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Joints &

Connections at Vertical Joints between Precast Façades/Wall Panels

Connections between Precast Façades/ Wall Panels and Floor Slab

Connections between Precast Floor Elements and Supporting Structures

Connections

Between Building Components

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CHAPTER 2

Joints & Connections

Between Building Components

As the overall stability of a precast or semi-precast structure depends largely on its connections, it is important to consider the effectiveness of these connections in transferring the forces between individual building elements and to the stabilising cores and foundation. Special provisions of structural ties should be provided and detailed for structural integrity.

should be provided and detailed for structural integrity. Fig. 2.1 – An assemblage of precast elements

Fig. 2.1 An assemblage of precast elements that need to be connected at joints to form building framework

The detailing of connections should satisfy the requirements with respect to the manufacture, transport and erection of the precast units. It should be designed for simple assembly and details compatible with the overall requirements for the building so as to achieve a shorter construction time.

Locally, cast in-situ joints including grouted pipe sleeves are more commonly used in private residential projects. In general, connection details for floor slab with precast façade/ wall system are relatively simple as compared with precast frame and skeleton system. Essentially, one need to consider the connections between the floor slab, façade and wall element, between the individual floor elements and wall elements.

This section will highlight some of the common features in such connections used in private residential projects as a guide. They should not be considered as ”standard”, as proper connections and details fulfilling all relevant performance requirements would need to be designed based on project specific basis.

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2.1 CONNECTIONS AT VERTICAL JOINTS BETWEEN PRECAST FAÇADES/ WALL PANELS

The connections at the vertical joints between precast façades/ wall panels are often achieved by means of cast in-situ joints. The connecting links can be provided by using means of distributed loops anchored directly within the panels. For load bearing façade or wall elements, the vertical continuity bars should be provided and designed so as to transmit shear forces for overall stability.

Detail E Detail D
Detail E
Detail D

Detail A

Detail C

Detail B

Detail E Detail D Detail A Detail C Detail B View A

View A

Fig. 2.2 Example of a typical unit using precast façades/ wall panels

FLOOR LEVEL HORIZONTAL JOINT BETWEEN PC FAÇADE WALL PRECAST FAÇADE WALL VERTICAL JOINT BETWEEN PC

FLOOR LEVEL

HORIZONTAL JOINT BETWEEN PC FAÇADE WALL

PRECAST FAÇADE WALL

VERTICAL JOINT BETWEEN PC FAÇADE WALL

FLOOR LEVEL

CORRUGATED PIPE SLEEVE OR SPLICE SLEEVE

STARTER BARS FROM PRECAST WALL

Fig. 2.3 View A showing horizontal and vertical wall joints and splicing layout

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2.1.1 Connection Details between Load-Bearing Façades

35 2.1.1 Connection Details between Load-Bearing Façades Fig. 2.4 – Detail A 1. 2. 3. PC

Fig. 2.4 Detail A

1.

2.

3.

PC wall PC façade wall In-situ concrete joint Rebars from PC wall

4.

5. Vertical continuity bars

Fig. 2.5 Detail B

1.

2.

3.

4.

PC wall In-situ concrete joint Rebar placed on site Rebars from PC wall

5. Vertical continuity bars

2.1.2 Connection Details between Window Unit with Supporting Wall

Details between Window Unit with Supporting Wall Fig. 2.6 – Detail C 1. 3. 2. PC

Fig. 2.6 Detail C

1.

3.

2.

PC window wall with beam PC wall In-situ concrete joint

4. Rebars from PC wall

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& CONNECTIONS Between Building Components CHAPTER 2 36 Fig. 2.7 – Detail D 1. 2. 3.

Fig. 2.7 Detail D

1.

2.

3.

4. Rebars from PC wall

PC beam for bay window PC wall In-situ concrete joint

2.1.3 Connection Details between Internal Load-Bearing Wall Elements

Details between Internal Load-Bearing Wall Elements Fig. 2.8 – Detail E 1. 2. In-situ concrete joint

Fig. 2.8 Detail E

1.

2. In-situ concrete joint

3.

4. Rebars from PC wall

5. Vertical continuity bars

PC wall

Rebars placed on site

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2.2 CONNECTIONS BETWEEN PRECAST FAÇADES/ WALL PANELS AND FLOOR SLAB

The connections at the horizontal joints between precast façades/ wall panels are often connected by means of dowel connection, particularly for load bearing wall. Core holes within the wall panel are formed using proprietary splice sleeve or corrugated pipe sleeves. These holes together with the vertical continuity bars are filled with grout after wall installation. As for the connection between the precast façade/ wall with floor slab, the use of starter bars for bridging and continuity is commonly adopted as illustrated in the following figures.

is commonly adopted as illustrated in the following figures. Fig. 2.9 – Design principle for connection

