer themselves.

Raw material supplier.







Supply chain functions/activities can be grouped into strategic, tactical, and operational levels.
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Supply Chain theory
In My opinion, the theory of supply chain is that
- In-time delivery.
- Good quality.
- Customer satisfaction.
E-Supply Chain
E-Supply chain activities include purchasing, materials management, distribution, customer
service, and inventory forecasting. Effectively managing these processes is critical to the
success of any online operation.
Supply Chain Problems
Supply chain management must address the following problems
- Distribution Network Configuration.
- Distribution Strategy.
- Information.
- Inventory Management.
- Cash-Flow.

Supply Chain Solutions

Good planning & design is at the heart of an effective supply chain solution.
End-to-end logistics management of inventories, facilities and labour.
Global order processing, inventory management and warehousing.
Global logistics offering for the aftermarket.
Aftermarket activities involve the maintenance and repair, or the return and recycling, of
products at the end of their life. Supply chain planning optimises overall flows and inventories,
by balancing resources with demand at all stages.
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Benefits of Supply Chain
Supply chain process is very beneficiary for the industry. Supply chain plays a vital role to
create the development of business policy. Supply chain ensure the following things a. Product delivery in time.
b. Enhance productivity.
c. Move goods faster with less work.
d. Maintain real-time warehouse/inventory accuracy.
e. Improve sales order process management.
f. Increase customer satisfaction.
g. Create good relationship with retailer.
h. Store replenishment.
i. Price and revenue optimization & Save money.
Theory & Practical knowledge about Production Management System
Production Management System
Production management system is the process by which any manufacturing operation can be
done properly with time and cost management.
Production is the basic activity of all organization and all other activities revolve around
production activity. The output of production is the creation of goods or services which satisfy
the needs of the customer. In some organizations, the product is a physical good. For example,
refrigerator, motorcars, television etc., while in others it is a service (like - insurance, health
care etc.).
Textile technology in Spinning
Textile technology in spinning includes blow room, carding, drawframe, comber, simplex, ring
frame, winding, fiber testing, yarn testing etc and Spinning the drawing out, twisting, and
winding of fibers into a continuous thread or yarn. From antiquity until the Industrial
Revolution, spinning was a household industry. The roughly carded fiber was at first held in
one hand and drawn out and twisted by the other hand. The total systems of spinning will
described latter.

