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9781107627291 Powers Cambridge Preliminary Mathematics General Second Edition CMYK

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G K Powers
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Preliminary Mathematics General

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Cambridge Preliminary Mathematics General Second Edition has been completely revised for
the Stage 6 Mathematics General syllabus implemented from 2013, to prepare you for the HSC
General 1 or General 2 course.
Designed to cater for a wide range of learning styles and abilities, this student-friendly text
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increasinglycomplex society. It enhances statistical literacy and encourages the application of
relevant technologies, while developing other essential employability skills.
This Second Edition closely follows the syllabus to cover all required strands and the two focus
studies: Mathematics and Driving, and Mathematics and Communication. These focus studies
are presented in two discrete chapters to provide teachers with the flexibility to integrate focusstudy content across the strands in a way that suits the teaching and learning approaches,
abilities and knowledge in their classroom. A suggested program for integrating the focus
studies is provided for teachers via Cambridge GO, but the options are many.
Features:
Syllabus topics and their content are listed at the start of each chapter to outline the
concepts to be covered.
Precise step-by-step worked solutions encourage independent learning.
Graded exercises focus first on basic skills and understanding, building on these through
Development questions that encourage you to apply your understanding to contextualised
problem solving. Challenge questions in each exercise extend and enrich students, and
extra challenge questions are available in the Teacher Resource Package.
Essential rules, formulae and important concepts are highlighted throughout, while a
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End-of-chapter summaries and multiple-choice and short-response questions provide
opportunities to consolidate and revise knowledge and understanding.
Two complete HSC Practice Papers with answers provide valuable preparation for the
HSC course and exams.

Cambridge

Preliminary
Mathematics
General
Second

Edition

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Co mina
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a
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Cambridge

PRELIMINARY
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
Second Edition
G K Powers

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Contents
Introduction
vii
Acknowledgements
Chapter 1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7

Chapter 2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8

Chapter 3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6

xii

Earning and managing money

FM1

Salary and wages


1
Overtime and special allowances 6
Annual leave loading and bonuses 11
Commission 15
Piecework, royalties and income from government
Gross pay, net pay and deductions 22
Budgeting
27
Chapter summary
31
Sample HSC Objective-response questions 32
Sample HSC Short-answer questions 33
Algebraic manipulation

35

AM1

Adding and subtracting like terms 35


Multiplication and division of algebraic terms
Expanding algebraic expressions 43
Factorising algebraic expressions 47
Substitution 50
Linear equations
53
Equations with fractions 60
Using formulas 63
Chapter summary
69
Sample HSC Objective-response questions
Sample HSC Short-answer questions 71
Units of measurement and applications

18

39

70

73

MM1

Units of measurement 73
Measurement errors
79
Scientific notation and significant figures 83
Calculations with ratios
88
Rates and concentrations 92
Percentage change 96
Chapter summary 99
Sample HSC Objective-response questions 100
Sample HSC Short-answer questions 101

iii
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iv

Contents

Chapter 4 Statistics and society, data collection and sampling 103


4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4


Statistical inquiry 103


Classification of data 108
Sample types 113
Designing a questionnaire 118
Chapter summary 121
Sample HSC Objective-response questions 122
Sample HSC Short-answer questions 123

Chapter 5 Interpreting linear relationships 125


5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5


AM2

Graphing linear functions 125


Gradient and intercept 130
Gradient-intercept formula 134
Simultaneous equations 138
Linear functions as models 142
Chapter summary 147
Sample HSC Objective-response questions 148
Sample HSC Short-answer questions 149

Chapter 6 Investing money 151


6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8


DS1

FM2

Simple interest 151


Simple interest graphs 156
Compound interest 160
Compound interest graphs 164
Using prepared tables 168
Financial institutions: costs 172
Appreciation and inflation 175
Shares and dividends 179
Chapter summary 183
Sample HSC Objective-response questions 184
Sample HSC Short-answer questions 185

HSC Practice Paper 1 187


Chapter 7 Displaying and interpreting single data sets 193
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9


DS2

Frequency tables 193


Grouped frequency tables 197
Cumulative frequency 200
Range and interquartile range 204
Frequency and cumulative frequency graphs 209
Box-and-whisker plots 215
Sector and divided bar graphs 220
Radar charts 224
Dot plots and stem-and-leaf plots 227
Chapter summary 231
Sample HSC Objective-response questions 232
Sample HSC Short-answer questions 233

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Contents

Chapter 8 Applications of perimeter, area and volume 235


8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6


Pythagoras theorem 235


Perimeter 239
Area 244
Field diagrams 250
Volume of prisms and cylinders 254
Capacity 258
Chapter summary 261
Sample HSC Objective-response questions 262
Sample HSC Short-answer questions 263

Chapter 9 Relative frequency and probability 265


9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6


FM3

Allowable deductions 293


Taxable income 297
Medicare levy 301
Calculating tax 304
Calculating GST 309
Graphing tax rates 313
Chapter summary 317
Sample HSC Objective-response questions 318
Sample HSC Short-answer questions 319

Chapter 11 Summary statistics 321


11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5


PB1

Relative frequency 265


Multistage events 271
Systematic lists 274
Definition of probability 279
Range of probabilities 283
Complementary events 286
Chapter summary 289
Sample HSC Objective-response questions 290
Sample HSC Short-answer questions 291

Chapter 10 Taxation 293


10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6


MM2

DS3

The median 321


Mean and mode 325
The mean from larger data sets 330
Standard deviation 335
Comparison of summary statistics 339
Chapter summary 343
Sample HSC Objective-response questions 344
Sample HSC Short-answer questions 345

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vi

Contents

Chapter 12 Similarity and right-angled triangles 347


12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.7
12.8
12.9


Similar figures and scale factors 347


Problems involving similar figures 352
Scale drawings 357
Trigonometric ratios 360
Using the calculator in trigonometry 365
Finding an unknown side 369
Finding an unknown angle 373
Applications of right-angled triangles 376
Angles of elevation and depression 380
Chapter summary 385
Sample HSC Objective-response questions 386
Sample HSC Short-answer questions 387

Chapter 13 Mathematics and communication 389


13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5


FSCo

Mobile phone plans 389


Phone usage tables and graphs 396
File storage 399
Digital downloads 403
Digital download statistics 406
Chapter summary 409
Sample HSC Objective-response questions 410
Sample HSC Short-answer questions 411

Chapter 14 Mathematics and driving 413


14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.5
14.6
14.7
14.8
14.9


MM3

FSDr

Cost of purchase 413


Insurance 418
Stamp duty 421
Running costs (fuel) 424
Straight-line depreciation 428
Declining balance depreciation 431
Safety 435
Blood alcohol content 441
Driving statistics 446
Chapter summary 451
Sample HSC Objective-response questions 452
Sample HSC Short-answer questions 453

HSC Practice Paper 2 455


 SC formula sheet 461
H
Glossary 463
Answers 469

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Introduction
New syllabus and Focus studies
Cambridge Preliminary Mathematics General Second Edition has been completely revised for
the stage 6 Mathematics General syllabus to be implemented from 2013, and the HSC General 2
examination being implemented in 2014. The Preliminary course is a common preparation for both
the General 1 and General 2 courses at HSC
This resource closely follows the syllabus and is divided into strands, topics and focus studies.
Each focus study is contained in a single chapter to provide easy access, and is designed to be
integrated across the strands. Teachers can decide on the integration depending on the ability
and knowledge of their students. The teaching program outlines one method of integration.

Additional new features in the second edition:

Companion website on Cambridge GO (www.cambridge.edu.au/go) with a downloadable


digital version and an online interactive version of the textbook.
Extra resources have been added to the teacher resources and to GO details given below.
Teaching program for the new syllabus can be downloaded from GO.
The more challenging questions are identied and extra ones have been added to the
exercises and to the companion website.
Extensive exercises divided into foundation, development and challenge questions cater for
students at different levels, and facilitate differentiation into General 1 and General 2 courses.
The sample HSC objective response questions can also be accessed via GO in a
self-marking Quiz Me format for web browsers and smartphones.
Two complete HSC Practice Papers.

Existing features retained from the first edition:

Important concepts in boxes for easy reference.


Excel spreadsheet activities integrated in the text.
Graphics calculator explanations and problems integrated into the text.
Chapter reviews containing a summary plus sample HSC objective-response
(multiple-choice) and short-answer questions.
Comprehensive glossary and HSC formula sheet.
HOTmaths integrated program available (requires subscription).

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vii

viii

Introduction

Guide to the icons used in the textbook


Identifies challenge questions in the exercises.
Challenge questions 1

(placed at the end of each chapter)

A PowerPoint file or Word worksheet containing extra challenge questions is


available on Cambridge GO.

1.1
1B
14.1

14A

Integrated HOTmaths course available (access by teacher account or student


subscription).
Spreadsheet file available on Cambridge GO.
Used in Chapters 112 to indicate where the teaching program suggests that a
Focus Study section be done next.
An alternative worksheet format is available for the exercise on Cambridge GO.
Study Guide 8

(placed on the Chapter Summary bar)

A PowerPoint file containing a study guide is available on Cambridge GO.

Additional Resources in the Teachers Resource package on


Cambridge GO

Lesson Notes a new resource: PowerPoint les containing comprehensive lesson notes
and additional examples which can be used in class or given to students as tutorials
Chapter tests as worksheets, with answers
Literacy worksheets activities to help with mathematical terminology
Spreadsheet skills worksheets to use with spreadsheet les provided
Copies of the teaching programs and scope and sequence charts

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Introduction

ix

About the author


Greg Powers is currently the Head of Mathematics at Cabramatta High
School and the coordinator of the Mathematics Head Teacher Western
Network. He is an experienced classroom teacher, having taught for over
30 years in a range of different schools. Greg has been a senior marker
for the HSC, educational consultant for the Metropolitan South West
Region and presented at numerous MANSW inservices. He has also
enjoyed several curriculum roles with the Department of Education and
Training. Greg is an experienced author who has written numerous texts
on mathematics and technology.

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Acknowledgements
The author and publisher wish to thank the following sources for permission to reproduce
material:
Images: Wikimedia Commons, p.9 (bottom), p.175, p.176, p.179 (bottom); Australian
Bureau of Statistics. Reprinted with permission. Commonwealth of Australia, p.106;
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xii
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C H A P T E R

Earning and managing money


Syllabus topic FM1 Earning and managing money
Calculate payments from a salary
Calculate wages using hourly rate, overtime rates and allowances
Calculate annual leave loading and bonuses
Calculate earnings based on commission, piecework and royalties
Determine deductions and calculate net pay
Evaluate a prepared budget

1.1 Salary and wages


Salary
1.1

Salary is a payment for a years work which is then divided into equal monthly, fortnightly or
weekly payments. People who are paid a salary include teachers and nurses.
Advantages

Permanent employment

Superannuation, sick and holiday pay

Disadvantages

No overtime for extra work

Hours are fixed

Converting salary to weeks, fortnights and months


1 year = 52 weeks
Example 1

1 year = 26 fortnights

1 year = 12 months

Calculating from a salary

Mitchell earns a salary of $65 208 per annum. He is paid fortnightly. How much does he
receive each fortnight? Assume there are 52 weeks in the year.
1
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Preliminary Mathematics General

Solution
1
2
3
4

Write the quantity to be found.


Divide the salary by the number of fortnights in a
year or 26.
Evaluate and write using correct units.
Write your answer in words.

Fortnightly pay = 65 208 26


= $2508.00
Mitchell is paid $2508 per
fortnight.

Wages
Wage is a payment for work calculated on an hourly basis. People who are paid a wage
include shop assistants, factory workers and mechanics.
Advantages

Permanent employment

Superannuation, sick and holiday pay

Overtime payments for extra work


Example 2

Disadvantages

No incentive to work hard each hour

Hours are fixed

Calculating a wage

Jasmine is paid at a rate of $1098 for a 40-hour week.


a
How much does Jasmine earn per hour?
b
What wages will Jasmine receive for a week where she works 38 hours?
Solution
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Write the quantity to be found.


Divide the amount by the number of hours
worked.
Evaluate and give answer correct to two
decimal places.
Write the quantity to be found.
Multiply the rate by the number of hours
worked.
Evaluate and write using correct units.
Write your answer in words.

Salary
A payment for a years work, which is then
divided into equal monthly, fortnightly or
weekly payments.

Wage per hour = 1098 40


= $27.45
Jasmine earns $27.45 per hour.

Wage for 38 hours = 27.45 38


= $1043.10
Jasmine receives $1043.10 for
the week.

Wage
A payment for a weeks work and is
calculated on an hourly basis.

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Chapter 1 Earning and managing money

Exercise 1A
1

Emily earns a salary of $92 648. Write, to the nearest dollar, her salary as amounts per:
a
week.
b
fortnight.
c
month.

The annual salary for 4 people is shown in the table below. Calculate their weekly and
fortnightly payments. (Answer correct to the nearest dollar.)
Name

Salary

Abbey

$57 640

Blake

$78 484

Chloe

$107 800

David

$44 240

Week

Fortnight

What is Zacharys fortnightly income if he earns a salary of $43 056?

Find the annual salary for the following people.


a
Amber earns $580 per week.
b
Tyler earns $1520 per fortnight.
c
Samuel earns $3268 per month.
d
Ava earns $2418 per week.

Harrison is a civil engineer and who earns a


salary of $1500 per week.
a
How much does he receive per fortnight?
b
How much does he receive per year?

What is Yasmeens annual salary if her salary per fortnight is $1610?

Dylan receives a weekly salary payment of $1560. What is his annual salary?

Stephanie is paid $1898 per fortnight and Tahlia $3821 per month. Calculate each
persons equivalent annual income. Who earns the most per week and by how much?

Laura is paid $1235 per fortnight and Ebony $2459 per month. Which person receives
the highest annual salary and by how much?

10

Tran is paid $1898 per week and Jake $8330 per month. Calculate each persons
equivalent annual income. What is the difference between their annual salaries?

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Preliminary Mathematics General

11

Joshua works as a labourer and is paid $25.50 an hour. How much does he earn for
working the following hours?
a
35 hours
b
37 hours
c
40 hours
d
42 hours

12

Lily earns $29.75 an hour. If she works 6 hours each day during the week and 4 hours a
day during the weekend, find her weekly wage.

13

Determine the wage for a 37-hour week for each of the following hourly rates.
a
$12.00
b
$9.50
c
$23.20
d
$13.83

14

Determine the income for a year (52 weeks) for each of the following hourly rates.
Assume 40 hours of work per week.
a
$7.59
b
$15.25
c
$18.78
d
$11.89

15

Suchitra works at the local supermarket. She gets paid $22.50 per hour. Her time card is
shown below.
Day

In

Out

Monday

9.00 a.m. 5.00 p.m.

Tuesday

9.00 a.m. 6.00 p.m.

Wednesday 8.30 a.m. 5.30 p.m.

a
b

Thursday

9.00 a.m. 4.30 p.m.

Friday

9.00 a.m. 4.00 p.m.

How many hours did Suchitra work this week?


Find her weekly wage.

16

Grace earns $525 in a week. If her hourly rate of pay is $12.50, how many hours does
she work in the week?

17

Zachary is a plumber who earned $477 for a days work. He is paid $53 per hour. How
many hours did Zachary work on this day?

18

Lucy is a hairdresser who earns $24.20 per hour. She works an 8-hour day.
a
How much does Lucy earn per day?
b
How much does Lucy earn per week? Assume she works 5 days a week.
c
How much does Lucy earn per fortnight?
d
How much does Lucy earn per year? Assume 52 weeks in the year.

19

Alyssa is paid $36.90 per hour and Connor $320 per day. Alyssa works a 9-hour day.
Who earns the most per day and by how much?

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Chapter 1 Earning and managing money

Development
20

Feng is retiring and will receive 7.6 times the average of his salary over the past three
years. In the past three years he was paid $84 640, $83 248 and $82 960. Find the amount
of his payout.

21

Liams salary is currently $76 000. He will receive salary increases as follows: 5%
increase from 1 July and then a 5% increase from 1 January. What will be his new salary
from 1 January?

22

Create the spreadsheet below.

1A

a
b

c
d

Cell E5 has a formula that multiplies cells C5 to D5. Enter this formula.
Enter the hours worked for the following employees:
Liam 20
Lily 26
Tin 38
Molly 40
Noth 37.5
Nathan 42
Joshua 38.5
Fill down the contents of E5 to E12.
Edit the hourly pay rate of Olivia Cini to $16.50. Observe the change in E5.

23

Isabelle earns $85 324 per annum. Isabelle calculated her weekly salary by dividing her
annual salary by 12 to determine her monthly payment and then divided this result
by 4 to determine her weekly payment. What answer did Isabelle get, what is the correct
answer, and what is wrong with Isabelles calculation?

24

Lucy earns $8 per hour and Ebony earns $9 per hour. Last week they both earned
at least $150. What is the least number of hours that Lucy could have worked last
week?

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Preliminary Mathematics General

1.2 Overtime and special allowances


Overtime
1.2

Overtime rates apply when employees work beyond the normal working day. Payment for
overtime is usually more than the normal pay rate. For example, a person whose normal pay
rate is $10 an hour would receive $20 ($10 2) an hour if they were paid overtime at double
time. Another common overtime rate is time-and-a-half. It is the normal pay rate multiplied
by 1 12 or 1.5. Here a person would receive $15 ($10 1.5) an hour.
Overtime rates
Time-and-a-half rate
Double time rate
Example 3

normal pay rate 1.5


normal pay rate 2

Calculating wages involving overtime

John works for a building construction company.


Find Johns wage during one week where he works
40 hours at the normal rate of $16 an hour, 3 hours at
time-and-a-half rates and 1 hour at double time rates.

Solution
1
2
3

4
5

Write the quantity to be found.


Wage = (40 16)
normal pay
Normal wage is 40 multiplied
by $16.
Payment for time-and-a-half is
+ (3 16 1.5) time-and-a-half pay
3 multiplied by $16 multiplied
by 1.5.
Payment for double time is 1
+ (1 16 2) double time pay
multiplied by $16 multiplied by 2.
= $744.00
Evaluate and write your answer in
words.
Johns wage is $744.

Special allowances
Employees receive an allowance if they work under difficult or dangerous conditions such
as wet weather, extreme temperatures, confined spaces or isolated areas. Allowances are also
paid when an employee has an expense related to their line of work such as uniform, meals,
travel or tools.
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Chapter 1 Earning and managing money

Casual work
Casual work involves a set amount paid for each hours work. It can be paid weekly or
fortnightly.
Advantages

Working hours are flexible

Pay rate is often higher


Example 4

Disadvantages

No superannuation, sick or holiday pay

May lose job when not needed

Calculating casual pay

Milan is employed on a casual basis for a


fast-food company. His rate of pay is $15
per hour plus time-and-half on Saturday
and double time on Sunday.
Last week Milan worked from
10.30 a.m. until 2.30 p.m. on Thursday,
from 9.30 a.m. until 2.00 p.m. on
Saturday, and from 12 noon until 4 p.m.
on Sunday. How much did Milan earn
last week?
Solution
1
2

5
6

Write the quantity to be found.


Normal wage is 4 hours (Thursday
10.30 a.m. until 2.30 p.m.)
multiplied by $15.
Payment for time-and-a-half is
4.5 hours (Saturday 9.30 a.m. until
2.00 p.m.) multiplied by $15
multiplied by 1.5.
Payment for double time is 4 hours
(Sunday 12 noon until 4 p.m.)
multiplied by $15 multiplied by 2.
Evaluate and write using correct
units.
Write your answer in words.

Wage = (4 15)

normal pay

+ (4.5 15 1.5)

time-and-a-half
pay

+ (4 15 2) double time pay

= $281.25
Milans wage is $281.25

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 1B
1

Calculate the payment for working 4 hours overtime at time-and-a half given the
following normal pay rates.
a
$18.00
b
$39.50
c
$63.20
d
$43.83

Calculate the payment for working 3 hours overtime at double time given the following
normal pay rates.
a
$37.99
b
$19.05
c
$48.78
d
$61.79

Andrew earns $32.50 an hour as a driver.


He works 38 hours a week at normal
time and 5 hours a week at double time.
Find his weekly wage. Answer correct to
the nearest cent.

Mei is a casual employee who worked 8 hours at normal time and 2 hours at time-and-ahalf. Her normal rate of pay is $12.30 per hour. What is her pay for the above time?

Oliver earns $23.80 an hour. He earns normal time during week days and time-and-a-half
on weekends. Last week he worked 34 hours during the week and 6 hours during the
weekend. Find his weekly wage.

George works in a take-away food store. He gets paid $18.60 per hour for a standard
35-hour week. Additional hours are paid at double time. His time card is shown below.
Day

Out

Monday

8.30 a.m. 4.30 p.m.

Tuesday

9.00 a.m. 6.00 p.m.

Wednesday

8.45 a.m. 5.45 p.m.

Thursday

9.00 a.m. 6.30 p.m.

Friday
a

In

10.00 a.m. 8.00 p.m.

How many hours did George work this week?


Find his weekly wage.

Dave works for 5 hours at double time. He earns $98.00. Find his normal hourly rate.

Ella works 3 hours at time-and-a-half and earns $72.00. Find her normal hourly rate.

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Chapter 1 Earning and managing money

Zahid is paid a set wage of $774.72 for a 36-hour week, plus time-and-a-half for
overtime. In one particular week he worked 43 hours. What are Zahids earnings?

10

Samantha is paid a set wage of $962.50 for a 35-hour week, plus double time for
overtime. In one particular week she worked 40 hours. What are Samanthas earnings?

11

A window washer is paid $22.50 per


hour and a height allowance of $55
per day. If he works 9 hours each
week day, calculate the:
a
amount earned each week day
b
total weekly earnings for five days
of work.

12

Anna works in a factory and is paid $18.54 per hour. If she operates the oven she is paid
temperature allowance of $4.22 per hour in addition to her normal rate. Find her weekly
pay if she works a total of 42 hours including 10 hours working the oven.

13

Scott is a painter who is paid a normal rate of $36.80 per hour plus a height allowance of
$21 per day. If Scott works 9 hours per day for 5 days on a tall building, calculate his
total earnings.

14

Kathy is a scientist who is working in a remote part of Australia. She earns a salary of
$86 840 plus a weekly allowance of $124.80 for working under extreme and isolated
conditions. Calculate Kathys fortnightly pay.

15

Chris is a soldier and is paid $27 per


hour plus an additional allowance of
$12.50 per hour for disarming
explosives. What is his total weekly
pay if he works from 6 a.m. to
2 p.m. for 7 days a week on
explosives?

16

A miner earns a wage of $46.20 per hour plus an allowance of $28.20 per hour for
working in cramped spaces. The miner worked a 10-hour day for 5 days in small shaft.
What is his weekly pay?

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Development
17

Vien is employed on a casual basis. His rate of pay is shown below. Last week Vien
worked from 11.30 a.m. until 3.30 p.m. on Thursday, from 8.30 a.m. till 2.00 p.m. on
Saturday, and from 12 noon till 6 p.m. on Sunday. How much did Vien earn last week?
Rate of pay
Weekdays

$18.60 per hour

Saturday

Time-and-a-half

Sunday

Double time

18

A mechanics industrial award allows for normal rates for the first 7 hours on any day. It
provides for overtime payment at the rate of time-and-a-half for the first 2 hours and
double time thereafter. Find a mechanics wage for a 12-hour day if their normal pay rate
is $42.50 an hour.

19

Abbeys timesheet is shown


Day
In
Out
Meal break
opposite. She gets paid $12.80
Monday
8.30 a.m. 5.30 p.m. 1 hour
per hour during the week,
time-and-a-half for Saturdays and
Tuesday
8.30 a.m. 3.00 p.m. 1 hour
double time for Sundays. Abbey
Wednesday 8.30 a.m. 5.30 p.m. 1 hour
is not paid for meal breaks.
Thursday
8.30 a.m. 9.00 p.m. 2 hours
a
How much did Abbey earn at
Friday
4.00 p.m. 7.00 p.m. No break
the normal rate of pay during
this week?
Saturday
8.00 a.m. 4.00 p.m. No break
b
How much did Abbey earn
Sunday
10.00 a.m. 3.00 p.m. 30 minutes
from working at penalty rates
during this week?
c
What percentage of her pay did Abbey earn by working at penalty rates?

20

Connor works a 35-hour week and is paid $18.25 per hour. Any overtime is paid at
time-and-a-half. Connor wants to earn enough overtime to earn at least $800 each week.
What is the minimum number of hours overtime that Connor will need to work?

21

Max works in a shop and earns $21.60 per hour at the normal rate. Each week he works
15 hours at the normal rate and 4 hours at time-and-a-half.
a
Calculate Maxs weekly wage.
b
Max aims to increase his weekly wage to $540 by working extra hours at the normal
rate. How many extra hours must Max work?
c
Maxs rate of pay increased by 5%. What is his new hourly rate for normal hours?
d
What will be Maxs new weekly wage assuming he maintains the extra working
hours?

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Chapter 1 Earning and managing money

11

1.3 Annual leave loading and bonuses


Annual leave loading
1.3

Annual leave loading is a payment calculated as a fixed percentage of the normal pay over a
fixed number of weeks. It is usually paid at the beginning of the annual holidays to meet the
increased expenses of a holiday.
Annual leave loading
Annual leave loading or holiday loading is usually at the rate of 17 12 %.
Holiday loading = 17 12 % Normal weekly pay Number of weeks leave

Example 5

Finding the annual leave loading

Thomas works a 40-hour week at a rate of $18.50 per hour. He receives 17 12 % of 4 weeks
normal pay as holiday loading. What is Thomass pay for the holiday?
Solution
1
2

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Write the quantity (4 weeks pay) to be found.


Multiply the pay rate by the number of hours
worked during the week by the number of
weeks (4).
Evaluate.
Write the quantity (loading) to be found.

Multiply 0.175 17 12 % by 4 weeks pay


(2960).
Evaluate.
Write the quantity (holiday pay) to be found.
Add the 4 weeks pay (2960) and the loading
(518).
Evaluate.
Write your answer in words.

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4 weeks pay = (18.50 40 4)


= $2960

Loading = 17 12 % of $2960
= 0.175 2960
= $518
Holiday pay = $2960 + $518
= $3478

Thomas receives $3478 in


holiday pay.

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12

Preliminary Mathematics General

Bonus
A bonus is an extra payment or gift earned as reward for achieving a goal. It is paid in addition
to the normal income. Bonuses are an incentive for employees to work harder. For example, an
employee may receive a bonus of 5% of their annual salary or $1000.
Bonus
Bonus is an extra payment or gift earned as reward for achieving a goal.

Example 6

Calculating a bonus

Ambers employer has decided to reward all their employees with a bonus. The bonus awarded
is 5% of their annual salary. What is Ambers bonus if her annual salary is $68 560?
Solution
1
2
3
4

Write the quantity (bonus) to be found.


Multiply the bonus percentage (5%) by the annual
salary ($68 560).
Evaluate.
Write the answer in words.

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Bonus = 5% of $68560
= 0.05 68560
= $3428
Amber receives a bonus of
$3428.

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Chapter 1 Earning and managing money

13

Exercise 1C
1

A business pays 17 12 % holiday loading on 4 weeks normal pay. Calculate the amount of
holiday loading for these employees.
a
Nicholas earns $6240 normal pay for 4 weeks.
b
Kumar earns $5130 normal pay for 4 weeks.
c
Samantha earns $5320 per fortnight.
d
Andrew earns $2760 per fortnight.
e
Bilal earns $1680 per week.

The local government pays its employees 17.5% holiday loading on 4 weeks normal pay.
Calculate the amount of holiday loading for these employees.
a
Paige earns an annual salary of $105 560. (Assume 52 weeks in a year.)
b
Jack earns an annual salary of $58 760. (Assume 52 weeks in a year.)
c
Riley earns $32 per hour and works a 35-hour week.
d
Aishah earns $41.50 per hour and works a 37-hour week.

Laura works a 37-hour week at a rate of $20.50 per hour. When she takes her 4 weeks
annual leave, she is paid a loading of 17 12 %. What is Lauras holiday pay when she takes
her leave?

Ethan is paid $660 per week. He receives a holiday leave loading of 17.5% for three
weeks holiday pay. What is his total holiday pay?

A bonus is awarded as a percentage of a persons annual salary. The percentage awarded


depends on the persons achievements. Calculate the following bonuses.
a
6% of $48 360
b
3% of $96 540
c
2% of $103 290
d

4.5% of $65 420

2 12 % of $88 580

1 14 % of $164 400

Grace received a bonus of 12% of her weekly wage. What was Graces bonus if her
weekly wage is $1850?

Patricks boss has decided to reward all employees with a bonus. The bonus awarded is
7 3 % of their annual salary. What is Patricks bonus if his annual salary is $74 980?
4

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14

Preliminary Mathematics General

Development
8

Chen receives 17.5% of 4 weeks normal pay as leave loading. If Chens leave loading
was $379.40, what was his normal weekly pay?

Create the spreadsheet below.

1C

b
c
d
e
f

10

Jim receives holiday loading of 17 12 % of 4 weeks pay. His loading was $996.80.
a
b

11

The formula for cell E5 is =IF(AND(C5>10,D5>50),400,0).


It is the formula that calculates a $400 bonus if the employer has more than 10 years
of service and more than 50 hours of overtime.
Fill down the contents of E6 to E10 using this formula.
Edit the overtime amount for Sienna Humes to 52.
Observe the changes in E7.
Edit the years of service for Ava White to 10.
Observe the changes in E10.
Edit the overtime amount for Dylan Fraser to 60.
Observe the changes in E6.
Edit the years of service for Xay Sengmany to 20.
Observe the changes in E9.
Edit the overtime amount for Benjamin Huynh to 40.
Observe the changes in E8.

Find his normal weekly pay.


Find his normal hourly pay rate if he usually works a 40 hour week.

Chloes annual salary is $72 800.


a
Calculate her weekly wage.
b
Holiday loading is calculated at 17 12 % of four weeks pay. Calculate Chloes holiday
loading.
c
Chloes employer has proposed to increase her annual salary by 1%. What is Chloes
new annual salary?
d
The increase in Chloes annual salary is compensation for removing holiday loading.
Explain why Chloe is worse off financially with the 1% increase.

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Chapter 1 Earning and managing money

15

1.4 Commission
Commission is usually a percentage of the value of the goods sold. People such as real estate
agents and salespersons are paid a commission.
1.4

Advantages

Higher sales increase the income

May receive a small payment (retainer)


plus the commission

Disadvantages

Income may vary each week

Competition for customers is usually


high

Commission
Commission = Percentage of the value of the goods sold

Example 7

Finding the commission

Zo sold a house for $650 000. Find the commission from the sale if her rate of commission
was 1.25%.
Solution
1
2
3
4

Commission = 1.25% of $650 000


= 0.0125 650 000
= $8125
Commission earned is $8125.

Write the quantity (commission) to be found.


Multiply 1.25% by $650 000.
Evaluate and write using correct units.
Write the answer in words.

Example 8

Finding the commission

An electrical goods salesman is paid $570.50 a week plus 4% commission on all sales over
$5000 a week. Find his earnings in a week where his sales amounted to $6800.
Solution
1
2
3
4
5

Commission on sales of over $5000 is


$1800.
Write the quantity (earnings) to be found.
Add weekly payment and commission of
4% on $1800.
Evaluate and write using correct units.
Write the answer in words.

Sales = 6800 5000


= 1800
Earnings = 570.50 + (4% of $1800)
= 570.50 + (0.04 1800)
= $642.50
Earnings were $642.50.

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 1D
1

Jake earns a commission of 4% on the sales price. What is the commission on the
following sales?
a
$8820
b
$16 740
c
$34 220

Michael Tran is a real estate agent. He


earns 2% on all sales. Calculate Michaels
commission on these sales.
a
$456 000
b
$420 000
c
$285 500
d
$590 700

Olivia sold a car valued at $54 000. Calculate Olivias commission from the sale if her
rate of commission is 3%.

Sophie earns a weekly retainer of $355 plus a commission of 10% on sales. What are
Sophies total earnings for each week if she made the following sales?
a
$760
b
$2870
c
$12 850

Chris earns $240 per week plus 25% commission on sales. Calculate Chriss weekly
earnings if he made sales of $2880.

Ella is a salesperson for a cosmetics company. She is paid $500 per week and a
commission of 3% on sales in excess of $800.
a
What does Ella earn in a week when she makes sales of $1200?
b
What does Ella earn in a week when she makes sales of $600?

A real estate agent charges a commission of 5% for the first $20 000 of the sale price and
2.5% for the balance of the sale price. Copy and complete the following table.
Sale price
a

$150 000

$200 000

$250 000

$300 000

5% commission on $20 000

2.5% commission on balance

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Chapter 1 Earning and managing money

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Development
8

Jade is a real estate agent and is paid an annual salary of $18 000 plus a commission of
2.5% on all sales. She is also paid a car allowance of $50 per week. What was Jades total
yearly income if she sold $1 200 000 worth of property?

The commission that a real estate agent charges for selling a property is based on the
selling price and is shown below.
Selling price

Commission

First $20 000

5%

Next $120 000

3%

Thereafter

1%

What is the commission charged on properties with the following selling prices?
a
$100 000
b
$150 000
c
$200 000
10

Harry is a sales person. He earns a basic wage of $300 per week and receives
commission on all sales. Last week he sold $20 000 worth of goods and earned $700.
What was Harrys rate of commission?

11

Caitlin and her assistant, Holly, sell perfume. Caitlin earns 20% commission on her own
sales, as well as 5% commission on Hollys sales. What was Caitlins commission last
month when she made sales of $1800 and Holly made sales of $2000?

12

A real estate agency charges a commission for selling a property based on the selling
price below.
Commission rates
Up to $300 000

4%

$300 000 and over

5%

Bailey is paid by the real estate agent $180 per week plus 5% of the commission received
by the real estate agency. This week, Bailey sold one property for $290 000 and one for
$600 000. He sold no properties in the previous week.
a
What is the commission paid to the real estate agency for the property worth
$290 000?
b
What is the commission paid to the real estate agency for both properties?
c
Calculate Baileys pay for this week.
d
What is Baileys average weekly income for the two-week period?

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18

Preliminary Mathematics General

1.5 Piecework, royalties and income from government


Piecework
Piecework is a fixed payment for work completed. People who are employed to complete a
particular task, such as an electrician installing lights, are earning piecework.
Advantages

Incentive to work hard. Income increases


with more work completed

Often flexible hours and work place

Disadvantages

No permanent employment

No superannuation, sick or holiday pay

Piecework
Piecework = Number of units of work Amount paid per unit

Example 9

Calculating a piecework payment

Noah is a tiler and charges $47 per square metre to lay tiles. How much will he earn for laying
tiles in a room whose area is 14 square metres?
Solution
1
2
3
4

Write the quantity (earnings) to be found.


Multiply number of square metres (14) by the
charge ($47).
Evaluate and write using correct units.
Write the answer in words.

Earnings = 14 $47
= $658

Noah earns $658.

Royalties
A royalty is a payment for the use of intellectual property such as a book or song. It is
calculated as a percentage of the revenue or profit received from its use. People such as
creative artists and authors receive a royalty.
Advantages

Incentive to work hard. Income


increases with a better product

Flexible hours and work place

Disadvantages

Income varies according to sales

No superannuation, sick and holiday pay

Royalty
Royalty = Percentage of the goods sold or profit received

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Chapter 1 Earning and managing money

Example 10

19

Calculating a royalty

Andrew is an author and is paid a royalty of 12% of books sold. Find his royalties if there
were 2480 books sold at $67.50 each.
Solution
1
2
3
4

Write the quantity (royalty) to be found.


Multiply 12% by the total sales or 2480
$67.50
Evaluate and write using correct units.
Write the answer in words.

Royalty = 12% of (2480 $67.50)


= 0.12 2480 67.50
= $20 088
Andrew earns $20 088 in royalties.

Incomes from the government


Some people receive a pension, allowance or benefit
from the government. For example, the age pension
is payable for a person who has reached 65 years
of age (male). The requirements for receiving these
incomes may change according to the priorities of
the current government.

Example 11

Calculating an income from the government

Youth allowance helps people studying, undertaking training or in an apprenticeship.


Status

Allowance per fortnight

Under 18, at home

$194.50

Under 18, away from home

$355.40

18 and over, away from home

$355.40

18 and over, at home

$233.90

How much youth allowance does Ryan receive in a year if he is over 18 and living at home
while studying?
Solution
1
2
3
4

Write the quantity (allowance) to be found.


Multiply allowance per fortnight ($233.90) by 26.
Evaluate and write using correct units.
Write the answer in words.

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Allowance = $233.90 26
= $6081.40
Youth allowance is $6081.40.
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20

Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 1E
1

A dry cleaner charges $9 to clean a dress. How much do they earn by dry cleaning:
a
250 dresses?
b
430 dresses?
c
320 dresses?

Abbey is an artist who makes $180 for each large portrait and $100 for each small
portrait. How much will she earn if she sells 13 large and 28 small portraits?

Angus works part-time by addressing envelopes at home and is paid $23 per 100
envelopes completed, plus $40 to deliver them to the office. What is his pay for
delivering 2000 addressed envelopes?

Emilio earns a royalty of 24% on net sales from writing a fiction book. There were
$18 640 net sales in the last financial year. What is Emilios royalty payment?

Calculate the royalties on the following sales.


a
3590 books sold at $45.60 with a 8% royalty payment
b
18 432 DVDs sold at $20 with a 10% royalty payment
c
4805 computer games sold at $65.40 with a 5% royalty payment

Austudy provides financial help for people aged 25 or older who are studying full-time.
Status

a
b

Fortnightly payment

Single, no children

$355.40

Single, with children

$465.60

Partnered, with children

$390.20

Partnered, no children

$355.40

How much does Madison receive in a year if she is single with a child and studying
full-time? Madison is 29 years old.
How much does Oscar receive in a year if he is partnered with no children and
studying full-time? Oscar is 35 years old.

Child-care benefit is available to support parents in the workforce. The rate per fortnight
is shown below.
No. of children Fortnightly pay
1

$337.00

$704.34

$1099.26

Calculate the yearly payment for:


a
One child
b
Two children

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Three children

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Chapter 1 Earning and managing money

21

Development
8

Tahlia receives $19.40 for delivering 200 brochures. She receives an additional $30 per
day when delivering in wet weather. How much does she receive for delivering:
a
600 brochures on a clear day?
b
1000 brochures on a clear day?
c
800 brochures on a wet day?
d
1400 brochures on a wet day?

Mitchell works in a factory that makes key rings. Each key ring completed earns him
$0.34. Mitchell also receives an additional $25 if he works on the weekend. How much
does he earn for making:
a
420 key rings on Friday?
b
460 key rings on Wednesday?
c
380 key rings on Saturday?
d
230 key rings on Sunday?

10

A doctor charges each patient $33.50 for


a consultation. He works for 6 hours a day
and usually sees 5 patients per hour.
a
How much money does the doctor
receive each day?
b
The doctor also has costs of $410 per
day. What is the profit for the day?

11

Austudy is reduced by 50 cents for every dollar between $62 and $250 of fortnightly
income. Tyler is 28 years of age, partnered and has one child. He is studying full-time but
earning $126 per fortnight in a part-time job. What will be Tylers fortnightly payment
from Austudy? Use the Austudy table on the previous page.

12

Anthony writes crime novels. He has just received his half-yearly statement of sales of
his latest novel. He has been informed that 20 000 copies were printed and there are 8760
left in stock. Anthony receives 15% of the retail price as royalties.
a
How many copies of his latest novel were sold?
b
What is Anthonys royalty if the retail price of his latest novel is $24.95?
c
What is Anthonys royalty if the retail price of $24.95 was discounted by 10%?

13

The maximum youth allowance is reduced by $1 for every $4 that the youths parents
income is over $31 400. By how much is Charlottes youth allowance reduced if her
parents earn a combined income of $34 728?

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22

Preliminary Mathematics General

1.6 Gross pay, net pay and deductions

1.6

Employers must pay the minimum rate of an award or enterprise agreement. The rate
will depend on the type of work and the actual times worked. Gross pay is the total of an
employees pay including allowances, overtime pay, commissions and bonuses. It is the
amount of money before any deductions are made. The amount remaining after deductions
have been subtracted is called the net pay or take-home pay.
Deductions are a regular amount of money subtracted from a persons wage or salary. People
have many different deductions subtracted from their gross pay such as:

Income tax a charge that funds the governments operations

Superannuation an investment for retirement. An employer must contribute 9% of the


employees wages into a superannuation fund.

Health insurance private insurance to cover medical and dental costs

Union fee payment for union membership.


Gross pay, net pay and deductions
Net pay = Gross pay Deductions

Example 12

Calculating the net pay

Laura is a nurse who receives a gross weekly wage of $2345.


She has the following deductions taken from her pay:

Income tax $861

Health fund payments $48.25

Superannuation $67.95.
What is Lauras net pay?

Solution
1
2
3
4
5

Write the quantity (net pay) to be


found.
Write the formula for net pay.
Substitute the values for gross pay
and deductions.
Evaluate and write using correct units.
Write the answer in words.

Net pay = Gross pay deductions


= 2345 (861 + 48.25 + 67.95)
= $1367.80

Lauras net pay is $1367.80

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Chapter 1 Earning and managing money

Example 13

23

Reading information from a pay slip

Oscar received the following pay slip. What amount is received this pay for:
a
gross pay?
b
net pay?
c
superannuation?
d
PAYG tax?

Ordinary time
Annual holiday
Total Gross Earnings

Hours
26.00
0.0

Rate Amount This Pay Year to Date


$25.000 $650.00
$25.994 $ 0.0
$650.00
$1 300.00

PAYG Tax

$100.00

$ 200.00

Social Club
HECS Repayments
Superannuation
Less Post-tax deductions

$
$
$
$

2.00
13.00
35.00
50.00

$
4.00
$ 26.00
$ 70.00
$ 100.00

Net Pay

$450.00

$ 900.00

$450.00

$ 900.00

Direct Credit to
account: 00000000
Total Payments
Solution
1
2
3
4

Read the value for gross earnings.


Read the value for net pay.
Read the value for superannuation.
Read the value for PAYG tax.

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a
b
c
d

Gross pay is $650.00.


Net pay is $450.00.
Superannuation is $35.00.
PAYG tax is $100.00.

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24

Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 1F
1

Calculate the weekly net pay for these people.


a
Isabella receives a gross pay of $1386 and has total deductions of $875.
b
Kim-Ly receives a gross pay of $985 and has total deductions of $265.
c
Christopher receives a gross pay of $715 and has total deductions of $222.

Calculate the weekly net earnings for these people.


a
Daniel receives a gross weekly wage of $1056 and has deductions of $294.75 for
income tax, $28.80 for superannuation and $325.05 for loan repayments.
b
Hannah receives a gross weekly wage of $3042 and has deductions of $1068 for
income tax, health fund payments for $50.85, superannuation for $53.55 and savings
for $450.
c
Kapil receives a gross weekly wage of $2274. He has deductions of $768 for income
tax, $28.95 for health insurance, $49.02 for superannuation, $15.30 for life insurance
and $450 for loan repayments.

Jacks annual gross pay is


$48 750. The deductions are
$9150 for income tax, $1462
for health insurance and $5280
for superannuation.
a
What are Jacks total
deductions?
b
What is Jacks annual
net pay?

Calculate the weekly gross pay for these people.


a
Aaron receives a net weekly pay of $1245 and has deductions of $374.15 for income
tax, $45.60 for superannuation and $25.20 for union membership.
b
Hannah receives a net weekly pay of $2645 and has deductions of $1068 for income
tax, $53.95 for health fund payments and $83.75 for superannuation.
c
Ivan receives a net weekly pay of $2511. He has deductions of $913 for income tax,
$31.95 for health insurance, $59.46 for superannuation, $18.20 for life insurance and
$470 for loan repayments.

Harrys net pay is $57 908. The deductions are $12 580 for income tax, $2087 for health
insurance and $6910 for superannuation. What is Harrys gross pay?

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Chapter 1 Earning and managing money

25

Joshua is on a working holiday. He picked pieces of fruit on a farm as follows:


Monday 170
Tuesday 130
Wednesday 145
Thursday 210
Friday 190.
a
What is his gross salary at $0.55 per piece of fruit?
b
What is his net salary if he has total deductions of $121?

Charlotte owns an investment property that is rented out for $320 per week. She pays the
real estate agent a fee of 3% for managing the property.
a
How much does she pay the real estate agent each week?
b
How much does Charlotte receive each week from the investment property?
c
What is the net income received by Charlotte from this property over the year?

Nicholas receives a yearly gross salary of $74 568. He pays 18% of his weekly gross
salary in income tax. He contributes 9% of his weekly gross salary to his superannuation
fund and has $155 in miscellaneous deductions each week.
a
What is his gross weekly
pay?
b
How much income tax is
deducted each week?
c
How much superannuation
is he contributing each
week?
d
What is the total amount
of deductions made each
week?
e
What is his net weekly
pay this week?

Lakshmi receives a fortnightly pay of $2240. She pays 15% of her weekly gross salary in
income tax. She contributes 9% of her weekly gross salary to her superannuation fund
and has $95 in miscellaneous deductions each week.
a
What is her gross weekly pay?
b
How much income tax is deducted each week?
c
How much superannuation is she contributing each week?
d
What is the total amount of deductions made each week?
e
What is her net weekly pay this week?

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26

Preliminary Mathematics General

Development

13.1

10

Charlie is a building worker who receives $48.50 per hour for a 38-hour week. In
addition he receives an allowance of $3.50 per hour for work on a multistorey
development. Charlie is currently working on six-storey apartment block. Each week he
has deducted from his pay a superannuation contribution of 9% of his gross pay and
union fees of $28.45. Because he only started working late in the financial year, he
doesnt yet have to pay tax.
a
What is his gross weekly pay this week?
b
How much superannuation is he contributing each week?
c
What is his net weekly pay this week?

11

Emily receives a gross fortnightly salary of $2703 and has deductions of $891.75 for
income tax, $54.30 for health fund payments, $753 for car loan payments and $14.55 for
union subscription.
a
What is Emilys net income each fortnight?
b
What percentage of her gross income is deducted for income tax? (Answer correct to
one decimal place.)