Fig. 2.9 Design principle for connection between precast façade wall with floor slab

Corrugated Pipe Sleeve Proprietary Splice Sleeve Rebars from PC Wall Rebars from PC Wall Backer
Corrugated Pipe Sleeve
Proprietary Splice Sleeve
Rebars from
PC Wall
Rebars from PC Wall
Backer Rod
Slab Rebars
Backer Rod
& Sealant
Slab Rebars
& Sealant
Starter Bars from
PC Wall
Starter Bars from
PC Wall
Vertical Rebars from
PC Wall
Slab Rebars
Vertical Rebars from
PC Wall
Slab Rebars
Slab Rebars
Slab Rebars
In-situ Flat Plate
In-situ Flat Plate
PC Wall
PC Wall

Fig. 2.10 Different splicing details for connection between the upper and lower precast wall units

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2.2.1 Wall to Floor Connections at Edge or Central Core

2.2.1 Wall to Floor Connections at Edge or Central Core 1. PC wall 2. 3. In-situ

1. PC wall

2.

3. In-situ concrete topping

4. Rebars from PC slab

5. Slab rebars to be placed on site

6. Rebars from PC wall

7. Vertical continuity bars

8. Corrugated Pipe Sleeve

9. Backer rod & sealant

10. Starter bars from PC wall

PC half slab

Fig. 2.11 Connection between precast wall with precast half slab

Connection between precast wall with precast half slab 1. PC wall 2. 3. In-situ concrete joint

1. PC wall

2.

3. In-situ concrete joint

4. Rebars from PC wall

5. Rebars to be placed on site

6. Waterproofing system

7. Vertical continuity bars

8. Corrugated pipe sleeve

9. Backer rod and sealant

PC full slab

Fig. 2.12 Connection between precast wall and precast full slab with waterproofing details

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2.2.2 Intermediate Load-Bearing Walls to Floor Connections

2.2.2 Intermediate Load-Bearing Walls to Floor Connections Fig. 2.13 – Internal PC wall to flat plate
2.2.2 Intermediate Load-Bearing Walls to Floor Connections Fig. 2.13 – Internal PC wall to flat plate
2.2.2 Intermediate Load-Bearing Walls to Floor Connections Fig. 2.13 – Internal PC wall to flat plate

Fig. 2.13 Internal PC wall to flat plate

1.

2. In-situ flat plate

3. Rebars to be placed on site

4. Rebars from In-situ flat plate

5. Rebars from In-situ flat plate

6. Rebars from PC wall

7. Vertical continuity bars from PC wall

8. Corrugated pipe sleeve

9. Grouting joint

PC wall

Fig. 2.14 Internal PC wall to PC full slab

1. PC wall

2.

3. In-situ concrete joint

4. Rebars from PC slab

5. Rebars to be placed on site

6. Rebars from PC wall

7. Vertical continuity bars from PC wall

8. Corrugated pipe sleeve

9. Grouting joint

PC full slab

Fig. 2.15 Internal PC wall to PC half slab

1. PC wall

2.

3. In-situ concrete topping

4. Rebars from PC slab

5. Rebars to be placed on site

6. Rebars from PC wall

7. Vertical continuity bars from PC wall

8. Corrugated pipe sleeve

9. Grouting joint

PC half slab

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2.2.3 Non Load-Bearing Wall to Floor Connections

2 40 2.2.3 Non Load-Bearing Wall to Floor Connections Fig. 2.16 – Internal partition PC wall

Fig. 2.16 Internal partition PC wall to PC full slab

Fig. 2.16 – Internal partition PC wall to PC full slab Fig. 2.17 – Downhang wall

Fig. 2.17 Downhang wall details

1. PC partition wall

2.

3. Corrugated pipe sleeve

4. Dowel bars from PC partition wall

5. Polyfoam

6.

7. Non-shrink grout

8. Compressive foam

PC full slab

PVC pipe

PC wall In situ flat plate

3. Rebars from PC wall

1.

2.

4. Starter bars from PC wall

5. Rebars to be placed on site

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2.3 CONNECTIONS BETWEEN PRECAST FLOOR ELEMENTS AND SUPPORTING STRUCTURES

The floors are required to resist horizontal forces in addition to vertical loads. To prevent movement between slabs, individual precast elements must be connected to form an integrated floor. This can be achieved using cast in-situ reinforced structural topping as in the case of composite precast half slab with topping system. For precast full slab, the use of grouted and concreted joints in combination with connecting tie bars will serve to achieve structural integrity and diaphragm action. The floor panels, in turn are supported by either beams, cast in-situ pour strips or bearing walls.