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Productivity & Work Study
Productivity is defined as a rate of production per unit of time or per unit of qualified worker
or per unit of faultless machine. It is also a measure of how much output is generated from a
certain amount of input or resources. Productivity always refers to speed. It is conceived of
how speedily a product or service of desired quality is produced. It can be used to assess or
measure the extent to which a certain output can be extracted from a given input, so
Productivity = (Output/input) x 100.
Work study is a management technique by which we can determine standard time of a task
and discover the easiest and most economical way of doing the job. Work study is a scientific
method which ensured measurement of work content of a job and takes recourse to better
method of doing the job and thus realizes the best utilization of human, machinery and other
resources of an organization Work study is a very valuable tool of substantially improving
Product Development System
The product development system consists of Line planning & Consumer Research, Concept
Development, Quick Costing, Sampling, Specification Development, and Line Review. This
process includes many interrelated functions that affect one another. Creating a prototype,
developing pattern or preliminary costing could eventually require redefine the line plan or
development of new style concepts. The merchandisers are responsible for coordinating
design activities. Merchandising must provide rigorous control of the product development
process to ensure that balanced grouping of styles are ready for each offering.
Layout & Agronomy
The way in which machinery, equipment and material are arranged in a working area
determines the layout in that area. Layout is often determined at the outset of operations, i.e.
when a plant or even an office starts operating. A layout has to start by distinguishing among
four basic types: layout by fixed position; layout by process or function; layout by product or
line layout; and group layout.
Ergonomic is the study of how people interact with their environment at their workplace. It
looks for ways to optimize the relationship between worker and the environment they are
working in and thus tries to improve workplace environment for better job performance and
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productivity. Agronomy seeks ways and means to fit the person to the job or vice versa. It also
studies human dimensions (anthpometry) so as to be able to design tools, equipments,
workstations suitable for the individual so that he can use most of his physical & psychological
ability in performing the job.
Order Management
Order management essentially involves all those activities, which are essential in managing the
order smoothly these are as follows Follow Ups & Updates.
Inter Department Co-ordination.
Quality & Total Quality Management System
Quality is the feature of a product or inherent characteristic of a product that satisfy customer.
In other view, it is the good or badness of a product. Many different techniques and concepts
have evolved to improve product or service quality, including SPC, Zero Defects, Six Sigma,
Malcolm Aldridge National Quality Award, quality circles, TQM, Theory of Constraints
(TOC),Quality Management Systems (ISO 9000 & others) and continuous improvement.
The term Quality as form of activity or function within a business. One is Quality Assurance
which is the "prevention of defects", such as the deployment of a Quality Management System
and preventative activities. The other is Quality Control which is the "detection of defects",
most commonly associated with testing which takes place within a Quality Management
System typically referred to as Verification and Validation.
In technical usage, quality can have two meanings The characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or
implied needs.
A product or service free of deficiencies.
Quality management system (QMS) is a set of interrelated techniques, measures &
management system designed to prevent defects from occurring or if they occur at all,
countermeasures are adopted immediately so that they do not recur.
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Total Quality Management (TQM) is defined as a set of guideline principles that represent the
foundation of a continuously improving organization. TQM integrates fundamental
management techniques, existing improvement efforts, and technical tools under a disciplined
approach. Total Quality Control is the most necessary inspection control of all in cases where,
despite statistical quality control techniques or quality improvements implemented, sales
Production & Shipment System
Production goes through different kind of stapes. It needs many quality checking and approval
to be perfect. It is run by those system is called production system likes-knitting, dyeing,
printing, sample making, cutting, sewing etc. I will describe it later.
Shipping is a system process of model which covers planning and execution of receipts,
shipments, nominations and itineraries for ship, truck or pipeline. It can handle world scale
calculations and tracking of vessels and inventories at multiple terminals and berths.
This operational model includes all internal and external movements.
Shipping Management maintained such features

Able to track individual transactions or gross quantities.

Manages planned and actual transactions.
External material transfers can be balanced against internal facility movements.
Able to manage data uncertainties e.g. unknown vessel for a shipment.
Manages ships with multiple cargoes, cargoes with multiple shipments, shipments with
split ownership.
Able to manage multiple versions of transaction quantities and qualities.
Integrated with real-time instrumentation.
Handles all supply chain movements including, ship, truck and pipeline.

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Merchandising Section
Follow up the total procedure is important for Merchandiser.

Planning & Controlling

Effective planning and controlling are two important functions of merchandising. These actions encompass all
departments of an apparel company. In nearly all the companies surveyed, merchandising is responsible for
critical planning and control functions, such as the following:

The merchandiser plays a vital role in strategic planning along with marketing, sales, production, finance
and administration.
Merchandiser must ensure timely line development in accordance with buyer needs and the companys
capacity and capability.
The merchandiser must integrate company functions within the total supply chain, which is very complex
in connection with global sourcing of both raw materials and finished products.
In large companies, the merchandiser coordinates intercompany activities with other departments.

There are some tools which are the helping agents for proper planning and controlling. Marketing calendar is a
base of company planning. It establishes the line preview date, which is the date when management will
review proposed style with sales; the line release date, which is when the line will be available for sale or
retailers; the sales plan and the shipping plan. The merchandising calendar is the primary control tool in an
apparel company. It establishes responsibilities and deadlines for all key events for a session. The line planning
focuses on the efforts of design team in one cohesive direction. It establishes the number of fabrics, styles,
constructions, and stock keeping units in a line by production. The self stoke plan is made up of the styles and
quantities by color and size that should be in weekly basis. For modern merchandisers computer is a must. For
developing the plan, tracking progress in various departments, task scheduling software has greatly aided the
merchandiser in accomplishing the complex responsibilities of planning and control.