12

Liam received a gross fortnightly salary of $3795. His pay deductions were $937.20, for
income tax, $215.25 for superannuation, $21.45 for union fees and $201 for a home loan
repayment.
a
What is his net income each fortnight?
b
What was his weekly net pay?
c
What percentage of his gross income was deducted for income tax? (Answer correct
to one decimal place.)
d
If Liams loan repayment increased by 10%, what was his new fortnightly net pay?

13

Jane normally works 37 hours a week at


$54 per hour. In one particular week she worked
42 hours and received overtime at the rate of
time-and-a-half. Her deductions for the week
were income tax $602.20, medical fund $49.60,
superannuation $74.40 and motor vehicle
repayment $417.40.
a
What was Janes gross weekly wage?
b
What was her net income for the week?
c
What percentage of her gross income is spent
on a motor vehicle repayment? Answer correct
to the nearest per cent.

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Chapter 1 Earning and managing money

27

1.7 Budgeting
Budgeting involves balancing of income and the expenses. It is planning how to manage your
income. Budgets are created for a specified time such as weekly, monthly or yearly.
Creating a budget

1.7
1
2
3
4

List all the income categories.


List all the expense categories.
Calculate the total of the income and expenses categories.
Balance the budget by modifying the categories or by entering a balance category.

Example 14

Balancing a budget

Balance the following weekly budget.


Income

Expenses

Salary

$1726.15

Clothing

$ 73.08

Bonus

Gifts and Christmas

$114.80

Investment

$ 156.78

Groceries

$467.31

Part-time work

$ 393.72

Insurance

$171.34

Loan repayments

$847.55

Motor vehicle costs

$105.96

Phone

$ 38.26

Power and heating

$ 51.82

Rates

$ 54.82

Recreation

$216.79

Work-related costs

$ 68.76

20.00

Balance
Total

Total
Solution
1

Add all the income.

Add the all the expenses excluding the


balance.
Subtract the total expenses from the total
income.
Write the result of step 3 as the balance.

3
4

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Income = 1726.15 + + 393.72


= $2296.65
Expenses = 73.08 + + 68.92
= $2210.49
Balance = Income Expenses
= 2296.6 2210.49
= $86.16
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28

Preliminary Mathematics General

Example 15

Creating a budget

Maya and Logan have a weekly net wage of $954. Their monthly expenses are home loan
repayment $1032, car loan repayment $600, electricity $102, phone $66 and car maintenance
$120. Their other expenses include insurance $2160 annually, rates $1800 annually, food
$180 weekly, petrol $48 fortnightly and train fares $36 weekly. Maya and Logan allow $72 for
miscellaneous items weekly and need to save $84 per week for a holiday next year.
a
Prepare a monthly budget for Maya and Logan. Assume there are four weeks in a month.
b
What is the balance?
c
How can Maya and Logan ensure they have their holiday next year?
Solution
a

Income
Wage

Expenses
$3816

Home loan repayment


Car loan repayment

$600

Electricity

$102
$66

Phone
Car maintenance

$120

Insurance

$180

Rates

$150

Food

$720

Petrol

$96

Train fares

$144

Miscellaneous

$288

Holiday

$336

Balance

$18

$3816
1
2
3
4

$1032

$3816

List all the monthly income categories.


List all the monthly expenses categories.
Calculate the total income and expenses
categories.
Subtract the total expenses from the total
income to calculate the balance.

Solution is shown above.


Total income = $3816
Total expenses = $3834

The balance is $18. A negative balance


indicates an increase in their income or
reduction in their expenses.

Balance = $3816 $3834


= $18
Maya and Logan need to
increase income or reduce
expenses by $18.

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Chapter 1 Earning and managing money

Exercise 1G
1

Oscar and Jill are living in a unit. Part of their budget is shown below. Calculate the
total amount paid over one year for:
a

Electricity

Insurance

Food

Rent.

Item

When

Cost

Electricity

Quarterly

$ 384

Food

Weekly

$ 360

Insurance

Biannually $ 1275

Rent

Monthly

$ 1950

Sarah earns $67 365 annually. She has budgeted 20% of her salary for rent. How much
should she expect to pay to rent an apartment for one year?

Adam has constructed a yearly budget as shown below.


Income

Expenses

Wage

$60 786.22 Clothing

$ 4 634.42

Interest

$ 1 543.56

674.15 Council rates


Electricity

$ 1 956.87

Entertainment

$ 4 987.80

Food

$17 543.90

Gifts and Christmas $ 5 861.20


Insurance

$ 2 348.12

Loan repayments

$16 789.34

Motor vehicle costs

$ 2 458.91

Telephone

832.98

Work-related costs

812.67

Balance
Total
a
b
c
4

Total

Calculate the total income.


Calculate the total expenses.
Balance the budget.

Dimitri had a total weekly income of $104 made up of a part-time job earning $74
and an allowance of $30. He decided to budget his expenses in the following way:
sport $24, movies $22, school $16 and food $20.
a
Prepare a weekly budget showing income and expenses.
b
What is the balance?

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29

30

Preliminary Mathematics General

Development
5

Create the spreadsheet below.

1G

a
b
c
d
e

14.1

The formula for cell E5 is =C5/$C$7. It is the formula for relative percentage. Fill
down the contents of E5 to E7 using this formula.
Enter formulas in E9:E17 to calculate the relative percentages for expenses.
Edit the amount spent per month on eating out from $200 to $240. Observe the
changes.
Edit the amount of savings per month from $300 to $360. Observe the changes.
Edit the amount of car expenses per month from $100 to $150. Observe the
changes.

Ava has a gross fortnightly pay of $1896.


a
Ava has a mortgage with an annual repayment of $13 676. Calculate the amount that
Ava must budget each fortnight for her mortgage.
b
Ava has budgeted $180 per week for groceries, $60 per week for entertainment, $468
per year for medical expenses and $80 per week to run a car. Express these as
fortnightly amounts and calculate their total.
c
Ava has an electricity bill of $130 per quarter, telephone bill of $91 per quarter and
council rates of $1118 per annum. Express these amounts annually and convert to
fortnightly amounts. What is the total of these fortnightly amounts?
d
Prepare a fortnightly budget showing income and expenses.

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Chapter 1 Earning and managing money

Salary and wages

Overtime and special allowances

Annual leave loading and bonuses

Commission

Piecework, royalties and government

Gross pay, net pay and deductions

Budgeting

Study guide 1

Salary payment for a years work, which is then divided


into equal monthly, fortnightly or weekly payments
Wage payment for work that is calculated on an hourly
basis
Overtime work beyond the normal working day
Casual rate set amount paid for each hours work
Time-and-a-half rate = normal rate 1.5
Double time rate = normal rate 2
Allowance payment for difficult or dangerous
conditions
Annual leave loading payment for going on holidays
Holiday loading = 17 12 % normal weekly pay weeks
leave
Bonus extra payment or gift earned as a reward
Commission percentage of the value of the goods sold
Retainer small payment in addition to the commission
Piecework payment for work completed
Piecework = Number of units of work Amount paid
per unit
Royalty percentage of the goods sold or profit received
Government income pension, allowance or benefit
Gross pay total of the employees pay including
allowances, overtime pay, commissions and bonuses
Deductions regular amount of money subtracted from a
persons wage or salary such as income tax
Net pay = Gross pay Deductions
Budgeting balancing of income and expenses. Budgets
are created for a specified time such as weekly.

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Review

Chapter summary Earning and managing money

31

Review

32

Preliminary Mathematics General

Chapter HSC
Sample
summary
Objective-response
Earning Moneyquestions
1

Alyssa receives a salary of $85 640. How much does she receive each fortnight?
A $3293.84
B $3293.85
C $1646.92
D $1646.93

Christopher receives a normal hourly rate of $22.60 per hour. What is his pay when he
works 8 hours at a normal rate and 3 hours at time-and-a-half?
A $180.80
B $248.60
C $282.50
D $316.40

Rana works a 38-hour week at a rate of $26.00 per hour. She receives 17 1 % of 4 weeks
2
normal pay as holiday loading. What is Ranas holiday loading?
A $172.90
B $691.60
C $3952.00
D $4643.60

Taylah earns a weekly retainer of $425 plus a commission of 8% on sales. What are her
weekly earnings when she made sales of $8620?
A $34.00
B $459.00
C $689.60
D $1114.60

Ahmet is a carpet layer and charges $37.50 per square metre of carpet laid. How much will
he earn for laying carpet in a room whose area is 9 square metres?
A $37.50
B $46.50
C $337.50
D $675.00

Isabelle earns a royalty of 18% on net sales from writing her autobiography. There were
$24 520 net sales in the last year. What is Isabelles royalty payment?
A $4413.60
B $20 106.40
C $24 520.00
D $28 933.60

Anguss net pay is $68 806. The deductions are $20 630 for income tax, $1051 for health
insurance and $5487 for superannuation. What is his gross pay?
A $27 168
B $41 638
C $47 125
D $95 974

Adam has the following bills: electricity $250 per quarter, phone $70 per month, rates
$1200 per year and rent $300 per week. What is the total amount Adam should budget for
the year?
A $358
B $1553
C $1820
D $18 640

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Chapter 1 Earning and managing money

33

Jake earns $96 470.40 per annum and works an average of 48 hours per week.
a What is his average weekly wage?
b Calculate Jakes hourly rate of pay.

Alex works for a fast-food company and is paid $13.50 per hour for a 35-hour week.
He gets time-and-a-half pay for overtime worked on the weekdays and double time
for the weekends. Last week he worked a normal 35-hour week plus three hours of
overtime during the week and four hours of overtime on the weekend. What was his
wage last week?

Carlos employer has decided to reward all employees with a bonus. The bonus awarded is
6 14 % of their annual salary. What is Carlos bonus if his annual salary is $85 940?

The public service provides all employees with a 17 12 % holiday loading on four weeks
normal wages. Lucy works a 37-hour week for the public service in Canberra. She is paid a
normal hourly rate of $32.40.
a How much will Lucy receive in holiday loading?
b Calculate the total amount of pay that Lucy will receive for her holidays.

Chelsea is a real estate agent and charges the following commission for selling the
property: 3% on the first $45 000, then 2% for the next $90 000 and 1 12 % thereafter.
a What is Chelseas commission if she sold a property for $240 000?
b How much would the owner of the property receive from the sale?

Patrick is a comedian who makes $120 for a short performance and $260 for a long
performance. How much will he earn if he completes 11 short and 12 long performances?
Challenge questions 1

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Review

Chapter HSC
Sample
summary
Short-answer
Earning Money
questions

Review

34

Preliminary Mathematics General

Bailey is paid a royalty of 11.3% on the net sales of his book. The net sales of his book in
the last financial year was $278 420.
a What is Baileys royalty payment in the last financial year?
b Net sales this financial year are expected to decrease by 15%. What is the expected
royalty payment for this financial year?

The maximum youth allowance is reduced by $1 for every $4 that the youths parents
income exceeds $31 400. By how much is Hannahs youth allowance reduced if her parents
earn a combined income of $35 624?

William works as a builder. His annual union fees are $278.20. William has his union fees
deducted from his weekly pay. What is the size of Williams weekly union deduction?

10

Quan received a gross fortnightly salary of $2968. His pay deductions were $765.60 for
income tax, $345.15 for superannuation and $23.40 for union fees.
a What was his fortnightly net pay?
b What percentage of his gross income was deducted for income tax? (Answer correct to
one decimal place.)

11

Joel is a carpet layer and charges $16 per square metre to lay carpet. How much will he earn
for laying carpet in a house whose area is 32 square metres?

12

Daniel has a gross monthly wage of $3640. He has the following deductions taken from his
pay: $764 for income tax, $71.65 for superannuation and $23.23 for union membership.
What is Daniels net pay?

13

Hannah has budgeted $210 per week for groceries, $70 per week for leisure, $23 per
fortnight for medical expenses and $90 per week to run a car. Calculate the monthly
expenses. Assume 4 weeks in a month.

14

Amelie earns $90 345 annually. She has budgeted 30% of her salary for a loan repayment.
How much should she expect to pay for a loan repayment for one year?
Challenge questions 1

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C H A P T E R

Algebraic manipulation
Syllabus topic AM1 Algebraic manipulation
Add and subtract like terms
Multiply and divide algebraic terms
Expand and factorise algebraic expressions
Evaluate the subject of the formula through substitution
Solve linear equations involving up to 3 steps
Solve equations following substitution

2.1 Adding and subtracting like terms


A pronumeral (letter) represents a number. It may stand for an unknown value or series of
values that change. For example, in the equation x + 5 = 8, x is a pronumeral that represents a
value. Its value can be determined because we know 3 + 5 = 8, so x = 3.
2.1
When a term has a pronumeral and a number, the number is written before the pronumeral and
is called the coefficient. For example, the term 3xy has a coefficient of 3 and its pronumerals
are written after the coefficient in alphabetical order.

Like terms
Terms that have exactly the same pronumerals such as 2a and 5a are called like terms. Only
like terms can be added and subtracted. It involves adding and subtracting the coefficients.
Adding and subtracting like terms simplifies the algebraic expression. It is often called
collecting the like terms.

35
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36

Preliminary Mathematics General

Adding and subtracting like terms


1
2
3

Find the like terms or the terms that have exactly the same pronumerals.
Only like terms can be added or subtracted; unlike terms cannot.
Add or subtract the coefficients or the numbers before the pronumeral of the like terms.

Example 1

Adding and subtracting like terms

Simplify 2ab + 3 + 5ab 7.


Solution
1
2

Rewrite the expression by grouping


the like terms.
Add and subtract the coefficients.

Example 2

2ab + 3 + 5ab 7 = (2ab + 5ab) + 3 7


= 7ab 4

Adding and subtracting like terms

Simplify 4y + 6y2 3y 5y2.


Solution
1
2

Rewrite the expression by


grouping the like terms.
Add and subtract the coefficients.

4y + 6y2 3y 5y2 = 6y2 5y2 + 4y 3y


= y2 + y

Adding and subtracting algebraic fractions


To add and subtract algebraic fractions rewrite each fraction as an equivalent fraction with
a common denominator, then add or subtract the numerators. A common denominator can
always be found by multiplying the denominators of both fractions together.
Example 3

Simplify

Adding and subtracting algebraic fractions

x x
+ .
6 4

Solution
1
2
3
4

Find a common denominator for 6 and 4. Both 6 and 4


divide into 12. Alternatively, multiply 6 by 4 and use 24.
Multiply the first fraction by 2 (6 2 = 12) and the
second fraction by 3 (4 3 = 12).
Write the equivalent fractions.
Add the numerators of the equivalent fractions.

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x x x2 x3
+ =
+
6 4 62 43
2 x 3x
=
+
12 12
5x
=
12

Cambridge University Press

Chapter 2 Algebraic manipulation

Exercise 2A
1

Choose the like terms out of each of the following.


a
4r, 6p, r, 7
b
5x, 3xy, 2x
c
2
d
xy, 4xy, xy , 3yx
e
3, 2m, mn, 9m
f

-a, 5a, -8b, 7


c, cd, cde, dc, ce

Simplify by collecting like terms.


a

4y + 3y

3 p + 1177 p

7h 6 h

3xx x

d + 4d

6 y 1122 y

d + ( 4 d )

33tt + ( 11t )

11 f ( 5 f )

4 hg + 66gh

5ab + 22ba

xyz + 3 xyz

Simplify by collecting like terms.


a

5c + 4 + 2 c

4 f +4 f 7

8 + 5r
5r + 12 r

6 x + 4 y 3x

3b + 7a 2 a

h + 2d 6 h

4 de + ed 22de

7a + b + 2a
2 a 2b

xy + 2 yx + 3 xy

6ba 2b
2b + ( aabb )

7a + ( b ) + 22aa 2b

5 g + h + ( g ) + 8h

Simplify by collecting like terms.


a

8 x 2 3x x 2 + 4

4 a + a 2 33aa 2 + a

7t + 8t 2 6t 7t 2

3m 2 + 8m 4 m m 2

e 2 + 2e + e 2 e

d + d 2 5d + d 2

2w + w 2 + 5 + w

6 v2 + v 4

8r 7 7r 33r 2

Add or subtract the algebraic fractions.


a

a a
+
3 3

3x 2 x

5
5

2 m 3m
+
4
4

3x x

7 7

d 2d
+
11 11

6y 2y

15 15

4 s 9s
+
3
3

9f 4f

8
8

y y
+
2 4

7e e

6 3

g 4g
+
2 6

r 4r

2 10

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37

38

Preliminary Mathematics General

Development
6

Which of the following is equivalent to m + m + m + n + n ?


a

2 m + m + 22n

m3 + n2

5m 4 m + 3n n

7m 4 m + 2 n n

3n n + m 22m

2 m + 5m 2 n + 3n

Copy and add like terms where possible to complete the table.
+

x+y

3x

3x
7y
x-y
2y
8

Matteo has $y for shopping. He spent $x for a pair of jeans, $3x for a shirt and $2x for a
belt. Write an expression in simplified form for how many dollars he has left.

The perimeter of a plane shape is the distance around the


boundary of the shape. The plane shape opposite is a rectangle
with a length l and a breadth b. Write an expression for the
perimeter of this rectangle by collecting like terms.

10

The isosceles triangle opposite has three sides whose


lengths are 3x + y, 3x + y and x + 2y. Write an expression in
simplified form for the perimeter of this triangle by
collecting like terms.

b
l

3x + y

x + 2y
3x + y

11

Add or subtract the algebraic fractions.


a
d
g
j

w w
+
4 3
z z

3 5
u 4u
+
10 15
3a a a
+
5 4 2

b
e
h
k

a a

4 5
3h h
+
8 6
3e e

4 10
7x x x
+
10 6 3

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c
f
i
l

x 2x
+
7 3
5r r

12 8
w w w
+ +
2 4 6
d d
d+
2 10

Cambridge University Press

Chapter 2 Algebraic manipulation

39

2.2 Multiplication and division of algebraic terms

2.2

Algebraic terms are multiplied and divided to form a single algebraic expression. Terms
usually contain a coefficient before a pronumeral. The multiplication sign between the
coefficient and the pronumeral is omitted. For example, the algebraic term 4x can be written
in expanded form as 4 x. After an algebraic expression is written in expanded form, the
coefficients can be multiplied or divided and the pronumerals can be multiplied or divided.
Index notation should be used to write expressions in a shorter way such as a a = a2. If the
algebraic terms contain fractions it is easier to cancel any common factors in the numerator
and denominator. This makes the calculations easier.
Multiplication and division of algebraic terms
1
2
3
4
5
6

Write in expanded form.


If the algebraic term is a fraction cancel any common factors.
Multiply and divide the coefficients.
Multiply and divide the pronumerals.
Write the coefficient before the pronumerals.
Write the pronumerals in alphabetical order and express in index notation.

Example 4

Multiplying algebraic terms

Simplify the following.


a
2cd (3de )

x2 3x 4 x

Solution
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
5

Write in expanded form.


Multiply the coefficients (2 3 = 6).
Write the pronumerals in alphabetical
order.
Express answer using index notation
(d d = d 2).
Write in expanded form.
Multiply the coefficients (1 3 4 = 12).
Write the coefficient before the
pronumerals.
Write the pronumerals using index
notation.
Express the answer using index notation
(x2 x x = x4).

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2 cd (3de ) = 2 c d 3 d e
= 6 c d d e
= 6 cd 2 e

x 2 3 x 4 x = 12 x 2 x x
= 12 x 2 x1 x1
= 12 x 4
= 12 x 4

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40

Preliminary Mathematics General

Dividing algebraic terms

Example 5

Simplify 18a 2b 6 a.
Solution
1
2
3
4

5
6

Write in fraction form.


Write in expanded form.
Divide the coefficients (18 6 = 3).
Cancel the pronumeral a in both the
numerator and denominator (common factor
of a, aa = a a = 1).
Write the coefficient before the pronumerals.
Write the pronumerals in alphabetical order.
Dividing algebraic terms with fractions

Example 6

Simplify

18a 2b
6a
18 a a b
=
6a
3 a a1 b
=
a1
= 3 a b
= 3ab

18a 2b 6a
6a =

x
8 xy

.
12 y 20

Solution
1
2

5
6
7
8

Write fractions in expanded form.


Determine any common factors in
the numerator and the
denominator.
Cancel out the common factors
(4 is a common factor of 8 and 12,
2 is a common factor of 2 and 4).
Cancel the pronumeral y in both
the numerator and denominator as
it is a common factor.
Multiply the numerators together.
Multiply the denominators
together.
Express the answer using index
notation (x x = x2).
Write the coefficient before the
pronumerals. However, it is
acceptable to leave the answer
as x .

x
8 xy
x
8 x y

12 y 20 12 y
20
4 1 2 1 x y 1
x
=

41 3 y1
42 5
x x
=
3 2 5
x2
1 2
=
or
x

30 30

30

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Chapter 2 Algebraic manipulation

Exercise 2B
1

Multiply these algebraic terms.


a
6g 4
b
7 5m
20 x 5 x
d
a 7a
e

2 4d
4 7
5s s 6

33 f 1155 f

Multiply these algebraic terms.


a
mn 4mn
b
15 yz 3 y

5 pq (2 pr )

3e 7e 2

4 w (4
(4w )

3x 2 2 x

2 r 3 4r 2

24 q2 2 q2

3st 3 5 st

de 2 ( 5d 2 e )

z2 4z 5z

6 mn
18

What is the product of 4uw2 and uw?

Simplify these algebraic terms.


12 y
16 a
a
b
6
4

14b
2b

12 m 3
12 m

2 xyz
26 x

8 x2
64 x

5r 2
15rs

10 pq
2q

27 h2 ( 3)

Write in fraction form and simplify.


a
20 z 4
b
22 w 2 2
d

33 y 11 y

12 ab 4 a

25kj 2 5kj

4 x 3 2288 x 2

2 s 8s 2

7m 2211m 3

Express 16 xy in simplest form.


12 x

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41

42

Preliminary Mathematics General

Development
7

Multiply the algebraic terms in the first column by each algebraic term given to complete
the table.

2p2

pq

5p
6pq
2q2

Simplify the following.


c

5w
2w
9

2 3a

a 6

5w 2 w

7
9

m 6 mn

9n 15

d c

e 3d

8y
4y
3

6d

5 x 12

4
x

10a 3b

b
4

2d
5

Divide the algebraic terms in the first column by each algebraic term given to complete
the table.

2r

4rt

8r
12rt
4r2
10

11

12

5x
2

The plane shape opposite is a rectangle with a length of 52x and a


breadth of 3x2. Write an expression in simplest form for the area of
this rectangle.

3x2

3 2
Express 8 x y in simplest form.
16 x 2 y 3

Simplify the following.


a

15h2 3k 3

3k
4

21v 2 5u 3

15uv
7

18a 2 6b 3 a

12b
9a 2

9m 3 6 mn 2
3m 2 n

3( m + 1)
4m3

8m
2( m + 1)

7 y4
5( y 2 )

10( y 2 )
21 y 6

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Chapter 2 Algebraic manipulation

43

2.3 Expanding algebraic expressions


Grouping symbols in algebraic expressions indicate the order of operations. The two most
commonly used grouping symbols are parentheses ( ) and brackets [ ]. They are removed by
using the distributive law or a (b + c) = ab + ac. This is illustrated below.
2.3

Using order of operations


2 ( 3 + 1) = 2 4
=8

Using distributive law


2 ( 3 + 1) = 2 3 + 2 1
=6+2
=8

To expand an algebraic expression using the distributive law, multiply the number or terms
inside the grouping symbols by the number or term outside the grouping symbols. The
resulting algebraic expression is simplified by collecting the like terms.
Make sure you remember to multiply all the terms inside the grouping symbol by the number
or term outside the grouping symbols.
Expanding algebraic expressions
1

Multiply the number or term outside the grouping symbol by the


a first term inside the grouping symbol.
b second term inside the grouping symbol.
Simplify and collect like terms if required.
a(b + c ) = a b + a c a(b c ) = a b a c
= ab + ac
= ab ac

Example 7

Expanding algebraic expressions

Expand 5( 2 y 3).
Solution
1
2
3

Multiply the first term inside the parenthesis (2y) by


the number outside the parenthesis (5).
Multiply the second term inside the parenthesis (-3)
by the number outside the parenthesis (5).
Write in simplest form.

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5( 2 y 3) = 5 2 y 5 3
= 10 y 15

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44

Preliminary Mathematics General

Example 8

Expanding algebraic expressions

Expand -(m - 5).


Solution
1
2
3

Multiply the first term inside the parenthesis (m)


by the number outside the parenthesis (-1).
Multiply the second term inside the parenthesis
(-5) by the number outside the parenthesis (-1).
Write in simplest form.

Example 9

( m 5) = 1 ( m 5)
= 1 m 1 5
= m + 5

Expanding and simplify algebraic expressions

Remove the grouping symbols for 2(3x + 4) + 3(x - 1) and simplify if possible.
Solution
1
2
3
4

Multiply the first term inside the parenthesis


(3x) by the number outside the parenthesis (2).
Multiply the second term inside the parenthesis
(+4) by the number outside the parenthesis (2).
Repeat the first two steps for the second
parenthesis.
Simplify by collecting the like terms.

Example 10

2( 3 x + 4 ) + 3(
3( x 1)
= 2 3 x + 2 4 + 3 x + 3 1
= 6 x + 8 + 3x 3
= 9x + 5

Expanding and simplifying algebraic expressions

Expand a(3a + 2) - a(a - 1) and simplify if possible.


Solution
1
2

3
4

Multiply the first term inside the parenthesis


(3a) by the term outside the parenthesis (a).
Multiply the second term inside the
parenthesis (+2) by the term outside the
parenthesis (a).
Repeat the first two steps for the second
parenthesis.
Simplify by collecting the like terms.

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a( 3a + 2 ) a( a 1)
= a ( 3a + 2 ) a ( a 1)
= a 3a + a 2 a a a 1
= 3a 2 + 2 a a 2 + a
= 2 a 2 + 3a

Cambridge University Press

Chapter 2 Algebraic manipulation

Exercise 2C
1

Ryan was required to remove the grouping symbols. This was his solution.
3( 3 x 2 ) = 9 x 2
Where is the error in Ryans working?

Expand each of the following.


a

3( a + 2 )

2( d + 1)

2( 3 x + 4 )

2(5 x 7)

7(b 2 )
4( 9b + 1)

4(5 + 2t )

6(1 2 w )

5( 3 + 9d )

8(5e 2 d )

5( 4 a + 9b )

7( 2 h + 8 g )

Expand each of the following.


3( y + 5)
a
4( x + 3)
b

(b + 8)

7( k 2 )

6( w 1)

2( x 13)

2( 4 + 2 q)

5( 3 4 r )

7(8 2 s )

n( n + 10)

d (6 d 2 )

c(d + 4e )

Expand each of the following.


b

y( y + 1)
x( 2 x 3)

v(v + 4)
e( 3e + 5)

z (7e + 33ff )

a( 2b 3c )

Remove the grouping symbols and simplify if possible.


a

2( g + 1) + 4 g

7( s + 2 ) + s

3( y 9) 2 y

5 x 4(
4( x 2 )

6 z + 2(
2( z 1)

3q 7(
7( q 5)

Remove the grouping symbols and simplify if possible.


4( x 1) + 2 x + 5 b 7( 3 y 2 ) + 4 y 2
a
c

2(5b + 2 ) b 8

4 r + 17
17 + 5(
5( r 3)

2 n 8 + 3( n + 2 )

5q + 2 ( q + 9)

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45

46

Preliminary Mathematics General

Development
7

Simplify the following.


a

2( x + 1) + 5( x 1)

3( y + 2 ) + 2( y + 1)

5( a + 2 ) + 3( a + 4 )

8( c 3) + 5( c + 3)

6( s + 6 ) + 2( 2 s 1)

5( h + 7) + 2( 2 h 7)

4( 3 x 1) 2(
2( x 2 )

9( z + 5) 7( z 2 )

5( 2 c 4 ) 3(
3( c + 7)

5(5 g 1) 4(
4( g 2 )

7( 2 u 3) ( u 3)

( 4 d 1) 3( d 3)

Taylah was required to remove the grouping symbols and simplify. This was her solution.
6( 3 x 2 ) 22(( x + 3) = 1188 x 12
12 2 x + 6
= 16x
16 x 6
Where is the error in Taylahs working?

Remove the grouping symbols and simplify if possible.


a

x( x 5) + x( x + 2 )

b(b + 3) + b(b + 1)

y( y 3) + y( y + 8)

g ( 2 g + 3) g ( g + 3)

v ( v 7) + v (6 v + 4 )

b(5b 1) b( 2 + 4b )

2 u( u 2 ) + u( u + 9)

4 n( n 6 ) n( n + 1)

3d ( d + 7) + d ( 2 d + 5)

e ( e + 2 ) 7e ( e 9)

6 k ( k 3) + k ( k + 3)

t (5 3t ) + 7t ( 2 t )

10

Expand and simplify the algebraic expression 2 ab( ab 3) ab( ab 1).


)

11

Simplify the following.

12

x 2 ( 2 x + 3) 2( x + 1)

a 2 ( a + 2 ) 4(
4( a + 3)

y 2 (5 y + 2 ) 3( y + 7)

z ( 3 z 1) + z 2 ( z 5)
x ( x 2 + 7) x ( x 2 + 2 )

b(b + 7) b 2 ( 3b + 2 )
e (7 e ) e 2 ( 2 e + 6 )

v( 2 v 2 ) v(1 v 2 )

a( 2 a 2 1) + a( a 2 + 4 )
a 2 ( a + b ) bb(( a + b )

x 2 ( x 2 + y ) x(
x( x + 3 y )

y 2 ( y + 4 z ) y ( z 2 + 1)

Expand and simplify ( n + 4 r )n


)n2 (7n + r )n2.

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Chapter 2 Algebraic manipulation

47

2.4 Factorising algebraic expressions

2.4

Factorising is the reverse process to expanding. For example, expanding the expression
5(2y 3) produces 10y 15, whereas factorising the expression 10y 15 produces
5(2y 3). The first step in factorising an expression is to find the largest factor of both terms
or the highest common factor (HCF). In this case the HCF of 10y and 15 is 5. The HCF is
written outside the grouping symbol and terms inside are found by dividing the HCF into
each term.
Factorising algebraic expressions
1
2
3
4

Find the largest factor of each term or the HCF.


Write the HCF outside the grouping symbol.
Divide the HCF into each term to find the terms inside the grouping symbols.
Check the factorisation by expanding the expression.

Example 11

Factorising algebraic expressions

Factorise 3p 6.
Solution
1
2
3
4

Find the largest factor of each term (HCF is 3).


Write the HCF or 3 outside the grouping symbol.
Divide the HCF or 3 into each term to find the terms
inside the grouping symbols.
Check by expanding the expression.

Example 12

3p 6 = 3 p 3 2
= 3 ( p 2)
= 3( p 2 )

Factorising algebraic expressions

Factorise 2x2 + 6x.


Solution
1
2
3
4

Find the largest factor of each term (HCF is 2x).


Write the HCF or 2x outside the grouping symbol.
Divide the HCF or 2x into each term to find the
terms inside the grouping symbols.
Check by expanding the expression.

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2 x 2 + 6 x = 2 x x + 22x 3
= 2 x ( x + 3)
= 2 x( x + 3)

Cambridge University Press

48

Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 2D
1

Find the HCF to complete the factorisations.


a
3m + 9 = ( m + 3)
b
4 x 16
16 =

( x 4)

10 y + 20 =

( y + 2)

5 x 30
30 =

( x 6)

14 a + 56 =

( 2 a + 8)

6 w 22
22 =

( 3w 11)

8e + 12
12 =

9n 12
12 =

( 3n 4 )

Complete the following factorisations.


2y +8 = 2
a
+

( 2 e + 3)

(
7x 7 = 7(

14 v + 70 = 7

6d 9 = 3

)
)

(
8 h 24
24 = 8 (
5a + 20
20 = 5

15s 45 = 5

10 + 5 x = 5

)
)

Jakob was required to factorise an algebraic expression. This was his solution.
2 x 6 = 2( x 6 )
Where is the error in Jakobs working?

Factorise each of the following.


a
5a + 220
b
3 x + 118
d
7 z + 221
e
32 + 4 d
g
4 n + 110
h
16 c + 36
j
24 16 x
k
28 g 8

c
f
i
l

8 p 556
27 9t
15 f + 20
9w 221

Anhs working for a factorisation question is shown below.


6 y + 18
18 = 6(
6( y + 3)
How can she check that the factorisation is correct?

Factorise each of the following by taking out a negative factor.


3q 15
a
2 a 12
b
c
5m 20
16 4 y
d
9 s + 90
e
f
32 8h

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49

Chapter 2 Algebraic manipulation

Development
7

Complete the following factorisations.


a

x 2 + 4 x = x(

2 e 3e 3 = e(

10r 2 14 r = 2 r (

q4 + 5q2 = q2 (

6 n3 + 8n = 2 n(

6 y y 2 = y(

6 k 7k 4 = k(

9 x 2 + 3x = 3x(

w 2 2w 3 = w 2 (

6t 5 + 9t = 3t (

)
)
)

)
)
)
)
)

Fully factorise the following expressions.


a

y2 5 y

10m 2 + 5m

4 x 2 1166 x

3v + v 2

8g + 4g3

4 d 2 + 1122 d 4

2 ab + 44a

5 xy 2 + 110 xy

6b 2 c 1155b 2

deff 2 e 2 f
de

5 x 2 y + 33xy
xy 2

r 3t 2 r 2t 2

Stacey was required to completely factorise an algebraic expression. This was her
solution.
12 x + 8 x 2 = 4(
4( 3 x + 2 x 2 )
Where is the error in Staceys working?

10

11

Factorise each of the following by taking out the highest common factor.
4 x + 12
12 y + 8
10 x 5 y + 115 z
a
b
c
2 a + 4b 6 c
d

9 y 2 + 6 y 12

8 4r
4r + 6r 2

3 + 6h
6 h2 + 9 h

10v 15v 2 + 25

8m 4 mn + 12

9c + 15
15cd + 1188d

Factorise by using the HCF for each of the following expressions.


a

2ab + ac + ag

4xx + xxyy + xxzz

7 g gh + 1144 g 2

d 2 3d + de

b 2 + bc
bc 5b

k 4 k 2 h + 2 kkh

xyz + 5 xy 2 2 x 2 y

2 abc + 55aa 2b 2 c 2 3ab

mn 2 m 2 n + mn2

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50

Preliminary Mathematics General

2.5 Substitution
Substitution involves replacing the pronumeral in an algebraic expression with one or more
numbers. The resulting numerical expression is evaluated and expressed to the specified level
of accuracy.
2.5
Substitution of values
1
2
3
4

Write the algebraic expression.


Replace the variables in the expression with the numbers given in the question.
Evaluate using the calculator.
Write the answer to the specified level of accuracy and correct units if necessary.

Example 13

Substituting values

Evaluate 3a 4b + c given a = 2, b = 5 and c = 10.


Solution
1
2
3

Write the algebraic expression.


Substitute the values for a, b and c into
the algebraic expression.
Evaluate.

Example 14

3a 4b + c = 3 2 4 5 + 10
= 6 20 10
= 24

Substituting values

Evaluate the following, given a = 2.


a

( 2 a + 5)

3a3

Solution
1
2
3
1
2
3

Write the algebraic expression.


Substitute the value for a into
the algebraic expression.
Evaluate.
Write the algebraic expression.
Substitute the value for a into
the algebraic expression.
Evaluate.

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( 2 a + 5) = 2 2 + 5
= 9
=3

3a3 = 3 23
=38
= 24

Cambridge University Press

Chapter 2 Algebraic manipulation

Exercise 2E
1

Evaluate these expressions given a = 3, b = 4 and c = 8.


a

5aa + b

a + 4b

a2 + b2
abc
2

4bb (2 a)
a

b2 c

a = 6 and b = -4
2
a = and b = 1
3

g
2

Find the value of 3a + 2b if:


a
a = 5 and b = 5
b
d

Calculate the value of e2 - 3 if:


a
e=1
b
e=3
d
e=2
e
e = -1
1
e=
g
h
e = 3.1
2
Find ( w 7) if:
a
w = 100
d
w = 25
g

a = -7 and b = -2

w=9

c
f
i

w = 144
w = 49

w=1

Determine the value of 2 m n


4
a
m = 4 and n = 4
b
c
m = 20 and n = 8
d
e
m = 0.5 and n = -11 f

ab+c
2ab
2ab
c
a = 0 and b = 0
1
a = 2 and b =
2
e = 10
e = -2
1
e=
5
w = 256
w = 400
1
w=
4

if:
m = 10 and n = 2
m = 1 and n = -6
m = 2 and n = 0.25

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51

52

Preliminary Mathematics General

Development
6

Evaluate these expressions given x = 7, y = -5 and z = 21.


a

x2 + z2 + y

4x + z 1

3 xy 2
z

y3 4 x
z + 4 y2
6 y2
5 zx

The cross-sectional area of a solid is an annulus. It is evaluated using ( R 2 r 2 ) where


R is the radius of the outer circle and r the radius of the inner circle. Find the area of an
annulus if R is 8 cm and r is 4 cm. Answer correct to one decimal place.

Determine the value of

Evaluate

2
3

p 2 q given that p = 4 and q = 6.

2 y + 3 if y = 12.

10

Find the value of 2


decimal places.

11

Find the value of

12

1
Find the value of
if f = 10 and c = 2. Give your answer correct to three decimal
2 fc
places.

13

3Rr
Find the value of
when R = 8.2 and r = 4.9. Give your answer correct to two
R+r
decimal places.

14

yA
What is the value of ( y + 12 ) when y = 9 and A = 15. Give your answer correct to the
nearest whole number.

l
g

when l = 2.6 and g = 9.8. Give your answer correct to two

u 2 + 2 aas if u = 6, a = 7 and s = 2.

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Chapter 2 Algebraic manipulation

53

2.6 Linear equations


An equation is a mathematical statement that says that two things are equal. It has an equal
sign. For example, these are all equations:
x+4=7

2 p = 118

6 y 1 = 23

2.6
Linear equations have all their variables raised to the power of 1. The above three equations
are linear equations. An equation such as x2 = 9 is not a linear equation as the variable is
raised to the power of 2.

Solving an equation
The process of finding the unknown value for
the variable is called solving the equation.
When solving an equation look to perform the
opposite operation:

+ is opposite to

is opposite to

x2 is opposite to x
Make sure the equation remains balanced like
a set of scales. The same operation needs to be
done on both sides of the equal sign to keep the
balance.

Solving an equation
1
2
3
4

Look to perform the opposite operation (+ is opposite to , is opposite to ).


Add or subtract the same number to both sides of the equation OR
Multiply or divide both sides of the equation by the same number.
To solve two- or three-step equations, repeat the above steps as required. It
is often easier to firstly add or subtract the same number to both sides of the
equation.

When a solution has been reached it can be checked. The solution of the equation must
satisfy the equation. Always check your solution by substituting your answer into the original
equation. The left-hand side of the equation must equal the right-hand side.

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54

Preliminary Mathematics General

Example 15

Solving an equation

Solve the equation x + 4 = 7.


Solution
1
2
3

x+4=7

Write the equation.


The opposite operation to adding 4 is subtracting 4.
Subtract 4 from both sides of the equation.
Check that the solution is correct by substituting
x = 3 into the original equation.

Example 16

x+ 4 = 7
x=3

Solving an equation

Solve the equation 2p = 18.


Solution
1
2
3

Write the equation.


The opposite operation to multiplying by 2 is
dividing by 2. Divide both sides of the equation by 2.
Check that the solution is correct by substituting
p = 9 into the original equation.

Example 17

2 p = 118
2 p 18
=
2
2
p=9

Solving two-step equations

Solve the equation 4a + 5 = -1. Express your answer as a simplest fraction.


Solution
1
2
3

Write the equation.


The opposite operation to adding 5 is subtracting 5.
Subtract 5 from both sides of the equation.
The opposite operation to multiplying by 4 is dividing
by 4. Divide both sides of the equation by 4.

( ) by writing it as a
6
4

Simplify the improper fraction

mixed number in simplified form 1 12 .


Check that the solution is correct by substituting

( )

a = 1 12 into the original equation.

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4 a + 5 = 1
5

4a + 5 = 1
4 a = 6
4 a 6
=
4
4
2
a = 1
4
1
= 1
2

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55

Chapter 2 Algebraic manipulation

Example 18

Solving three-step equations

Solve the equation 2 y 4 = 36 3 y.


y
Solution
1

Write the equation.

The opposite operation to subtracting 4 is adding 4.


Add 4 to both sides of the equation.

4
5

2 y 4 = 36 3 y
+4

2 y = 40 3 y

The opposite operation to subtracting -3y is adding


+3y. Add +3y to both sides of the equation.

+3 y

+3 y

2 y = 40 3 y
5 y = 40

5 y 40
=
5
5

The opposite operation to multiplying by 5 is dividing


by 5. Divide both sides of the equation by 5.
Check that the solution is correct by substituting y = 8
into the original equation.

Example 19

+4

2 y 4 = 36 3 y

y=8

Solving a practical problem involving a linear equation

Seven is added to three times a number and the result is 22.


a
Write and equation using x to represent the number.
b
Solve the equation for x.
Solution
1

Use mathematical symbols to replace the words in the


statement.
7 for seven
+ for added
3 for three
for times
= for result

The opposite operation to adding 7 is subtracting 7.


Subtract 7 from both sides of the equation.

3
4

The opposite operation to multiplying by 3 is dividing by 3.


Divide both sides of the equation by 3.
Check that the solution is correct by substituting x = 5 into
the original equation.

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7 + 3x
3 x = 22

7 + 3 x = 22
7

7 + 3 x = 22
3 x = 115
3 x 15
=
3
3
x=5

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56

Preliminary Mathematics General

Solving an equation using a graphics calculator


Graphics calculators have an equation mode that may be used to solve any type of linear
equation. The red letters on the keypad are used as the variable. After the equation is entered,
set the required variable to zero and choose the solver key. The calculator will show the
answer and the values of the left-hand side and right-hand side of the equation.

Example 20

Solving a linear equation using a graphics calculator

Solve the equation 80 - 10y = 100.


Solution
1
2
3

4
5
6

Select the EQUA menu.


Select SOLVER (F3).
Enter the equation. To place the variable (y) use
the ALPHA key to access the letters in red above
the keys.
Highlight the required variable or Y = 0.
Press SOLV and the calculator will show the
answer.
The values of the left (Lft) and right (Rgt) sides of
the formula are shown and should be equal.

Example 21

Solving a linear equation using a graphics calculator

Solve the equation 6x + 5 = 7 + 5x.


Solution
1
2
3

4
5

Select the EQUA menu.


Select SOLVER (F3).
Enter the equation. To place the variable (x) use the
ALPHA key to access the letters in red above the
keys.
Highlight the required variable or X = 0.
Press SOLV and the calculator will show the answer.
The values of the left (Lft) and right (Rgt) sides of
the formula are shown and should be equal.

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Chapter 2 Algebraic manipulation

Exercise 2F
1

Solve the following linear equations.


a
y + 8 = 17
b
x + 13 = 28
c + 7 = 4
d
e
m+9= 4
g
h
8 + h = 111
9+r = 4
j
5=x+2
k
12 = m + 7
Solve the following linear equations.
a
a-7=3
b
k-5=5
d
s - 5 = -4
e
z - 12 = -7
g
11 - v = 4
h
7-x=3
j
9=h-5
k
11 = f - 4
Solve the following linear equations.
a
4x = 12
b
5w = 45
d
2t = -12
e
6h = -30
g
2w = 13
h
3c = -23
j
17 = 8k
k
-75 = 7d
Solve the following linear equations.
y
d
a
b
=4
=8
2
7
f
a
d
e
=5
=5
3
7
g
j

d
= 9
12
y
6=
2

h
k

s
= 3
11
m
10 =
2

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c
f
i
l

c
f
i
l

c
f
i
l

c
f
i
l

a + 7 = 12
4 + d = 5
10 + q = 1
-3 = g + 5
d - 9 = 14
k - 7 = -9
6-j=7
-4 = c - (-1)
7v = 28
-4a = 40
7e = -8
-14 = -3e
w
=4
6
g
=2
9
x
= 4
5
w
9=
9

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57

58

Preliminary Mathematics General

Solve the following linear equations. All solutions are integers.


a
2x + 4 = 8
b
5y + 3 = 33
c
4q + 6 = 14
d
6d - 1 = 59
e
7v - 3 = 25
f
4m - 2 = 10
g
10g - 5 = -25
h
9x - 4 = -13
i
11p - 6 = -50
j
45 = 3v - 3
k
22 = 7n + 1
l
69 = 5b - 11

Solve the following linear equations. All solutions are integers.


a
3 + 2y = 11
b
2 + 3c = 5
c
5 + 3a = 23
d
31 = 7y + 10
e
5 = 7 + 2m
f
33 = 18 - 3d
g
28 - 4q = 16
h
90 - 10r = 100
i
48 - 16e = -16
j
14 = 8 + 2h
k
36 = 8 + 7d
l
78 = 18 - 10w

Solve the following linear equations. Express your answer as a simplest fraction.
a
4m + 1 = 26
b
3c + 16 = 27
c
2y + 13 = 16
d
28 = 16 + 5b
e
37 = 6 + 4x
f
11 = 28 + 8d
g
2z - 3 = 4
h
5h - 7 = 14
i
6e - 2 = 13
j
21 = 2q + 10
k
32 = 3y - 5
l
17 = 9x + 9

Rajiv was required to solve the following equation for homework. This was his solution.
7x + 6 = 8
7 x = 114
x=2
Where is the error in Rajivs working?

Two is added to a number and the result is 7.


a
Write an equation using x to represent the number.
b
Solve the equation for x.

