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GROUPEMENT REGGANE

WG-MENA-SLD 1452 Km2 in Reganne

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12.3.5.8 Maximum Displacement Sweep (MD Sweep)

WesternGeco has developed a unique sweep technology that enhances low-frequency vibrator response by tailoring the sweep to maximize hydraulic fluid flow rates.

In land acquisition, the lowest frequency that can be obtained by a vibrator is a function of the vibrator design and the chosen sweep. Vibrators are physically limited at the low end of the sweep by reaction mass displacement. The patented maximum displacement sweep (MD Sweep) is designed to deliver a desired Power Spectral Density (PSD) output from a vibrator using the performance characteristics of the vibrator. At the low-frequencies, this results in optimally compensating for the reduced power output by adjusting the sweep rate (Fig. ).

reduced power output by adjusting the sweep rate (Fig. ). Linear versus MD Sweep - same

Linear versus MD Sweep - same vibrators

without spending more time than is necessary to generate the critical low-frequencies.

MD Sweep technology maximizes the power output of a vibrator,

Tests show that using this sweep design, we can add several Hertz of full-power low-frequency bandwidth compared to what is possible using conventional sweep design. Such improvements are significant; the "resolving power" of seismic wavelets can be characterized by the number of octaves of their frequency bandwidth: 5-10 Hz contributes one full octave, just as 40-80 Hz.

The benefits realized from this approach include:

Improved inversion: Ideally, inversion requires seismic data with a bandwidth extending down to 0Hz. The lowest : Ideally, inversion requires seismic data with a bandwidth extending down to 0Hz. The lowest frequencies (around 0 to 3HZ) can be supplied from well data, or in the absence of well data from the velocity profile. By extending the bandwidth of the seismic data as low as possible towards 3Hz the result of the inversion can be improved (Fig. ).

For increasing the 'standout' of wavelets: The main lobe to side lobe amplitude is related to the bandwidth of the : The main lobe to side lobe amplitude is related to the bandwidth of the wavelet in terms of octaves.

For imaging deep targets: High frequencies are progressively absorbed by the Earth; in order to achieve resolution at : High frequencies are progressively absorbed by the Earth; in order to achieve resolution at depth it is preferable to extend the bandwidth at the low end of the spectrum.

GROUPEMENT REGGANE

WG-MENA-SLD 1452 Km2 in Reganne

CFB-REG-0003-12

1-O4AJSV

1452 Km2 in Reganne CFB-REG-0003-12 1-O4AJSV For imaging beneath high-velocity & absorbing formations

For imaging beneath high-velocity & absorbing formations: In similar manner to imaging deep target, imaging beneath high-velocity and absorbing formations is better achieved by increasing the low-frequency content of the source signature.

RAI with low frequencies RAI without low frequencies
RAI with low frequencies
RAI without low frequencies

Improved Wedge model with low frequencies.

The Maximum Displacement Sweep has a variable sweep rate and an optimally designed driving force envelope that permits the transmission of the maximum energy to the ground in the minimum time, whilst respecting the vibrator mechanical and hydraulic constraints, and vibrator- earth coupling. Required inputs to the designs are the manufacturer's vibrator specifications and the desired geophysical source wavelet characteristics, expressed as a target fundamental ground- force power spectral density function. The output of the sweep design is a vibrator sweep signal file in a format suitable for loading into the vibrator control equipment.

This sweep is most effective when it is used with the Desert Explorer 80,000 lb vibrators and Geophone Accelerometer (GAC) receivers (Fig. ).

The more energetic low-frequency can be achieved only if all the components of our acquisition systems (source and receiver) are fit for the purpose. The good news is that the Q-Land system has sensors that can faithfully record the seismic wavefield at frequencies as low as 3 Hz. Though

GROUPEMENT REGGANE

WG-MENA-SLD 1452 Km2 in Reganne

CFB-REG-0003-12

1-O4AJSV

Ground-force Power Spectral Density 10 dB gain at low-frequencies 2 Hz gain in bandwidth
Ground-force Power Spectral Density
10 dB gain at low-frequencies
2 Hz gain in bandwidth

Combined benefit of MD Sweep and 80K lb Desert Explorer

Linear versus MD Sweep using the 60K lb vibrator

for the linear and 80K lb Desert Explorer vibrator for the MD Sweep.

conventional geophones used in onshore seismic operation can also acquire low-frequency data, they have reduced response below 10 Hz and subsequent deterioration in signal-to-noise ratio (in terms of internal system noise).

Generating and recording low-frequency data is not the full-story. Low frequency signal is often masked by low-frequency high-amplitude noise (surface waves). Use of point receivers at a targeted spatial sampling interval enables the noise to be suppressed pre-stack using Digital Group Forming techniques developed by WesternGeco. This is particularly important for pre-stack inversion applications where pre-stack data quality must be optimized (Fig. ).

Low Frequency Coherent Noise suppression Unfiltered Digital filtering within DGF
Low Frequency
Coherent Noise suppression
Unfiltered
Digital filtering within DGF

Noise suppression using digital group forming (DGF) sensors at 5 m spacing.

This data example is the raw trace data of Q-Land using

GROUPEMENT REGGANE

WG-MENA-SLD 1452 Km2 in Reganne

CFB-REG-0003-12

1-O4AJSV

 

Fig. and Fig. illustrate sections comparing the MD Sweep with a conventional linear sweep. Both datasets were acquired on the same 2D line with the sweep type being the only difference. The linear sweep is 16 seconds long from 6 - 80 Hz and with 500 ms tapers. The MD Sweep is also 16 second duration.Spectral analysis of these data are shown in

second duration.Spectral analysis of these data are shown in Q-Land stack data - linear sweep This

Q-Land stack data - linear sweep

This examples uses a linear sweep acquired with 80K lb vibrator.

examples uses a linear sweep acquired with 80K lb vibrator. Q-Land stack data - MD sweep.

Q-Land stack data - MD sweep.

GROUPEMENT REGGANE WG-MENA-SLD 1452 Km2 in Reganne CFB-REG-0003-12 1-O4AJSV
GROUPEMENT REGGANE
WG-MENA-SLD 1452 Km2 in Reganne
CFB-REG-0003-12
1-O4AJSV

Spectral analysis of the linear and MD Sweep Stacks.

We can see that the signal response of the image with the MD sweep starts at around -6 dB for 6 Hz frequency, while that of the linear sweep is at -21 dB for 6 Hz (very close to the noise level). This clearly shows that the MD Sweep produces a better signal-to-noise ratio at low frequencies.