Sourcing of Materials
The term sourcing implies the processes involved in procurement of the desired merchandise at the best
bargain from the most suitable source, with the objective of optimizing the cost, efforts and time. Sourcing
can also be defined as the process of identifying, conducting negotiations with, and forming supply
agreements with vendors of goods and services.
The elements of sourcing are spread across the various stages of the product development process, such as
the Final Product Development stage and the Manufacturing Package stage. The sourcing process has been
depicted through the process flow diagrams on the following pages.
Determining how and where to manufacture apparel products has become a major concern for most
companies. A good sourcing executive must have a working knowledge of manufacturing processes, quality
assurance producer, garment costing, product development, government quota and import legislation,
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international culture and business practices and international banking and legal procedure. In addition, the
sourcing executive must be an excellent negotiator.
When the responsibility for sourcing falls upon the shoulders of merchandisers, it becomes extremely difficult
for them to fulfill this responsibility while dealing with the demanding task of product development and
meeting production deadlines. In many companies some of the product development responsibilities such as
Prototyping and fabric procurement are transferred to the sourcing contractor as a value-added function. This
occurs in the sourcing contractor to review the progress of the current production others and also to work on
development the new product line.

Sourcing Options A. Producers (Mills, factories, etc... Large producers will usually sell though through regional sales offices)
B. Distributors (Middlemen / Agent)
C. Converters (purchase fabrics from these mills and then print or dye the fabric [convert] before selling it)
The activity involves ordering of fabric and its important points to be taken care of during this activity are:

Accurate computation of the requirement. This is essential to ensure that during bulk production the
materials do not fall short nor are they in access and there are leftovers after the order is shipped. An
accurate calculation of material requirement can be done if the BOM (bill of materials) as provided by
the buyer in the specification sheet is studied thoroughly. Apart from just ensuring that the quantity is
correct the BOM also helps in checking that all materials required in completion of the order are
ordered and nothing has been missed out.
Selecting the best vendor for the materials in terms of quality, price and deliver

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Receipt of Order
Receipt of an order means final confirmation of the order from the buyer. Since, this is the final confirmation it
is done by means of a legal document called a PO (purchase order) or an FC (fabric commitment).This receipt
of order can be shown by a figure with a process & this process is also called merchandising process flow.

Fig: Merchandising process Flow

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PO (purchase order) this is a legal document stating the quantity, delivery, price, style no, buyer, vendor
details. On receipt of a PO it is very important that the merchandiser checks all details and confirms that they
are correct like quantity, delivery date, and price, style no, style description, color no & reference if
mentioned, shipment mode, shipment port, vendor address, buyer address.

FC (fabric commitment) fabric commitment is a legal document confirming that the buyer will be buying the
said quantity of a particular fabric. A garment style no need not be mentioned on this document as it is a
commitment only for buying fabric. This kind of a legal document is used by the buyer when there are very
probable chances of change in the style or the same fabric is being used in a number of styles and the buyer
has still not decided on the quantity to be purchased in each of the styles. Hence in such a situation the buyer
gives a block booking for fabric.
Once the order is received four different activities are started off simultaneously. These activities are
preparing a detailed T&A, Fabric Ordering, Trim Ordering, fit cycle and sample approvals.
Preparation of a detailed time and action (T&A) calendar is very essential in production merchandising. The
reason being, large no of activities have to be followed up for each order and a merchandised may be handling
large number of such orders and hence it is essential that all activities are listed. This minimizes the risk of
missing out any of the activities. Hence while preparing a T&A one should list down as many activities as one
can think of which are essential in smooth running of the order. A detailed discussion on T&A is done later in
this module.
This T&A is prepared by the merchandiser in consultation with all the concerned departments such as
sourcing (fabrics & accessories), production, and quality assurance, logistics. Once the T&A is finalized the
same should be circulated to all concerned departments. Another important aspect of the T&A is fixing the
responsibility. Along with finalizing the date by which a particular activity has to be completed, the
merchandiser should also mention the name of person who is responsible to complete the activity by that
time. For proper maintenance merchandisers maintain a Time & Action calendar. An example of Time &
Action Calendar is shown in the next page.

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