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Chapter 2 Algebraic manipulation

59

Development
10

Solve the following linear equations.


a
3x + 2 = 2x + 7
b
3y + 5 = 2y + 7
d
9b - 4 = 2 + 7b
e
6d + 1 = 16 + 3d
g
8 + a = 3a - 10
h
11 + 2w = 6w + 3

c
f
i

5v + 7 = 4v - 8
8z - 5 = 9 + z
4 + 3e = 9 - 2e

11

Matthew spent $93 on six show bags at


the Royal Easter show, each costing the
same price, $p.
a
Using p as the cost of one show
bag, write an equation showing the
cost of the six show bags.
b
Use the equation to find the cost of
one show bag.

12

If 12 is added to a certain number, the result is three times the number. Find the number.

13

Solve the equation 2( 4 y 1) 55(( y 2 ) = 117.

14

Isabella was required to solve the following equation for homework. This was her
solution. Where is the error in Isabellas working?
4 x 3 = 11 + 6 x
2 x = 114
x=7

15

Ten is added to three times a number and the result is 19.


a
Write an equation using x to represent the number.
b
Solve the equation for x.

16

A number is increased by 4 and then this amount is doubled. The result is 20.
a
Write an equation for this information.
b
Find the number.

17

Four is added to twice a number and the result is 36.


a
Write an equation using n to represent the number.
b
Solve the equation for n.

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60

Preliminary Mathematics General

2.7 Equations with fractions


Equations with fractions are solved in exactly the same way as other equations. Look to
perform the opposite operation (+ is opposite to -, is opposite to ) to both sides of the
equation. Check your solution by substituting your answer into the original equation.
2.7
Example 22

Solve the equation

Solving an equation with a fraction

e
+ 4 = 110.
3

Solution
1
2
3
4

Write the equation.


The opposite operation to adding 4 is subtracting 4.
Subtract 4 from both sides of the equation.
The opposite operation to dividing by 3 is multiplying
by 3. Multiply both sides by 3.
Check that the solution is correct by substituting
e = 18 into the original equation.

Example 23

Solve the equation

e 4 4
+ 4 = 110
3
e
=6
3
e
3 = 6 3
3
e = 18

Solving an equation with a fraction

3x 5
= 6.
2

Solution
1
2
3
4
5

Write the equation.


The opposite operation to dividing by 2 is multiplying
by 2. Multiply both sides of the equation by 2.
The opposite operation to subtracting 5 is adding 5.
Add 5 to both sides of the equation.
The opposite operation to multiplying by 3 is dividing
by 3. Divide both sides of the equation by 3.
Check that the solution is correct by substituting x = 5 23
into the original equation.

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3x 5
=6
2
+5

+5

3 x 5 = 12
3 x = 117
3 x 17
=
3
3
17
x=
3
2
=5
3

Cambridge University Press

Chapter 2 Algebraic manipulation

Exercise 2G
1

Solve these equations.


1
x + 2 = 11
a
2
1
3a = 5
d
6
g

Solve these equations.


k
a
= 10
10
3d
d
=6
4
k
g
8=
3

Solve these equations.


e
a
+ 4 = 110
3
d
g

x
1
=3
2
5

s
5
2
4y
5 = 1+
3
4=

Solve these equations.


1
a
x+3=
4
1
d
(e + 2) = 1
3
1
g
(6 + 2 c ) = 6
2

b
e
h

b
e
h

e
h

b
e
h

1
2
y 3 = 10
3
3
2
6s = 2
5
r
1
=1
5
4

x
= 10
2
y
5=2+
3
5r
7=2+
9
6+

y+5=

m4

5v = 2

d
= 7
4
7a
= 14
2
5q
20 =
3

2
3

1
( h 4) = 2
5
1
(11 5a ) = 1
4

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2
1
=1
5
3

c
f
i

f
i

c
f
i

9
10
h
2
=4
2
7

v
=4
12
2z
=4
5
2n
16 =
3

d
+ 11 = 13
2
b
6 = 1
9
2v
2=
8
7

a2=

3
7

1
( x + 3) = 1
2
1
(1 7u ) = 5
3

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61

62

Preliminary Mathematics General

Development
5

Solve these equations.


a

b5
=9
8

t4
= 5
3

3x 5
=6
2

1 + 2x
2
=7
3

4 + 2w
= 6
5

2 + 3m
=5
4

a+4 1
=
6
2

c5 1
=
8
4

2e + 1 4
=
2
5

There are thirty-six times as many cars in Australia as trucks. Let C stand for the number
of cars and T for the number of trucks.
a
Write an equation with C as the subject of the equation that correctly describes the
relationship between the number of cars and trucks.
b
A local community has 120 trucks. How many cars are in the community?

Solve these equations.


x x
+ =5
a
2 3

y y
+ = 12
6 2

n n
+
=3
5 10

c c
=7
2 4

s s
=2
5 6

m m
=4
7 9

3x x
=7
2 3

5a a
= 11
3 5

y 2y

=6
2 5

r r
= 1
4 3

3w w
= +8
10 2

3x 2 x
=
+2
2
3

Solve these equations.


a

2y 3=

y+3
2

x +1
( x 1) = 1
2

2y 3=

x + 4 x + 10
=
2
3

d + 6 2d + 4
=
3
4

3x 5 2 x + 1
=
2
3

y +1 y +1
+
=9
4
3

a + 4 2a 3

= 1
3
2

3x 5 2 x + 1

=2
2
3

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y+3
2

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Chapter 2 Algebraic manipulation

63

2.8 Using formulas

2.8

A formula is a mathematical relationship between two or more variables. For example:



S = TD is a formula for relating the speed, distance and time. S, D and T are the variables.
P = 4L is a formula for finding the perimeter of a square, where P is the perimeter and L is
the side length of the square. P and L are the variables.
By substituting all the known variables into a formula, we are able to find the value of an
unknown variable.
Using a formula
1
2
3
4

Write the formula.


Replace the variables in the formula with the numbers given in the question.
Evaluate using the calculator.
Write the answer to the specified level of accuracy and correct units if
necessary.

Example 24

Using a formula

The cost of hiring a windsurfer


is given by the formula
C = 4t + 7
where C is the cost in dollars
and t is the time in hours.
Kayla wants to sail for 3 hours.
How much will it cost her?

Solution
1
2
3
4

Write the formula.


Substitute the value for t into the formula.
Evaluate.
Write your answer in words.

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C = 4t + 7
= 4 3+ 7
= 19
It will cost Kayla $19 to hire the
windsurfer for 3 hours.

Cambridge University Press

64

Preliminary Mathematics General

Example 25

Using a formula

The length of a pendulum with a period of oscillation T is


2
T
l = 980
2
Find l, correct to two decimal places, if T is 5.

Solution
1

Write the formula.

Substitute the 5 for T into the formula.

Evaluate.

Write answer in words correct to two


decimal places.

Example 26
a
b

T
l = 980
2

5
= 980
2
= 620.5922498
= 620.59

Using a formula

Perimeter, P, is the distance around


the outside of a shape. Add all the
sides to determine the perimeter.
Write the formula.
Substitute 27 for P into the formula.

Evaluate.

x
x+3

x+4
2x 5

Solution

The length of the pendulum is


620.59.

Write an expression for the perimeter of the trapezium.


If the perimeter is 27 cm, calculate the value of x.

P = x + ( x + 4 ) + ( 2 x 5) + ( x + 3)
= 5x + 2

P = 5x + 2
27 = 5 x + 2
25 = 5 x
x = 5 cm

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Chapter 2 Algebraic manipulation

Using a formula and a graphics calculator


Graphics calculators have an equation mode that
may be used to enter a formula. The coloured
letters on the keypad are used as the variable.
After the formula is entered, set the unknown
variable to zero and enter the values for the known
variables. It is not necessary for the known variable
to be the subject of the formula.
Select the solver key to obtain the answer. The
calculator will show the answer and the values
of the left-hand side and right-hand side of the
equation.

Example 27

Using a formula and a graphics calculator

The circumference, C, of a circle with radius, r, is given by the formula C = 2 r. Find the
circumference of a circle with a radius of 5 cm using a graphics calculator.
Solution
1
2
3

4
5

6
7

Select the EQUA menu.


Select SOLVER (F3).
Enter the formula. To place the variables (C and r)
use the ALPHA key to access the letters in red above
the keys.
Enter the known variable. The radius is 5 so R = 5.
Highlight the required variable or C = 0.

Press SOLV and the calculator will show the answer.


The values of the left (Lft) and right (Rgt) sides of
the formula are shown and should be equal.

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65

66

Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 2H
1

If A = lb find the value of A when:


a
l = 16, b = 2
b
l = 28, b = 7
c
l = 30, b = 10

If A = s2 find the value of A when:


a
s=9
b
s=6
c
s = 32

If A =
a

1
bbh find the value of A when:
2
b = 10, h = 4

b = 15, h = 2

b = 2, h = 3

If P = 2l + 2b find the value of P when:


a
l = 8, b = 10
b
l = 2, b = 11
c
l = 3, b = 9

Find the value of T (correct to one decimal place) in the formula T =

M = 1.7, v = 4 and r = 3.8

M = 2.1, v = 1 and r = 2.2

Use the formula a = 9 +


a
b
c

b
c
8

18 b
to find the value of a when:
2

b=8
b=1
b = -2

If p =
a

Mv 2
if:
r

12 x
find the value of p when:
x+4

x=7
x=5
x = -3

The cost of hiring a hall is given by the rule C = 30t + 1000 where C is the total cost in
dollars and t is the number of hours for which the hall is hired. Find the cost of hiring the
hall for:
a
2 hours
b
5.5 hours

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Chapter 2 Algebraic manipulation

10

The distance, d km, travelled by


a truck in t hours at an average
speed of s km/h is given by the
formula d = st. Find the distance
travelled by a truck travelling at a
speed of 70 km/h for 5 hours.

Given that H =
a

E
find the value of H when:
T

E = 2.6 1011 and T = 100

E = 7.8 106 and T = 20

11

The formula used to convert temperature from degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius is
C = 59 ( F 32 ) . Use this formula to convert the following temperatures to degrees
Celsius. Answer correct to the nearest whole number.
a
40F
b 110F

12

The formula v = u + at relates the velocity, acceleration and time.


a
Make u the subject of the formula.
b
Make a the subject of the formula.
c
Make t the subject of the formula.

13

The circumference, C, of a circle with radius, r, is given by the formula C = 2 r.


a
Make r the subject of the formula.
b
Find the radii of circles with the following circumferences. (Answer correct to two
decimal places.)
i
3 cm
ii 6.9 mm

14

The body mass index is B =


a
b

m
where m is the mass in kg and h is the height in m.
h2
Make m the subject of the formula.
Find m to the nearest whole number when:
i
B = 22.78 and h = 1.79 m
ii
B = 31.8 and h = 1.86 m

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67

68

Preliminary Mathematics General

Development
15

Find the value of v (correct to one decimal place) in the formula v = u 2 + 2 as if:
a
u = 4, a = 7 and s = 12
b
u = -2, a = 10 and s = 5

16

Use the formula R =


a

17

19

20

3V
to find the value of R (correct to two decimal places) when:
4
b
V = 44
c
V = 100

Find the value of s (correct to one decimal place) in the formula s = ut


ut + 12 aat 2 if:
u = 2, a = 5 and t = 15
PRT
The formula for calculating simple interest is I =
where P is the principal, R is the
100
interest rate per annum and T is the time in years. Calculate the interest earned, correct to
the nearest cent, on the following investments.
a
$10 000 at an interest rate of 9% p.a. for 3 years
b
$88 000 at an interest rate of 11.2% p.a. for 2 years
3
c
$24 000 at an interest rate of 7 % p.a. for 2 years
4
a

18

V = 12

u = -5, a = 4 and t = 6

1
The volume of a cone is evaluated using V = r 2 h where h is height and r is radius.
a
Write the formula with h as the subject. 3
b
Calculate the height of a cone, correct to two decimal places, if the volume of the
cone is 18 cm3 and the radius is 2 cm.
4
The volume of a sphere is given by the formula V = r 3 where r is the radius.
3
a
Write the formula with r as the subject.
b
What is the radius in metres of a spherical balloon with a volume of 2 m3? Answer
correct to one decimal place.

14.8

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Chapter 2 Algebraic manipulation

Adding and subtracting like terms

Multiplication and division of

algebraic terms

Study guide 2

Find the like terms.


2 Only add or subtract like terms.
3 Add or subtract the coefficients of the like terms.
Write in expanded form and cancel any factors in a
fraction.
2 Multiply and divide the coefficients and pronumerals.
3 Write the pronumerals in alphabetical order and express
in index notation.

Expanding algebraic expressions

Multiply the term outside the grouping symbol by the


a First term inside the grouping symbol.
b Second term inside the grouping symbol.
2 Simplify and collect like terms if required.

Factorising algebraic expressions

Linear equations

Equations with fractions

Substitution

Using formulas

Find the largest factor of each term or the HCF.


2 Write the HCF outside the grouping symbol.
3 Divide the HCF into each term to find the terms inside
the grouping symbols.
4 Check the factorisation by expanding the expression.
Perform the opposite operation (+ and -, and ).
2 Add/subtract the same number to both sides of the equation.
3 Multiply/divide both sides of the equation by the same
number.
Use the same steps as linear equations.

Write the algebraic expression.


2 Substitute the values and evaluate.
Write the formula.
2 Substitute the values and evaluate.

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Review

Chapter summary Algebraic manipulation

69

Review

70

Preliminary Mathematics General

Sample HSC Objective-response questions


1

Simplify 7xy - 5xy - 4xy.


A -16xy
B -2xy
Simplify
A

7 x2
16

96a2

6c
3c.
5

9c
5

9c 2
5

18c
5

18c 2
5

-10d - 15e

-10d + 15e

-10d - 3e

-10d + 3e

4(4w2 + 6w)

4w(4w + 6)

8w(2w + 3)

b =1

16w(w + 8)

b=3

25

Solve the equation 11b - 9 = 26.


b=

11
35

Find the value of


A

7x
16

16xy

Factorise 16w2 + 24w by taking out the highest common factor.

7x
8

Expand -5(2d + 3e).

7 x2
8

5x 2 x
+ .
8
8

Simplify

6xy

Multiply and simplify the expression 4a (8a) 3.


A -96a2
B -32a2 + 3
C -4a + 3

b=

11
15

4
11

a 2 + b 2 if a = 4 and b = 3.
14

What is the base of a triangle using the formula A =


A

1.75

2
11

28

1
bbh if A is 14 and h is 4?
2
D 112

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Chapter 2 Algebraic manipulation

Review

Sample HSC Short-answer questions


1

Simplify these expressions.


a 11st + 5 - 4st - 4

d + 4d2 2d 3d2

Simplify -3s + 5r - 3s + 3r by collecting the like terms.

Multiply and simplify:


7x
5x
a
2

2 w 3w 3

12 y 8 y 2

Add or subtract the following algebraic fractions.


c c
5y 2 y
a
b
+

6 6
3
3

m 2m
+
8
3

Remove grouping symbols and simplify if required.


a

7(x - 1)

5(2 + 2r)

7(5x - 1)

3(4a - b)

7(d + 7e)

-2(8v - 2s)

-(9b - 2h)

4(w - 4) + 2(w + 2)

y(y + 2z)

Fully factorise these expressions.


a

7b + 35

2v - 14

-3v + 15

6y + 9

4x - 14y

12x + 21y

21 - 15x

24b - 16c + 4

12s - 15v + 9

Solve the following linear equations.


a

d-4=7

4h = 20

5+r=8

2t + 3 = 11

r
= 12
6

5 = 2x - 5
2
1
v+3 =1
3
6

7n + 5 = 33
1
4m = 2
5

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Review

72

Preliminary Mathematics General

Solve the following linear equations.


a 6x + 4 = 5x - 7
b 3 - 4r = 5r + 12
d 8(b - 1) = 2(b + 2)
e y - 12 = 2(y - 7)

7(n - 2) = n + 4
6(2v - 7) = -(v + 1)

Solve these equations.


a

10

u+3
=4
5

z z
+ = 12
4 8

1
( x + 4) = 2
5

The distance d in km that a person can see the


horizon from h in metres above the sea level, is
given by the formula
d = 5
a
b

h
.
2

Find d when h is 18 metres.


Find h when d is 10 kilometres.

2V
to find the value of R (correct to two decimal places) when:
3

11

Use the formula R =


a V=9
b V = 24
c V = 200

12

Einsteins equation E = mc2 states that the energy E in joules equals the mass of m kg
multiplied by the square of the speed of light c (3 108 m/s). Find the amount of energy
produced by a:
a mass of 500 kg
b mass of 200 kg

13

The cost of hiring a hall is given by the formula C = 20t + 2000 where C is the total cost in
dollars and t is the number of hours for which the hall is hired.
a Make t the subject of the equation.
b Find t when C is $2060.

Challenge questions 2

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C H A P T E R

Units of measurement and


applications
Syllabus topic MM1 Units of measurement
and applications
Determine and convert appropriate units of measurement
Convert units of area and volume
Calculate the percentage error in a measurement
Use numbers in scientic notation
Express numbers to a certain number of signicant gures
Calculate and convert rates
Find ratios of two quantities and use the unitary method
Calculate repeated percentage changes

3.1 Units of measurement

3.1

Measurement is used to determine


the size of a quantity. It usually
involves using a measuring
instrument. For example, to measure
length, instruments that can be
used include the rule, tape measure,
caliper, micrometer, odometer and
GPS. There are a number of systems
of measurement that define their
units of measurement. We use the SI
metric system.
73
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74

Preliminary Mathematics General

SI units
The SI is an international system of units of measurement based on multiples of ten. It is
a version of the metric system which allows easy multiplication when converting between
units. Units shown in red (below) are non-SI units approved for everyday or specialised use
alongside SI units.
Quantity

Name of unit

Symbol

Value

Length

Metre
Millimetre
Centimetre
Kilometre
Nautical mile

m
mm
cm
km
nm

Base unit
1000 mm = 1 m
100 cm = 1 m
1 km = 1000 m
1 nm = 1852 m

Area

Square metre
Square centimetre
Hectare

m2
cm2
ha

Base unit
10 000 cm2 = 1 m2
1 ha = 10 000 m2

Volume

Cubic metre
Cubic centimetre
Litre
Millilitre
Kilolitre

m3
cm3
L
mL
kL

Base unit
1 000 000 cm3 = 1 m3
1L = 1000 cm3
1000 mL = 1 L
1 kL = 1000 L

Mass

Kilogram
Gram
Tonne

kg
g
t

Base unit
1000 g = 1 kg
1 t = 1000 kg

Time

Second
Minute
Hour
Day

s
min
h
d

Base unit
1 min = 60 s
1 h = 60 min
1 d = 24 h

Converting between units


A prefix is a simple way to convert between units. It indicates a multiple of 10. Some common
prefixes are mega (1 000 000), kilo (1000), centi

( ) and milli ( ).
1
1000

1
100

Length, mass and volume


1000
1000
100
10

mega
kilo
unit
centi
milli

Time

1000

24

1000

60

100

60

10

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days
hours
minutes
seconds

24
60
60

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Chapter 3 Units of measurement and applications

Example 1

75

Converting units of length

Complete the following.


a
35 cm =
mm

4500 m =

km

Solution
1

To change cm to mm multiply by 10.

To change m to km divide by 1000.

Example 2

35 cm = 35 10 mm
= 350 mm
4500 = 4500 1000 km
= 4.5 km

Converting units of time

Complete the following.


3 h and 15 min =
a

min

10 080 min =

Solution
1

To change hours to minutes, multiply by 60.

To change minutes to hours, divide by 60.

To change hours to days, divide by 24.

3 h 15 min = 3 60 + 15 min
= 195 min
10 080 min = 10 080 60 h
= 168 h
= 168 24 d
=7d

Converting area and volume units


To convert area units, change the side length units and compare the values for area.
=

1m

100 cm
100 cm

1m

1 m2 = 100 100 = 10 000 cm2


1 m2 = 10 000 cm2
1
or 1 cm 2 =
m2
10 000

To convert volume units, change the side length units and compare the values for volume.
1m
100 cm

1m
1m

100 cm

100 cm

1 m3 = 100 100 100 = 1 000 000 cm3


1 m3 = 1000 000 cm3
1
or 1 cm 3 =
m3
1 000 000

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76

Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 3A
1

Complete the following.


a

5 cm
m=

890 m =

9400 m =

49 000 cm =

mm
m
ccm
kkm
km

78 m =

57 cm =

600 mm =

22 000 m =

45 kg =

ccm
mm
cm
kkm

2 km
m=

6 km
m=

ccm

8100 cm =

51 mm =

76 t =

0.52
52 t =

45 000 000 g =

60 000 g =

m
cm

Complete the following.


a

3t=

8100 kg =

4t=

6800 g =

kkg

9 300 000 g =

300 kg =

2300 g =

12 kL =

9 kL
L=

mL
m

300 kL =

210 000 mL =

8 000 000 mL =

kg

g
g
t

kkg

kkg
kg
t

kkg

Complete the following.


a

2 L=

7800 kL =

50 L =

6100 L =

kkL

400 mL =

80 mL =

79 000 mL =

min

2 min =

20 d =

4.5 d =

10 h =

min

48 000 s =

min

96 h =

390 min =

780 s =

mL

L
kL

mL
m
mL
kL
kL

Complete the following.


a

2.5 h =

40 min =

720 min =

1080 h =

h
d

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min

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Chapter 3 Units of measurement and applications

What unit of length is most appropriate to measure each of the following?


a Length of a pen
b Height of a building
c Thickness of a credit card
d Distance from Sydney to Newcastle
e Height of a person
f Length of a football field

What unit of mass is most appropriate to measure each of the following?


a Weight of an elephant
b Mass of a mug
c Bag of onions
d Weight of a baby
e Mass of a truck
f Mass of a teaspoon of sugar

What unit of time is most appropriate to measure each of the following?


a Lesson at school
b Reheating a meal in a microwave
c Age of a person
d School holidays
e Accessing the internet
f Movie

There are 20 litres of a chemical stored in a container.


a What amount of chemical remains if 750 mL is
removed from the container? Answer in litres.
b How many containers are required to make a
kilolitre of the chemical?

Christopher bought 3 kg of sultanas. What mass of


sultanas remains if he ate 800 grams? Answer in
kilograms.

10

The length of the Murray River is 2575 km. The length


of the Hawkesbury River is 80000 m. What is the
difference in their lengths? Answer in metres.

11

There are three tonnes of grain in a truck. What is the mass if another 68 kg of grain is
added to the truck? Answer in kilograms.

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77

78

Preliminary Mathematics General

Development
12

A cyclist travels to and from work over a 1200-metre long bridge. Calculate the distance
travelled in a week if the cyclist works for 5 days. Answer in kilometres.

13

Madison travels 32 km to work each day. Her car uses 1 litre of petrol to travel 8 km.
a
How many litres of petrol will she use to get to work?
b
How many litres of petrol will she use for 5 days of work, including return travel?

14

Arrange 500 m, 0.005 km, 5000 cm and 5 000 000 mm in:


a
Ascending order (smallest to largest)
b
Descending order (largest to smallest)

15

Complete the following.


a

1 km 2 =

m2

1 m2 =

1 cm 2 =

mm 2

1000 cm 2 =

m2

2000 mm 2 =

5000 m 2 =

kkm
m2

3.9 m 2 =

cm 2

310 km 2 =

m2

4.7 m 2 =

mm 2

74300 m 2 =

kkm
m2

6500 mm 2 =

4000 cm 2 =

m2

cm 2

cm 2

mm 2

16

The area of a field is 80 000 square metres. Convert the area units to the following.
a
Square kilometres
b
Hectares

17

Jackson swims 30 lengths of a


50-metre pool.
a
How many kilometres does he
cover?
b
If his goal is 4 kilometres, how
many more lengths must he swim?

18

Eliza worked from 10.30 a.m. until 4.00 p.m. on Friday, from 7.30 a.m. until 2.00 p.m.
on Saturday, and from 12 noon until 5.00 p.m. on Sunday.
a
How many hours did Eliza work during the week?
b
Express the time worked on Friday as a percentage of the total time worked during
the week. Answer correct to the nearest whole number.

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Chapter 3 Units of measurement and applications

79

3.2 Measurement errors


There are varying degrees of instrument error and measurement uncertainty when measuring.
Every time a measurement is repeated, with a sensitive instrument, a slightly different result
will be obtained. The possible sources of errors include mistakes in reading the scale, parallax
error and calibration error. The accuracy of a measurement is improved by making multiple
measurements of the same quantity with the same instrument.

Accuracy in measurements
The smallest unit on the measuring instrument is
called the limit of reading. For example, a 30 cm
rule with a scale for millimetres has a limit of
reading of 1 mm. The accuracy of a measurement is
restricted to 1 of the limit of reading. For example,
2
if the measurement on the ruler is 10 mm then the
range of errors is 10 0.5 mm. Here the upper limit
is 10 + 0.5 mm or 10.5 mm and the lower limit is
10 0.5 mm or 9.5 mm.

1 cm

Every measurement is an approximation and has an error. The absolute error is the difference
between the actual value and the measured value indicated by the instrument. The maximum
value for an absolute error is 1 of the limit of reading.
2

Limit of reading

Absolute error

Smallest unit on measuring instrument

Measured value Actual value


Maximum value is 1 limit of reading
2

Relative error gives an indication of how good a measurement is relative to the size of the
quantity being measured. The relative error of a measurement is calculated by dividing the
limit of reading by the actual measurement. For example, the relative error for the above
measurement is

( ) = 0.005. The relative error is often expressed as a percentage and


0.5
10

called the percentage error. For example, the percentage error for the above measurement
is 010.5 100 = 5% .

( )

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Relative error

Percentage error

Absolute error

Measurement

Absolute error

100%
Measurement

Example 3
a
b
c
d
e

Finding the measurement errors

What is the length indicated by the arrow on the above


ruler?
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
What is the limit of reading?
What is the upper and lower limit for each measurement?
Find the relative error. Answer correct to three decimal places.
Find the percentage error. Answer correct to one decimal place.
Solution
1
2

3
4

6
7

8
9
10

11

The arrow is pointing to


38 mm.
Limit of reading is the
smallest unit on the ruler
(millimetre).
Calculate half the limit of
reading.
Lower limit is the measured
value minus 1 the limit of
2
reading.
Upper limit is the measured
value plus 1 the limit of
2
reading.
Write the formula for
relative error.
Substitute the values for
absolute error and the
measurement.
Evaluate correct to three
decimal places.
Write the formula for
percentage error.
Substitute the values for
absolute error and the
measurement.
Evaluate.

Length is 38 mm.

Limit of reading is 1 mm.

1
2

limit of reading =

1
2

= 0.5 mm
Lower limit = 38 0.5 = 37.5 mm
Upper limit = 38 + 0.5 = 38.5 mm

Absolute error
Relative error =
Measurement
0.5
38
= 0.013

Absolute error
Percentage error =
100%
Measurement

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0.5
100%
38
= 1.3%

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Chapter 3 Units of measurement and applications

81

Exercise 3B
1

Four measurements of length are shown on the ruler below.


B

10

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

What length is indicated by each letter? Answer to the nearest millimetre.


What is the limit of reading?
What the largest possible absolute error?
What is the upper and lower limit for each measurement?
Calculate the relative error, correct to three decimal places, for each measurement.
Calculate the percentage error, correct to one decimal place, for each measurement.

a
b
c
d
e
f

20

Two measurements of mass are shown on the scales below.

0
4.5
8 0

4kg

10lb

9lb

1lb

2lb

8
8

1kg

4kg

6lb 8 5lb

3kg

4lb

2kg

b
c
d
e
f

8 0

1lb

2lb

1.5

3.5

1kg

8lb

3lb
8

7lb

6lb 8 5lb

3kg

2.5

10lb

3lb

7lb

0.5

9lb

8lb
3.5

4.5

0.5

4lb

1.5

2kg
2.5

What mass is indicated by each letter? Use the outer scale.


What is the limit of reading?
What the largest possible absolute error?
What is the upper and lower limit for each measurement?
Calculate the relative error, correct to three decimal places, for each measurement.
Calculate the percentage error, correct to one decimal place, for each measurement.

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82

Preliminary Mathematics General

Development
3

A dishwasher has a mass of exactly 49.6 kg. Abbey


measured the mass of the dishwasher as 50 kg to the nearest
kilogram.
a Find the absolute error.
b Find the relative error. Answer correct to three decimal
places.
c Find the percentage error to the nearest whole number.

An iPod has a mass of exactly 251 g. Jake measured the


mass of the iPod as 235 g to the nearest gram.
a Find the absolute error.
b Find the relative error. Answer correct to three decimal
places.
c Find the percentage error correct to two decimal places.

An LCD screen has a mass of exactly 2.71 kg. Saliha


measured the mass of the screen as 3 kg to the nearest
kilogram.
a Find the absolute error.
b Find the relative error. Answer correct to three decimal
places.
c Find the percentage error correct to three decimal places.

A measurement was taken of a skid mark at the scene of a car accident. The actual length
of the skid mark was 25.15 metres, however it was measured as 25 metres.
a What is the absolute error?
b Find the relative error. Answer correct to three decimal places.
c Find the percentage error. Answer correct to one decimal place.

7 

The length of a building at school is exactly 56 m. Cooper measured the length of the
building to be 56.3m and Filip measured the building at 55.8 m.
a What is the absolute error for Coopers measurement?
b What is the absolute error for Filips measurement?
c Compare the relative error for both measurements. Answer correct to four decimal
places.
d Compare the percentage error for both measurements. Answer correct to three
decimal places.

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Chapter 3 Units of measurement and applications

83

3.3 Scientific notation and significant figures


Scientific notation
3.3

Scientific notation is used to write very large or very small numbers more conveniently. It
consists of a number between 1 and 10 multiplied by a power of ten. For example, the number
4 100 000 is expressed in scientific notation as 4.1 106. The power of ten indicates the
number of tens multiplied together. For example:
4.1 106 = 4.1 (10 10 10 10 10 10)
= 4 100 000
When writing numbers in scientific notation, it is useful to remember that large numbers have
a positive power of ten and small numbers have a negative the power of ten.
Writing numbers in scientific notation
1
2
3
4

Find the first two non-zero digits.


Place a decimal point between these two digits. This is the number between 1 and 10.
Count the digits between the new and old decimal point. This is the power of ten.
Power of ten is positive for larger numbers and negative for small numbers.

Example 4

Expressing a number in scientific notation

The land surface of the earth is


approximately 153 400 000 square
kilometres. Express this area more
conveniently by using scientific
notation.

Solution
1
2
3
4
5

The first two non-zero digits are 1 and 5.


Place the decimal point between these numbers.
Count the digits from the old decimal point (end of
the number) to position of the new decimal point.
Large number indicates the power of 10 is positive.
Write in scientific notation.

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1.534
1.53 400 000 eight digits
Power of 10 is +8 or 8
153 400 000 = 1.534 108

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84

Preliminary Mathematics General

Significant figures
Significant figures are used to specify the accuracy of a number. It is often used to round a
number. Significant figures are the digits that carry meaning and contribute to the accuracy of
the number. This includes all the digits except the zeros at the start of a number and zeros at
the finish of a number without a decimal point. These zeros are regarded as placeholders and
only indicate the size of the number. Consider the following examples.

51.340 has four significant figures: 5, 1, 3 and 4.

0.00871 has three significant figures: 8, 7 and 1.

56091 has five significant figures: 5, 6, 0, 9 and 1.


The significant figures in a number not containing a decimal point can sometimes be unclear.
For example, the number 8000 may be correct to 1 or 2 or 3 or 4 significant figures. To prevent
this problem, the last significant figure of a number is underlined. For example, the number
8000 has two significant figures. If the digit is not underlined the context of the problem is a
guide to the accuracy of the number.
Writing numbers to significant figures
1
2
3

Write the number in scientific notation.


Count the digits in the number to determine its accuracy (ignore zeros at the end).
Round the number to the required significant figures.

Example 5

Writing numbers to significant figures

Write these numbers correct to the significant figures indicated.


a
153 400 000 (3 significant figures)
b
0.000 657 (2 significant figures)
Solution
1
2
3
4

5
6
7
8

Write in scientific notation.


Count the digits in the number.
Round the number to 3 significant figures.
Write answer in scientific notation correct
to 3 significant figures.

153 400 000 = 1.534 108


1.534 has 4 digits
1.53 rounded to 3 sig. fig.
153 400 000 = 1.53 108

Write in scientific notation.


Count the digits in the number.
Round the number to 2 significant figures.
Write answer in scientific notation correct
to 2 significant figures.

0.000 657 = 6.57 104


6.57 has 3 digits
6.6 rounded to 2 sig. fig.
0.000 657 = 6.6 104

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Chapter 3 Units of measurement and applications

85

Exercise 3C
1

Write these numbers in scientific notation.


a
7600
c
590 000
e
35 000
g
77 100 000
i
95 400 000 000
Write these numbers in scientific notation.
a
0.000 56
c
0.000 000 812
e
0.000 058
g
0.26
i
0.000 000 000 167

b
d
f
h

b
d
f
h

1 700 000 000


6 800 000
310 000 000
523 000 000 000

0.000 068 7
0.0043
0.000 003 12
0.092

A microsecond is one millionth of a second. Write 5 microseconds in scientific notation.

Sharks existed 410 million years ago.


a
Write this number in scientific notation.
b
Express this number correct to one
significant figure.

Write each of the following as a basic numeral.


a
1.12 105
c
5.2 103
e
2.4 102
g
3.9 106
i
6.4 104

Write each of the following as a basic numeral.


a
3.5 104
c
1.63 107
e
4.9 102
g
4.12 108
i
3.0 109

b
d
f
h

b
d
f
h

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5.34 108
8.678 107
7.8 109
2.8 101

7.9 106
5.81 103
9.8 101
6.33 105

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86

Preliminary Mathematics General

Convert a measurement of 5.81 103 grams into kilograms. Express your answer in
scientific notation.

Evaluate the following and express your answer in scientific notation.


a
(2.5 103) (5.9 106)
b
(4.7 105) (6.3 102)
c
(7.1 105) (4.2 102)
d
(3.0 104) (6.2 105)

Evaluate the following and express your answer in scientific notation.


9.1 105
7.2 107
4.8 104
a
b
c
2.8 102
4.8 103
3.2 105

10

Write these numbers correct to significant figures indicated.


a
1 561 231 (2 sig. fig.) b 3 677 720 (4 sig. fig.)
c
789 001 (5 sig. fig.)
d
3 300 000 (1 sig. fig.) e 777 777 (3 sig. fig.)
f
3 194 729 (5 sig. fig.)
g
821 076 (4 sig. fig.)
h
7091 (1 sig. fig.)
i
49 172 (2 sig. fig.)

11

Write these numbers correct to significant figures indicated.


a
0.0035 (1 sig. fig.)
b
0.191 785 (4 sig. fig.)
d
0.111 222 33 (6 sig. fig.) e 0.000 0271 (1 sig. fig.)
g
0.008 12 (2 sig. fig.)
h
0.092 71 (3 sig. fig.)

c
f
i

0.001 592 (3 sig. fig.)


0.019 832 6 (5 sig. fig.)
0.000 419 (2 sig. fig.)

12

A bacterium has a radius of 0.000 015 765 m.


Express this length correct to two
significant figures.

13

Convert a measurement of 2654 kilograms into centigrams. Express your answer correct
to two significant figures.

14

Convert a measurement of 4 239 810 milligrams into grams. Express your answer correct
to four significant figures.

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Chapter 3 Units of measurement and applications

87

Development
15

If y = 12 x 2 , find the value of y when:


a

16

17

x = 9.8 103

2 r where is the angle at the centre and r is the


The arc length of a circle is l =
360
radius of the circle. Use this formula to calculate the arc length of a circle when = 30
and r = 7.4 108. Answer in scientific notation correct to one significant figure.

Given that V =
a

13.3

x = 2.4 103

find the value of r in scientific notation when:


h
V = 5 104 and h = 9 106
b
V = 6 107 and h = 4 102

18

Use the formula E = md2 to find d correct to three significant figures given that:
a
m = 0.08 and E = 5.5 109
b
m = 2.7 103 and E = 1.6 104

19

Find x given x3 = 2.7 1012. Answer correct to four significant figures.

20

Light travels at 300 000 kilometres per second. Convert this measure to metres per
second and express this speed in scientific notation.

21

Use the formula E = 3p q to evaluate E given that p = 7.5 105 and q = 2.5 104.
Answer in scientific notation correct to one significant figure.

22

The volume of a cylinder is V = r2h where r is the radius of the cylinder and h is the
height of the cylinder. Use this formula to calculate the volume of the cylinder if
r = 5.6 104 and h = 2.8 103. Answer in scientific notation correct to three significant
figures.

23

The Earth is 1.496 108 km from the Sun. Calculate the distance travelled by the Earth
in a year using the formula c = 2r. Answer in scientific notation correct to two
significant figures.

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88

Preliminary Mathematics General

3.4 Calculations with ratios

3.4

A ratio is used to compare amounts of the


same units in a definite order. For example,
the ratio 3:4 represents 3 parts to 4 parts or
3 or 0.75 or 75%.
4

A ratio is a fraction and can be simplified


in the same way as a fraction. For example,
the ratio 15:20 can be simplified to 3:4
by dividing each number by 5. Equivalent
ratios are obtained by multiplying or
dividing each amount in the ratio by the
same number.
3

15 : 12 = 5 : 4

5 : 4 = 15 : 12

15:12 and 5:4 are equivalent ratios.


When simplifying a ratio with fractions, multiply each of the amounts by the lowest common
denominator. For example, to simplify 1 : 3 multiply both sides by 8. This results in the
8 4
equivalent ratio of 1:6.
Ratio
A ratio is used to compare amounts of the same units in a definite order.
Equivalent ratios are obtained by multiplying or dividing by the same number.

Dividing a quantity in a given ratio


Ratio problems may be solved by dividing a quantity in a given ratio. This method divides
each amount in the ratio by the total number of parts.
Dividing a quantity in a given ratio
1
2
3
4

Calculate the total number of parts by adding each amount in the ratio.
Divide the quantity by the total number of parts to determine the value of one part.
Multiply each amount of the ratio by the result in step 2.
Check by adding the answers for each part. The result should be the original quantity.

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Chapter 3 Units of measurement and applications

Example 6

89

Dividing a quantity in a given ratio

Mikhail and Ilya were given $450 by their grandparents to share in the ratio 4:5. How much
did each person receive?
Solution
1
2
3
4
5

Calculate the total number of parts by adding each Total parts = 4 + 5 = 9


amount in the ratio (4 parts to 5 parts).
9 parts = $450
Divide the quantity ($450) by the total number of
$450
1 part =
= $5
50
parts (9 parts) to determine the value of one part.
9
Multiply each amount of the ratio by the result in
4 parts = 4 $50
50 = $200
step 2 or $50.
5 parts = 5 $50
50 = $250
Check by adding the answers for each part. The
($200 + $250 = $450)
result should be the original quantity or $450.
Mikhail receives $200 and
Write the answer in words.
Ilya receives $250.

The unitary method


The unitary method involves finding one unit of an amount by division. This result is then
multiplied to solve the problem.
Using the unitary method
1
2

Find one unit of an amount by dividing by the amount.


Multiply the result in step 1 by a number to solve the problem.

Example 7

Using the unitary method

A car travels 360 km on 30 L of petrol. How far does it travel on 7 L?


Solution
1
2
3
4
5
6

Write a statement using information from the


question.
Find 1 L of petrol by dividing 360 km by the amount
or 30.
Multiply the 360 by a 7 to solve the problem.
30
Evaluate.
Write answer to an appropriate degree of accuracy.
Write the answer in words.

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30 L = 360 kkm
360
1 L=
km
30
360
7 L=
7 km
30
= 84 km
The car travels 84 km.

Cambridge University Press

90

Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 3D
1

Express each ratio in simplest form.


a
15:3
b
10:40
d
14:30
e
8:12

c
f

9:18:9

5:10:20

1 1
:
2 5

2 3
:
3 7

24:16
49:14
1
1:
3
3
:1
4

A delivery driver delivers 1 parcel on average every 20 minutes. How many hours does it
take to drop 18 parcels?

Divide 240 into the following ratios.


a
2:1
b
3:2
c
1:5
d
7:5

A bag of 500 grams of chocolates is divided into the ratio 7:3. What is the mass of the
smaller amount?

At a concert there were 7 girls for every 5 boys. How many girls were in the audience
of 8616?

Molly, Patrick and Andrew invest in a business in the ratio 6:5:1. The total amount
invested is $240 000. How much was invested by the following people?
a
Molly
b
Patrick
c
Andrew

In a boiled fruit cake recipe the ratio of mixed fruit to


flour to sugar is 5:3:2. A 250 g packet of mixed fruit is
used to make the cake. How much sugar and flour is
required?

A 5 kg bag of potatoes costs $12.80. Find the cost of:


a
1 kg
b
10 kg
c
14 kg
d
6 kg
The cost of 3 pens is $42.60. Find the cost of:
a
1 pen
b
4 pens
c
6 pens
d
10 pens

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91

Development
10

A punch is made from pineapple juice, lemonade and passionfruit in the ratio 3:5:2.
a
How much lemonade is needed if one litre of pineapple juice is used?
b
How much pineapple juice is required to make 10 litres of punch?

11

Angus, Ruby and Lily share an inheritance of $500 000 in the ratio of 7:5:4. How much
will be received by the following people?
a
Angus
b
Ruby
c
Lily

12

Samantha and Mathilde own a restaurant. Samantha gets 3 of the profits and Mathilde
5
receives the remainder.
a
What is the ratio of profits?
b
Last week the profit was $2250. How much does Mathilde receive?
c
This week the profit is $2900. How much does Samantha receive?

13

A jam is made by adding 5 parts fruit to 4 parts of sugar. How much fruit should be
added to 2 12 kilograms of sugar in making the jam?

14

A local council promises to spend $4 for every $3 raised in public subscriptions for a
community hall. The cost of the hall is estimated at $1.75 million. How much does the
community need to raise?

15

The ratio of $5 to $10 notes in Stephanies purse is 3:5. There are 24 notes altogether.
What is the total value of Stephanies $5 notes?

16

Nathan makes a blend of mixed lollies using 5 kg jelly babies, 4 kg licorice and 1 kg
skittles. What is the cost of the blend per kilogram to the nearest cent?
Mixed lollies
Jelly babies $5.95 per kg

17

Licorice

$6.95 per kg

Skittles

$11.90 per kg

The three sides of a triangle are in the ratio of 2:3:4. The longest side of the triangle is
12.96 mm. What is the perimeter of the triangle?

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92

Preliminary Mathematics General

3.5 Rates and concentrations


Rates
3.5

A rate is a comparison of amounts with


different units. For example, we may compare
the distance travelled with the time taken.
In a rate the units are different and must be
specified.
The order of a rate is important. A rate is
written as the first amount per one of the
second amount. For example, $2.99/kg
represents $2.99 per one kilogram or 80 km/h
represents 80 kilometres per one hour.
Converting a rate
1
2
3
4

Write the rate as a fraction. First quantity is the numerator and 1 is the denominator.
Convert the first amount to the required unit.
Convert the second amount to the required unit.
Simplify the fraction.

Example 8

Converting a rate

Convert each rate to the units shown.


a
55 200 m/h to m/min
b
$6.50/kg to c/g
Solution
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Write the rate as a fraction.


The numerator is 55 200 m and the denominator
is 1 h.
No conversion required for the numerator.
Convert the 1 hour to minutes by multiplying by 60.
Simplify the fraction.
Write the rate as a fraction.
The numerator is $6.50 and the denominator is 1 kg.
Convert the $6.50 to cents by multiplying by 100.
Convert the 1 kg to g by multiplying by 1000.
Simplify the fraction.

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55 200 m
1h
55 200 m
=
1 60 min
= 920 m/min

55 200 =

6.50 =

$6.50
1 kg
6.50 100 c
=
1 1000 g
= 0.665 c/g

Cambridge University Press

Chapter 3 Units of measurement and applications

93

Concentrations
A concentration is a measure of how much of a given substance is mixed with another
substance. Concentrations are a rate that has particular applications in nursing and agriculture.
It often involves mixing chemicals. Concentrations may be expressed as:

weight per weight such as 10 g/100 g

weight per volume such as 5 g/10 mL

volume per volume such as 20 mL/10 L.


Finding a percentage concentration
1
2

Write the two quantities as a fraction.


Multiply the fraction by 100 to convert it to a percentage.

Example 9

Converting a concentration

A medicine is given as a concentration of 2.5 mL per 10 kg. What is the dosage rate for this
medicine in mL/kg?
Solution
1
2
3
4
5
6

Write the rate as a fraction.


The numerator is 2.5 mL and the denominator is
10 kg.
Divide the numerator by the denominator.
Evaluate.
Write answer to an appropriate degree of
accuracy.
Write the answer in words.

Example 10

2.5 mL
10 kg
2.5 mL
=

10
kg
= 0.25
2 5 mL
L//kg

2.5 mL/10 kg =

The dosage rate is 0.25 mL/kg.

Expressing as a percentage concentration

Express 6.2 g of sugar per 50 g as a percentage concentration.


Solution

Write as a fraction. The first amount is divided by


the second amount.
Multiply the fraction by 100 to convert it to a
percentage.
Evaluate.

Write the answer in words.

1
2

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6.2 g
50 g
6.2
=
100%
50
= 12.4%

6.2 g/50 g =

Percentage composition
is 12.4%.

Cambridge University Press

94

Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 3E
1

Use the rate provided to answer the following questions.


a
Cost of apples is $2.50/kg. What is the cost of 5 kg?
b
Tax charge is $28/m. What is the tax for 7 m2?
c
Cost savings are $35/day. How much is saved in 5 days?
d
Cost of a chemical is $65/100 mL. What is the cost of 300 mL?
e
Cost of mushrooms is $5.80/kg. What is the cost of 12 kg?
f
Distance travelled is 1.2 km/min. What is the distance travelled in 30 minutes?
g
Concentration of a chemical is 3 mL/L. How many mL of the chemical is needed
for 4 L?
h
Concentration of a drug is 2 mL/g. How many mL is needed for 10 g?