2.3.1 Connections between Precast Slab Panels and with Other Supporting Structures

Precast Slab Panels and with Other Supporting Structures Fig. 2.18 – Connection between precast full slab

Fig. 2.18 Connection between precast full slab panels

2.18 – Connection between precast full slab panels Fig. 2.19 – Connection between precast full slab

Fig. 2.19 Connection between precast full slab panels using cast in-situ pour strip

1.

2. Bottom rebars from PC slab

3. In-situ joint

4. Top rebars from PC slab

5. Rebars placed on site

PC full Slab

NOTE : Recess at joint can be incorporated for better panel alignment and finishes. Appropriate fibre mesh can be placed to pre-empt cracks before proceeding to skim coat

1.

PC full slab

2

Rebars from PC slab

3.

In-situ pour strip

4.

Rebars placed on site

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& CONNECTIONS Between Building Components CHAPTER 2 42 Fig. 2.20 – Use of stiffened cast in-situ

Fig. 2.20 Use of stiffened cast in-situ pour strip to connect precast full slabs

cast in-situ pour strip to connect precast full slabs Fig. 2.21 – Use of cast in-situ

Fig. 2.21 Use of cast in-situ pour strip to cater for floor level difference

in-situ pour strip to cater for floor level difference Fig. 2.22 – Connection between precast half

Fig. 2.22 Connection between precast half slab in the secondary direction

1. PC full slab

2. Rebars from PC slab

3. In-situ pour strip

4. Rebars placed on site

1.

2. Rebars from PC slab

3. In-situ pour strip

4. Rebars placed on site

PC full slab

Note: Dimensions of pour strip depends on design requirements

1. PC half slab

2. In-situ structural topping

3.

Rebars placed on site

4. Rebars from PC slab

See note in Fig 2.18

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1. PC half slab

2. Rebars from PC slab

3. In-situ pour strip

4. Rebars to be placed on site

Fig. 2.23 Connection between PC half slab in the secondary direction using cast in-situ pour strip

in the secondary direction using cast in-situ pour strip Fig. 2.24 – Use of stiffened cast

Fig. 2.24 Use of stiffened cast in-situ pour strip to connect PC half slab panels in the secondary direction

to connect PC half slab panels in the secondary direction Fig. 2.25 – Use of cast

Fig. 2.25 Use of cast in-situ pour strip to cater for floor level difference

1. PC half slab

2. Rebars from PC slab

3. In-situ pour strip

4. Rebars to be placed on site

1. PC half slab

2. Rebars from PC slab

3. In-situ pour strip

4. Rebars to be placed on site

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& CONNECTIONS Between Building Components CHAPTER 2 44 Fig. 2.26 – Details to cater to the

Fig. 2.26 Details to cater to the change in slab thickness

– Details to cater to the change in slab thickness Fig. 2.27 – External PC beam

Fig. 2.27 External PC beam supporting PC full slab

1.

2. In-situ structural topping

3. Rebars to be placed on site

4. Rebars from PC slab

PC half slab

1.

2.

3. In situ concrete infill

4. Rebars placed on site

5. Rebars from PC slab

6. Rebars from PC beam

7. Bottom layer wire mesh from PC slab

PC beam PC full slab

Note: PC slab could “sit” directly on the PC beam during installation. The anchorage bars from the precast beam are to be bent and tied in place before casting the joint.

Fig. 2.28 – Internal PC beam supporting PC half slab Fig. 2.29 – Bay window

Fig. 2.28 Internal PC beam supporting PC half slab

Fig. 2.28 – Internal PC beam supporting PC half slab Fig. 2.29 – Bay window beam

Fig. 2.29 Bay window beam supporting PC full slab

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1.

2.

3. In-situ concrete infill

4. Bottom layer wire mesh from PC slab

5.

PC beam PC half slab

Beam & slab rebars to be placed on site

6. Rebars from PC beam

1. PC beam

2.

3. Rebars from PC slab

4. In-situ concrete infill

5. Rebars to be placed on site

6. Rebars from PC beam

PC full slab

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REAR ELEVATION

4 SECTION A-A (N.T.S)
4
SECTION A-A (N.T.S)

1. PC lift wall

2. Starter bars from PC panel for slab

3. Starter bars from PC panel for top panel

4. Rebars from PC panel

2 1
2
1

SECTION B-B (N.T.S)

Fig. 2.30 Example of PC lift wall details and connection with floor elements

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6 5
6
5

TOP PLAN

2 3 1 8 7 6
2
3
1
8
7
6

SECTION A-A

4 5
4
5

VIEW B

7 6
7
6

BOTTOM PLAN

1. PC refuse chute

2. Dowel bars from PC panel for top panel

3. Starter bars from PC panel for top panel

4. Starter bars from PC panel

for slab

5. Starter bars from PC panel for beam

6. PVC pipe

7. Corrugated pipe

Fig. 2.31 Example of PC refuse chute details and connection with floor elements