Express each rate in simplest form using the rates shown.


a
300 km on 60 L [km per L]
b
15 m in 10 s [m per s]
c
$640 for 5 m [$ per m]
d
56 L in 0.5 min [L per min]
e
78 mg for 13 g [mg per g]
f
196 g for 14 L [g per L]

Convert each rate to the units shown.


a
39 240 m/min [m/s]
c
88 cm/h [mm/h]
e
0.4 km/s [m/s]
g
6.09 g/mL [mg/mL]
i
12 600 mg/g [mg/kg]

b
d
f
h

2 m/s [cm/s]
55 200 m/h [m/min]
57.5 m/s [km/s]
4800 L/kL [mL/kL]

Mia earns $37.50 per hour working in a cafe.


a
How much does Mia earn for working a 9-hour day?
b
How many hours does Mia work to earn $1200?
c
What is Mias annual income if she works 40 hours a week? Assume she works
52 weeks in the year.

Patrick mixes 35 mL of a pesticide per 20 L as a percentage concentration.


a
Express this concentration in litres per litre.
b
What is the percentage concentration?

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Chapter 3 Units of measurement and applications

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Development
6

A tap is dripping water at a rate of 70 drops per minute. Each drop is 0.2 mL.
a How many millilitres of water drip from the tap in one minute?
b How many litres of water drip from the tap in a day?

Natural gas is charged at a rate of 1.4570 cents per MJ.


a Find the charge for 12560 MJ of natural gas. Answer to the nearest dollar.
b The charge for natural gas was $160.27. How many megajoules were used?

Olivias council rate is $2915 p.a. for land valued at $265000. Lucy has a council rate of
$3186 on land worth $295000 from another council.
a What is Olivias council charge as a rate of $/$1000 valuation?
b What is Lucys council charge as a rate of $/$1000 valuation?

Miras car uses 9 litres of petrol to travel 100 kilometres. Petrol costs $1.50 per litre.
a What is the cost of travelling 100 kilometres?
b How far can she drive using $50 worth of petrol? Answer to the nearest kilometre.

10

A motor bike is moving at a steady


speed. When the speed is 90 km/h
the bike consumes 5 litres of
petrol for every 100 kilometres
travelled.
a The petrol tank holds 30 litres.
How many kilometres can the
bike travel on a full tank of
petrol when its speed is
90 km/h?
b When the speed is 110 km/h
the bike consumes 30% more petrol per kilometre travelled. Calculate the number of
litres per 100 kilometres consumed when the bike travels at 110 km/h.

11

A plane travelled non-stop from Los Angeles to Sydney, a distance of 12027 kilometres
in 13 hours and 30 minutes. The plane started with 180 kilolitres of fuel, and on landing
had enough fuel to fly another 45 minutes.
a What was the planes average speed in kilometres per hour? Answer to the nearest
whole number.
b How much fuel was used? Answer to the nearest kilolitre.

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96

Preliminary Mathematics General

3.6 Percentage change


Percentage change involves increasing or decreasing a quantity as a percentage of the original
amount of the quantity.
3.6

Percentage increase
1
2

Add the % increase to 100%.


Multiply the above percentage by the
amount.

Example 11

Percentage decrease
1
2

Subtract the % decrease from 100%.


Multiply the above percentage by
the amount.

Calculating the percentage change

The retail price of a toaster is $36 and is to be increased by 5%. What is the new price?
Solution
1
2
3
4
5

Add the 5% increase to 100%.


Write the quantity (new price) to be found.
Multiply the above percentage (105%) by the
amount.
Evaluate and write using correct units.
Write the answer in words.

Example 12

100% + 5% = 105%
New price = 105% of $36
= 1.05 36
= $37.80
New price is $37.80.

Calculating repeated percentage changes

Increase $75 by 20% and then decrease the result by 20%.


Solution
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Add the 20% increase to 100%.


Write the quantity (new price) to be found.
Multiply the above percentage (120%) by the
amount.
Evaluate and write using correct units.
Subtract the 20% decrease from 100%.
Write the quantity (new price) to be found.
Multiply the above percentage (80%) by the
amount.
Evaluate and write using correct units.
Write the answer in words.

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100% + 20% = 120%


New price = 120% of $75
= 1.20 75
= $90
100% 20% = 80%
New price = 80% of $90
= 0.80 90
= $72
New price is $72.

Cambridge University Press

Chapter 3 Units of measurement and applications

97

Exercise 3F
1

What is the amount of the increase in each of the following?


a
Increase of 10% on $48
b
Increase of 30% on $120
c
Increase of 15% on $66
d
Increase of 25% on $88
e
Increase of 40% on $1340
f
Increase of 36% on $196
g
Increase of 4.5% on $150
h
Increase of 1 % on $24
2

What is the amount of the decrease in each of the following?


a
Decrease of 20% on $110
b
Decrease of 60% on $260
c
Decrease of 35% on $320
d
Decrease of 75% on $1096
e
Decrease of 6% on $50
f
Decrease of 32% on $36
g
Decrease of 12.5% on $640
h
Decrease of 1 14 % on $56

David Jones clearance sale has a discount of


30% off the retail price of all clothing. Find
the amount saved on the following items.
a
Mens shirt with a retail price of $80
b
Pair of jeans with a retail price of $66
c
Ladies jacket with a retail price of $450
d
Boys shorts with a retail price of $22
e
Jumper with a retail price of $124
f
Girls skirt with a retail price of $50

30%

origi

OFF

nal p

rice

A manager has decided to award a salary increase of 6% for all employees. Find the new
salary awarded on the following amounts.
a
Salary of $46 240
b
Salary of $94 860
c
Salary of $124 280
d
Salary of $64 980

Molly has a card that entitles her to a 2.5% discount at the store where she works.
How much will she pay for the following items?
a
Vase marked at $190
b
Cutlery marked at $240
c
Painting marked at $560
d
Pot marked at $70

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98

Preliminary Mathematics General

Development
6

A used car is priced at $18 600 and offered for sale at a discount of 15%.
a
What is the discounted price of the car?
b
The car dealer decides to reduce the price of this car by another 15%. What is the
new price of the car?

Find the repeated percentage change on the following.


a
Increase $100 by 20% and then decrease the result by 20%.
b
Increase $280 by 10% and then increase the result by 5%.
c
Decrease $32 by 50% and then increase the result by 25%.
d
Decrease $1400 by 5% and then decrease the result by 5%.
e
Increase $960 by 15% and then decrease the result by 10%.
f
Decrease $72 by 12.5% and then increase the result by 33 13 % .

An electronic store offered a $30 discount on a piece of software marked at $120. What
percentage discount has been offered?

The cost price of a sound system is $480. Retail stores have offered a range of successive
discounts. Calculate the final
price of the sound system at
the following stores.
a
Store A: Increase of
10% and then a decrease
of 5%
b
Store B: Increase of
40% and then a decrease
of 50%
c
Store C: Increase of
25% and then a decrease
of 15%
d
Store D: Increase of
30% and then a decrease
of 60%

10

The price of a clock has been reduced from $200 to $180.


a
What percentage discount has been applied?
b
Two months later the price of the clock was increased by the same percentage
discount. What is new price of the clock?

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Chapter 3 Units of measurement and applications

Units of measurement

1000
1000
100
10

mega
kilo
unit
centi
milli

1000

24

1000

60

100

60

10

Study guide 3

days
hours
minutes
seconds

24
60
60

10000 cm2 = 1 m2
1 ha = 10000 m2
1000000 cm3 = 1 m3
Writing numbers in
scientific notation

Writing numbers in
significant figures

Find the first two non-zero digits.


2 Place a decimal point between these two digits.
3 Power of ten is number of the digits between the new and the
old decimal point. (Small number negative value, Large
number positive value)

Write the number in scientific notation.


2 Count the digits in the number to determine its accuracy.
3 Round the number to the required significant figures.

Ratios

A ratio is used to compare amounts of the same units in a definite


order. Equivalent ratios are obtained by multiplying or dividing by
the same number.

Unitary method

Converting a rate

Percentage change

Find one unit of an amount by dividing by the amount.


2 Multiply the result in step 1 by the number.
Write the rate as a fraction. First quantity is the numerator
and 1 is the denominator.
2 Convert the first amount to the required unit.
3 Convert the second amount to the required unit.
4 Simplify the fraction.
Add the % increase or subtract the % decrease from 100%.
2 Multiply the above percentage by the amount.

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Review

Chapter summary Units of measurement and applications

99

Review

100

Preliminary Mathematics General

Sample HSC Objective-response questions


1

Convert 7.5 metres to millimetres.


A 0.0075 mm
B 75 mm

7500 mm

How many square millimetres are in a square centimetre?


A 10
B 100
C 1000

10000

Write 4500000 in scientific notation.


A 4.5 106
B 4.5 105

4.5 106

0.066

750 mm

4.5 105

Express 0.0655 correct to two significant figures.


A 0.06
B 0.07
C 0.065

The ratio of adults to children in a park is 5:9. How many adults are in the park if there are
630 children?
A 70
B 126
C 280
D 350

A 360 gram lolly bag is divided in the ratio 7:5. What is the mass of the smaller amount?
A 150 g
B 168 g
C 192 g
D 210 g

A hose fills a 10 L bucket in 20 seconds. What is the rate of flow in litres per hour?
A 0.0001
B 30
C 1800
D 7200

Which of the following is the slowest speed?


A 60 km/h
B 100 m/s
C 10000 m/min

6000 m/h

The concentration of a drug is 3 mL/g. How many mL are required for 30 g?


A 0.1 mL
B 10 mL
C 27 mL
D 90 mL

10

What is the new price when $80 is increased by 20% then decreased by 20%?
A $51.20
B $76.80
C $80.00
D $115.20

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Chapter 3 Units of measurement and applications

101

There are six tonnes of iron ore in a train. What is the mass (in tonnes) if another 246 kg of
iron ore is added to the train?

Complete the following.


a

b
c

m2

4000 cm 2 =

mm 2

3 km 2 =

m2

A field has a perimeter of exactly 400 m. Lily measured the field to be 401.2 m using a
long tape marked in 0.1 m intervals.

500 cm 2 =

Calculate the limit of reading.


What is the absolute error for Lilys measurement?
What is the percentage error for Lilys measurement? Answer correct to three decimal
places.

Write each of the following as a basic numeral.


a 4.8 106
b 6.25 104

1.9 102

Write these numbers in scientific notation.


a 50 800
b 0.0036

381 000 000

Evaluate the following and express your answer in scientific notation.


4.6 10 4
a (7.2 105) (2.1 104)
b
2.3 10 2

Convert a measurement of 3580 tonnes into milligrams. Express your answer in scientific
notation correct to two significant figures.

Find the value of 45 154 and express your answer in scientific notation correct to two
significant figures.

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Review

Sample HSC Short-answer questions

Review

102

Preliminary Mathematics General

Simplify the following ratios.


a 500:100
d 10:15:30
g

10

e
h

20:30
12:9
3 1
:
4 2

c
f

28:7
56:88

A 5 kg bag of rice costs $9.20. What is the cost of the following amounts?

a
d
11

4.8:1.6

10 kg
7 kg

b
e

40 kg
500 g

Convert each rate to the units shown.


a $15/kg to $/g
c 120 cm/h to mm/min
e 14 L/g to mL/kg

c
f

b
d
f

3 kg
250 g

14 400 m/h to m/min


4800 kg/g to kg/mg
$3600/g to c/mg

12

A car travels 960 km on 75 litres of petrol. How far does it travel on 50 litres?

13

Daniel and Ethan own a business and share the profits in the ratio 3:4.
a The profit last week was $3437. How much does Daniel receive?
b The profit this week is $2464. How much does Ethan receive?

14

Jill has a shareholder card that entitles her to a 5% discount at a supermarket. How much
will she pay for the following items? Answer to the nearest cent.
a Breakfast cereal at $7.60
b Milk at $4.90
c Coffee at $14.20
d Cheese at $8.40

15

An electrician is buying a light fitting for $144 at a hardware store. He receives a clearance
discount of 15% then a trade discount of 10%. How much does the electrician pay for the
light fitting?
Challenge questions 3

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C H A P T E R

Statistics and society, data


collection and sampling
Syllabus topic DS1 Statistics and society, data
collection and sampling
Recognise the process of statistical inquiry
Appreciate the role of statistical methods in quality control
Classify data as quantitative or categorical
Distinguish between random, stratied and systematic samples
Design an effective questionnaire

4.1 Statistical inquiry


Statistical inquiry is a process of gathering statistics that
involves six steps: posing questions, collecting data,
organising data, displaying data, analysing data and writing
a report. The information gained from a statistical inquiry
is a vital part of our society. Many people believe that
information is more important than the natural resources as
a source of social and economic power.

103
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Preliminary Mathematics General

Collecting data
Collecting data involves deciding what to collect, locating it and collecting it. Data comes
from either primary or secondary sources.
Primary sources interviewing people, conducting questionnaires or observing a system
in operation
Secondary sources data collected or created by someone else such as information
gathered from newspapers, books and the internet.
It is important that procedures are in place to ensure the collection of data is accurate, up to
date, relevant and secure. If the data collected comes from unreliable sources or is inaccurate,
the information gained from it will be incorrect.

Organising data
Organising data is the process that arranges, represents and formats data. It is carried out after
the data is collected. The organisation of the data depends on the purpose of the statistical
inquiry. For example, to store and search a large amount of data, the data needs to be
categorised. Frequency tables are used organise ungrouped and grouped data. Organising
gives structure to the data.

Summarising and displaying data


Displaying data is the presentation of the data and
information. Information must be well organised,
readable, attractively presented and easy to
understand. Information is often displayed using
graphs such as dot plots, sector graphs, histograms,
line graphs, stem-and-leaf plots and box-and-whisker
plots. Data is summarised using statistics such as the
mean, median, mode and standard deviation.

Analysing data
Analysing data is the process that interprets
Statistical inquiry
data and transforms it into information.
1 Pose questions.
It involves examining the data and giving
2 Collect the data.
meaning to it. When data has been ordered
3 Organise the data.
and given meaning by people, it is called
4 Summarise and display the data.
information. The particular type of analysis
5 Analyse the data and draw conclusions.
depends on the format of the data and the
6 Write a report.
information that is required. Graphs are
used to analyse the data. They make it easy to interpret data by making instant comparisons
and revealing trends. Graphs help people to make quick and accurate decisions.
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Chapter 4 Statistics and society, data collection and sampling

Example 1

105

Case study of a statistical inquiry

James is an accountant working for a large retail company. He has been asked to complete a
statistical inquiry to reduce the companys phone costs. James identified seven departments
that often use the phone.
James performed the following steps:
1 Collecting data James accessed the
Department
Number of calls
latest phone bill.
Automotive
3450
2 Organising data James categorised the
Gardening
2804
phone data into the seven departments.
3 Summarising and displaying data
Hardware
4320
James presented the data in the table that
Jewellery
4506
is shown opposite.
Kitchen
2567
4 Analysing data Phone costs will
have to be paid by each department.
Ladies wear
3633
James knows there will be a rise in the
Mens wear
3760
cost of calls. He wants to make some
projections of the increase to the phone budget and calculate the average amount that each
department can spend on calls. James produced the spreadsheet shown below.

The spreadsheet has formulas in cells C7:C17. The formula entered in cell C7 is
=$B$4*B7. To analyse and draw conclusions James was able to modify the cost of the
call in cell B4 and observe the changes to the cost.
Writing a report James wrote a report that included the effects of a 10% increase in the
call costs and the effect on each of the seven departments.

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 4A
1

Copy and complete the following sentences.


a Statistical
is a process of gathering statistics that involves posing
questions, collecting, organising, displaying, analysing and writing a report.
b Data comes from either
or secondary sources.
c
data is the process that arranges, represents and formats data.
d Information must be well organised,
, attractively presented and easy to
understand.
e Data that has been ordered and given some meaning by people is called
.
f
help people to make quick and accurate decisions.

True or false?
a Interviewing people is a secondary source of information.
b Data collected from unreliable sources results in incorrect information.
c Information is often displayed using graphs.
d Data is summarised using statistics such as dot plots, sector graphs, histograms, line
graphs, stem-and-leaf plots and box-and-whisker plots.
e Analysing data is the process that interprets data and transforms it into information.

List the six steps involved in a statistical inquiry.

Why is information gained from a statistical inquiry a vital part


of our society?

Explain the difference between primary and secondary sources.

What is the purpose of frequency tables?

List some of the types of graphs used to display data.

Why are graphs used to analyse data?

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107

Development
9

Privacy is the ability of an individual to control their personal data. Organisations are
collecting a huge amount of data about our personal lives and attitudes on various issues.
Every time you fill out a form, use a transaction card, or surf the Net, data is collected.
It is possible for people to access this data and combine it. This combined information
would provide a very accurate picture of you.
a Why would your personal data be of great value to retailers and advertising people?
b How would you feel if a person accessed your application to build a house and sold
it to a bricklayer?
c Are you concerned about receiving email from an unknown organisation? How
would you feel if this organisation paid to receive your email address?
d Why must you consider issues of privacy and ethics when collecting statistical data?

10

List some of the information that has been collected on you. How can you check whether
this information is accurate? What are your privacy rights? Explore the Office of the
NSW Privacy Commissioner (www.privacy.nsw.gov.au) to answer these questions.

11

The Data-matching Act permits certain agencies to check records held by different
government departments, such as the tax office and the departments responsible for
social security, employment and education. It aims to catch people who are cheating the
welfare system.
a Do you think this is an invasion of privacy? Give a reason.
b Is the Data-matching Act benefiting our society? Give a reason.

12

Why is it important to consider how the questions are asked when conducting a
questionnaire for a statistical inquiry?

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Preliminary Mathematics General

4.2 Classification of data


There are many types of data that can be collected. Data is divided into two broad
classifications called quantitative and categorical.
4.2

Quantitative data
Quantitative data is numerical data. For example, if we asked each student in the class their
height we would expect to get a variety of answers. However, each answer is a number.
Quantitative data is further classified as discrete or continuous.

Discrete data data that can only take exact numerical values.
For example, the number of sisters will give rise to the
numbers such as 0, 1 or 2. Counting a quantity often results
in discrete data.
Continuous data data that can take any numerical
value (sometimes within specified interval). For
example, a students height will give rise to numbers
such as 171.2 cm and 173.5 cm. Measuring a quantity
often results in continuous data.

Categorical data
Categorical data is data that can be divided into categories. It uses labels not numbers.
Categorical data is further classified as nominal or ordinal.
Nominal data uses a name or label that does not indicate order. For example, a students
gender could be classified as an F for females and an M for males.
Ordinal data uses a name or label that does indicate order. For example, the quality of
work could be classified as an A for excellent, B for good or C for satisfactory. It
shows a sequence A, B and C.
Categorical data has no quantity or amount associated with each category.

Classification of data
1

Quantitative data is numerical data.


a Discrete data data that can only take exact numerical values
b Continuous data data that can take any numerical value.
2 Categorical data classified by the name of the category it belongs to.
a Nominal data name does not indicate order
b Ordinal data name does indicate order.

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Chapter 4 Statistics and society, data collection and sampling

Example 2

109

Classifying data as a categorical or quantitative

Classify the data from these situations as


quantitative or categorical.
a The heart rate of a group of personal
trainers
b The most watched television show in
Australia
c The number of people living in
Smith Ave
d The reasons for people travelling to
work by train.
Solution
1

2
3

The heart rate, such as 70 beats per


minute, can be measured and results
in a number.
A television show, such as the news,
does not result in a number.
The number of people living in Smith
Ave, such as 27, can be counted and
results in a number.
The reason for travelling to work by
train, such as it is cheaper, does not
result in a number.

Example 3

The heart rate is quantitative data.

A television show is categorical


data.
The number of people living in
Smith Ave is quantitative data.

The reasons for travelling to work


is categorical data.

Classifying data as a discrete or continuous

Classify the following quantitative data as discrete or continuous.


a The number of pets in your family
b The perimeter of the school.
Solution
1

The number of pets can be counted and is exact.

The perimeter of the school is a measurement


of distance and assumes a value.

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T
he number of pets is
discrete data.
T
he perimeter of the
school is continuous data.

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 4B
1

Classify the data from these situations as quantitative or categorical.


a The favourite colour of Jennys friends
b The number of people travelling in a car
c Each student in the year is weighed in kilograms
d People rating their doctor on personal service (high, medium or low)
e The number of students in each class
f
The IQ of a group of students
g Responses to a survey question (agree or disagree)
h A persons lucky number
i
A females favourite mobile phone
j
Distance from Sydney to Wollongong
k The cost of bread at the supermarket
l
The communitys preferred leader
m The number of computers in the school.

Classify the following quantitative data as discrete or continuous.


a The price paid for a can of soft drink

b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k

The number of people at a concert


The time between trains
The number of pages in the newspaper
The amount of water used in the past month
The number of people in your immediate family
The numbers drawn in this weeks lotto
The length of the cricket pitch
The distance measured for the long jump at the world championships
The score achieved from a quiz consisting of 10 questions
The height of the tallest person in the world.

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111

State whether the following is categorical, discrete or continuous data.


a The heights of members of a football team
b The distance to drive to the train station

c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
m
n
o
p

The different types of ice creams


The quality of food in a restaurant
The eye colour of a group of people
The number of pets in a household
The time to swim 50 metres
The number of goals scored in the first match of the season
Todays most fashionable style of dress
The number of computers in the building
Replies given to a questionnaire (Yes or No)
The perimeter of Joels block of land
The width of the Anzac Bridge
The number of people killed on the roads due to speed
The stopping distance for a car travelling at 60 km/h
The most popular type of car sold in the past twelve months.

The hospital measures the weight and length of every new baby.
a Classify the data as quantitative or categorical.
b Is this data discrete or continuous?

A coffee shop is conducting a survey on the drinking habits of its customers. One of the
questions was: How many cups of coffee do you drink each day?
a State whether the data is quantitative or categorical.
b Is this data discrete or continuous?

The government collected data on their latest policy proposal. The people surveyed
answered ten questions and were given three choices for each question: Agree, Disagree
or Not sure. What type of data has the government collected?

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Development
7

In a survey customers were asked to rate the service they received by selecting one of the
following:
outstanding, excellent, good, satisfactory or needs improvement

Describe the type of data that would result from this question.
8

A teacher marks a classs assessment task and awards a mark out of 100 for each student.
Describe the type of data that that has been collected by the teacher.

A marketing poll was conducted that asked about a persons employment status:
unemployed, receiving education, part-time job or full-time job

Describe the type of data that would result from this poll.
10

Emma is planning to build a new restaurant. She conducted a survey of the community.
One of the questions asked was How far in kilometres would you be prepared to travel
to get to a good restaurant? The options given were:
5 km, 10 km, 20 km, 50 km

Describe the type of data that would result from this question.
11

The local community recorded the amount of rainfall each


day for the past 3 months. Some of the data is shown
below.
Rainfall
23rd April

10 mm

24th April

0 mm

25th April

25 mm

Describe the data collected by the local community.

12

The police department collected data on fatal crashes. One of the questions it asked was:
What was the age of the driver involved in a fatal crash?
a Describe the type of data collected by the police department.
b The question was modified to give the interviewee six choices:
1724 yrs, 2534 yrs, 3544 yrs, 4554 yrs, 5564 yrs, 65+ yrs

Describe the type of data that would result from these choices.

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113

4.3 Sample types

4.3

Collecting data from every person in a population is called a census. However, a census may
be costly in terms of money and time. For this reason, samples are taken from a population
and estimates made about the population are based on the sample. A sample is only part of a
population. For example, if all the students in your school are regarded as the population then
a sample of this population is the students in your class.
A sample must be large enough to give a good representation of the population, but small
enough to be manageable. There are many different types of sampling including a random
sample, stratified sample and systematic sample.

Random sample
A random sample occurs when
members of the population
have an equal chance of
being selected. For example,
six students are selected at
random from the entire school
population. Lotto is another good
example of random sampling. A
sample of 6 numbers is chosen
from 40 numbers. Random
samples are simple and easy
to use for small populations.
However, for large populations,
it is possible to miss out on a
particular group.

Stratified sample
A stratified sample occurs when categories or strata of a population are chosen and then
members from each category are randomly selected. For example, one student is selected from
each year 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12. Each year group is a category in a stratified sample. Some
other common types of categories are age, sex, religion or marital status. A stratified sample is
useful when the categories are simple and easy to determine. However, care needs to be taken
when selecting categories to avoid any bias in the data.

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Systematic sample
Systematic sample occurs when the population is divided into a structured sample size. For
example, the students in the school population are put in alphabetical order and the 100th
student, 200th student, 300th student, are selected. A systematic sample is often used by a
manufacturer to ensure the machines are working correctly. Here the manufacturer might test
a machine every 30 minutes or check the 50th item on a production line. Systematic sampling
results in a gap between each selection.

Random sample

Stratified sample

Systematic sample

Members of the population


have an equal chance of
being selected.

Categories of a population
are chosen. Members then
are randomly selected
from each category.

Population is divided into a


structured sample size. Members
are then selected in a certain
order from this structure.

Example 4

Distinguishing sample types

A retirement village has 63 residents, 42 women and 21 men. Decide whether each sample of
resident would be random, stratified or systematic.
a Every seventh resident
b Six of the women and three of the men
c Nine names picked from a hat containing the names of the residents.
Solution
1
2
3

The population has been divided into a structured


sample size 7th, 14th, 21st, 63rd
The population has been divided into categories
women and the men.
Sample is taken at random.

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S
ystematic sample

S
tratified sample

R
andom sample.

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115

Exercise 4C
1

State whether a census or a sample is the most appropriate way to collect this data.
a Information on the shopping experience
of people in the city
b John collecting the height of his best
friends
c The travelling habits of the Jones family
to work
d Australians watching the grand final
e Number of people eating toast for
breakfast
f
Length of time every AAA battery lasts
g Number of people entering a gym
between 5 p.m. and 6 p.m.
h Holly collecting the amount of time
spent on the internet by her class
i
The worlds reaction to climate change
j
Shop managers reaction to a drop in sales.

State whether the sample is random, stratified or systematic.


a Police officer breathalysing every tenth person
b Each person is given a raffle ticket and the tickets are drawn out of a hat
c Twenty people aged under 30 and twenty people aged over 30 travelling
on a bus
d A business has 240 married and 120 unmarried employees. A sample was chosen
to include 10 of the married and 5 of the unmarried employees.
e Students were sorted into alphabetical order and each third student selected.
f
Individuals were randomly selected using their tax file number.
g Every 12th jogger selected from an alphabetical list
h Randomly selecting 10 cards from a normal deck of cards
i
Ten girls and ten boys randomly selected from a concert
j
Ten people who arrive at a shopping centre each day completed the survey.

Michael uses a random sample to survey 10% of the local community. In the local
community there are 810 males and 920 females. How many people does Michael
need to survey?

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Amelia plans to conduct a random sample to


survey the netball players in the local
association. There are 2850 players in the
local association and she plans to survey
171 players. What percentage of the
population is her sample?

Paige uses a stratified sample to survey 10%


of her school population. At the school there
are 80 teachers and 1160 students.
a How many people should complete the
survey?
b How many teachers should complete the
survey?
c How many students should complete the survey?

Tyler uses a stratified sample to survey 25% of his swimming club. He uses their sex as a
category and selects a random group of female and male swimmers. There are 88 female
swimmers and 112 male swimmers.
a How many swimmers are in the entire population?
b How many female swimmers are in the sample?
c How many male swimmers are in the sample?

Osman uses a stratified sample to survey 7.5% of his chat room friends. He uses marital
status as a category and selects a random group of married and unmarried friends. There
are 200 married and 240 unmarried friends.
a How many friends are in the entire population?
b How many married friends are in the sample?
c How many unmarried friends are in the sample?

Taylia uses a stratified sample to survey 20% of the senior students from her school.
There are 205 year 11 students and 180 year 12 students. How many students should
Taylia choose from year 12?

Ming uses a stratified sample to survey 12 1 % of the junior students from his school.
2
There are 88 year 7, 120 year 8, 104 year 9 and 128 year 10 students.
a How many students are in the entire population?
b How many students should Ming choose in following years?
i Year 7
ii Year 8
iii Year 9
iv Year 10

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117

Development
10

A survey was conducted in a school on whether Australia should remain a constitutional


monarchy or become a republic. The results are shown below.
Male

Female

Total

Republic

51

79

130

Monarchy

23

47

70

Total

74

126

200

a
b
c

How many males surveyed did not prefer Australia to change to a republic?
What percentage of people is in favour of changing to a republic?
This survey is not a good random sample of all Australians. Why?

11

A sample of 30 students is taken from a primary school with an enrolment of 420


students from kindergarten to year 6. The sampling is designed so that the same
proportion of each year of the sample matches the population. There are 4 students from
year 1 in the sample. How many year 1 students are there in the school population?

12

A store has 400 employees of which 208 are females and 192 are males. The store
intends to survey 25 of their employees. A stratified survey is to be conducted.
a How many females should be surveyed?
b How many males should be surveyed?

13

Identify any possible issues with each of the following survey questions.
a Do you like the governments new policy? Yes/No
b Alan is a lazy boss who should be forced to pay his diligent workers more money.
Agree or disagree?

14

Kayla surveyed a group of


15 people at the Tamworth
country music festival on their
music preferences. She used this
data to make judgements for the
entire population of NSW.
a Do you think her judgements
will be accurate? Give a
reason.
b What would be a more
appropriate method of
sampling music preferences?

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4.4 Designing a questionnaire


A questionnaire or survey is a series of questions to gather specific information. The
interviewee may be given time to complete the questionnaire or it could be carried out faceto-face or online. Questionnaire may contain open ended and closed questions. Questionnaires
allow data to be collected from a large number of people quickly and with little expense.
There are a number of principles for effective questionnaire design such as:
simple language questions are easily read and understood by the interviewee
unambiguous questions questions can only be interpreted one way
respect for privacy privacy is the ability of an individual to control their personal data
freedom from bias biased data is unfairly skewed. For example, Have you stopped
cheating in exams? Yes/No assumes the interviewee is a cheat.

Designing a questionnaire
1
2
3
4

Use simple language.


Make the questions unambiguous.
Respect the privacy of the interviewee.
Ensure the questionnaire is free from bias.

Data must be carefully interpreted to ensure that the resulting information is valid. For
example, can the results of a questionnaire be generalised to a larger group of people? The
reliability of the data is also an issue. If a similar research were conducted at another time
and place would the results be the same? It is important that the information gained from
the questionnaire be accurate. After the data is collected and checked for accuracy it must be
carefully analysed. Entering the data into a table is a good way to examine the data. It enables
totals to be easily calculated and comparisons between different results to be made.

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119

Exercise 4D
1

Examine the questionnaire below.


Questionnaire Carters Place
Please take a minute to complete the survey and put it on the
counter.

How often have you eaten here?


 Never before
 14 times
 59 times
 More than 10 times

How do you rate the staff?


 Excellent
 Good
 Average
 Disappointing

How do you rate the food?


 Excellent
 Good
 Average
 Disappointing

How do you rate our service?


 Excellent
 Good
 Average
 Disappointing

Are the meals reasonably priced?


 Yes
 No

What features would bring you back


to Carters Place?
 Menu
 Wine list
 Service
 Price
 Open late
 Atmosphere

Do you like our music?


 Excellent
 Good
 Average
 Disappointing
Thank you for completing this survey.
a
b
c
d
e
f
g

What is the structure of the questionnaire?


What type of data would be collected from the questionnaire?
How many are closed questions?
How many are open ended questions?
Design an additional question focused on the decorations.
Design an additional question focused on the location.
Design an additional question focused on improving the menu.

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Development
2

A pizza shop is having problems meeting its costs. It needs to decide whether it should
increase or decrease its prices.
a Estimate or visit a local pizza shop to obtain a list of current price structures and
types of pizzas.

Create a questionnaire that could be used to estimate the effects of different prices on
revenue and the types of pizzas offered.
c Survey students on their pizza preferences and use this information to make a
recommendation to the owner of the pizza shop.
3 A fitness centre needs to attract more members. It would like to encourage people to live
a healthier lifestyle.
a Estimate or visit a local fitness centre to obtain a list of the services that are offered
and the current price structures.
b Create a questionnaire that could be used to estimate the effects of different services
and price structures.
c Survey students on their fitness needs and use this information to make a
recommendation to the manager of the fitness centre.
b

Harley is unhappy with her mobile phone plan. She is wondering whether other people
have similar issues.
a Investigate a range of mobile phone planes that are currently available. Gather data
on the rates and charges being offered.
b Use the above data to create a survey on peoples opinion of their mobile phone
plane and their current rates and charges.
c Take a sample of students in your school and conduct the above survey.

The following question is to be included in a survey about the local community:


Why do you like your local member of parliament?
Is this a good question? Justify your answer.

5 

13.4
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Chapter 4 Statistics and society, data collection and sampling

Statistical inquiry

1
2
3
4
5
6

Classification of data

Pose questions.
Collect the data.
Organise the data.
Summarise and display the data.
Analyse the data.
Write a report.

Quantitative
(Numbers)

Discrete
Continuous

Sample types

Study guide 4

Data that can only take exact


numerical values such as 0 or 1.
Data that can take any numerical
value such as 71.25.

Categorical
(Category)

Classified by the name of the categories.

Random sample

Members of the population have an equal chance of


being selected.

Stratified sample

Categories of a population are chosen such as male/


female. The members are randomly selected from
each category.

Systematic sample

Population is divided into a structured sample size.


The members are orderly selected in a certain order
from this structure, such as each third person in
alphabetical order.

Designing a

questionnaire

2
3
4

Nominal
Ordinal

Name does not indicate order.


Name does indicate order.

Use simple language.


Make questions unambiguous.
Respect the privacy of the interviewee.
Ensure the questionnaire is free from bias.

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Review

Chapter summary Statistics and society, data collection


and sampling

121

Review

122

Preliminary Mathematics General

Sample HSC Objective-response questions


1

A step in a statistical inquiry that arranges, represents and formats data.


A Analysing B Collecting
C Displaying D Organising

A step in a statistical inquiry that interprets and transforms data into information.
A Analysing B Collecting
C Displaying D Organising

Source of data collected or created by someone else.


A Primary
B Observing
C Secondary D Survey

Type of data that can only take particular numerical values.


A Constant
B Continuous C Discrete
D Number

The number of rooms in your house. What is the classification for this data?
A Categorical B Continuous C Discrete
D Text

Do you agree? Yes/No. What is the classification for this data?


A Categorical B Continuous C Discrete
D Text

Which of the following is an example of collecting data from a school using a census?
A Class opinion
B All the students opinion
C School captains opinion
D Year 11 opinion

Which of the following is an example of a random sample?


A First ten shoppers in the store
B Ten shoppers who used EFT
C Ten shoppers drawn from a box
D Ten shoppers who spent the most

Sorting each person in alphabetical order and selecting every fifth person. How would you
describe this type of sample?
A Quantitative
B Random
C Stratified
D Systematic

10

Sample designed to include four boys and four girls from a surf club. How would you
describe this type of sample?
A Quantitative
B Random
C Stratified
D Systematic

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123

True or false?
a Data comes from either primary, secondary or tertiary sources.
b Analysing data is the process that arranges, represents and formats data.
c Information that has been ordered and given some meaning by people is called data.
d Data collected from reliable sources results in correct information.

Classify the data from these situations as quantitative or categorical.


a Most popular student in the class

b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
3

Avas favourite beach in Australia


The call cost on a mobile phone
Blakes school high jump record
The amount of annual leave
The hair colour of the students in your class
The number of websites accessed in the past 24 hours
The digital download time for a 4 MB file
The average age of the people living in NSW.

Classify the following quantitative data as discrete or continuous.


a The number of televisions in a house
b The height of the tree in the local park
c The quantity of petrol used on a trip from Bega to Kiama
d The number of party pies in a 500 gram pack
e The score (0, 1 or 2) on the latest computer game
f The shirt size of the boys in year 11
g The amount of water Tran drank during the day
h The number of students in your class.

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Sample HSC Short-answer questions

Review

124

Preliminary Mathematics General

Chapter
summary
Earning
4 A marketing
poll was
conductedMoney
on a persons sleeping patterns:
Good, Satisfactory, Unsatisfactory

Describe the type of data that would result from this poll.

State whether the sample is random, stratified or systematic.


a Manufacturer selects every 40th product on the assembly line
b An equal number of city and country people are randomly chosen for a survey
c Random number generator is used to select 5 people in the class
d Selecting every 100th supporter at a football match
e Drawing the names of people from a hat
f Dividing the participants into people with tertiary qualifications and those with no
qualifications. Randomly selecting 20 people from each group
g Choosing 5 raffle tickets, each with a persons name from a container
h Sorting the names in alphabetical order and selecting every second name
i Grouping people according to the car they own and selecting an equal number of people
from each group.

Sharif uses a stratified sample to survey 10% of employees. He uses their age as a category.
There are 330 employees over 40 years of age and 670 employees under 40.
a How many employees should complete the survey?
b How many employees over 40 years of age should complete the survey?
c How many employees under 40 years of age should complete the survey?

A school has 600 students of which 315 are boys and 285 are girls. The school intends to
survey 40 of their students. A stratified survey is to be conducted.
a How many boys should be surveyed?
b How many girls should be surveyed?

A cinema session had 84 patrons: 48 women and 36 men. Decide whether a sample of
patrons would be random, stratified or systematic.
a Four of the women and three of the men
b Every sixth patron
c Twelve names picked from a hat containing the names of the patrons.

The school canteen would like to know the preferred brand of juice to stock. Describe a
suitable sample to conduct a survey.

10

The following question is to be included in a survey at a swimming centre: Why do you


like the swimming centre? Is this a good question? Justify your answer.
Challenge questions 4

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C H A P T E R

Interpreting linear relationships


Syllabus topic AM2 Interpreting linear relationships
Graphing linear functions from everyday situations
Calculating the gradient and vertical intercept
Using and interpreting graphs of the form y = mx + b
Solving simultaneous linear equations from a graph
Using linear functions to model and interpret practical situations

5.1 Graphing linear functions


A linear function makes a straight line when graphed on a number plane. There are many
everyday situations that result in a linear function such as the distance travelled as a function
of the time (d = 50t). The graph of d = 50t is shown below.
5.1

Distance
travelled

Distance (km)

200
150
100
50

2
3
Time (h)

125
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Independent and dependent variables


The linear function d = 50t has two variables d (distance) and t (time). Time (t) is the
independent variable, as any number can be substituted for this variable such as t = 1.
Conversely, the distance (d) is the dependent variable is it depends on the number substituted
for the independent variable. That is, when time is 1 (t = 1) then the distance is d = 50 1
or 50.
Graphing a linear function
1
2
3

Construct a table of values with the independent variable as the first row and
the dependent variable as the second row.
Draw a number plane with the independent variable on the horizontal axis
and the dependent variable as the vertical axis. Plot the points.
Join the points to make a straight line.

Graphing a linear function from a table of values

Example 1

The table below shows the cost of postage (c) as a function of the weight of the parcel (w).
Weight (w)
Cost (c)
a
b

1.2

2.4

3.6

4.8

6.0

Draw a graph of cost (c), against the weight of the parcel (w).
Use the graph to determine the cost of a parcel if the weight is 2.5 kg.
Solution

2
3
4

Draw a number plane with the weight of parcel


(w) as the horizontal axis and the cost of postage
(c) as the vertical axis.
Plot the points (1, 1.2), (2, 2.4), (3, 3.6), (4, 4.8)
and (5, 6.0).
Join the points to make a straight line.
Find 2.5 kg on the horizontal axis and draw a
vertical line. Where this line intersects the graph,
draw a horizontal line to the vertical axis.
Write the answer in words.

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c Cost of postage
Cost of postage in $

6
5
4
3
2
1
w
1 2 3 4 5
Weight of parcel in kg

2.5 kg would cost about $3.

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Chapter 5 Interpreting linear relationships

Example 2

Graphing a linear function

Draw the graph of y = 2x - 1.


Solution
1
2

3
4
5

Draw a table of values for x and y.


Let x = -2, -1, 0, 1 and 2. Find y using
the linear function y = 2x - 1.

-2

-1

-5

-3

-1

Draw a number plane with x as the


horizontal axis and y as the vertical axis.
Plot the points (-2, -5), (-1, -3), (0, -1),
(1, 1) and (2, 3).
Join the points to make a straight line.

y
3
2
1
3 2 1 0
1

2
3
4
5

Example 3

Graphing a linear function using a graphics calculator

Use a graphics calculator to draw the graph of y = 2x - 1.


Solution

Select the Graph menu.


Enter the formula y = 2x - 1 by typing 2X1 at Y1.
The graph of Y1 = 2X1 is the same as y = 2x - 1.
Edit the axes to an appropriate scale. Select SHIFT
F3 for the V-Window.
Enter the Xmin = 3, Xmax = 3 , Ymin = 5,
Ymax = 3.
Press EXE to exit V-Window.

Select F6 to draw the graph.

1
2
3
4

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 5A
1

Chocolates are sold for $12 per kg. The table below shows weight against cost.
Weight (w)

Cost (c)

12

24

36

48

60

Which is the dependent variable?


Draw a graph of weight against cost.

a
c

Time (t)

Cost (c)

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

Which is the dependent variable?


Draw a graph of time against cost.

b
d

Mass (m)

12

15

Time (t)

2.2

3.7

5.2

6.7

8.2

Draw a graph of mass against time.

Use the graph to find t if m is 10.

Complete the following table of values for each linear function.


y=x+1

-1

y
b = 3a + 4

y = 2x
x

-2

-1

b
5

Which is the independent variable?


Use the graph to find t if c is 0.90.

Soraya conducted a science experiment and presented the results in a table.

Mobile phone call costs are charged at a rate of 20 cents per minute.

Which is the independent variable?


Use the graph to find c if w is 1.5.

q = -p + 1
p

-2

Use the table of values from the above question to graph these linear functions.
a
y=x+1
b
y = 2x
c
b = 3a + 4
d
q = -p + 1

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Development
6

The cost (c) of apples is $2.50 per kilogram and is determined by the formula c = 2.5w
where (w) is the weight of the apples.
a Construct a table of values for the weight against cost. Use 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 for w.
b Draw the graph of the weight (w) against the cost (c).
c How many kilograms of apples can be purchased for $15?

The age of a computer (t) in years to its current value (v) in $100 is v = -5t + 30.

a
b
c
d
e

Construct a table of values for the age against current value. (t = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4)


Draw the graph of the age (t) against current value (v).
What is the initial cost of the computer?
What will be the current value of the computer after two years?
When will the computer be half its initial cost?

8 

The cost of hiring a taxi is $3 flag fall and $2 per kilometre travelled.
a Construct a table of values using 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 as values for kilometres
travelled (d) and calculating cost of the taxi (C).
b Draw the graph of the kilometres travelled (d) against cost of taxi (C).

Emily was born on Jacks tenth birthday.


a Construct a table of values using 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 as values for Emilys age (E) and
calculating Jacks age (J).
b Draw the graph of Emilys age (E) against Jacks age (J).

10

One Australian dollar (AUD) was converted to 1.20 New Zealand dollars (NZD).
a Construct a table of values using 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 as values for AUD and
calculate the NZD using the above conversion.
b Draw the graph of the AUD against NZD.

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5.2 Gradient and intercept


Gradient
5.2

The gradient of a line is the slope or steepness of the line. It is calculated by dividing the
vertical rise by the horizontal run. The larger the gradient, the steeper the slope. The letter m is
often used to indicate gradient.
Vertical
rise
Horizontal run

Gradient (or m) =

Vertical
r
rtical
rise
Horizontal run

Positive gradients are lines that go up to the right or are increasing. Conversely, negative
gradients are lines that go down to the right or are decreasing.

Positive
gradient

Example 4

Negative
gradient

Finding the gradient of a line

Find the gradient of a line through the points (1, 1) and (3, 4).
Solution
1
2
3
4

5
6
7
8

Draw a number plane with x as the


horizontal axis and y as the vertical axis.
Plot the points (1, 1) and (3, 4).
Draw a line between the two points.
Construct a right-angled triangle by
drawing a vertical and a horizontal line.
The line is positive as it slopes towards
the right.
Determine the vertical rise (4 1 = 3).
Determine the horizontal run (3 1 = 2).
Substitute 3 for the vertical rise and 2
for the horizontal run into the formula.

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(3, 4)

4
3

Vertical
rise

2
1
0

(1, 1)
Horizontal run
1

Vertical
r
rtical
rise
Horizontal run
3
=+
2

Gradient or m =

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Chapter 5 Interpreting linear relationships

Intercept
The intercept of a line is where the line cuts the axes. The intercept on the vertical axis is
called the y-intercept and is denoted by the letter b. The intercept on the horizontal axis is
called the x-intercept and is denoted by the letter a.
Gradient

Intercept

Gradient of a line is the slope of the line. The intercept of a line is where the line cuts the
axes. Vertical intercept is often denoted by b.
Vertical
r
rtical
rise
Gradient (or m) =
Horizontal run

Example 5

Finding the gradient and vertical intercept

Find the gradient and vertical intercept for the line y = -2x + 1.
Solution
1
2

3
4
5
6

7
8
9
10
11
12

Draw a table of values for x and y.


Let x = 1, 0 and 1. Find y using the linear
function y = -2x + 1.
Draw a number plane with x as the
horizontal axis and y as the vertical axis.
Plot the points (1, 3), (0, 1) and (1, 1).
Draw a line between these points.
Construct a right-angled triangle by
drawing a vertical and a horizontal line.
The line is negative as it slopes towards the
left.
Determine the vertical rise (3 1 = 2).
Determine the horizontal run (0 1 = 1).
Substitute 2 for the vertical rise and 1 for
the horizontal run into the formula.
Evaluate.
The line cuts the vertical axis at 1.

-1

-1

y
3
Vertical
rise

1
Horizontal
run
0
2
1

Vertical
intercept

Vertical rise
Horizontal run
2
=
1
= 2

Gradient or m =

Intercept on the vertical axis is 1.

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 5B
1

Find the gradient of the following lines.


y

2 1 0
1

1
0

16

12
1

2 1 0
4

8
4

What is the gradient of the line that joins these points?


a
(0, 1) and (2, 5)
b
(1, 3) and (2, 2)
c
(2, 1) and (4, 2)

What is the intercept on the vertical axis for the following lines?
y

4
3

2
1
3 2 1 0
1

2
4

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Development
4

Plot the following points on a number plane and join them to form a straight line.
Determine the gradient and y-intercept for each line.
a

10

-1

-2

-1

-1

-3

-5

12

Draw a graph of these linear functions and find the gradient and y-intercept.
a
d

y=x+3
2
y= x3
3

y = -x + 1

y + 3 = 4x

1
x +1
2
2x - y = 0
y=

The distance (d) a train travels in


kilometres is calculated using the
formula d = 150t where (t) is the time
taken in hours.
a
Construct a table of values using
0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 as values for t.
Calculate the distance (d).
b
Draw the graph of the distance
(d) against the time (t).
c
What is the gradient of the graph?
d
What is the intercept on the
vertical axis?

Meat is sold for $16 per kilogram.


a
Construct a table of values using 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 as values for the number of
kilograms (n). Calculate the cost (c) of the meat.
b
Draw the graph of the cost (c) against the number of kilograms (n).
c
What is the gradient of the graph?
d
What is the intercept on the vertical axis?

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Preliminary Mathematics General

5.3 Gradientintercept formula

5.3

When the equation of a straight line is


written in the form y = mx + b it is called the
gradientintercept formula. The gradient is m,
the coefficient of x, and the y-intercept is b,
the constant term. The independent variable in the
formula is x and the dependent variable in the
formula is y.
The gradientintercept formula is useful in
modelling relationships in many practical
situations. However, the variables are often changed
to reect the situation. For example, the formula
c = 25n + 100 has c as the cost of the event ($)
and n as the number of guests. These letters are the
dependent and independent variables.

Gradientintercept formula
Linear equation y = mx + b.
m Slope or gradient of the line (vertical rise over the horizontal run).
b y-intercept. Where the line cuts the y-axis or vertical axis.

Example 6

Finding the gradient and y-intercept from its equation

Write down the gradient and y-intercept from each of the following equations.
a
y = 2 + 5x
b
y=8x
c
y = 6x
d
y 3x = 4
Solution
1
2
3
1
2
3

Write the equation in gradientintercept form.


Gradient is the coefficient of x.
y-intercept is the constant term.

y = 2 + 5x
y = 5x 2
Gradient is 5, y-intercept is 2

Write the equation in gradientintercept form.


Gradient is the coefficient of x.
y-intercept is the constant term.

y=8x
y = 1x + 8
Gradient is 1, y-intercept is 8

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Chapter 5 Interpreting linear relationships

1
2
3
1
2
3

Write the equation in gradient


intercept form.
Gradient is the coefficient of x.
y-intercept is the constant term.

y = 6x
y = 6x + 0
Gradient is 6, y-intercept is 0

Write the equation in gradient


intercept form.
Gradient is the coefficient of x.
y-intercept is the constant term.

y 3x = 4
y = 3x + 4
Gradient is 3, y-intercept is 4

135

Sketching graphs of linear functions


Sketching a straight-line graph requires at least two points. When an equation is written in
gradientintercept form, one point on the graph is immediately available: the y-intercept. A
second point can be quickly calculated using the gradient or by substituting a suitable value
of x into the equation.

Example 7

Sketching a straight-line graph from its equation

Draw the graph of y = 3x + 1.


Solution
1
2
3
4
5
6

7
8

Write the equation in gradientintercept form.


Gradient is the coefficient of x or 3.
y-intercept is the constant term or 1.
Mark the y-intercept on the y-axis at (0, 1).
Gradient of 3 (or 3 ) indicates a vertical rise
1
of 3 and a horizontal run of 1.
Start at the y-intercept (0, 1) and draw a
horizontal line, 1 unit in length. Then draw a
vertical line, 3 units in length.
The resulting point (1, 4) is a point on the
required line.
Join the points (0, 1) and (1, 4) to make the
straight line.

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y = 3x + 1
Gradient is 3, y-intercept is 1
y
(1, 4)

4
3

Rise = 3

2
(0, 1)
2

1
0
1

Run = 1
1

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 5C
1

Write down the gradient and y-intercept from each of the following equations.
a
y = 4x + 2
b
y = 3x - 7
c
y = 5x + 0.4
d
y = 1.5x - 2
1
e
y= x+3
f
y = 5 - 3x
2
g
y=x
h
y = 2 + 5x

Write down the equation of a line that has:


a
gradient = 3 and y-intercept = 2
c
gradient = 4 and y-intercept = 1

Find the equation of the following line graphs.


y

1
2 1 0
1

2 1 0
1

12

1
2 1 0
1

2
3

gradient = 2 and y-intercept = 10


gradient = 0.5 and y-intercept = 1

8
4
1

A straight line has the equation y = 2x + 3.


a
What are the gradient and the y-intercept?
b
Sketch the straight line on a number plane using the gradient and y-intercept.

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137

Development
5

It is known that y varies directly with x. When x = 4, y = 12.


a
Write a linear equation in the form y = mx to describe this situation.
b
Draw the graph of y against x.

Kalinas pay (p) is directly proportional to the


number of hours (h) she works. For an 8-hour
day she receives $168.
a
Write a linear equation in the form
p = mh to describe this situation.
b
Draw the graph of p against h.

A bike is travelling at constant speed. It travels 350 km in 7 hours.


a
Write a linear equation in the form d = mt to describe this situation.
b
Draw the graph of d against t.

Sketch the graphs of the following equations on the same number plane.
a
y = 2x
b
y = 2x + 1
c
y = 2x + 2
d
y = -x
e
y = -x - 1
f
y = -x - 2
g
What do you notice about these graphs?

Sketch the graphs of the following equations on the same number plane.
1
a
y=x+1
b
y = 3x + 1
c
y = x +1
2
d
y = -x - 2
e
y = -2x - 2
f
y = -3x - 2
g
What do you notice about these graphs?

10

Sketch the graphs of the following equations using the gradientintercept formula.
2
1
a
y= x+2
b
y = 0.25x - 3
c
y=2 x
3
3
d
y = - 0.5x - 3
e
y+x=5
f
4x + y = 8
g

2x + y + 6 = 0

x + 4y = 0

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3x - y = -3

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Preliminary Mathematics General

5.4 Simultaneous equations

5.4

Two straight lines will always intersect unless they are parallel. The point at which two straight
lines intersect can be found by sketching the two graphs on the one set of axes and reading off
the coordinates at the point of intersection. When the point of intersection is found it is said to
be solving the equations simultaneously.
Solving two linear equations simultaneously from a graph
1
2
3

Draw a number plane.


Graph both linear equations on the number plane.
Read the point of intersection of the two straight lines.

Example 8

Finding the solution of simultaneous linear equations

By drawing their graphs find the simultaneous solution of y = 2x + 3 and y = -x.


Solution
1

2
3
4
5
6

Use the gradientintercept form


to determine the gradient and
y-intercept for each line.
Gradient is the coefficient of x.
y-intercept is the constant term.
Draw a number plane.
Sketch y = 2x + 3 using the y-intercept
of 3 and gradient of 2.
Sketch y = -x using the y-intercept of
0 and gradient of 1.
Find the point of intersection of the two
lines (1, 1).

y = 2x + 3
Gradient is 2, y-intercept is 3
y = -x
Gradient is 1, y-intercept is 0
y
3 y = 2x + 3
2
1
3 2 1 0
1

Simultaneous solution is the point of


intersection.

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2
3

y = x

Simultaneous solution is x = -1
and y = 1

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Chapter 5 Interpreting linear relationships

Exercise 5D
1

What is the point of intersection for each of these pairs of straight lines?
y

3 y=x+3

1 0
1

3 2 1 0
1

y = 0.5x + 1

3
2

y
y = 2x + 1

3 2 1 0
1

y
3

2 y = x 2

y = 2x

y = x + 2

y = 1x 2

x
3

1 0
1

2
y = 4x + 1 3

Plot the following points on a number plane and join them


to form two straight lines. What is the point of
intersection of these straight lines?
x

y
8
7
6
5
4

2
1
1

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Plot the following points on a number plane and join them to


form two straight lines. What is the point of intersection
of these straight lines?
x

-2

-1

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-2

-1

-3

-6

The graph opposite shows the cost of producing boxes


of sweets and the income received from their sale.
a Use the graph to determine the number of boxes
which need to be sold to break even.
b How much profit or loss is made when 4 boxes
are sold?
c How much profit or loss is made when 1 box is
sold?
d What are the initial costs?

y
6
5
4
3
2
1
3 2 1 0
1
2
3
4
5
6

1 2 3

y
Income

50
Dollars ($)

140

40
Costs

30
20
10
1

3 4
Boxes

The graph opposite shows the cost of producing a pack of


batteries and the income received from their sale.
a Use the graph to determine the number of packs that
need to be sold to break even.
b How much profit or loss is made when 5 packs are
sold?
c How much profit or loss is made when 20 packs are
sold?
d What are the initial costs?

400

Income

350
Dollars ($)

300
250

Costs

200
150
100
50
x
5 10 15 20
Packs

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Chapter 5 Interpreting linear relationships

141

Development
6

Draw the graphs of the following pairs of equations and find their simultaneous solution.
a y = x + 1 and y = -2x
b y = 3x - 3 and y = x + 1
c y = 5x + 1 and y = 3x - 7
d y = x and y = 4x + 3

Zaina buys and sells books. Income received by selling n books is calculated using the
formula I = 16n. Costs associated in selling n books are calculated using the formula
C = 8n + 24.
a Draw the graph of I = 16n
and C = 8n + 24 on same
number plane.
b What are the initial costs?
c Use the graph to determine
the number of books needed
to be sold to break even.
d How much profit or loss is
made when 6 books are sold?

8 

Amy and Nghi work for the same company and their wages are a and b respectively.
a Amy earns $100 more than Nghi. Write an equation to describe this information.
b The total of Amys and Nghis wages is $1500. Write an equation to describe this
information.
c Draw a graph of the above two equations on the same number plane. Use a as the
horizontal axis and b as the vertical axis.
d Use the intersection of the two graphs to find Amys and Nghis wage.

A factory produces items whose costs are $200 plus $40 for every item. The factory
receives $45 for every item sold.
a Write an equation to describe the relationship between the:

i
costs (C) and number of items (n)

ii income (I) and number of items (n)
b Draw a graph to represent the costs and income for producing the item.
c How many items need to be sold to break even?

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Preliminary Mathematics General

5.5 Linear functions as models


Linear modelling occurs when a practical situation is described mathematically using a linear
function. For example, the gradientintercept form of a straight-line graph can sometimes be
used to model catering costs. A catering company charges a base amount of $100 plus a rate
of $25 per guest. Using this information, we can write down a linear equation to model the
cost of the event. Let c be the cost of the event ($) and n be the number of guests, we can write
c = 25n + 100. Note: The number of guests (n)
must be greater than zero and a whole number.
Catering cost
c
The graph of this linear model has been drawn
1500
opposite. There are two important features of
1000
this linear model:
500
1
Gradient is the rate per guest or $25.
n
2
The c-intercept is the base amount or $100.
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

Example 9

Using graphs to make conversions

The graph opposite is used to convert Australian dollars


to euros. Use the graph to convert:
a
50 Australian dollars to euros
b
15 euros to Australian dollars

EUR

Australian dollars
to euros

30
25
20
15
10
5
10 20 30 40 50

Solution
1
2

Read from the graph


(when AUD = 50, EUR = 30).
Read from the graph
(when EUR = 15, AUD = 25).

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30 EUR

25 AUD

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AUD

Chapter 5 Interpreting linear relationships

Example 10

143

Interpreting linear models

Water is pumped into a partially full tank. The graph gives


the volume of water V (in litres) after t minutes.
a
How much water is in the tank at the start?
b
How much water is in the tank after 10 minutes?
c
The tank holds 1600 L. How long does it take to fill?
d
Find the equation of the straight line in terms of
V and t.
e
Use the equation to calculate the volume of water in
the tank after 7 minutes.
f
How many litres are pumped into the tank each minute?

Volume of water

1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
2 4 6 8 10 12

Solution
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Read from the graph (when t = 0, V = 300).


Read from the graph (when t = 10, V = 1400).
Read from the graph (when V = 1600, t = 12).
Find the gradient by choosing two suitable points
such as (0, 400) and (12, 1600).
Calculate the gradient (m) between these points
using the gradient formula.
Determine the vertical intercept (400).
Substitute the gradient and y-intercept into the
gradientintercept form y = mx + b.
Use the appropriate variables (V for y, t for x).
Substitute t = 7 into the equation.
Evaluate.
Check the answer using the graph.

V = 100t + 400
= 100 7 + 400
= 1100 L

The rate at which water is pumped into the tank is


the gradient of the graph. (m =100)

100 L/min

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400 L
1400 L
12 minutes

m=

Rise
b = 400
Run
1600 400
=
12 0
= 100

y = mx + b
V = 100t + 400

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144

Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 5E
1

Water is pumped into a partially full tank. The graph gives the volume of water V (in
litres) after t minutes.
a
How much water is in the tank at the start?
v Volume of water
b
How much water is in the tank after 5 minutes?
3000
c
How much water is in the tank after 8 minutes?
2500
d
The tank holds 2500 L. How long does it take to fill?
2000
e
Use the graph to calculate the volume of water in the
1500
tank after 7 minutes.
1000
500
2

The conversion graph opposite is used to convert


Australian dollars to Chinese yuan. Use the graph to
convert:
a
80 Australian dollars to yuan
b
50 Australian dollars to yuan
c
100 yuan to Australian dollars
d
350 yuan to Australian dollars
e
What is the gradient of the conversion graph?

CNY

8 10

Australian dollars
to Chinese yuan

500
400
300
200
100
20 40 60 80 100

A post office charges according to the weight of a


parcel. Use the step graph to determine the postal
charges for the following parcels.
a
50 g
b
900 g
c
200 g
d
800 g

Postal charges
4
Cost ($)

AUD

3
2
1
200 400 600 800 1000
Weight (g)

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145

Development
A new piece of equipment is purchased by a business for $120000. Its value is
depreciated each month using the graph opposite.
a What was the value of the equipment after
Value of equipment
v
32 months?
b What was the value of the equipment after one
120
year?
100
c When does the line predict the equipment will
80
have no value?
60
d Find the equation of the straight line in terms
40
of v and t.
20
e Use the equation to predict the value of the
equipment after 2 months.
8 16 24 32 40 48
f
By how much does the equipment depreciate
Months
in value each month?
$ 1000

The amount of money transacted through


ATMs has increased with the number of ATMs
available. The graph below shows this increase.
a What was the amount of money transacted
through ATMs when there were 500000
machines?
b How many ATM machines resulted in an
amount of 75 billion?
c Find the equation of the line in terms of
amount of money transacted, A, and the
number of ATMs, N.
d Use the equation to predict the amount
of money transacted when there were
A
350000 machines.
125
e Use the equation to predict how much
money will be transacted through ATM
100
machines when there are 1000000
machines.
75
Amount (billions of $)

Amount of transactions
through ATMs

50
25

100 200 300 400 500


Number of machines (thousands)
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146

Preliminary Mathematics General

A phone company charges a monthly service fee, plus the cost of calls. The graph
below gives the total monthly charge, C dollars, for making n calls. This includes the
service fee.
a How much is the monthly service fee?
Total monthly
b How much does the company charge if you make
charge
C
20calls a month?
70
c How many calls are made if the total monthly charge
60
is $30?
50
d Find the equation of the line in terms of total monthly
40
charge (C) and the number of calls (n).
30
20
10
20 40 60 80 100

14.7

7 

A company charges the following parking fees: $10 per hour for up to 3 hours, $15 up to
6 hours and $20 for over 6 hours.
a Draw a step graph to illustrate the
parking fees, with the Time (h)
on the horizontal axis and Cost ($)
on the vertical axis.
b What is the cost to park for
4 hours? Use the step graph.
c Liam arrived in the parking area at
10.30 a.m. and left at 1.00 p.m.
How much did he pay for parking?
d Ruby arrived in the parking area at
5.15 p.m. and left at 11.15 p.m.
How much did she pay for parking?

Tomas converted 100 Australian dollars to 40 British pounds.


a Draw a conversion graph with Australian dollars on the horizontal axis and British
pounds on the vertical axis.
b How many British pounds is 40 Australian dollars? Use the conversion graph.
c How many Australian dollars is 10 British pounds? Use the conversion graph.
d Find the gradient and vertical intercept for the conversion graph.
e Write an equation that relates Australian dollars (AUD) to British pounds (GBP).

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Chapter 5 Interpreting linear relationships

Graphing linear functions

Construct a table of values with the independent variable


as the first row and the dependent variable as the second
row.
Draw a number plane with the independent variable on
the horizontal axis and the dependent variable as the
vertical axis. Plot the points.
Join the points to make a straight line.

Gradient of a line is the slope of the line.

Gradient (or m) =

The intercept of a line is where the line cuts the axes.

Linear equation in the form y = mx + b.


m Slope or gradient of the line.
b y-intercept.
Sketching a straight line requires at least two points.
When an equation is written in gradientintercept form,
one point on the graph is immediately available: the
y-intercept. A second point can be quickly calculated
using the gradient.

Gradient and intercept

Gradientintercept formula

Simultaneous equations

1
2
3

Linear functions as models

Study guide 5

Vertical rise
Horizontal run

Draw a number plane.


Graph both linear equations on the number plane.
Read the point of intersection of the two straight lines.

Linear modelling occurs when a practical situation is


described mathematically using a linear function.

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Review

Chapter summary Interpreting linear relationships

147

Review

148

Preliminary Mathematics General

Sample HSC Objective-response questions


1

An equation that compares the age of a fax machine (t) in years to its current value (v) is
v = 40t + 150. What is the value of the fax machine after two years?
A 70
B 108
C 150
D 230

What is the gradient of the line drawn opposite?


2
3
A
B
3
4
4
3
C
D
3
2

Using the graph opposite, what is the y-intercept of this line?


A 2
B 1
C 1
D 2

y
4
2
2

A straight line has the equation of y = 3x + 1. What is the y-intercept?


A 3
B 1
C 1
D 3

A car is travelling at a constant speed. It travels 60 km in 3 hours. This situation is


described by the linear equation d = mt. What is the value of m?
A 0.05
B 3
C 20
D 60

What is the point of intersection of the lines y = x + 1 and y = x + 1?


A (0, 0)
B (0, 1)
C (1, 0)
D (1, 1)

What is the equation of the line drawn opposite?


A c=n
B c = n + 30
C c = 30n
D c = 8n + 240

Using the graph opposite, what is the charge for 12 months?


A 24
B 36
C 240
D 360

Monthly
charge

c
240
180
120
60
2

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149

Review

Sample HSC Short-answer questions


1

An internet access plan charges an excess fee of $8 per GB.


Data (d)

Cost (c)

16

24

32

40

48

a
b
c
d

Which is the dependent variable?


Which is the independent variable?
Draw a graph of data against cost.
Use the graph to find d if c is 20.

One Australian dollar (AUD) was converted to


0.90 Japanese yen (JPY).
a Construct a table of values using 0, 10, 20, 30
and 40 as values for AUD and calculate the
JPY using the above conversion.
b Draw the graph of the AUD against JPY.

What is the gradient of the line that joins these points?


a (1, 5) and (3, 7)
b (2, 1) and (0, 4)
c (3, 1) and (2, 11)

Draw a graph of these linear functions and find the gradient and y-intercept.
a y = x + 1
b y = -2x + 5
c y = 3x - 2

Find the equations of the following line graphs.


a

y

2 1 0
1

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4 2 0
2

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Chapter
summary
Earning
Money
6 The graph
opposite shows
the cost
of growing a rose and the income received from the sale

80
Dollars ($)

of the roses.
a Use the graph to determine the number of roses which
need to be sold to break even.
b How much profit or loss is made when 1 rose is sold?
c How much profit or loss is made when 4 roses are sold?
d What are the initial costs?

Income

60
Costs

40
20
1

A motor vehicle is purchased by a business for $30000. Its


value is then depreciated each month using the graph opposite.
a What was the value of the motor vehicle after
24months?
b What was the value of the motor vehicle after one year?
c Find the equation of the straight line in terms of v and t.
d Use the equation to predict the value of the motor
vehicle after 6 months.
e When does the line predict that the motor vehicle will
have no value?
f By how much does the motor vehicle depreciate in
value each month?

Dollars ($ 1000)

Review

150

2
3
Roses

Motor vehicle

30
24
18
12
6
t
12 24 36 48
Time (months)

The table below shows the speed v (in km/s) of a rocket at time t seconds.
Time (t)

Speed (v)

1.5

4.5

7.5

a
b
c

Draw a number plane with time (t) on the horizontal axis and speed (v) on the
vertical axis.
Plot the points from the table and draw a straight line through these points.
Extend the straight line to predict the rockets speed when t = 6 seconds.
Challenge questions 5

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C H A P T E R

61

Investing
Earning money
money
Area of study
Syllabus
topic
FM1
FM2 Earning
Investing
money
money
Calculate simple
payments
interest
from a salary
Calculate
Draw
and wages
describe
using
simple
hourly
andrate,
compound
overtime
interest
rates graphs
and allowances
Calculate the
annual
future
leave
value,
loading
compound
and bonuses
interest and present value
Calculate
Use
prepared
earnings
tablesbased
to calculate
on commission,
final amount
piecework
and interest
and royalties
Determineaccounts
Compare
deductions
from
and
different
calculate
financial
net pay
institutions
A
Compare accounts
Calculate
the appreciated
from different
value onfinancial
investments
institutions
Calculate the dividend and dividend yield on shares

6.1 Simple interest

6.1

Interest is the amount paid for borrowing money or the amount earned for lending money.
There are different ways of calculating interest. Simple interest (or flat interest) is a fixed
percentage of the amount invested or borrowed and is calculated on the original amount. For
example, if we invest $100 in a bank account that pays interest at the rate of 5% per annum
(per year) we would receive $5 each year. That is,
5
Interest = $100
= $5
100
This amount of interest would be paid each year. Simple interest is always calculated on the
initial amount, or the principal.
Simple interest
I = Prn
I Interest (simple or flat) earned for the use of money
P Principal is the initial amount of money borrowed
r Rate of simple interest per period expressed as a decimal
n Number of time periods
151
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152

Preliminary Mathematics General

Example 1

Finding simple interest

Calculate the amount of simple interest paid on an


investment of $12 000 at 10% simple interest per annum
for 3 years.

Solution
1
2
3
4

Write the simple interest formula.


Substitute P = 12 000, r = 0.10 and n = 3 into
the formula.
Evaluate.
Write the answer in words.

I=P
Prn
= 12 000 0.10 3
= $3600
Simple interest is $3600.

Amount owed or future value


The interest is added to the principal to determine the amount owed on a loan or the future
value of an investment.
Amount owed or future value
A=P+I
A Amount or final balance
I Interest (simple or flat) earned
P Principal is the initial quantity of money

Example 2

Calculating the amount owed

Find the amount owed on a loan of $50 000 at 7% per annum simple interest at the end of two
years and six months.
Solution
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Write the simple interest formula.


Substitute P = 50 000, r = 0.07 and n = 2.5 into
the formula.
Evaluate.
Write the amount owed formula.
Substitute P = 50 000 and I = 8750 into the
formula.
Evaluate.
Write the answer in words.

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I = Prn
= 50 000 0.07 2.5
= $8750
A=P+I
= 50 000 + 8750
= $58 750
Amount owed is $58 750.
Cambridge University Press

Chapter 6 Investing money

Example 3

153

Finding simple interest using a graphics calculator

Joel plans to make an investment of $200 000 at 7 12 % p.a. simple interest for 2 years. Answer
the following questions by using a graphics calculator.
a
How much simple interest will Joel earn?
b
What is the total value of his investment at the end of 2 years?

Solution
1
2

Select the TVM (Time, Value, Money) menu.


Select Simple Interest (F1).

Enter the time period n = 2 365 = 730 (simple


interest period is calculated in days).
Enter the interest rate I% = 7.5.
Enter the principal or present value PV = -200 000.
In the TVM mode all money we pay out is negative
and money we receive is positive. In this example
$200 000 is deposited or paid out.
To calculate the simple interest, select SI.

Write the answer in words.

To calculate the total amount owed, select SFV


(Simple Final Value).
Write the answer in words.

3
4
5

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Joel will earn $30 000.


b

Total value is $230 000.

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154

Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 6A
1

Calculate the amount of simple interest for each of the following.


a
Principal = $15 000, Interest rate = 13% p.a., Time period = 3 years
b

Principal = $2000, Interest rate = 6 12 % p.a., Time period = 7 years

Principal = $200 000, Interest rate = 9 14 % p.a., Time period = 2 years

Principal = $3600, Interest rate = 9% p.a., Time period = 3 12 years

Principal = $40 000, Interest rate = 7.25% p.a., Time period = 5 14 years

Calculate the amount owed for each of the following.


a
Principal = $500, Simple interest rate = 5% p.a., Time period = 4 years
b
Principal = $900, Simple interest rate = 3% p.a., Time period = 7 years
c

Principal = $4000, Simple interest rate = 8 12 % p.a., Time period = 3 years

Principal = $6900, Simple interest rate = 10% p.a., Time period = 4 12 years

Principal = $10 000, Simple interest rate = 6.75% p.a., Time period = 2 14 years

The simple interest rate is given as 4.8% per annum.


a
What is the interest rate per quarter?
b
What is the interest rate per month?
d
What is the interest rate per six months?
e
What is the interest rate per nine months?

Calculate the amount of simple interest for each of the following.


a
Principal = $800, Interest rate = 12% p.a., Time period = 1 month.
b
Principal = $1600, Interest rate = 18% p.a., Time period = 6 months.
c
Principal = $60 000, Interest rate = 9.6% p.a., Time period = 3 months.
d
Principal = $20 000, Interest rate = 6% p.a., Time period = 9 months.

Andrew takes a loan of $30 000 for a period of 6 years, at a simple interest rate of
14% per annum. Find the amount owing at the end of 6 years.

A loan of $1800 is taken out at a simple interest rate of 15.5% per annum. How much
interest is owing after 3 months?

A sum of $100 000 was invested in a fixed-term account for 4 years. Calculate:
a
the simple interest earned if the rate of interest is 5.5% per annum
b
the future value of the investment at the end of 4 years

Joshua invested $1200 at 8% per annum. What is the simple interest earned between
30 September and 1 January?

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Chapter 6 Investing money

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Development
9

Sophie decides to buy a car for $28 000. She has saved $7000 for the deposit and takes
out a loan over two years for the balance. The flat rate of interest charged is 12% per
annum. What is the total amount of interest to be paid?

10

Domenico has borrowed $24 000 to buy furniture. He wishes to repay the loan over four
years.
Calculate the simple interest on the following rates of interest.
a
8% per annum for the entire period
b
9% per annum after a 6-month interest-free period
c
10% per annum after a 12-month interest-free period

11

Create the spreadsheet below.

6A

a
b

Cell D5 has a formula that calculates the simple interest. Enter this formula.
The formula for cell E5 is =A5 + D5. Fill down the contents of E6 to E12 using
this formula.

12

Isabelle buys a TV for $1400. She pays it off monthly over 2 years at an interest rate of
11.5% per annum flat. How much per month will she pay?

13

Riley wants to earn $4000 a year in interest. How much must he invest if the simple
interest rate is 10% p.a.?

14

Samira invests $16 000 for 2 12 years. What is the minimum rate of simple interest
needed for her to earn $3000?
Gurrumul pays back $20 000 on a $15 000 loan at a flat interest rate of 10%. What is the
term of the loan?

15

16

Harry borrowed $300 000 at a flat rate of interest of 8.5% per annum. This rate was fixed
for 2 years on the principal. He pays back the interest only over this period.
a
How much interest is to be paid over the 2 years?
b
After paying the fixed rate of interest for the first year, Harry finds the bank will
decrease the flat interest rate to 7.5% if he pays a charge of $1000. How much will
he save by changing to the lower interest rate for the last year?

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156

Preliminary Mathematics General

6.2 Simple interest graphs


When graphing simple interest make the horizontal axis the time period and the vertical axis
the interest earned. Simple interest will increase by a constant amount each time period. This
will result in a straight-line graph.
Simple interest graphs
1
2
3

Construct a table of values for I and n using the simple interest formula.
Draw a number plane with n the horizontal axis and I the vertical axis. Plot
the points.
Join the points to make a straight line.

Example 4

Constructing a simple interest graph

Draw a graph showing the amount of simple interest earned over a period of 4 years if $1000
is invested at 6% p.a. Use the graph to estimate the interest earned after 8 years.
Solution
1
2
3
4
5

7
8
9

Write the simple interest


formula.
Substitute P = 1000, r = 0.06
and n into the formula.
Draw a table of values for
I and n.
Let n = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4. Find
the interest (I) using I = 60n.
Draw a number plane with n
as the horizontal axis and I
as the vertical axis.
Plot the points (0, 0), (1, 60),
(2, 120), (3, 180) and
(4, 240).
Extend the line to estimate
the value of I when n = 8.
Read the graph to estimate I.
(I = 480 when n = 8).
Write the answer in words.

I=P
Prn
= 1000 0.06 n
= 60n
n

60

120

180

240

Simple interest on
$1000 at 6% p.a.

I
500
400
300
200
100

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Interest after 8 years is approximately $480.

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Chapter 6 Investing money

Example 5

157

Simple interest graphs using a graphics calculator

Use a graphics calculator to draw two graphs


showing the amount of simple interest earned
for 5 years if $9000 is invested at:
a
8% p.a.
b
5% p.a.

Solution
1
2
3

Write the simple interest formula.


Substitute P = 9000, r = 0.08 and n into the
formula.
Select the Graph menu.

Enter the formula I = 720n by typing 720X


at Y1. The graph of Y1 = 720X is the same
as I = 720n.

Edit the axes to an appropriate scale. Select


SHIFT F3 for the V-Window.
Enter the Xmin = 0, Xmax = 5, Ymin = 0,
Ymax = 3500, scale = 500.
Press EXE to exit V-Window.

Select F6 to draw the graph.

Write the simple interest formula.


Substitute P = 9000, r = 0.05 and n into the
formula.

2
3

I= P
Prn
= 9000 0.08 n
= 720 n
a

I=P
Prn
= 9000 0.05 n
= 450n

Enter the formula I = 450n by typing 450X


at Y2. The graph of Y2 = 720X is the same
as I = 450n.
Select F6 to draw the two graphs.

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 6B
1

Nicholas invested $1000 at 7% per annum simple interest for 4 years.


a
Simplify the simple interest formula (I = Prn) by substituting values for the principal
and the interest rate.
b
Use this formula to complete the following table of values.
n

I
c
d
e

Use the graph to find the interest after 2 12 years.

Extend the graph to find the interest after 6 years.


Find the time when the interest is $210.

Draw a number plane with n as the horizontal axis and I as the vertical axis.
Plot the points from the table of values. Join the points to make a straight line.

Melissa invested $600 at 5% per annum simple interest for 5 years.


a
Simplify the simple interest formula (I = Prn) by substituting values for the principal
and the interest rate.
b
Use this formula to complete the following table of values.
n

I
c
d
e
f
g

Draw a number plane with n as the horizontal axis and I as the vertical axis.
Plot the points from the table of values. Join the points to make a straight line.
Use the graph to find the interest after 3 12 years.
Extend the graph to find the interest after 6 years.
Find the time when the interest is $360.

Use a graphics calculator.


a
Draw the graph from question 1.
b
Use the TRACE feature to confirm the answers to parts e, f and g of question 2.
c
Draw the graph from question 2.
d
Use the TRACE feature to confirm the answers to parts e, f and g to question 2.

Draw a graph showing the amount of simple interest earned over a period of 4 years if
$1000 is invested at 4% p.a. Use the graph to estimate the interest earned after 6 years.

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159

Development
5

Chloe is comparing three different interest rates for a possible investment.


a
Draw a graph to represent the interest earned over 5 years on:
i $5000 invested at 5% per annum simple interest
ii $5000 invested at 7% per annum simple interest
iii $5000 invested at 9% per annum simple interest
b

How much does each investment earn after 2 12 years?

How much does each investment earn after 5 years?


Find the time for each investment to earn $1000 in interest.

Mick is comparing three different interest rates for a possible investment.


a
Draw a graph to represent the interest earned for 6 months on:
i $100 000 invested at 6% p.a. simple interest
ii $100 000 invested at 9% p.a. simple interest
iii $100 000 invested at 12% p.a. simple interest
b
How much does each investment earn after 1 month?
c
How much does each investment earn after 6 months?
d
Find the time for each investment to earn $2000 in interest.

The table below gives details for a fixed-term deposit.


Time period

14.5

Simple interest rate per annum

Less than 3 months

6.5%

3 to 6 months

7.0%

6 to 12 months

7.5%

12 to 24 months

8.1%

24 to 48 months

8.3%

Chris has $50 000 to invest in a fixed-term deposit. Draw a separate graph to represent the
interest earned after 12 months given these investments.
a
Fixed-term deposit for 3 months
b
Fixed-term deposit for 6 months
c
Fixed-term deposit for 12 months

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160

Preliminary Mathematics General

6.3 Compound interest

6.3

Compound interest is calculated from the initial amount borrowed or principal plus any
interest that has been earned. It calculates interest on the interest. For example, if $100 is
invested at a compound interest rate of 10% per annum.

First year
Interest = $100 0.10 1 = $10

Amount owed = $100 + $10 = $110

Second year
Interest = $110 0.10 1 = $11

Amount owed = $110 + $11 = $121

Third year
Interest = $121 0.10 1 = $12.10

Amount owed = $121 + $12.10 = $133.10
These calculations show the interest earned increased each year. In the first year it was $10,
the second year $11 and the third year $12.10.
Compound interest
A = P(1 + r)n or FV = PV(1 + r)n
A Amount (final balance) or future value of the loan
P Principal is the initial quantity of money or present value of the loan
r Rate of interest per compounding time period expressed as a decimal
n Number of compounding time periods

Calculating compound interest


The compound interest is calculated by subtracting the principal from the amount borrowed or
invested. Alternatively, finance companies provide an investment calculator as an estimate to
the value of an investment.

Interest earned or owed


I = A - P
A Amount or final balance
I Interest (compound) earned
P Principal is the initial quantity of money

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Chapter 6 Investing money

Example 6

161

Finding the compound interest

Paige invests $5000 over 5 years at a compound interest rate of 6.5% p.a. Calculate:
a
the amount of the investment after 5 years, correct to the nearest cent
b
the interest earned after 5 years, correct to the nearest cent.
Solution

Write the compound interest formula.


Substitute P = 5000, r = 0.065 and n = 5 into
the formula.
Evaluate.

A = P(1 + r )n
= 5000(1 + 0.065)5
= 6850.433317
= $6850.4433

Write answer in words.

Amount is $6850.43.

Write the amount borrowed formula.


Substitute P = 5000 and I = 6850.43 into the
formula.
Evaluate.
Write in words.

I = A P
= 6850.43 5000
= $1850.43

1
2

6
7
8

Example 7

Interest earned is $1850.43.

Finding compound interest using a graphics calculator

James borrowed $50 000 for 4 years at 11% p.a. interest compounding monthly. What is the
amount owed after the 4 years?
Solution
1
2

3
4
5
6

7
8

Select the TVM (Time, Value, Money) menu.


Select Compound Interest (F2).

Enter the time period n = 4 12 = 48 (number of


compounding time periods).
Enter the interest rate I% = 11.
Enter compounding periods per year P/Y = 12.
Enter the principal or present value PV = 50 000.
In the TVM mode, all money we pay out is
negative and money we receive is positive.
To calculate the amount or future value, select FV.
Write answer using appropriate accuracy and in
words.

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James will owe $77 479.90.

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162

Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 6C
1

Calculate the amount owed, to the nearest cent, for each of the following.
a
Principal = $800, Compound interest rate = 4% p.a., Time period = 3 years
b

Principal = $9000, Compound interest rate = 6 12 % p.a., Time period = 4 years

Principal = $12 000, Compound interest rate = 11% p.a., Time period = 2 12 years

Principal = $22 000, Compound interest rate = 5.5% p.a., Time period = 4 14 years

Calculate the amount of compound interest to the nearest cent for each of the following.
a
Principal = $25 000, Interest rate = 7% p.a., Time period = 5 years
b

Principal = $300 000, Interest rate = 10 14 % p.a., Time period = 3 years

Principal = $6500, Interest rate = 13% p.a., Time period = 1 12 years

Principal = $80 000, Interest rate = 8.25% p.a., Time period = 3 14 years

Amy is investing $20 000 with AMP.


What sum of money will she receive
if she invested for 4 years at 8% p.a.
compound interest? Answer to the
nearest cent.

Use the formula A = P(1 + r)n to calculate the value of an investment of $10 000, over a
period of 2 years with an interest rate of 0.8% compounding monthly. Answer to the
nearest cent.

Ryan invested $20 000 for 5 years at 12% p.a. interest compounding monthly. What is the
amount of interest earned in the first year? Answer to the nearest cent.

Find the amount of money in a bank account after 6 years if an initial amount of $4000
earns 8% p.a. compound interest, paid quarterly. Answer to the nearest cent.

Christopher invested $13 500 over 7 years at 6.2% p.a. interest compounding quarterly.
Calculate the:
a
value of the investment after 7 years to the nearest cent.
b
compound interest earned to the nearest cent.

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163

Development
8

What sum of money would Bailey need to invest to accumulate a total of $50000 at the
end of 4 years at 6% p.a. compound interest? Answer to the nearest cent.

Calculate the amount that must be invested at 9.3% p.a. interest compounding annually to
have $70000 at the end of 3 years. Answer to the nearest cent.

10

What sum of money needs to be invested to accumulate to a total of $100000 in 10 years


at 7.25% p.a. compound interest? Answer to the nearest cent.

11

Create the spreadsheet below.

6C

a
b

Cell D5 has a formula that calculates the compound interest. Enter this formula.
The formula for cell E5 is = D5 - A5. Fill down the contents of E6 to E12 using
this formula.

12

How much more interest is earned on a $40000 investment if the interest at 6% p.a. is
compounded annually over 6 years, compared with the simple interest at 6% p.a. earned
over the same time?

13

Hassan has $50000 to invest for two years. Which is the better investment? Why?
Investment 1
Simple
Interest rate
4% p.a.

Investment 2
Compound
Interest rate
4% p.a.

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Preliminary Mathematics General

6.4 Compound interest graphs


When graphing compound interest, make the horizontal axis the number of time periods and
the vertical axis the amount (final balance). Compound interest will increase by a different
amount each time period. This will result in an exponential curve.
Compound interest graphs
1
2
3

Construct a table of values for A and n using the compound interest formula.
Draw a number plane with n the horizontal axis and A the vertical axis. Plot the points.
Join the points to make an exponential curve.

Example 8

Constructing a compound interest graph

Draw a graph showing the amount of the loan over a period of 8 years if $1000 is invested at
a compound interest rate of 6% p.a. Use the graph to estimate the amount of the loan after 7
years.
Solution
1
2
3
4
5

7
8

Write the formula.


Substitute P = 1000, r = 0.06
and n into the formula.
Draw a table of values for A
and n.
Let n = 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8. Find the
amount earned.
Draw a number plane with n as
the horizontal axis and A as the
vertical axis.
Plot the points (0, 1000),
(2, 1124), (4, 1262), (6, 1419)
and (8, 1594).
Draw an exponential curve (not a
straight line) between the points.
Read the graph to estimate I
when n = 7 years (A = 1500
when n = 7).
Write the answer in words.

A = P(1 + r )n
= 1000 (1.06 )n
n

1000

1124

1262

1419

1594

Compound interest
at 6% p.a.

A
1600
1500
1400
1300
1200
1100
1000
1

Loan amount after 7 years is about $1500.

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Chapter 6 Investing money

Example 9

165

Compound interest graphs using a graphics calculator

Use a graphics calculator to draw two graphs


showing the amount earned for 5 years if
$9000 is invested at:
a
8% p.a. compounding annually
b
5% p.a. compounding annually.

Solution
1
2
3

Write the compound interest formula.


Substitute P = 9000, r = 0.08 and n into the
formula.
Select the Graph menu.

Enter the formula A = 9000 (1.08)n by


typing 90001.08^X at Y1. The graph of
Y1=90001.08^X is the same as
A = 9000 (1.08)n.

Edit the axes to an appropriate scale. Select


SHIFT F3 for the V-Window.
Enter the Xmin = 0, Xmax = 5, Ymin = 9000,
Ymax = 13500, scale = 500.

Press EXE to exit V-Window.

Select F6 to draw the graph.

Write the compound interest formula.


Substitute P = 9000, r = 0.05 and n into the
formula.
Enter the formula A = 9000 (1.05)n by
typing 90001.05^X at Y1. The graph of
Y1=90001.05^X is the same as
A = 9000 (1.05)n.
Select F6 to draw the two graphs.

2
3

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A = P(1
P(1 + r )n
= 9000 (1.08)n
a

A = P(1 + r )n
= 9000 (1.05)n

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166

Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 6D
1

Ava invested $2000 at 4% per annum interest compounding annually for 4 years.
a
Simplify the compound interest formula A = P(1 + r)n by substituting values for the
principal and the interest rate.
b
Use this formula to complete the following table of values. Answer to nearest dollar.
n

A
c
d
e

Use the graph to find the amount after 3 12 years.

Extend the graph to find the amount after 5 years.


Find the time when the amount is approximately $2120.

Draw a number plane with n as the horizontal axis and A as the vertical axis.
Plot the points from the table of values. Join the points to make a curve.

Dylan invested $800 at 7% p.a. compound interest, paid annually, for 5 years.
a
Simplify the compound interest formula A = P(1 + r)n by substituting values for the
principal and the interest rate.
b
Use this formula to complete the following table of values.
n

A
c
d

Draw a number plane with n as the horizontal axis and A as the vertical axis.
Plot the points from the table of values. Join the points to make a curve.

Use the graph to find the amount after 2 12 years.

Extend the graph to find the amount after 7 years.


Find the time when the amount is approximately $1025.

Use a graphics calculator.


a
Draw the graph in question 1.
b
Use the TRACE feature to confirm the answers to parts e, f and g in question 1.
c
Draw the graph in question 2.
d
Use the TRACE feature to confirm the answers to parts e, f and g in question 2.

Draw a graph showing the amount of the loan over a period of 3 years if $1000 is
invested at a compound interest rate of 7% p.a. Use the graph to estimate the amount of
the loan after 6 years.

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167

Development
5

Bailey is comparing three different interest rates for a possible investment.


a
Draw a graph to represent the future value over 10 years on:
i
$1000 invested at 4% per annum interest compounding biannually
ii
$1000 invested at 6% per annum interest compounding biannually
iii $1000 invested at 8% per annum interest compounding biannually
b

What is the approximate value of each investment after 3 12 years?

What is the approximate value of each investment after 5 years?


Find the approximate time for each investment to earn $500 in interest.

14.6

Laura is comparing three different interest rates for a possible investment.


a
Draw a graph to represent the amount earned over 4 years on:
i
$100 000 invested at 6% p.a. interest compounding monthly
ii
$100 000 invested at 9% p.a. interest compounding monthly
iii $100 000 invested at 12% p.a. interest compounding monthly
b
What is the approximate value of each investment after 6 months?
c
What is the approximate value of each investment after 4 years?
d
Find the time for each investment to earn $20 000 in interest.

The table below gives details for an investment product. The compound interest earned is
paid quarterly.
Investment

Rate of compound interest

4% p.a.

6% p.a.

8% p.a.

10% p.a.

Ethan is prepared to invest $50 000 in the above product.


a
Draw a graph to represent the future value of these investments after 3 years.
b
What is the approximate value of investment B after 2 years?
c
What is the approximate value of investment C after 18 months?
d
Find the time for investment D to earn $5000 in interest.

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Preliminary Mathematics General

6.5 Using prepared tables

6.5

Investment problems are made easier by using tables. The table below shows the future value
or final balance when $1 is invested at the given interest rate for the given number of periods.
The interest is compounded per period. For example, the value of $1 after 4 periods at an
interest rate of 6% per period is 1.2625.
Period

3%

4%

5%

6%

1.0300

1.0400

1.0500

1.0600

1.0609

1.0816

1.1025

1.1236

1.0927

1.1249

1.1576

1.1910

1.1255

1.1699

1.2155

1.2625

Using a prepared table


1
2
3

Determine the time period and rate of interest.


Find the intersection of the time period and rate of interest in the table.
Multiply the number in the intersection with the money invested.

Example 10

Using prepared tables

Use the above table to calculate the future value of:


a
$20 000 invested for 3 years at 6% p.a. compounded annually
b
$130 000 invested for 2 years at 6% p.a. compounded six-monthly.
Solution
1
2
3
4
5
1

2
3
4

Time period is 3, interest rate is 6%.


Find the intersection value from the table.
(1.1910)
Multiply intersection value by the money
invested.
Evaluate.
Answer the question in words.
Period is 4 (n = 2 2), interest rate is

6
3% r = 2 % .
Find the intersection value from the table.
(1.1255)
Multiply intersection value by the money
invested.
Evaluate and answer the question in words.

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Intersection value is 1.1910


FV = 1.1910 20000
= $23820
Future value is $23 820.

Intersection value is 1.1255


FV = 1.1255 130000
= $146 315
Future value is $146 315.

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Chapter 6 Investing money

169

Exercise 6E
1

The table below shows the future value when $1 is invested at the given simple interest
rate for the given number of periods.
Period

2%

4%

6%

8%

10%

12%

1.02

1.04

1.06

1.08

1.10

1.12

1.04

1.08

1.12

1.16

1.20

1.24

1.06

1.12

1.18

1.24

1.30

1.36

1.08

1.16

1.24

1.32

1.40

1.48

Use the above table to calculate the future value of:


a
$1000 invested for 2 years at a simple interest rate of 10% p.a.
b
$36 000 invested for 4 years at a simple interest rate of 2% p.a.
c
$48 000 invested for 3 years at a simple interest rate of 8% p.a.
d
$6000 invested for 1 year at a simple interest rate of 12% p.a.
e
$20 000 invested for 3 years at a simple interest rate of 4% p.a.
2

The table below shows the future value when $1 is invested at the given interest rate for
the given number of periods. The interest is compounded per period.
Period

1%

4%

8%

12%

16%

20%

1.0100

1.0400

1.0800

1.1200

1.1600

1.2000

1.0201

1.0816

1.1664

1.2544

1.3456

1.4400

1.0303

1.1249

1.2597

1.4049

1.5609

1.7280

1.0406

1.1699

1.3605

1.5735

1.8106

2.0736

1.0510

1.2167

1.4693

1.7623

2.1003

2.4883

1.0615

1.2653

1.5869

1.9738

2.4364

2.9860

Use the above table to calculate the future value of the following (answer correct to
nearest dollar).
a
$10 000 invested for 5 years at 1% p.a. compounded annually
b
$50 000 invested for 3 years at 20% p.a. compounded annually
c
$2000 invested for 2 years at 8% p.a. compounded annually
d
$500 000 invested for 1 year at 16% p.a. compounded annually
e
$78 000 invested for 6 years at 12% p.a. compounded annually

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Preliminary Mathematics General

The table below shows the future value when $1 is invested at the given interest rate for
the given number of periods. The interest is compounded per period.
Period

5%

10%

15%

20%

25%

1.05

1.10

1.15

1.20

1.25

1.10

1.21

1.32

1.44

1.56

1.16

1.33

1.52

1.73

1.95

1.22

1.46

1.75

2.07

2.44

Use the table to calculate the future value of the following (answer correct to nearest
dollar).
a $1000 invested for 3 years compounding annually at an interest rate of 10% p.a.
b $2000 invested for 2 years compounding annually at an interest rate of 25% p.a.
c $500 invested for 4 years compounding annually at an interest rate of 5% p.a.
d $400 invested for 3 years compounding annually at an interest rate of 20% p.a.
e $5000 invested for 1 year compounding annually at an interest rate of 15% p.a.
f
$7000 invested for 2 years compounding annually at an interest rate of 20% p.a.
4

The table below shows the compounded value of $1.


Period

1%

2%

3%

4%

5%

1.010

1.020

1.030

1.040

1.050

1.020

1.040

1.061

1.082

1.103

1.030

1.061

1.093

1.125

1.158

1.041

1.082

1.126

1.170

1.216

1.051

1.104

1.159

1.217

1.276

Use the table to find the amount received on the following investments. Answer correct
to the nearest dollar.
a Principal = $5000, Interest rate = 1%, Time period = 4 years
b Principal = $15000, Interest rate = 3%, Time period = 1 years
c Principal = $65000, Interest rate = 2%, Time period = 5 years
d Principal = $200000, Interest rate = 5%, Time period = 2 years
e Principal = $60000, Interest rate = 4%, Time period = 3 years
f
Principal = $100000, Interest rate = 1%, Time period = 5 years
g Principal = $90000, Interest rate = 3%, Time period = 4 years

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Development
5

The table below shows the future value when $1 is invested at the given interest rate for
the given number of periods. The interest is compounded per period.
Period

1.0%

1.5%

2.0%

2.5%

3.0%

3.5%

4.0%

1.010

1.015

1.020

1.025

1.030

1.035

1.040

1.020

1.030

1.040

1.051

1.061

1.071

1.082

1.030

1.046

1.061

1.077

1.093

1.109

1.125

1.041

1.061

1.082

1.104

1.126

1.148

1.170

1.051

1.077

1.104

1.131

1.159

1.188

1.217

1.062

1.093

1.126

1.160

1.194

1.229

1.265

1.072

1.110

1.149

1.189

1.230

1.272

1.316

1.083

1.126

1.172

1.218

1.267

1.317

1.369

Use the table to calculate the future value of the following (answer correct to nearest
dollar).
a $170000 invested for 1 month at 30% p.a. compounded monthly
b $89000 invested for 7 months at 42% p.a. compounded monthly
c $240000 invested for 3 months at 6% p.a. compounded quarterly
d $75000 invested for 2 years at 4% p.a. compounded quarterly
e $5800 invested for 3 years at 3% p.a. compounded six-monthly
f
$380000 invested for 2 years at 2% p.a. compounded six-monthly

6 

The table below shows the future value when $1 is invested at the given interest rate for
the given number of periods. The interest is compounded per period.
Period

5%

10%

15%

20%

25%

1.1576

1.3310

1.5209

1.7280

1.9531

1.2155

1.4641

1.7490

2.0736

2.4414

Use the table to find the amount of money which could be invested to give the following
(answer correct to the nearest dollar).
a $20000 at the end of 4 years, at 10% p.a. interest compounded annually
b $80000 at the end of 3 years, at 20% p.a. interest compounded annually
c $1000000 at the end of 4 years, at 15% p.a. interest compounded annually
d $650000 at the end of 3 years, at 5% p.a. interest compounded annually

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172

Preliminary Mathematics General

6.6 Financial institutions: costs


Banks and financial institutions charge their customers for maintaining accounts. It is called
an account servicing fee and is charged per month. Some accounts charge a transaction fee for
using ATM, telephone, internet or branch services. However, some accounts have unlimited
transactions or a set number of free transactions. Most banks will also charge a fee for using
another institutions ATM.
In addition to the above charges institutions have a range of penalty fees including:

Periodic payment dishonour direct debt but insufficient funds in the account

Overdrawn account fee payment made but insufficient funds in the account

Cheque dishonour fee insufficient funds to clear a cheque

Late payment fee minimum payment not received on the due date

Over-limit fee exceeding the credit card limit.


Many financial institutions provide
information to their customers on
how to reduce bank fees. It involves
managing your transactions, knowing
your account balance, not using
other banks ATM and using internet
banking.

Example 11

Calculating costs associated with bank accounts

Evgenias bank charges an account servicing fee of $12 per month, ATM transaction fee of
$0.40 and branch enquiry fee of $0.50. What are Evgenias banking costs for the past three
months if she made 15 ATM withdrawals and 4 branch enquiries?
Solution
1
2
3
4
5

Write the quantity (charge) to be


found.
Multiply the account servicing fee
by 3.
Multiply the number of ATM
transactions by $0.40.
Multiply the number branch
enquiries by $0.50.
Write the answer in words.

Charge = 3 12 + (15 0.40) (4 0.50)


= $44

Evgenia is charged $44 in bank charges.

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Chapter 6 Investing money

173

Exercise 6F
1

Maxims bank charges an account servicing fee of $15 per month, ATM transaction fee
of $0.45 and telephone enquiry fee of $0.25. What is Maxims banking costs for the past
two months if he made 13 ATM withdrawals and 6 telephone enquiries?

The graph below shows the fees collected from banks in the last 5 years. The deposit fee
income and the credit card fee income are shown in the first two columns. The third
column shows the total fee income.
4500
4000
3500

Millions ($)

3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0

3
Years

Deposit fee
income
Credit card fee
income
Total fee income
a
b
c
d
e
f

What was the total fee income in year 2?


What was the credit card fee income in year 5?
What was the deposit fee income in year 4?
How much has the deposit fee income increased from year 1 to year 5?
How much has the credit card fee income increased from year 1 to year 5?
Calculate the percentage increase in total fee income from year 1 to year 5.

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174

Preliminary Mathematics General

Development
3 

The table below shows the banking charges of an overseas bank.


Activity

Charge

ATM withdrawal fee

$0.50

Branch withdrawal

$0.60

Cheque dishonour fee

$5.00

Telephone enquiry

$0.20

Find the cost of the following activities.


a Ten ATM withdrawals and six cheque dishonour fees
b Three branch withdrawals and five telephone enquiries
c Seven telephone enquiries and two dishonoured cheques
d Two ATM withdrawals, five telephone enquiries and six branch withdrawals
e Eleven ATM withdrawals, ten telephone enquiries and one branch withdrawal
f
Thirty ATM withdrawals, twenty telephone enquiries and ten branch withdrawals

4 

The table below shows the banking charges for four banks.
Periodic Overdrawn
Bank payment
account

a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j

Cheque
dishonour

Late
payment

$35

$35

$35

$35

$35

$30

$45

$25

$45

$38

$30

$35

$40

$40

$35

$35

What is the cost of an overdrawn account with bank B?


What is the cost of a cheque dishonour fee at bank D?
Which bank has the lowest late payment fee?
Which bank has the highest overdrawn account fee?
Calculate the difference in the periodic payment fee between banks C and D.
Calculate the difference in the cheque dishonour fee between banks B and C.
What is the average overdrawn account fee for these banks?
What is the average periodic payment for these banks?
Which bank has the lowest overall bank fees?
Which bank has the highest overall bank fees?

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Chapter 6 Investing money

175

6.7 Appreciation and inflation


Appreciation
6.7

Appreciation is the increase in value of items such as art,


gold or land. This increase in value is often expressed as the
rate of appreciation. Calculating the appreciation is similar
to calculating the compound interest. For example, a painting
worth $100 000 that has an annual rate of appreciation of 10%
will be worth $110 000 after one year (an increase of $10 000).
In the second year its value will increase by $11 000. The
amount of appreciation has increased.

Appreciation
A = P(1 + r)n or FV = PV(1 + r)n
A Amount (final balance) or future value
P Principal is the initial quantity of money or present value
r Rate of appreciation per compounding time period expressed as a decimal
n Number of compounding time periods

Example 12

Finding the appreciated value

Joel bought a unit for $290 000. If the unit appreciates at


9% p.a., what is its value after 7 years? Answer to the nearest dollar.

Solution
1
2
3
4
5

Write the formula for appreciation.


Substitute P = 290 000, r = 0.09 and n = 7 into
the formula.
Evaluate.
Write answer to the correct degree of accuracy.
Answer the question in words.

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A = P(1 + r )n
= 290 000(1 + 0.09)7
= 530 131.345
= $530 131
Unit is valued at $530 131.

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176

Preliminary Mathematics General

Inflation
Inflation is a rise in the price of goods and
services or Consumer Price Index (CPI). It is
measured by comparing the prices of a fixed
basket of goods and services. If inflation rises
then a persons spending power decreases. The
inflation rate is the annual percentage change in
the CPI. In Australia, the Reserve Bank aims to
keep the inflation rate in a 2% to 3% band.
Inflation
Inflation rate is the annual percentage change in the CPI.
Use the formula A = P(1 + r)n to calculate the future value of an item following inflation.

Example 13
a

Finding the price of goods following inflation

What is the price of a $650 clothes dryer


after one year following inflation? (Inflation
rate is 2.6% p.a.)
What is the price of a $400 clothes dryer
after three years following inflation?
(Inflation rate is 3.2% p.a.)

Solution
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4

Write the formula for inflation.


Substitute P = 650, r = 0.026 and n = 1
into the formula.
Evaluate correct to 2 decimal places.
Write the answer in words.
Write the formula for inflation.
Substitute P = 400, r = 0.032 and n = 3
into the formula.
Evaluate correct to 2 decimal places.
Write the answer in words.

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A = P(1
P(1 + r )n
= 650(1
650(1 + 0.026)1
= $666.90

Clothes dryer will cost $666.90.


b
A = P(1
P(1 + r )n
= 400(1
400(1 + 0.032)3
= $439.64
Clothes dryer will cost $439.64.

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Chapter 6 Investing money

177

Exercise 6G
1

A vintage car was bought for $70 000 and appreciated at the rate of 6% p.a. What will be
the value of the car after 4 years? Answer correct to the nearest cent.

The price of a house has increased by 4.5% for each of the last two years. It was bought
for $490 000 two years ago. What is the new current value?

William bought the following antiques.


a
Tall boy valued at $4450. Each year its value
appreciated by 5%. Calculate the value of the
tall boy after 3 years. Answer correct to the
nearest cent.
b
Table valued at $6200. Each year its value
appreciated by 4%. Calculate the value of the
table after 5 years. Answer correct to the
nearest cent.
c
Chair valued at $1250. Each year its value
appreciated by 9%. Calculate the value of the
chair after 4 years. Answer correct to the
nearest cent.

The collection of dolls was valued at $1500 four years ago. If it appreciated at 12% p.a.,
find its current value. Answer correct to the nearest cent.

The price of a diamond ring has increased from $3400 to $5300 during the past five
years due to inflation. What is the rise in the price of the ring?

The average inflation for the next five years is predicted to be 3%. Calculate the price of
the following goods in five years time. Answer correct to the nearest cent.
a
3 L of milk for $3.57
b
Loaf of bread for $3.30
c
250 g honey for $4.50
d
800 g of eggs for $5.20

If the inflation rate is 5% p.a., what would you expect to pay to the nearest dollar in four
years time for a house that costs:
a
$280 000?
b
$760 000?
c
$324 000?
d
$580 000?
e
$1 260 000?
f
$956 000?

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178

Preliminary Mathematics General

Development
8

The graph below shows the value of cricket memorabilia for the past 6 years.
a What was the value of the memorabilia after 4 years?
b What was the initial value?
c How much did the memorabilia appreciate each year?
d Find the equation of the straight-line graph in terms of V and n.
Cricket
memorabilia

V ($)
300
200
100
1

The following blocks of land have increased in value this year. What is the rate of
appreciation? Answer correct to two decimal places.
a $328000 to $352000
b $256000 to $278000

10

Hayley invested $700 on rugby


memorabilia. It appreciated over
7 years at 8.2% p.a. interest
compounding annually.
a What is the value of the
investment after 7 years? Answer
correct to the nearest cent.
b Calculate the amount of
appreciation.

11

An investment is appreciating at a rate of 8% of its value each year. Kumar decides to


invest $20000.
a What will be the investments value after 5 years? Answer correct to the nearest cent.
b How much does the investment increase during the first 5 years?
c When will the investment at least double in value? Answer to the nearest year.

12

The cost of a certain car has increased during the past two years from $45200 to $49833
following inflation. What was the annual inflation rate?

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Chapter 6 Investing money

179

6.8 Shares and dividends


Shares
A share or stock is a part ownership in a
company. Shares are bought and sold on the
stock market or stock exchange, such as the ASX
(Australian Securities Exchange). The ASX
provides current information about share prices,
market data, tools and resources for investment.
When a company is first listed on the ASX the
initial price is called the face value. The price of
a share will change according to the performance
of the company. The current price of a share is
called the market price. The amount paid when a
share is bought is called the cost price or issued
price. The amount paid when a share is sold is
called the selling price.
Shares are bought and sold using a broker.
A broker receives a brokerage fee when
shares are traded or a percentage value of
the transaction. There are many different
types of brokers, such as CommSec. Goods
and Services Tax (GST) of 10% is charged
for buying and selling shares.

Example 14

Calculating the cost of shares

Lucy bought 500 shares at a market value of $6.80 each. Brokerage costs incurred were $33
including GST. What is the total cost of purchasing the shares?
Solution
1
2
3
4

Write the quantity (cost) to be calculated.


Cost = (500 6.80
8 0) + $ 3 3
Multiply 500 by $6.80 and add the brokerage of $33.
= $3433
Evaluate.
Cost of the shares is $3433.
Write answer using correct units and in words.

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180

Preliminary Mathematics General

Dividends
The owners of a share are entitled to
share in the companys profits. Profits
are given to shareholders as a dividend.
Dividend is a payment given as an
amount per share or as a percentage
of the issued price. Dividends are
issued twice per year: interim and final
dividend. The dividend yield is the
annual rate of return. It is calculated
by dividing the annual dividend by the
shares market price.

Dividend History

Type

Cents
per
share

Frank
%

Ex
Dividend
Date

Interim

62.00

100

8/5/2010

1/7/2010

Final

74.00

100

8/11/2009

21/12/2009

Interim

62.00

100

14/5/2009

2/7/2009

Final

69.00

100

9/11/2008

15/12/2008

Interim

56.00

100

15/5/2008

3/7/2008

Dividend
Pay Date

Dividends
Dividend is a payment given as an amount per share or a percentage of the issued price.
Dividend yield =

Example 15

Annual dividend
100% Dividend = Dividend yield Market Price
Market price

Calculating the dividend and dividend yield

The share price of a company is $28.42.


a
The predicted dividend yield is 3.5%.
What would be the dividend?
b
The company decides to pay a dividend of
$1.12. What is the dividend yield?

Last
Trade
28.420

Todays %
Change
Volume
-0.280
-0.976

51645

Trades
63

Solution
1
2

3
4
5

Write the quantity to be found.


Express the dividend yield as a
decimal and multiply it by the
share price.
Evaluate correct to two decimal
places.
Write the formula to calculate
the dividend yield.
Substitute the annual dividend
of 1.12 and the market price of
28.42 into the formula.
Evaluate correct to two decimal
places.

Dividend = 3.5% of $28.42


= 0.035 $28.42
= $0.99
Dividend is $0.99

Annual dividend
100%
Market pricee
1.112
=
100%
28.42
= 3.94
94%

Dividend yield =

Dividend yield is 3.94%

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Chapter 6 Investing money

181

Exercise 6H
1

A broker charges a fee of $33 to trade shares. What is the total cost for these shares?
a
150 shares, market price of $19.70
b
340 shares, market price of $2.41
c
60 shares, market price of $92.35
d
2000 shares, market price of $1.68
e
208 shares, market price of $49.61
f
3900 shares, market price of $56.23

Molly buys 3000 shares with a market


price of $6.20. She pays a brokerage
fee of $22.50. How much does she pay
altogether?

Calculate the dividend yield (to two


decimal places) on the following
shares.
a
Market price of $33.70 and a
dividend of $0.84 per share
b
Market price of $22.08 and a
dividend of $1.63 per share
c
Market price of $20.58 and a dividend of $1.00 per share
d
Market price of $37.72 and a dividend of $2.11 per share
e
Market price of $45.43 and a dividend of $2.86 per share
f
Market price of $4.00 and a dividend of 10 cents per share

A company with a share price of $8.40 declares a dividend of 56 cents. What is the
dividend yield correct to two decimal places?

Calculate the dividend received on the following shares. (Answer correct to two decimal
places.)
a
500 shares with a market price of $4.80 and a dividend yield of 5.2%
b
80 shares with a market price of $88.10 and a dividend yield of 4.4%
c
2200 shares with a market price of $9.56 and a dividend yield of 6.1%
d
890 shares with a market price of $22.30 and a dividend yield of 1.9%
e
3400 shares with a market price of $56.30 and a dividend yield of 4.6%
f
780 shares with a market price of $12.58 and a dividend yield of 8.1%

A company with a market price of $1.30 has a dividend yield of 9.2%. What is the
dividend correct to two decimal places?

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182

Preliminary Mathematics General

Development
7

Tipeni bought 100 shares in a bank for $35.60 each. He sold them two years later for
$48.90 each and paid a brokerage fee of $32.95.
a What is the profit made on these shares?
b What is the profit as a percentage of the cost of the shares?

Cooper bought 2500 shares for $5.60 each.


a Cooper is charged a brokerage fee of 6.2 cents per share. What is the total cost of
purchasing the shares?
b Two months later a dividend of 36 cents per share was paid. What was the total
dividend Cooper received?
c Cooper sold the shares after receiving the dividend for $5.75 each. He was charged a
brokerage fee of 6.2 cents per share. What was the profit on these shares?

The dividend yield on a company was 5%. How much is the dividend if you owned
500 shares with a market value of $4.80?

10

A company started trading on the ASX with a face value of $8.40.


8.5
8.0
7.5
7.0
6.5
May
a
b
c

Jun

Jul

What was the share price at the beginning of June?


How much has the share price decreased during the 3 months?
Express the decrease in the share price as a percentage of the face value.

11

A company has an after tax profit of $128 million. There are 200 million shares in the
company. What dividend per share will the company declare if all the profits are
distributed to shareholders?

12

Lauren owns 400 $3 ordinary shares and 300 $2 preference shares. The current prices of
the ordinary shares and preference shares are $4.20 and $3.60 respectively. The dividend
on the ordinary shares is 55c and on the preference shares is 3%. Calculate Laurens total
dividend.

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Chapter 6 Investing money

Study guide 6

Simple interest

I = Prn
A=P+I
I Interest (simple or flat) earned for the use of money
P Principal is the initial amount of money borrowed
r Rate of simple interest per period expressed as a decimal
n Number of time periods
A Amount or final balance

Simple interest graphs

1
2
3

Construct a table of values for I and n using I = Prn.


Draw a number plane n horizontal axis, I the vertical axis.
Plot the points and join them to make a straight line.

Compound interest

A = P(1 + r)n or FV = PV(1 + r)n


I=A-P
A Amount (final balance) or future value of the loan
P Principal is the initial quantity of money
r Rate of interest per compounding time period (decimal)
n Number of compounding time periods
A Amount or final balance
I Interest (compound) earned

Compound interest

graphs

2
3

Using prepared tables

1
2
3

Financial institutions

Appreciation and
inflation
Shares and dividends

Construct a table of values for A and n using A = P(1 + r)n.


Draw a number plane n horizontal axis, A the vertical axis
Plot and join the points and to make an exponential curve.
Determine the time period and rate of interest.
Find the intersection of the time period and rate of interest in
the table.
Multiply the number in step 2 with the money invested.
Charges account servicing charge, transaction fees
Penalties overdrawn fee, cheque dishonour fee, late payment fee

Use the formula A = P(1 + r)n for appreciation and inflation.


Inflation rate is the annual percentage change in the CPI.
Dividend is a payment given as an amount per share or a percentage
of the issued price.
Dividend yield =

Annual dividend
1100%
00%
Market price

Dividend = Divi
Dividend
Di
vide
dend
nd yiel
yield
yi
eldd M
Marke
ar t price
arke

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Review

Chapter summary Investing money

183

Review

184

Preliminary Mathematics General

Sample HSC Objective-response questions


1

What is the simple interest on $500 at 8% p.a. for 4 years?


A $40
B $160
C $660

$1600

What is the simple interest rate when $8000 increases to $8600 over 3 years?
A 2.5% p.a.
B 3% p.a.
C 6% p.a.
D 7.5% p.a.

Using the graph what is the interest after 3 12 years?


Simple interest
at 4% p.a.

I
240
200
160
120
80
40

n
1
A

$120

6
B

$140

$160

$240

What was the amount of the investment shown in the graph in question 3?
A $40
B $100
C $240
D $1000

James borrows $3000 at 10% p.a. interest compounding annually. What is the amount
owed after 2 years? (Answer to the nearest dollar.)
A $3030
B $3060
C $3600
D $3630

What is the interest earned for 3 years on $6000 at 9% p.a. interest compounding monthly?
(Answer to the nearest dollar.)
A $1770
B $1852
C $7770
D $7852

A painting was bought for $460 000 and appreciated at the rate of 7% p.a. What will be the
value of the painting after 4 years? (Answer to the nearest dollar.)
A $473 016
B $492 200
C $588 800
D $602 966

Chloe bought 800 shares at a market value of $10.20 each. Brokerage costs incurred were
$38 including GST. What is the total cost of purchasing the shares?
A $48.20
B $8160
C $8198
D $30 400

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Chapter 6 Investing money

185

What is the simple interest on $1250 at a flat rate of 8% p.a. over 3 years?

Susan wants to earn $9000 a year in interest. How much must she invest if the simple
interest rate is 14% p.a.? Answer to the nearest dollar.

Matthew takes out a simple interest loan of $14 000 over 3 years at 7% p.a.
a How much interest does he pay each year?
b How much interest does Matthew pay altogether for the loan?

Nicholas invested $1000 at 5% per annum simple interest for 6 years.


a Simplify the simple interest formula (I = Prn) by substituting values for the principal
and the interest rate.
b Use this formula to complete the following table of values.
n

I
c
d
e

Draw a number plane with n as the horizontal axis and I as the vertical axis.
Plot the points from the table of values. Join the points to make a straight line.
What is the interest earned after 5 12 years?

Riley invested $120 000 with a superannuation fund. What sum of money will he receive,
to the nearest dollar, if invested for 4 years at:
a 3% p.a. compound interest?
b 6% p.a. compound interest?

Calculate the amount that must be invested at 5.8% p.a. interest compounding annually to
have $50 000 at the end of 4 years. Answer to the nearest dollar.

Farid invested $24 000 over 8 years at 9.8% p.a. interest compounding quarterly. What is
the value of the investment after 8 years? Answer to the nearest dollar.

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Review

Sample HSC Short-answer questions

Review

186

Preliminary Mathematics General

Chapter
summary
Earning
Money
8 The table
below shows
the future
value when $1 is invested at the given interest rate for the
given number of periods. The interest is compounded per period.
Period

3%

6%

9%

12%

15%

1.061

1.124

1.188

1.254

1.323

1.126

1.262

1.412

1.574

1.749

1.194

1.419

1.677

1.974

2.313

1.267

1.594

1.993

2.476

3.059

Use the table to calculate the future value of the following, correct to nearest dollar.
a $40000 invested for 8 years at 15% p.a. compounded annually
b $350000 invested for 6 years at 9% p.a. compounded annually
c $400000 invested for 4 years at 12% p.a. compounded six-monthly
d $64000 invested for 2 years at 12% p.a. compounded quarterly

The table (right) shows the charges for using a bank


account.
a What is the charge for 7 ATM withdrawals and
5cheque dishonour fees?
b What is the charge for 10 branch withdrawals and
12 telephone enquiries?

Activity

Charge

ATM withdrawal fee

$0.45

Branch withdrawal

$0.50

Cheque dishonour fee

$7.00

Telephone enquiry

$0.30

10

An investment is appreciating at a rate of 4% of its


value each year. Ruby decides to invest $480000.
a What will be the investments value after ten years? Answer to the nearest dollar.
b How much does the investment increase during the first ten years?

11

The average inflation for the next five years is predicted to be 2.5%. Calculate the price of
the following goods in three years time. Answer to the nearest cent.
a 2 L of soft drink for $2.80
b Apple pie for $4.60

12

Mia bought 50 shares in a bank for $82.64 each. She sold them two years later for $68.90.
The brokerage fee paid was $35.95 each time. What was the loss on these shares?

13

A company with a share price of $2.42 declares a dividend of 12 cents. What is the
dividend yield, correct to two decimal places?

14

Ebony purchases 1000 shares at $16.90 per share. Her broker charges $20 plus 1.5% of the
purchase price. Calculate the brokerage for this purchase.
Challenge questions 6

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HSC Practice Paper 1


Section I
Attempt Questions 115 (15 marks)
Allow about 20 minutes for this section
1

Which of the following is the correct simplification of 11x4 - 7x4?


(A) 4
(B) 4x
(C) 4x4
(D) 4x8

What is the new running cost of a vehicle if $60 is increased by 20% then decreased
by 20%?
(A) $38.40
(B) $57.60
(C) $60.00
(D) $86.40

Elizabeth works for $19.20 per hour for eight hours each day on Thursday and Friday.
On Saturday she works for six hours at time-and-a-half.
How much does Elizabeth earn in total for Thursday, Friday and Saturday?
(A) $268.80
(B) $307.20
(C) $480.00
(D) $691.20

187
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188

Preliminary Mathematics General

What is the equation of line m?


(A)

y = 3x 3

(B)

y=

(C)

y = 3 x 3

(D)

y=

x
3
3

x
3
3

3
1
33 22 11 0
1

2
3

Simplify 6 - 4(2x - 1).


(A) 4x - 2
(B) 4x + 6
(C) 7 - 8x
(D) 10 - 8x

Which of the following is the highest pay?


(A) $1442.22 per week
(B) $2884.68 per fortnight
(C) $6247.50 per month
(D) $75 000 per annum

Arrange the numbers 4.8 10-2, 4.0 10-1 and 5.6 10-2 in ascending order.
(A) 4.8 10-2, 5.6 10-2, 4.0 10-1
(B) 4.0 10-1, 4.8 10-2, 5.6 10-2
(C) 5.6 10-2, 4.8 10-2, 4.0 10-1
(D) 4.0 10-1, 5.6 10-2, 4.8 10-2

A survey required mobile phone users to write down their age last birthday. Which of the
following terms best describes this data?
(A) Categorical
(B) Continuous
(C) Discrete
(D) Stratified
k
Find the value of m, correct to one decimal place, given k = 24 and the formula m =
.
5
(A) 1.0
(B) 2.2
(C) 2.4
(D) 4.8

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HSC Practice Paper 1

189

10

A four-litre tin of paint is made using a mixture of blue, white and green paint in the
ratio 3:5:2. How much blue paint is needed per tin?
(A) 300 mL
(B) 900 mL
(C) 1200 mL
(D) 2000 mL

11

A country has 30% of the population between the ages of 20 and 30. How many people
aged between 20 and 30 should be included in a sample of 250 people?
(A) 30
(B) 45
(C) 60
(D) 75

12

A car is travelling at a constant speed. It travels 60 km in 3 hours. This situation is


described by the linear equation d = mt. What is the value of m?
(A) 0.05
(B) 3
(C) 20
(D) 60

13

What is the value of x if 2x - 7 = 21?


(A) 3
(B) 7
(C) 14
(D) 28

14

Police checked the blood alcohol content of every fifth driver passing an intersection.
What is this method of sampling?
(A) Census
(B) Random
(C) Stratified
(D) Systematic

15

What is the point of intersection of the lines y = x + 1 and y = -x + 1?


(A) (0, 0)
(B) (0, 1)
(C) (1, 0)
(D) (1, 1)

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Section II
Attempt Questions 1618 (45 marks)
Allow about 70 minutes for this section
All necessary working should be shown in every question.
Question
16
(a)

(b)

Marks

(15 marks)

Nathan is an auto-electrician who is entitled to a 15% trade discount. In addition,


he is given a 10% reduction on the discounted price if he pays cash. Nathan bought
$480 worth of electrical equipment and was given both discounts.
(i)
How much does Nathan pay for the electrical equipment?
(ii)
How much money is saved using the discounts?
(iii)
Express the overall savings as a percentage of the retail price.

1
1
1

If x = 6 and y = -2, calculate the value of each of the following:


(i)
x-y
(ii)
xy
(iii)
x2 - 5y2

1
1
1

(c)

A truck has a load of six boxes of equal weight. The total weight of the boxes is
4.68tonnes. What is the weight of each box in kilograms?

(d)

Chloe agreed to a car loan for $3500 at 6.5% p.a. compounding annually for 4 years.
(i)
How much does Chloe have to repay?
(ii)
How much interest did Chloe pay during the 4 years?

1
2

Simplify:
(i)
12x - 2(x + 1)
(ii)
48x6y3 6xy3

1
1

(e)

(f)

Alexiss parents want to give her $10000 for her wedding in five years time. They
have found an account that will earn 8% p.a. simple interest. What is the amount of
money they need to invest in this account to total $10000 interest in 5 years time?

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HSC Practice Paper 1

Question 17 (15 marks)


(a)

191

Marks

y
3
2
1
3 2 1 0
1

2
3
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

(b)

Solve these equations.


(i)
11 = x - 4
(ii)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

1
1
1

What is the gradient of this straight line?


What is the y-intercept of this straight line?
What is the equation of this straight line?

8x 2
= 4x
3

Riley received a gross fortnightly salary of $2858. His pay deductions were
$745.20 for tax, $305.13 for superannuation and $21.20 for union fees.
(i)
What was his fortnightly net pay?
(ii)
What percentage of his gross income was deducted for tax?
(Answer correct to 1 decimal place.)
(iii)
Riley is paid an annual leave loading of 17.5% of 4 weeks gross pay.
Calculate his annual leave loading.

1
1
1

Sarah conducted a survey of students opinions about the school uniform. She
selected the first five people who were not in school uniform for the survey. Why
might the results of this survey be biased?

Light travels at a speed of 2.9979 108 metres per second. How many kilometres
does light travel in one hour? Answer in scientific notation correct to three
significant figures.

Grace earned $369.60 in a week when she worked 27 hours at the normal rate and
4hours at time-and-a-half. What is Graces pay rate per hour?

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Question 18 (15 marks)


(a)

Marks

The graph below shows the cost of making dresses and the income received from
their sale.

Dollars ($)

100
80
Costs

60
40

Income

20
0
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

3
Dress

How much profit or loss is made when 1 dress is sold?


How much profit or loss is made when 5 dresses are sold?
Use the graph to determine the number of dresses that need to be sold to
break even.

1
1
1

Oscar invests $100000 for 8 months in a term deposit. This investment offers a flat
rate of 6% per annum interest. What is the interest earned from this investment?

Volume of a sphere is given by the formula V = 4 r 3 where r is the radius.


3
(i)
Write the formula with r as the subject.
(ii)
What is the radius in metres of a spherical balloon with a volume of 2 m3?
Answer correct to two decimal places.

Hannah bought 1000 shares for $6.40 each. She received a dividend of 5.5% on her
purchase price. Hannah sold these shares for $7.20 each after 3 months. Calculate
Hannahs profit from the dividend and the sale of these shares.
Logan records the details of each CD in his music collection.
State the type of data that would be recorded for each of the following.
(i)
Title of the CD.
(ii)
Number of tracks on the CD.
(iii)
Playing time for each track.
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1
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C H A P T E R

Displaying and interpreting


single data sets
Syllabus topic DS2 Displaying and interpreting
single data sets
Create frequency tables to organise ungrouped and grouped data
Calculation and interpretation of range and interquartile range
Create frequency and cumulative frequency graphs
Draw radar charts to display data
Create a box-and-whisker plot from a ve-number summary
Create sector graphs and divided bar graphs for categorical data

7.1 Frequency tables


A frequency table is a listing of the outcomes and how often (frequency) each outcome occurs.
The outcomes are often listed under a heading called score. The tally of the frequency and the
final count are listed in separate columns. A frequency table is also called a frequency distribution.
7.1

Score
Lowest score

Highest score

Tally

Frequency

17

18

|||| |

19

||||

20

|||| ||

21

|||

Lowest frequency

Highest frequency

Frequency table
1
2
3

Scores or outcomes are listed in the first column in ascending order.


Tally column records the number of times the score occurred (groups of 5s).
Frequency column is the total count of each outcome.
193

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194

Preliminary Mathematics General

Example 1

Reading information from a frequency table

The following frequency table shows the results of a


test out of 20.
a
How many students scored 15 in the test?
b
What was the score that occurred the most times?
c
How many students completed the test?

Score

Solution
1
2
3

Read the frequency of 15.


Find the largest number in the
frequency column.
Add the frequency column to find the
total number of students.

Example 2

a
b
c

Tally

Frequency

14

|||

15

||||

16

|||| ||

17

|||| |||| |

11

18

|||

Five students scored 15.


Score of 17 occurred the most.
Total = 3 + 5 + 7 + 11 + 3
= 29

Constructing a frequency table

The temperatures for 39 days are shown below. Construct a frequency table.
19

20

18

23

27

25

26

27

28

27

25

24

24

19

25

22

21

28

26

26

22

20

25

20

22

24

24

22

21

24

25

26

25

27

21

23

23

22

25

Solution
1
2
3
4
5

Draw a table with three columns and label


them score, tally and frequency.
List the temperatures in the score column
from the lowest (18) to the highest (28).
Record a mark in the tally column for
each temperature.
Count the tally marks and write the total
in the frequency column.
Add the frequency column to find the
total number of scores. This should match
the total number of temperatures (39).

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Score

Tally

Frequency

18

19

||

20

|||

21

|||

22

||||

23

|||

24

||||

25

|||| ||

26

||||

27

||||

28

||

Total

39

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195

Chapter 7 Displaying and interpreting single data sets

Exercise 7A
1

The age of players in a football team is recorded


in a frequency table.
a
Copy and complete the table.
b
What was the most common age?
c
How many players are in the team?

Score

Tally

20

|||

21

|||| ||

22

23

||||

24
2

The number of times a fire engine is called out on a


given day was recorded in a frequency table.
a
Copy and complete the table.
b
What was the most common number of calls?
c
How many days was the fire engine called out
four times?
d
How many days was the fire engine called out
fewer than three times?

Number
of calls

Tally

0
|||| |||| ||

1
2

||||
2

The number of brothers and sisters for 30 students is


recorded below. Construct a frequency table for this data.
2

The shoe size of 20 seventeen year olds is recorded


below. Construct a frequency table.
11
9

Freq.
7

Freq.

7
9

8
8

10

12

10

10

8
9

7
8

8
7

11
8

The assessment result for 30 students is recorded


below. Construct a frequency table for this data.
96

97

97

95

92

94

97

98

91

97

95

91

96

97

94

92

92

98

94

93

93

94

95

93

92

91

98

96

92

91

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Development
6

A die was rolled and the results listed below.


1

1 6 5 2 4 6 2 4 2 2 3
6
4
2
Construct a frequency table using a tally column.
How many times was the die rolled?
How many results are higher than 2?
What was the most common number rolled?
Do you think the die is biased? Give a reason for your answer.

4
a
b
c
d
e

David recorded the following times, in seconds, for the 50 m freestyle.


32

34

37

35

35

37

34

33

38

34

36

33

34

37

37

37

38

33

33

36

35

34

34

38

32

36

32

38

38

34

36

36

34

38

32

34

38

37

35

36

38

35

32

35

35

33

38

36

35

36

32

a
b
c
d
e

8 

Construct a frequency table using a


tally column.
How many times were recorded?
How many times were below
35 seconds?
What was the most common time for
the 50 m freestyle?
What percentage of times are
37 seconds or more?

Count the number of letters in each word of the paragraph below.


A frequency table is a listing of the outcomes and how often (frequency) each outcome
occurs. The outcomes are often listed under a heading called score. The tally of the
frequency and the final count are listed in separate columns. Frequency tables are also
called a frequency distribution.
a Create a frequency table for the length of words used in the above paragraph.
b Using the frequency table, what is the most frequent word length in the English
language?
c Comment on the fairness of the conclusion made in part b.

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197

7.2 Grouped frequency tables

7.2

Data with a large range of values are often grouped into a small number of convenient
intervals, called class intervals. When choosing class intervals ensure:
Every data value is in an interval.
Intervals do not overlap.
No gaps exist between the intervals.
The choice of intervals can vary, but generally a division of 5 to 15 groups is preferred. It is
usual to choose an interval that is easy to read such as 5 units, 10 units, etc.
Grouped frequency table
1
2
3

Classes or groups are listed in the first column in ascending order.


Tally column shows the number of times a score occurs in a class (groups of 5s).
Frequency column is total count of scores in each class.

Example 3

Constructing a grouped frequency table

Twenty-six people were asked to record how many cups of coffee they drank in a particular
week. The results are listed below.
0

33

14

32

25

10

23

34

17

23

32

Solution
1

4
5

Draw a table with 4


columns and label them
class, class centre, tally and
frequency.
The data ranges from 0 to
34. A class interval width of
5 results in 7 classes.
Record a mark in the tally
column for each data value
in the class interval.
Count the tally marks in the
frequency column.
Add the frequency column
to find the total number of
scores.

Class

Class
centre

Tally

Freq.

04

|||| |||| ||

12

59

||||

1014

12

||

1519

17

2024

22

||

2529

27

3034

32

||||

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Total

26

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198

Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 7B
1

The age of the people living in Matilda Rd


was recorded.
a
Copy and complete the table opposite.
b
How many people are younger than 20?
c
Which class occurred the most number of times?
d
How many people are living in this road?

A grouped frequency table is shown below.


a
Copy and complete the grouped
frequency table.
b
How many class intervals have been
used?
c
Which class occurred the least?
d
What is the total number of scores?

Class

Class
Centre

Class

Freq.

519

10

2034

3549

5064

Class
Centre

37
10

Total

28

Tally

Frequency

||||

|||| |

1317

15

1822

20

|||| ||

25

2832
3337

3
35

|||| |||

40

||||

The heights of the 30 players in a netball club are


recorded below. Construct a grouped frequency table
using class intervals (170174, 175179, 180184,
185189, ).

174

184

183

179

180

181

189

188

194

189

184

182

183

189

193

194

185

178

173

183

188

183

182

184

189

194

188

192

190

180

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Chapter 7 Displaying and interpreting single data sets

199

Development
4

A drink vending machine records the number of bottles sold each day.
13

22

26

34

21

33

32

31

33

26

30

33

37

27

36

28

35

24

31

35

39

26

13

34

21

29

36

24

33

25

39

19

29

36

38

29

38

38

37

38

31

37

37

28

40

34

29

18

35

22

20

35

25

31

39

39

18

36

38

35

29

35

20

34

30

37

33

27

32

32

36

16

39

30

14

29

20

22

12

24

17

21

18

17

38

28

25

a
b
c

The players scores after the second round of a golf tournament are recorded below.
162

163

175

161

166

163

167

151

150

176

159

173

162

155

149

171

181

163

154

165

145

177

184

171

154

166

168

158

136

156

161

162

169

162

160

150

174

176

146

137

a
b
c

6 

Decide on appropriate classes for a frequency table.


Calculate the class centres for these
classes.
Construct a grouped frequency table
using these class intervals.

Decide on appropriate classes for a frequency table.


Calculate the class centres for these classes.
Construct a grouped frequency table using these class intervals.

Jordan surveyed his friends to check the number of emails they saved on their computers.
The numbers he found were 22, 9, 51, 6, 30, 18, 30, 4, 10, 5, 19, 23, 37, 17, 18, 12, 10,
24, 28, 25, 60, 45, 19, 17, 11, 8, 16, 1, 24 and 3.
a Decide on appropriate classes for a frequency table.
b Calculate the class centres for these classes.
c Construct a grouped frequency table using these class intervals.
d What percentage of friends had fewer than 20 emails saved on their computer?

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Preliminary Mathematics General

7.3 Cumulative frequency

7.3

Cumulative frequency is the frequency of the


score plus the frequency of all the scores less than
that score. A cumulative frequency column is
often inserted next to the frequency column in a
frequency table.

Score

Frequency

Cumulative
Frequency

18

19

20

21

16

Cumulative frequency
The frequency of the score plus the frequency of all the scores less than that
score.

Example 4

Calculating the cumulative frequency

The frequency table opposite shows the temperatures


for 17 days. Complete the cumulative frequency
column.

Solution
1
2

The lowest score is 18 and it has a frequency


of 1. Cumulative frequency of 18 is 1.
Add the frequency of the score to the
cumulative frequency of the previous score.
Cumulative frequency of 19 = 2 + 1 = 3.
Repeat this process.

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Score

Frequency

18

19

20

21

22

23

Cumulative
Frequency

Score

Freq.

Cml. Freq.

18

19

2+1=3

20

3+3=6

21

6+3=9

22

9 + 5 = 14

23

14 + 3 = 17

Cambridge University Press

Chapter 7 Displaying and interpreting single data sets

Finding cumulative frequency using a graphics calculator

Example 5

Score

Frequency

a
b
c
d

201

Cumulative
Frequency

Calculate the cumulative frequency using a graphics calculator.


What is the total number of scores?
How many scores are less than or equal to 2?
How many scores are greater than 3?
Solution
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Select the STAT menu.


Enter the scores into List 1.
Enter the frequencies into List 2.
Highlight the words List 3 using the arrow keys.
Press OPTN and select LIST.
Press F6 twice and select Cum1.
Press F6 and select List. Type the number 2.

Press EXE and the cumulative frequencies will


appear in List 3.

List 3 is the cumulative frequency. The total


number of scores is the last number in this
column.
Cumulative frequency of 2 is 14 (List 3). This is
the total number of scores less than or equal to 2.
The only score greater than 3 is 4. The frequency
of 4 is found in the List 2 column.

10
11

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Total number of scores


is 24.

Total number of scores less


than or equal to 2 is 14.
There are 6 scores greater
than 3.

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202

Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 7C
1

The frequency table shows the results of a test.


a
Copy and complete the table.
b
How many students scored 8?
c
How many students scored more than 5?
d
How many students scored less than 6?
e
How many students completed the test?

The number of times an ambulance was called out


each day is recorded in a frequency table.
a
Copy and complete the table.
b
How many days was the ambulance called out
21 times?
c
How many days was the ambulance called out
less than 25?
d
How many days was the ambulance called out
more than 23?

Score

Freq.

10

Number
of calls

Freq.

20

21

22

10

23

12

24

25

Cml. Freq.

Cml. Freq.

The results of a survey are listed below.

a
b
c
d
e

13

11

11

10

10

10

10

11

10

12

11

13

10

12

11

13

10

11

10

10

10

13

10

Copy and complete the table


How many people completed the survey?
How many people scored 10 in the
survey?
What is the difference between the
highest and lowest scores?
Which score had the highest frequency?

Score

Tally

Freq.

Cml. Freq.

8
9
10
11
12
13

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203

Development
4 

The ages of children at the local park are shown below.


9

10

10

10

10

10

a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
m

Construct a frequency table to represent this data, including a tally column.


Add a cumulative frequency column.
How many children are there altogether?
How many children are 8 years old?
How many children are 6 years old?
How many children are older than 5?
How many children are younger than 9?
What is the most common age?
What is the least popular age?
What fraction are 7 years old?
What fraction are 4 years old?
What percentage are older than 5?
What percentage are younger than 6?

Use a graphics calculator to calculate the cumulative frequency for the data in question 3.
Check that the results are the same as question 3.

Blake measured his time (in seconds) to run 400 metres hurdles throughout the year.
61

62

62

63

64

62

66

64

63

63

62

61

62

62

63

64

63

65

63

63

62

61

62

63

62

61

61

64

64

64

63

63

64

65

64

63

63

62

61

62

62

63

64

63

62

a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h

Construct a frequency table to represent this data


including a tally column.
Add a cumulative frequency column to the
frequency table.
How many times were recorded?
How many times did Blake run the 400 metres in
61 seconds?
How many times are less than or equal to 63?
What fraction of his 400 metre times is 62?
What percentage of his 400 metre times is 65? Answer correct to two decimal places.
What percentage of his times are less than or equal to 64? Answer correct to two
decimal places.

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Preliminary Mathematics General

7.4 Range and interquartile range


A measure of the spread is calculated to determine whether most of the values are clustered
together or stretched out. The range and interquartile range are measures of spread.
7.4

Range
The range is the difference between the highest and lowest scores. It is a simple way of
measuring the spread of the data.
Range
Range = Highest score Lowest score

Calculating the range

Example 6

The assessment results for two different tasks are shown below.
Task A

Task B

10

13

14

14

17

22

24

24

27

27

28

33

38

40

40

41

43

44

45

45

46

50

52

52

55

55

58

95

10

15

19

20

24

27

31

31

35

38

40

49

51

51

54

55

58

62

62

68

68

71

72

76

78

79

79

86

88

90

Find the ranges for Task A and Task B.


Solution
1
2
3
4
5
6

Write the formula for range.


For Task A, substitute the highest score (95)
and the lowest score (3).
Evaluate.
Write the formula for range.
For Task B, substitute the highest score (90)
and the lowest score (10).
Evaluate.

Task A
Range = Highest Lowest
= 95 3
= 92
Task B
Range = Highest Lowest
= 90 10
= 80

In the above example, the range for Task A has been inuenced by an outlier (95). The range
for Task A is not a good indicator of the spread.

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Chapter 7 Displaying and interpreting single data sets

205

Interquartile range
The interquartile range does not rely on the extreme values like the range. The data is arranged
in increasing order and divided into 4 equal parts or quartiles. The interquartile range (IQR) is
the difference between the first quartile and third quartile. The first quartile cuts off the lowest
3
25% 14 and the third quartile cuts off the lowest 75% 4 .

()

()

Interquartile range
IQR = Third quartile First quartile
= Q3 Q1
1
Arrange the data in increasing order.
2
Divide the data into two equal-sized groups. If n is odd, omit the median.
3
Find Q1 the median of the first group.
4
Find Q3 the median of the second group.
5
Calculate the interquartile range (IQR) by subtracting Q1 from Q3.

Calculating the interquartile range

Example 7

The assessment results for two different tasks are shown below.
Task A
Task B

10 13 14 14 17 22 24 24

27

27

28

33

38

40 40 41 43 44 45 45 46 50 52

52

55

55

58

95

10 15 19 20 24 27 31 31 35 38

40

49

51

51

54

55 58 62 62 68 68 71 72 76 78

79

79

86

88

90

Find the interquartile ranges for Task A and Task B. What is shown by these results?
Solution
1
2

3
4

5
6

Arrange the data in increasing order.


Divide the data into two equal-sized groups.
There are 30 scores in total, hence 15 scores
in each group.
Write the formula for interquartile range.
For Task A, the median of the first group is
22 (or Q1) and the median of the second
group is 46 (or Q3).
Substitute into the formula and evaluate.
For Task B, the median of the first group is
31 (or Q1) and the median of the second
group is 72 (or Q3).
Substitute into the formula and evaluate.

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Task A
IQR = Q3 Q1
= 46 22
= 24
Task B
IQR = Q3 Q1
= 72 31
= 41

Task A is more consistent than


Task B (lower IQR).

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Finding the range and IQR using a graphics calculator

Example 8

Use a graphics calculator to calculate the range and interquartile range for Task A.
Task A

10 13 14 14 17 22 24 24

27

27

28

33

38

40 40 41 43 44 45 45 46 50 52

52

55

55

58

95

Solution
1
2

Select the STAT menu.


Enter the data into List1. Press EXE to
enter each number.
Select 1VAR to view the summary
statistics.
minX lowest score
Q1 = First quartile
Q3 = Third quartile
maxX = Highest score
Substitute into the formula for range and
evaluate.
Substitute into the formula for IQR and
evaluate.

Range = maxX minX


= 95 3
= 92
IQR = Q3 Q1
= 46 22
= 24

Deciles, quartiles and percentiles


Deciles, quartiles and percentiles are different ways of dividing data. The data must be sorted
in order (ascending or descending) before it can be divided.
Decile

Percentiles

Data is divided into 10 equal parts

Data is divided into 100 equal parts

1st decile cuts off the lowest 10%

25th percentile cuts off the lowest 25% Q1

2nd decile cuts off the lowest 20%

50th percentile cuts off the lowest 50% Q2

9th decile cuts off the lowest 90%

75th percentile cuts off the lowest 75% Q3

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Chapter 7 Displaying and interpreting single data sets

207

Exercise 7D
1

Find the range of each data set.


a 13, 6, 0, 9, 6, 5, 6, 17, 1
c 9, 15, 9, 3, 6, 9, 13, 10, 7, 9
e 8, 12, 5, 5, 9, 10, 13, 3, 7
g 13, 6, 9, 9, 3, 9, 15, 7, 9, 10
Find the range of each data set.
a 23, 32, 43, 23, 34, 22, 35, 28
c 8, 35, 8, 1, 5, 8, 33, 13, 3, 8
e 3, 22, 5, 5, 8, 13, 31, 3, 3

b
d
f
h

b
d
f

22, 31, 28, 22, 43, 22


1, 1, 7, 9, 5, 9, 10
3, 0, 1, 2, 11, 9, 7, 7, 5
10, 18, 7, 2, 14, 9, 10

12, 43, 28, 21, 44, 22


3, 3, 3, 8, 5, 8, 13
4, 3, 3, 2, 13, 8, 3, 3, 5

Joshua scored the following marks in a spelling test: 4, 5, 5, 6, 7, 7, 8, 8, 9 and 9.


a What is the first quartile?
b What is the third quartile?
c What is the second decile?
d What is the seventh decile?

Find the interquartile range for each data set (odd number of scores).
a 2, 7, 9, 10, 12, 14, 18
b 12, 16, 18, 23, 29
c 2, 2, 2, 3, 7, 13, 14, 14, 18, 24, 55
d 3, 5, 8, 9, 11, 13, 13, 13, 19
e 42, 45, 49, 50, 52, 54, 68, 68, 72
f 0, 1, 4, 6, 6, 6, 10, 13, 19

Find the interquartile range for each data set (even data set).
a 21, 21, 21, 28, 31, 44
b 3, 5, 5, 7, 8, 9, 12, 13
c 4, 6, 8, 9, 9, 9, 9, 11, 13, 15
d 39, 39, 41, 44, 47, 49, 67, 68, 68, 69
e 3, 6, 8, 11, 12, 14, 22, 23
f 56, 58, 58, 61, 66, 67, 69, 70

Find the range and interquartile range for each data set.
a 14, 18, 20, 25, 31
b 0, 2, 2, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10

There are 101 odd numbers from 1 to 201 (1, 3, 5, 7, )


a What is the 1st percentile?
b What is the 10th percentile?
c What is the 20th percentile?
d What is the 100th percentile?
e What is the 50th percentile?
f What is the 49th percentile?

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Development
8

Find the interquartile range for each data set.


a 18, 16, 19, 18, 16, 13, 12, 15
c 32, 29, 24, 26, 25, 28, 29, 24, 30, 22
e 43, 57, 57, 61, 31, 34, 38, 39, 41
g 27, 8, 11, 17, 13, 19, 28, 16

b
c
d

What is the range?


What is the first quartile?
What is the third quartile?
What is the interquartile range?

The systolic blood pressure for a sample of 20 people is listed below:


100

193

170

138

106

120

109

159

190

144

105

125

180

210

124

148

161

203

192

131

a
c
e

11

19, 22, 17, 18, 23, 15, 15, 13


d 29, 37, 39, 57, 58, 34, 58, 59, 29, 31
f 40, 50, 46, 41, 46, 53, 59, 44, 46
h 64, 65, 53, 56, 61, 62, 51, 53

The number of service calls per day


made by an air-conditioning technician
is recorded below:

9, 2, 7, 9, 12, 5, 10, 12,
11, 9, 8, 11, 9, 5, 6, 7, 10
a

10

What is the fifth decile?


What is the range?
What is the third quartile?

What is the tenth decile?


d What is the first quartile?
f What is the interquartile range?

The maximum temperatures for the past 30 days are listed below.
26

33

32

24

36

32

34

29

30

33

37

27

28

29

31

32

33

36

33

34

25

22

23

31

30

34

25

28

27

29

Arrange the data and calculate the following.


a First quartile
c Interquartile range
e 5th decile

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Third quartile
d Range
f 100th percentile

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Chapter 7 Displaying and interpreting single data sets

209

7.5 Frequency and cumulative frequency graphs


Frequency histogram and polygon

Frequency Polygon

Frequency histogram is a column


graph of a frequency table.

Frequency polygon is a line graph of a


frequency table.
Frequency

Frequency Histogram

Frequency

7.5

A frequency histogram is a graph of a frequency table in which equal intervals of the scores (or
classes) are marked on the horizontal axis and the frequencies associated with these intervals are
indicated by vertical rectangles. A frequency polygon is a line graph of the frequency table and
can be constructed by joining the midpoints at the tops of the rectangles of a frequency histogram.

3
2
1

3
2
1
1

Score

Example 9

3 4
Score

Constructing a histogram using a graphics calculator

Use a graphics calculator to display the following data as a frequency histogram.


23

22

18

17

13

15

23

18

17

22

18

12

15

13

15

12

14

13

14

17

15

25

19

18

20

16

14

Solution
1
2

Select the STAT menu.


Enter the data into List1. Press EXE to enter each
number.

To construct a histogram select GPH1 and SET.


Choose Graph Type : Hist and XList1 : List1.

To draw the histogram press GPH1 and EXE.

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Example 10

Constructing a grouped frequency histogram

The weight of 25 students was recorded and displayed in a grouped frequency table. Construct
a grouped frequency histogram and polygon.
Class

Class Centre

Frequency

3039

34.5

4049

44.5

5059

54.5

6069

64.5

7079

74.5

8089

84.5

Draw the horizontal axis with each


class (or class centre) the same
distance apart.
Draw a vertical axis using a scale
that will cater for the lowest to
highest frequency.
Label the horizontal and vertical
axis.

Frequency histogram
4

Draw a rectangle for each class to


the matching frequency. The class
is in the centre of the rectangle.

Frequency polygon
5

8
6
4
2
3039 4049 5059 6069 7079 8089
Weight (kg)

Number of students

Number of students

Solution

6
4
2

Draw a line for each class to the


matching frequency.

3039 4049 5059 6069 7079 8089


Weight (kg)

Cumulative frequency graphs


A cumulative frequency histogram is constructed using equal intervals of the scores (or
classes) on the horizontal axis and the cumulative frequencies associated with these intervals
indicated by vertical rectangles. A cumulative frequency polygon or ogive is a line graph
constructed by joining the top right-hand corner of the rectangles in a cumulative frequency
histogram.

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Chapter 7 Displaying and interpreting single data sets

Example 11
a
b

211

Constructing cumulative frequency graphs

Construct a cumulative frequency


histogram and polygon or ogive.
Estimate the median using the ogive.

Class

Class
Centre

Frequency

Cumulative
Frequency

3039

34.5

4049

44.5

5059

54.5

12

6069

64.5

21

7079

74.5

25

8089

84.5

25

Solution

Draw the horizontal axis with each


class (or class centre) the same
distance apart.
Draw a vertical axis using a scale
that will cater for the lowest to
highest frequency.

Number of students

25
20
15
10
5
34.5 44.5 54.5 64.5 74.5 84.5
Weight (kg)

Draw a rectangle for each class to


the matching cumulative
frequency. The class is in the
centre of the rectangle.
Draw a line for each class to the
top right-hand corner of the
rectangle.

Number of students

Cumulative frequency histogram


25
20
15
10
5
34.5 44.5 54.5 64.5 74.5 84.5
Weight (kg)

5
6

There are 25 students the median


student is 12.5.
Draw a horizontal line from 12.5
until it intersects the ogive. Draw a
vertical line from this point to the
horizontal axis.

Number of students

Cumulative frequency polygon

Estimate the median value.

25
20
15
10
5
34.5 44.5 54.5 64.5 74.5 84.5
Weight (kg)

The median is about 60.

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 7E
1

The frequency table shows the results of a


mathematics quiz. Use this data to construct a:
a
Frequency histogram
b
Frequency polygon

Freq.

|||

||||

|||| ||

|||| ||||

10

|||

Construct a frequency table for this data.


Use the frequency table to construct a frequency histogram.
Use the frequency table to construct a frequency polygon.

b
c

The number of magazines purchased in a


month by 20 different people was:
6, 5, 8, 4, 4, 5, 4, 7, 5, 6, 7, 4, 5,
5, 4, 7, 6, 5, 4, 4
Construct a frequency table for the data.
Use the frequency table to construct a
frequency histogram.
Use the frequency table to construct a
frequency polygon.

a
b
c

Tally

The numbers of brothers and sisters reported by each of the 30 students is as follows.

Score

The maximum temperatures for several capital cities around the world are as follows.

a
b
c

22

23

23

24

18

18

19

19

19

20

21

20

21

20

21

17

24

23

17

22

24

24

17

17

Construct a frequency table for this data.


Construct a frequency histogram for this data.
Construct a frequency polygon for this data.

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Chapter 7 Displaying and interpreting single data sets

Jade owns five clothing stores that sell jackets. She recorded the total number of jackets
sold each day for the month of April. This data is shown below.
61

66

67

67

60

63

67

63

65

61

63

63

67

67

60

64

62

65

65

67

66

61

62

66

64

67

62

65

65

67

a
b
c
d
e

Construct a frequency table with a cumulative frequency column.


Construct a cumulative frequency histogram for this data.
Construct a cumulative frequency polygon for this data.
On how many days were fewer than or equal to 63 jackets sold?
On how many days were fewer than or equal to 66 jackets sold?

The marks for a university exam are shown in the cumulative frequency polygon.
Cumulative frequency

213

500
400
300
200
100
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Mark

a
c
e
g
i
k
l

What was the frequency of 10?


b What was the frequency of 20?
What was the frequency of 30?
d What was the frequency of 40?
What was the frequency of 50?
f
What was the frequency of 60?
What was the frequency of 70?
h What was the frequency of 80?
What was the frequency of 90?
j
What was the frequency of 100?
How many students completed this university exam?
Construct a frequency table from the cumulative frequency polygon.

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Development
7

The numbers of words in each of the first 30 sentences of a book were recorded.
22

20

22

23

23

24

24

25

25

21

21

20

20

22

26

22

20

24

26

20

21

21

23

22

23

22

20

20

21

21

a
b
c
d
e
f
g

8 

Construct a frequency table with a cumulative frequency column.


Use the frequency table to construct a frequency histogram.
Use the frequency table to construct a frequency polygon.
Construct a cumulative frequency histogram and polygon for this data.
Use the cumulative frequency graphs to estimate the median.
Use the cumulative frequency graphs to estimate the first and third quartile.
Use the cumulative frequency graph to estimate the interquartile range.

The percentage of female births, correct to the nearest whole number, is shown below.
These birth percentages have been taken from 30 different hospitals.
38

56

57

59

58

60

43

52

49

61

47

38

41

50

51

55

45

50

49

53

54

48

51

43

55

53

42

42

44

46

a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i

Decide on appropriate classes for a frequency table.


Construct a grouped frequency table using these class intervals.
Add a cumulative frequency column.
Construct a frequency histogram for this data.
Construct a frequency polygon for this data.
Construct a cumulative frequency histogram and polygon for this data.
Use the cumulative frequency graphs to estimate the median.
Use the cumulative frequency graphs to estimate the upper and lower quartile.
Use the cumulative frequency graph to estimate the interquartile range.

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215

7.6 Box-and-whisker plots

7.6

A box-and-whisker plot or boxplot is a graph that uses five important statistics lower
extreme (or lowest value), lower quartile (or first quartile), median, upper quartile (or third
quartile) and the higher extreme (or highest value). These statistics are referred to as a five
number summary. A box-and-whisker plot is constructed from a scale of data values. The box
is between the two quartiles with a dividing line for the median and the whiskers are drawn to
the two extremes.
Box-and-whisker
plotthe
uses
the five-number
Box-and-whisker
plot uses
five-number
summary. summary.
Lower extreme

Higher extreme

Example 12

Upper quartile

Median

Lower quartile

Constructing a box-and-whisker plot

The final results of a survey are shown below.


88

67

92

50

73

75

51

76

74

76

65

83

83

90

73

60

81

95

89

76

82

61

57

64

58

78

Construct a box-and-whisker plot, given the five-number summary:


Minimum = 50, Q1 = 64, Median 75.5, Q3 = 83 and Maximum = 95
Solution
1
2
3
4

Draw a labelled and scaled number line


that covers the full range of values.
Draw a box starting at Q1 = 64 and
ending at Q3 = 83.
Mark the median value with a vertical
line at 75.5.
Draw in the whiskers, the lines joining
the midpoint of the ends of the box to
the minimum and maximum values.

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Survey

50

60

70

80

90

100

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216

Preliminary Mathematics General

Using box-and-whisker plots to compare data


Box-and-whisker plots are useful for comparing two or more sets of data collected on the
same variable, such as the assessment results for two different groups of students. Two
box-and-whisker plots are drawn on the same axis. This allows the median and the spread
to be easily identified and compared.
Example 13

Comparing data with box-and-whisker plots

Robert recorded the distances he ran during


weeks 1 and 2 of his holidays. This data is
shown in the box-and-whisker plot below.
a
What is the lower extreme for week 1?
b
What is the upper quartile for week 2?
c
What is the median for week 1?
d
What was the lower quartile for week 2?
e
Compare and contrast the two sets of data.

Week 1
Week 2
10

12

14

16
18
20
Distance (km)

22

24

Solution
1
2
3
4
5

Read the value from the graph.


Read the value from the graph.
Read the value from the graph.
Read the value from the graph.
Spread of the data for Week 1 is
larger than the spread for Week 2
(box widths and extreme values are
larger)

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a
b
c
d
e

Lower extreme for week 1 is 10 km


Upper quartile for week 2 is 20 km
Median for week 1 is 14 km
Lower quartile for week 2 is 16 km
Robert was more consistent and
generally improved his running in
Week 2.

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Chapter 7 Displaying and interpreting single data sets

217

Constructing a boxplot using a graphics calculator

Example 14

The ages of people who have read a


fantasy fiction book are listed below.
a
Enter this data into a graphics
calculator using a list.
b
Display the data as a boxplot using the
graphics calculator.
c
What is the median of this data?
d
What is the lower extreme?
e
What is the upper quartile?

23

22

18

17

13

15

23

18

17

22

18

12

15

13

15

12

14

13

14

17

15

25

19

18

20

16

14

Solution
1
2

Select the STAT menu.


Enter the data into List1. Press EXE to enter each
number.

To construct a box-and-whisker plot, select GPH1


and SET. Choose Graph Type : MedBox and
XList1 : List1.

To draw the box-and-whisker plot, press GPH1 and


EXE.

To obtain the five-number summary, select CALC,


then 1VAR and scroll down through the data.

Read Med to obtain the median, minX to obtain


the lower extreme and Q3 to obtain the upper
quartile.

d
e

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Median is 17
Lower extreme 12
Upper quartile 19

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218

Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 7F
1

Using the box-and-whisker plot, find:


a
Lower extreme
b
Higher extreme
c
Lower quartile
d
Upper quartile

50

100

150

200

Construct a box-and-whisker plot from each of the following five-number summaries.


a
Min = 1, Q1 = 4, Median 7, Q3 = 22 and Max = 25
b
Min = 5, Q1 = 6, Median 14, Q3 = 26 and Max = 30
c
Min = 1, Q1 = 2, Median 6, Q3 = 10 and Max = 12

Given that the five-number summary for a set of data is 6, 17, 27, 39, 48, find the:
a
Median
b
Range
c
Interquartile range

Nira and her class visited two parks and


measured the heights of the trees in
metres. In East Park there were 30 trees
and in West Park there were 36 trees.
The data sets were displayed in two
box-and-whisker plots shown below.

East Park
West Park
0

a
b
c
d

10
15
Height (m)

20

What is the median height of the trees in East Park?


What is the median height of the trees in West Park?
What was the height of the tallest tree? Where is it located?
Which park has the largest interquartile range? What is its value?

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219

Development
5

The height (in centimetres) of students in a year 11 class is listed below.


156 149 180 154 159 157 143 154 143 123 150 145 132 140
140 168 167 135 154 133 167 123 176 157 163 157 160 165
a
c
e
g

6 

The assessment results for two students are listed below.


Holly

80

85

94

35

77

75

40

92

45

54

66

30

Grace

60

65

70

62

75

80

75

72

78

85

69

77

a
c
e
g

What is the lower extreme?


b What is the upper extreme?
What is the median?
d What is the lower quartile?
What is the upper quartile?
f Construct a box-and-whisker plot.
Describe the data in terms of shape, centre and spread.

What is Hollys lower extreme?


b What is Hollys higher extreme?
What is Graces median?
d What is Graces lower quartile?
What is Graces upper quartile?
f Construct a box-and-whisker plot.
Describe the data in terms of shape, centre and spread.

Use a graphics calculator to check your results to questions 5, 6 and 7.

The golf scores of two friends are listed below.


Lachlan

74

70

76

76

72

74

70

75

77

68

73

75

Andrew

75

76

75

69

70

78

79

81

63

72

72

73

a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h

What is Andrews lower extreme?


What is Lachlans median?
What is Lachlans higher extreme?
What is Andrews median?
What is Lachlans lower quartile?
What is Andrews upper quartile?
Construct a box-and-whisker plot for
both sets of data.
Who is the better golfer? Give a reason
for your answer.

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Preliminary Mathematics General

7.7 Sector and divided bar graphs


Sector graph
7.7

A sector graph or pie chart presents data as sectors of a circle (slices of a pie). A sector
graph shows the relationship or proportions of parts to a whole. Sector graphs appeal to
people because they are easy to read and attractive.
Sector graph
A sector graph presents data as sectors of a circle. The steps to construct a
sector graph are:
1
Draw a circle and mark the centre.
2
Multiply the proportion of the whole by 360 to determine the sector angle.
3
Use a protractor to draw the angle with the vertex at the centre of the circle.
4
Repeat steps 1 and 2 until all the sectors or parts have been drawn.
5
Label all sectors.

Example 15

Constructing a sector graph

Connor earns $600 and spends $240 on rent, $180 on food, $120 on petrol and saves $60.
Construct a sector graph to represent this data.
Solution
1
2

Draw a circle and mark the centre.


Calculate the angles for each sector.
Rent =

240
360 = 144
600

Food =

180
360 = 108
600

Petrol =

120
360 = 72
600

Rent
Food
Petrol
Save

60
360 = 36
600
Place the centre of the protractor on the centre
of the circle and mark angles 144, 108, 72
and 36.
Label each sector or create a legend.
Save =

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221

Divided bar graph


A divided bar graph is an alternative to the sector graph.
It shows the relationship or proportions of parts to a
whole. The bars or rectangles are drawn to scale. The
total length of the divided bar graph matches the whole.
A scale is selected that allows easy calculations. For
example, if the whole is 500 kg, a suitable scale is 1 cm
to 100 kg. Then the total length of the divided bar graph
with this scale is 5 cm.

100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%

Divided bar graph


A divided bar graph presents data as bars or rectangles. Steps to construct a
divided bar graph are:
1
Draw a rectangle using an appropriate scale.
2
Multiply the proportion of the whole by the total bar length.
3
Use a ruler and draw the bar.
4
Repeat steps 1 and 2 until all the bars or parts have been drawn.
5
Label all bars or create a legend.
Example 16

Constructing a divided bar graph

Connor earns $600 and spends $240 on rent, $180 on food, $120 on petrol and saves $60.
Construct a divided bar graph to represent this data.
Solution
1

Draw a rectangle using an appropriate


scale. Connors total earnings are
$600 so appropriate length is 6 cm.
Calculate the size for each bar.
Rent =

Draw a rectangle that is 6 cm in length


and 1 cm in width.

240
6 cm = 2.4 cm
600

Food =

180
6 cm = 1.8 cm
600

Petrol =

120
6 cm = 1.2 cm
600

Rent

Food

Petrol Save

60
6 cm = 0.6 cm
600
Use a ruler and draw the bar.
Label each bar or create a legend.
Save =

3
4

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 7G
1

On a sector graph, how many degrees would represent each of these numbers if the total
is 180?
a
90
b
120
c
30
d
45

Convert the following percentages to angles at the centre of a circle.


a
40%
b
75%
c
15%
d
90%

Alyssa is drawing a sector graph. It will show how 200 students in year 11 selected the
school captain. Forty of the year 11 students selected Bailey. What angle should Alyssa
use for the sector that represents the students who selected Bailey as the school captain?

Examine the spreadsheet below. What is the angle used for the following sectors?
a
Food
b
Glass
c
Metals
d
Paper
e
Plastic

A survey was conducted on pet ownership. The results of the survey were 40% owned
dogs, 25% cats, 20% had no pets and 15% another type of pet (other). Construct a
sector graph.

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223

Development
6

Motor vehicle thefts have been recorded for each day of the week and expressed as a
percentage: Monday 13%, Tuesday 13%, Wednesday 12%, Thursday 14%,
Friday 17%, Saturday 16% and Sunday 15%.
a Construct a sector graph to represent this data.
b Calculate the number of motor vehicles stolen on Saturday if the total number of
vehicles stolen for the week was 300.
c If there were 60 motor vehicles stolen on Wednesday, how many motor vehicles were
stolen on Sunday?

7 

The type of drink and the number sold in the school canteen was recorded: Juice 60,
Milk 40, Soft drink 120 and Water 20.
a Construct a sector graph to represent this data.
b Construct a divided bar graph to represent this data.

A new Sims computer game has been released.


The projected sales in different regions are
shown below. The numbers shown represent
thousands of games.

Pacific
a
b
c

Europe

USA

Asia

South America

Canada

16
48
64
36
24
Construct a sector graph to represent this data.
What is the percentage of sales in Asia?
What is the total percentage of sales outside the USA?

12

A survey of 80 students showing their preferred sport as a percentage is shown below.

a
b
c

Tennis

Netball

Football

Swimming

Golf

Cricket

10

15

20

25

15

15

Construct a divided bar graph to represent this data.


How many students preferred swimming?
How many students preferred tennis?

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Preliminary Mathematics General

7.8 Radar charts


A radar chart (or spider chart) is used to compare the performance of one or more entities.
Data on temperature, rainfall, humidity and sales are commonly presented using radar charts.
For example, the radar chart below compares the temperature at Sydney to the temperature at
Perth. Radar charts may also have multiple axes along which data can be plotted. For example,
you could use a one radar chart to analyse the temperature and the rainfall of a particular city.
Drawing a radar chart
1
2
3
4

Determine the data to be presented as sectors. Draw the sectors.


Choose an appropriate scale for the data. Draw the scale beginning at the centre.
Draw line segments for each scale to create the spider web.
Plot the points and join them with a straight line. Create a legend if necessary.

Example 17

Reading a radar chart

The average monthly temperatures for


Sydney
and Perth
are shown
below.
a
What is the average monthly
temperature for Perth in December?
Nov
b
What is the difference in the average
monthly temperatures for July
between Sydney and Perth?
Oct
c
Which month is the average monthly
temperature of Sydney and Perth the
same?

Dec

35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

Jan
Feb
Mar

Apr

May

Sep

Aug

Jun
Jul

Solution
1
2
3

Read the temperature value for Perth


in
December.
Read the temperature values for Sydney
and
Perth
in July. Subtract the values.
Read when Sydney and Perth have the same
temperature.

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Perths temperature is 35.

Difference = 25 15
= 10
February

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Chapter 7 Displaying and interpreting single data sets

Exercise 7H
1

25

The wind speed (km/h) at Wollongong was


measured for 10 days and recorded in the
radar chart.
a
Find the wind speed on these days.
i
Day 1
ii Day 3
iii Day 5
iv Day 7
b
Which day had the lowest wind speed?
c
What days had the highest wind speed?
d
What was the greatest wind speed?
e
What was the least wind speed?
f
What is the difference between the wind
speed on day 8 and day 10?

The temperature in
Newcastle was
measured every four
hours. The results are
shown opposite.
a
b
c
d
e

10

225

1
2

20
15
10

5
0

7
6

3 a.m.

7 a.m.

11 a.m.

3 p.m.

7 p.m.

11 p.m.

15

20

25

25

20

18

Copy the blank radar chart.


Plot each of the data points onto
the radar chart.
Join the points with a straight line
to create the radar chart.
Make another copy of the blank
radar chart.
The temperatures on the following
day were 5 degrees warmer. Plot
these data points onto the radar
chart.
Join the points with a straight line
to create the radar chart.

25

3 am

20
11 pm

15
10

7 am

5
0

7 pm

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11 am

3 pm

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Development
3

4 

The radar chart shows the average


monthly temperatures for Liverpool
and Cronulla.
a What is the average monthly
temperature for Liverpool in:

i January ii May
iii June
iv August
b In which months did Liverpool and
Cronulla have the same average
monthly temperature?
c What was the average monthly
temperature for Cronulla in August
and July?
d Which month had the largest
difference in temperature between
Liverpool and Cronulla?

Dec

Jan
Feb

20
15
10
5
0

Nov

Oct

Mar

Apr

Sep

May
Aug

Jun
Jul

Liverpool

Cronulla

The daily rainfall (mm) for two towns is shown in the following table.
Day

12

10

10

12

Determine the number of sectors and an appropriate scale for a radar chart.
Show the above information on the radar chart.
Create a legend for the radar chart.

a
b
c

30
25

The average monthly sales (in millions) of a company over a 12-month period are shown
in the table.
Jan
1
a
b
c
d

Feb Mar
2

2.5

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

3.5

4.5

Draw the sectors for a radar chart.


Choose an appropriate scale and create the spider web.
Plot each of the data points onto the radar chart and join the points.
Briefly comment on any trends that can be seen.

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Chapter 7 Displaying and interpreting single data sets

7.9 Dot plots and stem-and-leaf plots


Dot plots
7.9

The simplest display of numerical data is a dot plot. A dot plot consists of a number line with
each data point marked by a dot. When several data points have the same value, the points are
stacked on top of each other. Dot plots are a great way for displaying fairly small data sets
where the data takes a limited number of values.
Dot plot
A number line with each data point marked by a dot. When several data points
have the same value, the points are stacked on top of each other.

Example 18

Constructing a dot plot

The number of hours Philip spent watching television on the weekend is shown below.
Construct a dot plot.
3

Solution
1

2
3
4

Draw a number line, scaled to all the data


values. Label the line with the variable being
displayed.
The vertical axis indicates the frequency of data
value. It may be omitted.
Plot each data value by marking in a dot above
the corresponding value on the number line.
Count the number of dots and check that it
matches the number of data values.

Hours watching television


6
5
4
3
2
1
1

4 5
Hours

Stem-and-leaf plots
A stem-and-leaf plot or stem plot is used to present a small (less than 50 values) numerical
data set. The tens digit of the data values becomes the stem and is written in numerical order
down the page. The units digit becomes the leaves and is written in numerical order across
the page.

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Stem-and-leaf plot

Leaf

0 57
1 22557
2 125679

Stem

Example 19

Back-to-back stem-and-leaf plot

Leaf

9 0
8532 1
98442 2

Stem

0
12559
4578

Leaf

Constructing a stem-and-leaf plot

Use the following data set to construct a stem-and-leaf plot.


24

19

19

15

18

27

28

11

19

29

30

25

25

26

10

10

28

29

14

Solution
1

The data set has values from 5 to 30. This requires


stems 0, 1, 2 and 3. Write these down from smallest
to largest, followed by a vertical line.
Attach the leaves. The first data value is 24. It has a
stem of 2 and a leaf of 4. Opposite the 2 in the
stem, write the number 4. Complete all the values.
Rewrite the leaves so that they are in increasing order.

Example 20

566679
001458999
455678899
0

0
1
2
3

Constructing a back-to-back stem-and-leaf plot

Use the following data set to construct a back-to-back stem-and-leaf plot.


Girls

28

24

24

31

34

26

27

12

18

13

15

29

30

22

Boys

19

27

21

25

35

28

29

13

11

30

31

32

25

16

Solution
1

2
3
4

Girls
The data set has values from 6 to 35. This requires
6
stems 0, 1, 2 and 3. Write these down from
8532
smallest to largest, followed by two vertical lines.
Attach the leaves for the girls. The first data value 9 8 7 6 4 4 2
410
is 28. It has a stem of 2 and a leaf of 8.
Attach the leaves for the boys. The first data value
is 19. It has a stem of 1 and a leaf of 9.
Rewrite the leaves so that they are in increasing
order.

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0
1
2
3

Boys
9
1369
155789
0125

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Chapter 7 Displaying and interpreting single data sets

229

Exercise 7I
1

The dot plot represents the number of customers per hour.


Customers each hour
6
5
4
3
2
1
9

b
c
d

A group of 26 people were asked how many times in the last week they had shopped at a
particular supermarket. Their responses were as follows:
1

Construct a dot plot of this data.


How many people were at the supermarket four times last week?
What is the difference between the highest and lowest visits to the supermarket?

a
b
c

16

What is the highest number of customers?


What is the most common number of customers per hour?
What is the least common number of customers?
Calculate the total number of customers?

10 11 12 13 14 15
Number of customers

The goals scored in each match are listed below.

a
b
c

Construct a dot plot for this data set.


How many matches resulted in
3 goals?
How many matches scored 4 or
5 goals?

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Development
4 

The following table shows the number of nights spent away from home in the past year
by a group of 15 Australian tourists and by a group of 15 New Zealand tourists.
AUS

21

17

15

14

11

11

NZ

19

23

32

17

29

23

22

12

28

26

22

14

14

a
b

The ages of patients admitted to a particular hospital during one week are given below.
Male

72

56

57

77

63

71

57

54

63

72

59

56

57

67

75

Female

61

55

58

78

65

68

71

78

79

72

73

64

68

66

69

a
b

Construct a back-to-back stem-and-leaf plot of these data sets.


Compare the number of nights spent away by Australian and New Zealand tourists in
terms of shape, centre and spread.

Construct a back-to-back stem-and-leaf plot of these data sets.


Compare the ages at admission to the hospital for male and female patients in terms
of shape, centre and spread.

The stem-and-leaf plot represents the results achieved by students in a test.


0
1
2
3
a
b
c
d
e

What is the highest score in this test?


Which score occurred the most number of times?
What is the range for this data?
How many students completed the test?
What is the five-number summary for this data set?

An investigator recorded the amounts of time for which 24 similar batteries lasted in a
toy. Her results (in hours) were:

a
13.2

6
2358
2446789
014

b
c

41

25

37

46

17

33

31

28

34

19

26

40

24

31

27

30

22

33

20

21

27

30

26

Make a stem-and-leaf plot of these times.


How many of the batteries lasted for more than 25 hours?
What is the five-number summary for this data set?

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Chapter 7 Displaying and interpreting single data sets

Frequency table ungrouped and

grouped data

2
3

Study guide 7

Scores or classes are listed in ascending order.


Tally column records the number of times the score
occurred (groups of 5s).
Frequency column is a count of each outcome or class.

Cumulative frequency

The frequency of the score plus the frequency of all the scores
less than that score.

Range and interquartile range

Frequency and cumulative

frequency histogram

Frequency polygon and cumulative

frequency polygon

Range = Highest score Lowest score


IQR = Third quartile First quartile = Q3 Q1
Frequency histogram is a column graph that uses the score
or class as the horizontal axis and frequency as the vertical
axis.
Cumulative frequency histogram is a column graph that
uses the score or class as the horizontal axis and cumulative
frequency as the vertical axis.
Frequency polygon is a line graph of a frequency table.
It can be constructed by joining the midpoints of the
histogram.
Cumulative frequency polygon or ogive is a line graph
constructed by joining the top right-hand corner of the
rectangles in a cumulative frequency histogram.

Box-and-whisker plot

A graph that uses five-number summary lower extreme, lower


quartile, median, upper quartile and the higher extreme.

Sector and divided bar graph

Sector graph or pie chart presents data as sectors of a circle.


It shows the relationship or proportions of parts to a whole.
A divided bar graph presents data as bars or rectangles.

Radar chart

Looks like a spider web and is used to compare the performance


of one or more entities.

Stem-and-leaf plot

Used to present a small (less than 50 values) numerical data


set. The tens digit of the data values becomes the stem and
is written in numerical order down the page. The units digit
becomes the leaves and is written in numerical order across
the page.

Dot plot

A number line with each data point marked by a dot.

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Chapter summary Displaying and interpreting single


data sets

231

Preliminary Mathematics General

Sample HSC Objective-response questions


1

What is the frequency of 22?


Score

Frequency

Cumulative
Frequency

21

22

13

23

24

23
8

13

22

What is the cumulative frequency of 23 from the above frequency table?


A 7
B 13
C 16
D 20

Find the interquartile range of this data: 3, 4, 4, 4, 5, 5, 6, 7, 7, 8, 9, 10, 10


A 4.5
B 5
C 5.5
D 7

What is the total number of people who recorded marks?


Cumulative
frequency

Review

232

200
150
100
50
10 20 30 40 50
Mark

50

100

150

200

5 What is the frequency of 40 from the graph in question 4?


A
6

10

40

100

85

90

What is upper quartile?

50
A

50

60

70

80
B

65

90

What is the lower extreme from the box-and-whisker plot in question 6?


A 50
B 65
C 85
D 90

A radar chart is constructed with 10 sectors. What is the size of the angle in each sector?
A 10
B 18
C 30
D 36

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Chapter 7 Displaying and interpreting single data sets

Review

Sample HSC Short-answer questions


1

The time (in hours) spent completing an assessment task is listed below.
Class

Class centre Frequency

48

913
1418

1923

4
Total

a
b
2

Copy and complete the table.


How many students spent greater than 13 hours?

Alyssa recorded the following times (in minutes) running a cross country course.
51

53

57

55

58

57

53

55

54

53

56

55

53

57

51

57

54

58

55

56

51

53

53

54

52

56

52

54

54

53

56

56

53

54

52

53

54

57

58

56

54

55

52

55

55

58

54

56

55

56

52

a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h

23

Construct a frequency table using a tally


column.
How many times were recorded?
How many times were below 55 minutes?
Add a cumulative frequency column.
Construct a frequency histogram.
Construct a cumulative frequency histogram
and a cumulative frequency polygon.
Use the cumulative frequency polygon to
estimate the median.
Use the cumulative frequency polygon to estimate the first and third quartile.

The height (in centimetres) of 20 people is listed below:


189

193

196

238

206

174

209

159

190

244

199

225

196

209

224

168

161

203

192

231

a
c

What is the fifth decile?


What is the twenty-fifth percentile?

What is the tenth decile?


d What is the seventy-fifth percentile?

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Two students had 12 guesses to the number of jelly beans in a jar.


Samuel

42

46

51

43

70

72

67

47

55

41

66

57

Nikolas

49

61

72

52

74

80

67

71

68

55

60

77

a
b
c
d
e
f

What is Samuels lower extreme?


What is Samuels upper extreme?
What is Nikolass median?
What is Nikolass lower quartile?
What is Samuels upper quartile?
Construct a box-and-whisker plot.

Sienna earns $1800 and spends $600 on rent, $300 on food, $150 on petrol and saves $750.
Construct a sector graph to represent this data.

A company made the following profits (in millions) during the past 6 months.

a
b
c

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

20

40

35

30

25

45

How many sectors are required for a radar chart? What is the size of each sector?
Choose an appropriate scale and create the spider web.
Plot the data and complete the radar chart.

The stem-and-leaf plot represents the


results achieved by students in a test.
a What is the range of these results?
b What is the first quartile?
c What is the third quartile?
d What is the five-number summary for this data set?

Use the dot plot to answer the questions below.


a What is the range of scores?
b What is the first quartile?
c What is the third quartile?

0
1
2
3

9
1249
135788
0235

5
4
3
2
1
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

Challenge questions 7

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C H A P T E R

Applications of perimeter,
area and volume
Syllabus topic MM2 Applications of perimeter,
area and volume
Find unknown sides using Pythagoras theorem
Calculate the perimeter of simple gures
Calculate the area of composite shapes
Calculate the area from a eld diagram
Calculate the volume of prisms and cylinders
Relate capacity to volume

8.1 Pythagoras theorem


Pythagoras theorem links the sides of a right-angled triangle. In
a right-angled triangle the side opposite the right angle is called
the hypotenuse. The hypotenuse is always the longest side.

Hypotenuse
(longest side)

8.1
Pythagoras theorem
Pythagoras theorem states that the
square of the hypotenuse is equal to
the sum of the squares of the other two
sides.
(Hypotenuse)2

(side)2

+ (other

side)2

h2

a2

+ b2

235
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Preliminary Mathematics General

Pythagoras theorem is used to find a missing side of a right-angled triangle if two of the sides
are given. It can also be used to prove that a triangle is right angled.
Example 1

Finding the length of the hypotenuse

Find the length of the hypotenuse, correct to two decimal places.


h cm

5 cm

9 cm

Solution
1
2
3
4
5

Write Pythagoras theorem.


Substitute the length of the sides.
Calculate the value of h2.
Take the square root to find h.
Express answer correct to two decimal
places.

Example 2

h2 = a2 + b2
= 92 + 52
2
2
h = 9 +5
= 10.30 cm

Finding the length of a shorter side

A rectangle has a breadth of 5 mm and a diagonal measuring


12 mm. What is the length of the rectangle, correct to one
decimal place?

12 mm

5 mm

Solution
1
2

Draw a triangle and label the information.


Mark the unknown length as x.

x mm

12 mm

3
4
5
6
7
8

Write Pythagoras theorem.


Substitute the length of the sides.
Make x2 the subject.
Take the square root to find x.
Express answer to correct one decimal place.
Write the answer in words.

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5 mm

h2 = a2 + b2
122 = x2 + 52
x2 = 122 52
2
2
x = 12 5

= 10.9 mm
The length of the rectangle
is 10.9 mm.

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237

Chapter 8 Applications of perimeter, area and volume

Exercise 8A
1

Find the length of the hypotenuse, correct to one decimal place.


a

6 cm

5 cm

h cm
24 mm

12 cm

h mm

h cm

8 cm

10 mm
d

h cm

2.5 cm
h mm

54 cm

20 mm

63.2 cm

4.2 cm

h cm

10 mm

Find the value of x, correct to two decimal places.


a

15 cm

15 cm

x cm
12 cm
x mm

21 cm

x cm

13 mm

6 mm
d

2.3 cm

x cm
x cm
24 mm

32 mm

4.8 cm

14.1 cm

9.5 cm

x mm

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238

Preliminary Mathematics General

Development
3

Calculate the length of the side marked with the pronumeral. (Answer to the nearest
millimetre.)
a
b
c
y mm
16 mm
30 mm

42 mm

35 mm

63 mm

x mm

28 mm

a mm
d

10 mm

d mm
27 mm

33 mm

52 mm

m mm

8 mm

12 mm

b mm

Find, correct to one decimal place, the length of the


diagonal of a rectangle with dimensions 7.5 metres
by 5.0 metres.

5.0 m
7.5 m

5 

Find the value of the pronumerals, correct to two decimal places.


a

b
90 cm

7 cm

72 cm

4 cm

x cm
6

Calculate the length of x, correct to one decimal place.


a

b
7 cm
6 cm

x cm

x cm

4 cm

y cm

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6 cm

25 cm

18 cm

x cm
14 cm

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Chapter 8 Applications of perimeter, area and volume

239

8.2 Perimeter
Perimeter is the total length of the outside edges of a shape. It is the distance of the boundary.

8.2

Perimeter formulas
Name

Shape
a

Triangle

Quadrilateral

Perimeter
b

P=a+b+c

c
b

P=a+b+c+d

P = 4s

Square

Rectangle

P = 2(l + b)

Circle

Example 3

Circumference
C = 2r
C = d

Finding the perimeter of a rectangle

Find the perimeter of the following rectangle.


3m
8m
Solution
1
2
3
4

The shape is a rectangle, so use the


formula P = 2(l + b).
Substitute the values for l and b (l = 8
and b = 3).
Evaluate.
Write the answer in words.

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P = 2(l + b)
= 2 (8 + 3)
= 22 m
Perimeter of the rectangle is 22 m.

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240

Preliminary Mathematics General

Example 4

Finding the perimeter of a triangle

Find the perimeter of the following triangle.


Answer correct to one decimal place.

3.7 cm
4.2 cm

Solution
1

Find the length of the hypotenuse or h.

h2 = 4.22 + 3.72

Write Pythagoras theorem.


Substitute the length of the sides.
Evaluate the value of h.
Add the lengths of sides to find the
perimeter.
Express answer correct to 1 decimal place.
Write the answer in words.

h = 4.2 2 + 3.72 5.6 cm

3
4
5
6
7

Example 5

P = 3.7 + 4.2 + 5.6


= 13.5 cm
Perimeter of the triangle is 13.5 cm.

Finding the circumference of a circle

Find the perimeter of a circle with a radius of 9 mm.


Answer correct to two decimal places.
9 mm
Solution
1
2
3
4

The shape is a circle, use the formula


C = 2 r.
Substitute the value for r (r = 9).
Evaluate.
Write the answer in words.

Example 6

C = 2 r
= 2 9
= 56.55 mm
Perimeter of the circle is 56.55 mm.

Finding the perimeter of a semicircle

Find the perimeter of a semicircle with a diameter of 4 m.


Answer correct to two decimal places.
4m
Solution
1
2
3
4
5
6

The shape is a semicircle, use the


formula C = d 2.
Substitute the value for d (d = 4) to find
the curved distance.
Evaluate.
Add the curved distance to the diameter.
Evaluate.
Write the answer in words.

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d
2
4
=
2

C=

= 6.28 m
P = 6.28 + 4
= 10.28 m
Perimeter is 10.28 m.
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Chapter 8 Applications of perimeter, area and volume

241

Perimeter of composite shapes


A composite shape is made up of two or more plane shapes. The perimeter of a composite
shape is calculated by adding the distances that make up the boundary of the shape.
Perimeter of a composite shape
1
2
3
4
5

Sides with the same markings are of equal length.


Unknown side lengths of some sides are determined by using the given
lengths of the other sides.
Pythagoras theorem is used to nd unknown side lengths involving a right
triangle.
Distances that are part of a circle are found using C = 2 r.
Add the distances that make up the boundary of the shape to calculate the
perimeter.

Finding the perimeter of composite shapes

Example 7

Find the perimeter of each of these shapes.


a

2 cm

5m

6 cm
5 cm

5m

8 cm
Solution
1
2
3
4

1
2
3
4
5
6

Find the unknown side lengths using the


measurements given in the question.
Add the lengths of all the edges to find
the perimeter.
Evaluate.
Write the answer in words.

Use the formula C = 2 r 4 for the


curved distance.
Substitute the value for r (r = 5).
Evaluate.
Add the curved distance to other edges.
Evaluate.
Write the answer in words.

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2 cm
6 + 5 = 11 cm

6 cm

8 2 = 6 cm
5 cm

8 cm

P = 2 + 6 + 6 + 5 + 8 + 11 = 38 cm
Perimeter is 38 cm.
C=

2 r 2 5
=
= 7.85 m
4
4

P = 7.85 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5
= 27.85 m
Perimeter is 27.85 m.

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242

Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 8B
1

Find the perimeter of each quadrilateral. Answer correct to one decimal place.
a

7.2 m
20 m

13.4 m

5.4 cm

Find the perimeter of a square with a side length of 12.3 m. Answer correct to
one decimal place.

Find the perimeter of each right triangle. Answer correct to one decimal place.
a

15 m

8m

7 mm

5 cm

2 cm

9.5 m

8.5 mm

Find the perimeter of a right triangle with a base of 10.25 cm and a height of 15.15 cm.
Answer correct to two decimal places.

Find the perimeter of each circle. Answer correct to one decimal place.
a

3m
2 cm

14 mm

What is the circumference of each circle? Answer correct to one decimal place.
a
Radius of 4 cm
b
Radius of 19 m
c
Radius of 34 mm
d
Diameter of 50 mm
e
Diameter of 22 m
f
Diameter of 6 cm

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Chapter 8 Applications of perimeter, area and volume

243

Development
7

Find the perimeter of each semicircle. Answer correct to one decimal place.
a

b

c
2.1 m

5m

16 m
8

Find the perimeter of each shape. Answer correct to two decimal places.
a

b

c
3 mm

5 cm

7m
9

Find the perimeter of each composite shape. Answer to the nearest whole number.
a

b

c
8 cm
6m
2m

4m

8m

1m

4m

2m
2m

10 m
d

1m

10 cm

4m
4m

6m
4m

3m

5m

6m

10

11

An annulus consists of two circles with the same centre.


Find the perimeter of an annulus if the inner diameter is 3 cm
and the outer diameter is 6 cm. Answer correct to the nearest
centimetre.
A rectangle ABCD has length AB = 12 cm and a width of
BC = 6 cm.
a Find the value of x.
b Calculate the perimeter of quadrilateral AECF.
(Answer correct to two decimal places).

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6 cm

3 cm

x cm
D

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244

Preliminary Mathematics General

8.3 Area

8.3

The area of a shape is the amount of surface


enclosed by the boundaries of the shape. It is
measured by counting the number of squares that
fit inside the shape. When calculating area, the
answer will be in square units.
100 mm2 = 1 cm2
10 000 m2 = 1 ha
1 ha = 10 000 m2

10 000 cm2 = 1 m2
1 000 000 m2 = 1 km2

To calculate the area of the most common shapes,


we use a formula. These formulas are listed below.

Area formulas
Name

Shape

Area

Triangle

A = 12 bbh

A = s2

Square

Rectangle

A = lb

l
h

Parallelogram

A = bh

b
a

A = 12 ( a + b ) h

Trapezium
b

Rhombus

Circle

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A = 12 xxy

A = r2

Cambridge University Press

Chapter 8 Applications of perimeter, area and volume

Example 8

Finding the area of a triangle

Find the area of the following triangle.

5.5 m
8.1 m

Solution
1
2
3
4

The shape is a triangle, so use the formula A = 12 bbh .


Substitute the values for b and h (b = 8.1 and h = 5.5).
Evaluate.
Write the answer using the correct units.

Example 9

245

1
bbh
2
1
= 8.1 5.5
2
= 22.275 m 2

A=

Finding the area of a trapezium

Find the area of the following shape.

2.9 cm
3 cm

Solution
1

2
3
4

5.1 cm

The shape is a trapezium, so use the formula


1
A = (a + b)h .
2
Substitute the values for a, b and h.
Evaluate.
Write the answer using the correct units.

Example 10

1
(a + b)h
2
1
= ( 2.9 + 5.1)3
2
= 12 cm 2
The area of the shape is 12 cm2.
A=

Finding the area of a parallelogram

Find the area of the following shape.


4 mm
Solution
1
2
3
4

The shape is a trapezium, so use the formula


A = bh.
Substitute the values for b and h (b = 6.5 and
h = 4).
Evaluate.
Write the answer using the correct units.

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6.5 mm

A = bbh
= 6.5 4
= 26 mm 2
The area of the shape is
26 mm2.

Cambridge University Press

246

Preliminary Mathematics General

Example 11

Finding the area of a circle

Find the area of a circle with a radius of 5 metres. Give


your answer correct to one decimal place.

5m

Solution
1

The shape is a circle, so use the formula


A = r2.

Substitute the value for r (r = 5).


Evaluate correct to one decimal place.
Write the answer using the correct units.

3
4

A = r2
= 52
= 78.5 m 2
The area of the circle is 78.5 m2.

Area of composite shapes


A composite shape is made up of two or more plane shapes. The area of a composite shape is
calculated by adding or subtracting the areas of simple shapes.
Area of composite shapes

Composite shapes are made up of more than one simple shape.


Area of composite shapes can be found by adding or subtracting the
areas of simple shapes.

Example 12

Finding the area of a composite shape

Find the area of the composite shape. Answer correct to


one decimal place.

12 cm
10 cm

Solution
1
2
3
4

Divide the shape into a rectangle and a


semicircle.
Use the formula A = lb for the rectangle.
Substitute and evaluate.
1
Use the formula A = r 2 for the semicircle.
2

Substitute and evaluate.

Add the area of the rectangle to the semicircle.


Evaluate.
Write the answer using the correct units.

7
8

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A = lb
= 12 10
= 120 cm 2
1
A = r2
2
1
= 52
2
39.3 cm 2
A = 120 + 39.3
= 159.3 cm2
The area of the shape is 159.3 cm2.
Cambridge University Press

247

Chapter 8 Applications of perimeter, area and volume

Exercise 8C
1

Find the area of each triangle. Answer correct to one decimal place.
a

23 m

6 mm

13 m
4 cm

6.5 mm

2 cm

13 mm

7.6 m
15.5 mm

9.5 m

8.5 m

19 m

Find the area of each shape. Answer correct to one decimal place.
a

9m

6.4 m
11.2 m

6.1 cm
d

7 mm

4m
7m

22 m
f

3.8 cm
4 cm

10 mm
6.7 cm

Find the area of a triangle with a base of 8.25 cm and a height of 10.15 cm. Answer
correct to the nearest square centimetre.

Find the area of a square with a side length of 105.1 m. Answer correct to the nearest
square metre.

Find the area of a circle with a radius of 7 cm. Answer correct to the nearest square
centimetre.

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248

Preliminary Mathematics General

Development
6

Find the area of each shape. Answer correct to one decimal place.
a

9.1 cm

2.3 km
5 km

5.7 cm

4.8 cm

Diagonals are
4.4 mm and 6.8 mm

9.1 cm

6 mm

8 mm

17 m

8m

4.1 cm
12.5 mm

15 m

9.8 cm

Jasmine is planning to build a circular pond. The radius of the pond is 1.5 m. What is the
area of the pond, correct to the nearest square metre?

A 25 m swimming pool increases in depth from 1.3 m at the


shallow end to 2.6 m at the deep end. Calculate the area of
the side wall of the pool. Answer correct to the nearest
square metre.

25 m
1.3 m

2.6 m

Philip wants to tile a rectangular area measuring 2.2 m by 3 m in his backyard. The tiles
he wishes to use are 50 cm by 50 cm. How many tiles will he need? Give your answer as
a whole number.

10

Find the area of each composite shape.


a

4 cm
6 cm

30 cm

32 cm

3 cm
8 cm

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15 cm
4 cm
20 cm

Cambridge University Press

Chapter 8 Applications of perimeter, area and volume

11

12

13

An annulus consists of two circles with the same


centre. Find the area of an annulus if the inner
diameter is 6 cm and the outer diameter is
10 cm. Answer correct to the nearest square
centimetre.

6 cm

249

10 cm

A metal parallelogram has two identical squares


removed from its shape. The two squares have a side
length of 2 cm. Find the shaded area. Answer correct
to the nearest square centimetre.

5 cm

7 cm

10 cm

A lawn is to be laid around a rectangular garden bed.


a What is the amount of lawn required?
b Find the cost of the new lawn if the required turf
costs $20 per square metre.

13 m
19 m

20 m

25 m

14

The cross-section of an ice-cream cone is shown opposite.


a What is the radius of the semicircle?
b What is the height of the triangle?
c Calculate the area of the region. Answer
correct to one decimal place.

16 cm
10 cm

15

What is the area of a quadrant if it has a radius of 8 mm? Answer correct to


two decimal places.

16

Decking for a house consists of a square and a


triangle. The square has a side length of 8 metres and
the triangle is isosceles.
a Use Pythagoras theorem to find the value of x.
b Calculate the area of the shaded region.

17

14 cm

xm
8m
xm
8m

A metal worker cut circles with a diameter of 2 cm from a rectangular sheet of tin 4 cm
by 8 cm.
a What is the area of the rectangular sheet?
b How many circles can be cut from the rectangular sheet?
c What is the area of the remaining metal after the circles have been removed from the
rectangular sheet? Answer correct to two decimal places.

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250

Preliminary Mathematics General

8.4 Field diagrams


Field diagrams are used to calculate the area of irregularly shaped blocks of land. Measuring
and recording the data in a field diagram is called surveying. One type of survey is called the
traverse or offset survey.

Traverse or offset survey


This type of survey involves measuring distances along a suitable diagonal or traverse. The
perpendicular distances from the traverse to the vertices of the shape are called the offsets.
When conducting a traverse survey, measurements are taken of the traverse and the offsets.
These measurements are recorded in a field book entry.
Offset
Offset

Traverse

The field book entry records the distances along the traverse between two vertical lines. The
distances along the offsets are recorded on either side of these measurements.
Field Book Entry

Field Diagram

D
163
C 65 110
75 28 B
0
A

65

53
35

28

75
A

The measurements along the traverse are the distances starting from the bottom. For example,
the distance 110 to the offset at point C is the distance from point A. This results in a distance
of 35 between offset B and C.
Conducting a traverse survey
1
2
3
4

Choose a suitable diagonal or traverse.


Place a tape measure along the traverse.
Starting from the bottom, measure the offsets using a taut string.
Record the measurements in a field book entry.

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Chapter 8 Applications of perimeter, area and volume

Example 13

Calculating area from a field diagram

A eld diagram from a traverse survey is shown


opposite. Measurements are in metres.
a
Find the area of the quadrilateral ABCD. Answer
correct to one decimal place.
b
Find the distance AB. Answer correct to two decimal
places.

251

D
65

53
35

28

75
A

Solution
1

Divide the quadrilateral into two triangles


ADB and ADC.

Find the area of each triangle using the


formula A = 12 bbh.

Substitute the values for b and h.


Evaluate.
Express answer correct to one decimal place
and with the correct units.

4
5

Add the area of the two triangles.

Write Pythagoras theorem by substituting


the length of the sides.
Take the square root to find AB.
Evaluate.
Express answer correct to two decimal
places.

8
9
10

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Area of quadrilateral ABCD:


For ADB, b = 163 and h = 28
1
bbh
2
1
= 163 28
2
= 2282 m 2

A=

For ADC, b = 163 and h = 65


1
bbh
2
1
= 163 65
2
= 5297.5 m 2
Total area = 2282 + 5297.5
= 7579.5 m2
A=

Distance AB
AB 2 = 752 + 282
AB = 752 + 282
= 80.056 230 24
= 80.06 m
Distance AB is 80.06 m.

Cambridge University Press

252

Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 8D
1

Find the area of the following fields using each field diagram. Units are in metres.
a

35

28

60

80

20

30

60

80

50

50
50

18
C

60

50
40

C
45

60

48

50

20

110

45

25

26
12 32

24
A

Find the area of the following fields using each field book entry. Units are in metres.
a

B
60
C 50 25
0
A

D
75
50 20 B
C 15 40
0
A

D
150
C 70 110
75 30 B
0
A

E
140
100 32 D
C 55 90
30 32 B
0
A

E
90
C 36 80
75 10 D
B 36 20
0
A

E
40
30 10 D
C 40 20
10 10 B
0
A

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Chapter 8 Applications of perimeter, area and volume

Development
3

253

The diagram on the right shows a block of land that


has been surveyed. All measurements are in metres.
a Find the area of the quadrilateral ABCD. Answer
correct to one decimal place.
b What is the length of AB? Answer correct to the
nearest metre.

35
25
C

32

14
13
A

The diagram below shows a


block of land that has been
surveyed. All measurements are
in metres.
E
C

11
44 G

54
67
46

F
15

A
a
b
c
d
e
f

5 

Find the area of the triangle ABF. Answer correct to one decimal place.
Find the area of the triangle ACE. Answer correct to one decimal place.
Find the area of the triangle DGE. Answer correct to one decimal place.
Find the area of the trapezium BFGD. Answer correct to one decimal place.
What is the total area of the block of land? Answer correct to one decimal place.
Find the distance AB. Answer correct to two decimal places.

The field book entry below shows a block of land that has been surveyed. All
measurements are in metres.
E
71
58 43 D
C 23 34
25 14 B
0
A
a
b

Find the area of ABDEC. Answer correct to one decimal place.


What is the length of AC? Answer correct to the nearest metre.

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254

Preliminary Mathematics General

8.5 Volume of prisms and cylinders


Volume is the amount of space occupied by a three-dimensional object. It is measured by
counting the number of cubes that fit inside the solid. When calculating volume, the answer
will be in cubic units.
8.5

1000 mm3 = 1 cm3


1 000 000 cm3 = 1 m3
1 000 000 000 m3 = 1 km3
To calculate the volume of the most common solids, we use a formula. Some of these formulas
are listed below. The volume of a prism is found by using its cross-sectional area. Prisms are
three-dimensional objects that have a uniform cross-section along their entire length.

Volume formulas
Name

Solid

Cube

V = Ah
= (s2) s
= s3

s
s

Rectangular prism

Volume

b
h

V = Ah
= lb h
= lbh

Triangular prism
A=

1
2

bh

V=A
Ah
1
= bh h
2

Cylinder

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V = Ah
= (r2) h
= r2h

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255

Chapter 8 Applications of perimeter, area and volume

Example 14

Finding the volume of a right prism

A rectangular prism has a length of 8 cm, a breadth


of 2 cm and a height of 4 cm. Find the volume of
this rectangular prism. Answer in cubic centimetres.

2 cm

4 cm
8 cm

Solution
1
2
3
4
5

Use the volume formula for a right prism V = Ah.


Determine the shape of the base and the formula
to calculate the area of the base A = lb.
Substitute the values into the formula.
Evaluate.
Give the answer to the correct units.

Example 15

V = Ah
= lbh
=824
= 64 cm3

Finding the volume of a cylinder

A cylinder has a radius of 8 mm and a height of 12 mm. Find


the volume of the cylinder. Answer correct to two decimal
places in cubic millimetres.

12 mm
8 mm

Solution
1
2
3
4

Use the volume formula for a cylinder V = r2h.


V = r2h
= 82 12
Substitute the r = 8 and h = 12 into the formula.
= 2412.743 158 mm3
Evaluate.
Write the answer correct to two decimal places and
2412.74 mm3
with the correct units.

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256

Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 8E
1

Find the volume of the following prisms where A is the area of the base.
a

A = 8 m2

40 m

12 m

16 m

A = 110 m2

A = 7 m2

What is the volume of a rectangular prism with a base area of 15 mm2 and a height of
11 mm?

Find the volume of a triangular prism with a height of 15 m and a base area of 50 m2.

Find the volume of the following solids. Answer to the nearest whole number.
a

18 cm

10 mm

3m
18 cm

4m

9m

10 mm
6 mm

18 cm
8 mm

14 mm

7 mm

6 mm

6m

15 m
10 m

20 mm

What is the volume of a rectangular prism with dimensions 4.5 cm by 6.5 cm by


10.5 cm? Answer correct to one decimal place.

A closed cylindrical plastic container is 20 cm high and its circular end surfaces each
have a radius of 5 cm. What is its volume correct to two decimal places?

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Chapter 8 Applications of perimeter, area and volume

257

Development
7

A water tank is in the shape of a closed cylinder with a


radius of 10 m and height of 8 m.
a What is the area of the top circular face of the water
tank? Answer correct to one decimal place.
b Determine the volume of the water tank. Answer
correct to one decimal place.

10 m
8m

A hollow container is in the shape of a rectangular prism as shown.

2m

6m

6m

10 m

10 m
a
b
c
9

What is the volume of the container if it was solid?


What is the area of the shaded base?
What is volume of the hollow container?

A step is shown opposite.


a What is the area of the shaded base?
b Determine the volume of the step.

5m

12 m
2m
1m

10 m

10

What is the volume, correct to one decimal place, of a cylindrical paint tin with a height
of 30 cm and a diameter of 25 cm?

11

Find the volume of an equilateral triangular prism with side lengths 3 cm and a depth of
10 cm. Answer correct to three decimal places.

12

A vase with a volume of 200 cm3 is packed into the cardboard box shown below. The
space around the vase is filled with foam to protect from breaking. The parcel is sealed
and posted.

6 cm
10 cm
a
b

8 cm

What is the volume of the foam?


What is the area of cardboard on the surface of the box?

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258

Preliminary Mathematics General

8.6 Capacity
The capacity of a container is the amount of liquid
it can hold. Some solids have both a volume and a
capacity. For example, a can of soft drink is a cylinder
that has a volume (V = r2h) and a capacity (360 mL).
The base unit for capacity is a litre (L). Three
commonly used units for capacity are a megalitre,
(ML), kilolitre (kL) and millilitre (mL).

Capacity
1 ML = 1000 kL
1 ML = 1 000 000 L
1 kL = 1000 L
1 L = 1000 mL

Example 16

1 cm3 = 1 mL
1 cm3 = 0.001 L
1000 cm3 = 1 L

1 m3 = 1 000 000 cm3


1 m3 = 1 000 000 mL
1 m3 = 1000 L
1 m3 = 1 kL

Finding the capacity

The container shown opposite is filled with water.


a
Find the volume of the container in cubic centimetres.
b
Find the capacity of the container in litres.

30 cm
40 cm

70 cm
Solution
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Use the volume formula for a right prism


V = Ah.
Determine the shape of the base and the
formula to calculate the area of the base A = lb.
Substitute the values into the formula.
Evaluate.
Give answer to the correct units.

To change cm3 to L multiply by 0.001.


(1 cm3 = 0.001 L)
Alternative method is to convert to mL.
(1 cm3 = 1 mL)

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V = Ah

= lbh
= 70 40 30
= 84 000 cm3
Capacity = 84 000 0.001 L
= 84 L
Capacity = 84 000 1 mL
= 84 000 mL
= 84 L

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Chapter 8 Applications of perimeter, area and volume

259

Exercise 8F
1

A can of soft drink has a capacity of 375 mL. How many cans of soft drink would it take
to fill a 1.2 L bottle? How much would remain?

A medicine bottle has a capacity of 0.3 L.


a
What is the capacity in millilitres?
b
How many tablespoons (15 mL) does
the bottle contain?
c
How many teaspoons (5 mL) does the
bottle contain?
d
The correct dosage is 10 mL, 3 times a
day. How many doses does the bottle
contain?

Complete the following.


a
4 cm 3 = mL
c

70 cm 3 =

900 cm 3 =

43 m 3 =

103 m 3 =

5 m3 =

mL
mL
kL
kL
kL

2000 cm 3 =

34 000 cm 3 =

500 cm 3 =

30 m 3 =

L
L
L

7 m3 =

8 m3 =

mL

What is the capacity of a rectangular prism whose base area is 20 cm2 and height is
10 cm? Answer correct to the nearest millilitre.

Find the capacity of a triangular prism with a height of 18 m and a base area of 40 m2.
Answer in litres, correct to two significant figures.

Find the capacity of a rectangular pyramid whose base area is 12 cm2 and height is
15 cm. Answer correct to the nearest millilitre.

Find the capacity of a cylindrical plastic container 16 cm high and with circular end
surfaces of radius 8 cm. Answer correct to the nearest litre.

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260

Preliminary Mathematics General

Development
8

Find the capacity of the following solids in millilitres, correct to two decimal places.
a

6 mm

4m
5 mm

3m

8m

18 mm
10 mm

3 mm

4 mm

10 cm

7m

9m

10 m

6 cm

3m

Find the capacity of a cube whose side length is 75 mm. Answer in millilitres, correct to
two decimal places.

10

A water tank is the shape of a cylinder with a radius of 2 m and height of 2.5 m.
a What is the area of the top circular face of the
2m
water tank? Answer correct to one decimal
place.
b Determine the volume of the water tank in
cubic metres. Answer correct to one decimal
place.
c What is the capacity of the tank, to the nearest kilolitre?

11

14.4

A = 21 m2

A swimming pool is the shape of a rectangular


prism as shown opposite. The swimming pool is
filled 25 cm from the top.
a What is the volume of water in cubic metres?
b How much water does the swimming pool
contain, to the nearest kilolitre?

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2.5 m

1.7 m

15 m

10 m

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Chapter 8 Applications of perimeter, area and volume

Pythagoras theorem

Study guide 8

Pythagoras theorem states that the square of the hypotenuse is equal to


the sum of the squares of the other two sides.
h2 = a 2 + b 2

Perimeter

Perimeter is the total length of the outside edges of a shape. It is the


distance of the boundary.
Rectangle
P = 2(l + b)
Circle
C = 2 r or C = d

Area

Triangle

A = 12 bbh

Square

A = s2

Rectangle

A = lb

Parallelogram

A = bh

Trapezium

A = 12 ( a + b ) h

Rhombus

A = 12 xxy

Circle

A = r 2

Area of composite shapes

Composite shapes are made up of more than one simple shape.


Area of composite shapes can be found by adding or subtracting
the areas of simple shapes.

Field diagrams

Field diagrams are used to calculate the area of irregularly shaped


blocks of land. A traverse survey measures distances along a suitable
diagonal or traverse.

Volume of prisms and

Cube
Rectangular prism

V = Ah = (s2) s = s3
V = Ah = lb h = lbh

Triangular prism

V = Ah
Ah =

Cylinder

V = Ah = (r2) h = r2h

cylinders

Capacity

( bbhh) h
1
2

The amount of liquid a container can hold. Base unit is a litre.

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Review

Chapter summary Applications of perimeter, area and volume

261

Review

262

Preliminary Mathematics General

Sample HSC Objective-response questions


1

What is the length of the hypotenuse?


A 400 cm
B 20 cm
C 28 cm
D 7.46 cm

16 cm

12 cm

What is the perimeter of a quadrant with a radius of 5 mm?


A 3.9 mm
B 7.9 mm
C 13.9 mm
What is the perimeter of the composite shape?
A 25 m
B 29 m
C 30 m
D 32 m

17.9 mm

9m
4m
7m
5m

What is the area of the composite shape in question 3?


A 25 m2
B 51 m2
C 63 m2
D 75 m2

What is the area of a triangle with a base of 5 m and a perpendicular height of 8 m?


A 13 m2
B 20 m2
C 40 m2
D 80 m2

What is the area of the trapezium?


A 42 cm2
B 63 cm2
C 96 cm2
D 126 cm2

6 cm
8 cm

7 cm
12 cm

What is the area of ABCD using the field book entry?


A 40
B 450
C 600
D 1200

D
C 10

40
30
10
0 20 B
A

What is the volume of a cylinder with a height of 6 cm and radius of 2 cm?


A 75 cm3
B 113 cm3
C 302 cm3
D 452 cm3

A cubic water tank has a side length of 6 m. What is the capacity of the tank?
A 36 kL
B 216 kL
C 360 kL
D 216000 kL

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263

Chapter 8 Applications of perimeter, area and volume

Find the value of x, correct to two decimal places.


a

b
x mm

xm

27 cm

21 m
28 m

47 cm

21 mm

14 mm

x cm
2

Calculate the length of x, correct to the nearest millimetre.

18 mm
6 mm

x
10 mm
3

Find the perimeter of each shape. Answer correct to one decimal place.
a

b

c
5 cm

10 cm

12 m

11 cm

6.7 cm

7m

6 mm

9m
4m
11 m

Find the area of each shape. Answer correct to one decimal place.
a

3.5 m

6m
9m

10 m
11.2 cm

5.6 cm

2m

4 mm
3m

8.4 cm

7 mm

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Review

Sample HSC Short-answer questions

Review

264

Preliminary Mathematics General

Chapter
summary
Earning
Money area measuring 3.6 m by 3.2 m in his backyard.
5 Mahendra
is planning
to tile a rectangular
The tiles he wishes to use are 40 cm by 40 cm.
a What is the area of the rectangle?
b What is the area (in m2) of the tiles?
c How many tiles will he need?
6

The diagram on the right shows a block of land that has been
surveyed. All measurements are in metres.
a Find the area of the quadrilateral PQRS. Answer correct to
one decimal place.
b What is the length of PQ? Answer correct to the nearest metre.

S
40
R

58
52
46
18

P
7

Find the volume of the following solids.


a

11 mm

4 mm
11 mm
5 mm
10 m

3 mm

4 mm

11 mm
4.5 m
3.2 m
8

A closed cylindrical container is 16 mm long and its


end surfaces have a radius of 8 mm.
a What is the area of the circular ends? Answer
correct to the nearest square millimetre.
b What is the volume of the container? Answer
correct to the nearest cubic millimetre.

16 mm
8 mm

Find the capacity of a triangular prism with a height of 50 cm and a base area of 120 cm2.
Answer in litres.

Challenge questions 8

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C H A P T E R

Relative frequency and


probability
Syllabus topic PB1 Relative frequency and probability
Calculate and use relative frequencies to estimate probabilities
Understand the denition of probability
Calculate probabilities using fractions, decimals and percentages
Demonstrate the range of possible probabilities
Identify and use the complement of an event

9.1 Relative frequency

9.1

Relative frequency is calculated when an experiment is performed. The frequency of an


event is the number of times the event occurred in the experiment. Relative frequency is
the frequency of the event divided by the total number of frequencies. It is also known as
experimental probability as it estimates the chances of something happening or the probability
of an event. Relative frequency is expressed using fractions, decimals and percentages.
Relative frequency
Relative frequency is an estimate for the probability of an event.
Relative frequency =

Frequency of an event
Total number of frequencies

265
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266

Preliminary Mathematics General

Finding the relative frequency

Example 1

An experiment of tossing two coins was completed and the number of heads recorded in the
frequency table shown below.
Number
of heads Frequency
0

100

192

108

Relative
frequency

Find the relative frequency of obtaining the following number of heads:


a
0
b
1
c
2
Solution
1

Add the frequency column to determine


the total number of frequencies.

Write the formula for relative frequency.


Substitute the frequency and total
number of frequencies into the formula.
Simplify the fraction if possible or
express as a decimal.
Write answer in words.

3
4
5

1
2
3
4

1
2
3
4

Total Frequencies = 100 + 192 + 108


= 400

Freq of Event
Total Freq
100
=
400
1
= or 0.25 or 25%
4
Relative frequency of 0 heads is 0.25.
Rel. Freq. =

Write the formula for relative frequency.


Substitute the frequency and total
number of frequencies into the formula.
Simplify the fraction if possible or
express as a decimal.
Write answer in words.

Write the formula for relative frequency.


Substitute the frequency and total
number of frequencies into the formula.
Simplify the fraction if possible or
express as a decimal.
Write answer in words.

Freq of Event
Total Freq
192
=
400
12
=
or 0.48 or 48%
25

Rel. Freq. =

Relative frequency of 1 head is 0.48.


Freq of Event
Total Freq
108
=
400
27
=
or 0.27 or 27%
100

Rel. Freq. =

Relative frequency of 2 heads is 0.27.

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Chapter 9 Relative frequency and probability

Example 2

267

Performing a simulation using a graphics calculator

Perform a simulation to model the rolling of


dice. Use the simulation to complete 100 trials and
present these results in a histogram.

Solution
1
2

3
4

Select the TABLE menu.


Enter the function Int (6Ran# + 1).

Int is found by pressing the OPTN key followed


by NUM.

Ran# is found by pressing the OPTN key


followed by PROB.
Select SET to specify the range and simulate the
100 trials.
Select TABL to view the results of the 100 trials.
Note: a new simulation is performed each time you
move between the function and the table.

To perform statistics on the results they must be in a list.


5
Select OPTN and LMEM to copy the results in X
and Y1 to LIST1 and LIST2.
6

Select the STAT menu.

To construct a histogram select GPH, GPH1 and


SET. Choose Graph Type : Hist and XList1 : List2.

To draw the histogram press GPH1 and EXE.

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268

Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 9A
1

A frequency table shows the outcomes


of an experiment. What is the relative
frequency for the following outcomes?
Express as a fraction in simplest form.
a
A
b
B
c
C
d
D

A frequency table shows the outcomes


of an experiment. What is the relative
frequency for the following outcomes?
Answer correct to three decimal places.
a
HH
b
HT
c
TH
d
TT

A frequency table shows the outcomes


of an experiment. What is the relative
frequency for the following outcomes?
Answer as a percentage correct to one
decimal place.
a
Black
b
Yellow
c
Red
d
Blue
e
Green
f
White

A frequency table shows the outcomes


of an experiment. What is the relative
frequency for the following outcomes?
Answer as a percentage, correct to the
nearest whole number.
a
30
b
31
c
32
d
33
e
34

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Letter

Frequency

12

15

Outcome Frequency
HH

HT

20

TH

28

TT

12

Colour

Frequency

Black

105

Yellow

210

Red

145

Blue

170

Green

215

White

155

Score

Frequency

30

31

32

33

34

Relative freq.

Relative freq.

Relative freq.

Relative freq.

Cambridge University Press

Chapter 9 Relative frequency and probability

269

Calculate the relative frequency for each of these numbers if the total frequency is 48.
Write your answer as a fraction in simplest terms.
a 16
b 40
c 24
d 6

Calculate the relative frequency for each of these numbers if the total frequency is 40.
Write your answer as a percentage.
a 4
b 30
c 15
d 32

A retail store sold 512 televisions last year. There were 32 faulty televisions returned last
year. What is the relative frequency of a faulty television last year? Answer as a
percentage, correct to two decimal places.

A pistol shooter at the Olympic Games hits the target 24 out of 25 attempts. What is the
relative frequency of him hitting the target? Give answer as a decimal, correct to two
decimal places.

The birth statistics in a local community were 142 girls and 126 boys. What is the
relative frequency for a girl? Answer as a fraction in lowest terms.

10

Create the spreadsheet below using the frequency table in question 4.

9A

a
b
c

Cell B10 has a formula that adds cells B5 to B10. Enter this formula.
The formula for cell C5 is =B5/$B$10. It is the formula for relative frequency. Fill
down the contents of C6 to C9 using this formula.
Cells D5 to D9 have the same formulas as cells C5 to C9. Enter these formulas and
format the cells to a percentage.

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270

Preliminary Mathematics General

Development
11

A frequency distribution table is shown below.

a
b
c

Score

Frequency

Relative freq.

0.20

0.30

0.25

What is the value of x?


What is the value of y?
What is the total number of scores?

12

Perform an experiment by rolling a die 120 times.


a Use a frequency table to record the results of the experiment.
b Calculate the relative frequency of each outcome.
c What result would you have predicted for each outcome?
d Compare your results to those of the other students in your class.

13

Perform an experiment by dropping a drawing


pin 100 times. Record whether it landed point up
or point down.
a Use a frequency table to record the results of
the experiment.
b Calculate the relative frequency of each
outcome.
c What result would you have predicted for
each outcome?
d Compare your results to those of the other students in your class.

14

Perform an experiment by tossing two coins 80 times.


a Use a frequency table to record the results of the experiment.
b Calculate the relative frequency of each outcome.
c What result would you have predicted for each outcome?
d Compare your results to those of the other students in your class.

15

Perform a simulation using a graphics calculator to model the random selection of


choosing one card from four cards labelled 1, 2, 3 or 4. Use the simulation to complete
100 trials and present the results in a histogram.

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Chapter 9 Relative frequency and probability

271

9.2 Multistage events


Multistage event consists of two or more events. For example, tossing a coin and throwing a
die or selecting 3 cards from a pack of cards. The fundamental counting principle is used to
determine the total number of outcomes for a multistage event.
9.2

Fundamental counting principle


The fundamental counting principle states that if we have p outcomes for first event and q
outcomes for the second event, then the total number of outcomes for both events is p q.
It simply involves multiplying the number of outcomes for each event together. Consider
the multistage event of having two babies and the sex of each baby. The first baby has two
outcomes (boy or girl) and the second baby has two outcomes (boy or girl). The total number
of outcomes for both events is 2 2 = 4 (BB, BG, GB or GG).
Fundamental counting principle
Number of outcomes (two events) = p q
p Number of outcomes of the first event.
q Number of outcomes of the second event.

Example 3

Determining the number of arrangements

David, Ella and Fran are required to stand in a row for


selection to a committee.
a
How many different arrangements are possible?
b
List all the possible outcomes.

Solution
1

The first event is the first person in the


row. There are 3 possible outcomes (D,
E or F).
The second event is the second person
in the row. There are 2 possible
outcomes.
The third event is the third person in
the row. There is only 1 possible
outcome.
Multiply the number of outcomes for
each event to determine the number of
arrangements.

a
b

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Number of arrangements = 3 2 1
=6
Possible outcomes = {DEF, DFE,
EDF, EFD, FDE, FED}

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272

Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 9B
1

Jasmine places three different types of apples in a row on the counter. The types of
apples are red delicious, golden delicious and granny smith.
a
How many different arrangements are possible?
b
List all the possible arrangements.

Four cards each with a different suit (diamond, heart, spade or club) are placed in a row
on the table.
a
How many different arrangements are possible?
b
List all the possible arrangements.

The letters of the word KINGSFORD are to be rearranged.


a
How many different arrangements are possible?
b
How many different arrangements are possible if the letters FORD are removed.
c
How many different arrangements are possible if the letters KINGS are removed.

How many ways can Aaron, Bailey, Connor, Daniel and Eddie stand in a queue?

There are 10 horses in a race.


a
How many different ways can the horses finish?
b
How many ways can first, second and third place be filled?

Two dice are rolled. How many different outcomes are possible?

A fair coin is tossed three times.


a
How many different outcomes are possible?
b
List all the possible outcomes.
c
If the coin is tossed again, how many different outcomes are now possible?

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Chapter 9 Relative frequency and probability

273

Development
8

Lucy, Madison and Nikki are nominated for school captain and vice captain. What are all
the possible combinations?

Adam goes to a shop that sells blue, red, pink and green pens. He decides to buy two
pens, each one a different colour.
a How many different arrangements are possible?
b List all the possible arrangements.

10

A restaurant menu offers a choice of 4 entrees, 5 main courses and 3 desserts.

a
b

How many combinations of meal (entree, main, dessert) are possible?


The restaurant adds another dessert. How many combinations of meals are now
possible?

11

A box contains five discs labelled M, N, O, P and Q.


a A disc is chosen and removed from the box at random. A second disc is then chosen
and removed from the box. How many different choices are possible?
b A third disc is then chosen and removed from the box. How many different choices
for the three discs are possible?

12

A golf team has 4 players to be selected from a squad of 7 players. How many different
teams are possible?

13

The letters from the word CARLTON are being used to form other words.
a How many two-letter arrangements are possible?
b How many three-letter arrangements are possible?

14

Jade has 5 shirts, 6 skirts and 3 pairs of shoes.


a How many different combinations are possible?
b Jade buys two more shirts. How many different combinations are now possible?

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274

Preliminary Mathematics General

9.3 Systematic lists


A systematic list is essential for finding the sample space for a multistage event. It is an
orderly method of determining all the possible outcomes. Tables are used to generate a
systematic list.
9.3

Tables
A table is an arrangement of information in rows and columns. The table below shows all the
possible outcomes for a tossing two coins. There are two events tossing the first coin and
tossing the second coin. The outcomes of the first event are listed down the first column (Head
or Tail). The outcomes of the second event are listed across the top row (Head or Tail). Each
cell in the table is an outcome. There are 4 possible outcomes.
Head

Tail

Head

HH

HT

Tail

TH

TT

Sample space = {HH, HT, TH, TT}


Fundamental counting principle verifies the result from the table. There are two events each
with two outcomes (head or tail). Number of outcomes = 2 2 = 4.
Example 4

Using a table for a multistage event

Two red cards (R1, R2) and one black card (B1) are placed in a box. Two cards are selected at
random with replacement. Use a table to list the sample space.
Solution
1

List the outcomes of the first event


(first card) down the first column.
There are 3 outcomes: R1, R2 and B1.
List the outcomes of the second event
(second card) across the top row.
There are 3 outcomes: R1, R2 and B1.
Write the outcome in each cell using
the intersection of the row and
column.
List the sample space.

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R1

R2

B1

R1

R1 R1 R1 R2 R1 B1

R2

R2 R1 R2 R2 R2 B1

B1

B1 R1 B1 R2 B1 B1

Sample space = {R1R1, R1R2, R1B1,


R2R1, R2R2, R2B1,
B1R1, B1R2, B1B1}

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Chapter 9 Relative frequency and probability

275

Tree diagrams
A tree diagram shows each event as a branch of the tree. The tree diagram below shows all the
possible outcomes for a tossing two coins. The outcomes of the first event are listed (H or T)
with two branches. The outcomes of the second event are listed (H or T) with two branches on
each of the outcomes from the first event. The sample space is HH, HT, TH and TT.
1st

2nd
H

HH

HT

TH

TT

Tree diagrams
Draw a tree diagram with each event as a new branch of the tree.
Always draw large clear tree diagrams and list the sample space on the right-hand side.

Example 5

Drawing a tree diagram

A coin is tossed and a die is rolled.


a
Construct a tree diagram of these two events.
b
List the sample space.
Solution
1
2
3
4

Draw the first branch for first event tossing


a coin.
Tossing a coin has two outcomes (head or tail) so
there are two branches.
Draw the second branch for the second event
rolling a die.
Rolling a die has six outcomes (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6)
so there are six branches. Draw six branches for
each of the two outcomes from the first event.
Use the branches of the tree to list the sample
space. Write the outcomes down the right-hand
side (sample space).

Coin

Die
1

H1

H2

H3

H4

H5

H6

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

6 T6

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276

Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 9C
1

Emily and Bailey are planning to have two children.


a
Use a table to list the number of elements in the
sample space. Consider the sex of each child as an
event.
b
Verify the total number of outcomes using the
fundamental counting principle.

Boy

Girl

Boy
Girl

Two fair dice are thrown and their sum recorded.


a
Use a table to list the all the possible outcomes.
+

1
2
3
4
5
6
b
3

Verify the total number of outcomes using the fundamental counting principle.

A menu has three entrees (E1, E2 and E3) and four mains (M1, M2, M3 and M4).
a
Use a table to list the all the possible outcomes.
M1 M2 M3 M4
E1
E2
E3
b

Verify the total number of outcomes using the fundamental counting principle.

Three people (A, B and C) applied for the managers position and two people (D and E)
applied for the assistant managers position.
a
Use a table to list the all the possible outcomes.
b
Verify the total number of outcomes using the fundamental counting principle.

One bag contains two discs labelled X and Y. A second bag contains four discs
labelled D, E, F and G. A disc is chosen from each bag at random. Use a table to
determine the number of elements in the sample space.

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Chapter 9 Relative frequency and probability

Three yellow cards (Y1, Y2, Y3) and one green


card (G1) are placed in a box. Two cards are
selected at random with replacement.
a Use a table to list the number of elements in
the sample space.
b Verify the total number of outcomes using
the fundamental counting principle.

Three cards (king, queen and jack) are placed


face down on a table. One card is selected at
random and the result recorded. This card is
returned to the table. A second card is then
selected at random.
a Use a table to list the number of elements
in the sample space.
b Verify the total number of outcomes
using the fundamental counting principle.

Two coins are tossed and the results recorded.


a List the sample space using a tree diagram.
b How many possible outcomes?
c Use the fundamental counting principle to confirm
your answer to part b.

A survey has two questions whose answers are Yes or


No. Construct a tree diagram to list the sample space.

10

There are three questions in a True or False test.


1st

2nd

Y1

Y2

Y3

277

G1

Y1
Y2
Y3
G1

1st

2nd

3rd

a
b
c

List the sample space using a tree diagram.


How many possible outcomes are there?
Use the fundamental counting principle to confirm your answer to part b.

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Development
11

A two-digit number is formed using the digits 1, 2 and 3. The same number cannot be
used twice. The first digit chosen is the tens digit and the second digit chosen is the
units digit.
a List the sample space from the tree diagram.
Tens
1

3
b
c

Units
2
3
1
3
1
2

How many possible outcomes are there?


Use the fundamental counting principle to confirm your answer to part b.

12

A spinner has equal amounts of red and green sections. This spinner is spun twice.
a Use a tree diagram to list the total possible outcomes.
b Verify the total number of outcomes using the fundamental counting principle.

13

Ebony tosses a coin and spins a spinner, which has red, amber and green sections.
a Use a tree diagram to list the sample space.
b Verify the total number of outcomes using the fundamental counting principle.

14

Four cards (ace, king, queen and jack) are placed face down on a table. One card is
selected at random and the result recorded. This card is not returned to the table. A
second card is then selected at random.
a Use a tree diagram to list the total possible outcomes.
b Verify the total number of outcomes using the fundamental counting principle.

15

There are four candidates for the leader and deputy leader. The four candidates are
Angus, Bridget, Connor and Danielle.
a Construct a tree diagram with the leader as the first event and the deputy leader as
the second event. Use a tree diagram to list the sample space.
b Verify the total number of outcomes using the fundamental counting principle.

16

A two-digit number is formed using the digits 3, 5 and 7. The same number can be used
twice. The first digit chosen is the tens digit and the second digit chosen is the units
digit. Use a tree diagram to list the sample space.

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279

9.4 Definition of probability

9.4

Probability is the chance of something happening. To accurately calculate the probability a


more formal definition is used. When a random experiment is performed the outcome or result
is called the event. For example, tossing a coin is an experiment and a head is the event. The
event is denoted by the letter E and P(E ) refers to the probability of event E. The probability
of the event is calculated by dividing the number of favourable outcomes by the total number
of outcomes. It is expressed using fractions, decimals and percentages.
Probability
Number of favourable outtccomes
Total number of outcomes
n( E )
P( E ) =
n( S )

Probability (Event) =

Example 6

Calculating the probability

A coin is chosen at random from 7 one dollar coins and 3 two dollar coins. Calculate the
probability that the coin is a:
a one dollar coin.
b two dollar coin.
Solution
1
2

3
4
5
1
2

3
4
5

Write the formula for probability.


Number of favourable outcomes (or $1 coins)
is 7. The total number of outcomes or coins
is 10.
Substitute into the formula.
Simplify the fraction if possible.
Express as a decimal or percentage if
required.
Write the formula for probability.
Number of favourable outcomes (or $2 coins)
is 3. The total number of outcomes or coins
is 10.
Substitute into the formula.
Simplify the fraction if possible.
Express as a decimal or percentage if
required.

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n($1)
n( s )
7
=
10

P($1) =

= 0.7 or
= 70%

n($2 )
n( s )
3
=
10

P($2 ) =

= 0.3 or
= 30%

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Equally likely outcomes


Equally likely outcomes occur when there is no obvious reason for one outcome to occur more
often than any other, for example, selecting a ball at random from a bag containing red, blue
and white ball. Each of the balls is equally likely to be chosen.
Winning a bike race is an example of an event where the outcomes are not equally likely.
Some riders have more talent and some riders are better prepared. If one person is a better
rider, their chance of winning the race is greater.

A deck of playing cards


A normal deck of playing cards has 52 cards. There are
four suits called clubs, spades, hearts and diamonds. In
each suit there are 13 cards from ace to king. There are
3 picture cards in each suit (jack, queen and king).

Example 7

Calculating the probability from playing cards

What is the probability of choosing the following cards from a normal pack of cards?
a
Red four
b
Diamond
c
Picture card
Solution
1
2
3
4
1
2

3
4
1
2

3
4

n( Red 4 )
n( s )
2
=
52
1
=
26

Write the formula for probability.


Number of favourable outcomes (or red 4s)
is 2. The total number of outcomes is 52.
Substitute into the formula and simplify the
fraction.
Simplify the fraction.

P( Red 4 ) =

Write the formula for probability.


Number of favourable outcomes (or
diamonds) is 13. The total number of
outcomes is 52.
Substitute into the formula.
Simplify the fraction.

P( Diamond ) =

Write the formula for probability.


Number of favourable outcomes (or picture
cards) is 12. The total number of outcomes
is 52.
Substitute into the formula.
Simplify the fraction.

P( Picture ) =

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n( Diamond )
n( s )
13
=
52
1
=
4

n( Picture )
n( s )
12
=
52
3
=
13

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Chapter 9 Relative frequency and probability

281

Exercise 9D
1

What is the probability of the following experiments?


a
A card dealt from a normal deck of cards is a diamond
b
A day selected at random from the week is a weekend
c
A head results when a coin is tossed
d
A letter from the alphabet is a vowel
e
A two results when a die is rolled
f
A six is chosen from {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}.

A bag contains 5 blue and 3 red balls. Find the probability of selecting at random:
a
a blue ball.
b
a red ball.
c
not a red ball.

Aaron chooses one ball at random from his golf bag. The table below shows the type and
quantity of golf balls in his bag.
Type of golf ball Quantity
B51 Impact

Maxfli

Pinnacle

13

Find the probability of him choosing:


a
a Maxfli
c
a B51 Impact

b
d

a Pinnacle
not a Maxfli

An unbiased coin is tossed three times. On the first two tosses the result is tails. What is
the probability that the result of the third toss will be a tail?

In Amber Ave there are 3 high school students, 4 primary school students and
5 preschool students. One student from Amber Ave is chosen at random.
What is the probability that a primary school student is chosen?

A box contains 3 blue, 4 green and 2 white counters. Find the chance of drawing at
random one counter which is:
a
blue
b
green
c
white
d
not blue

A card is chosen at random from a standard deck of 52 playing cards. Find the
probability of choosing:
a
the seven of clubs
b
a spade
c
a red card
d
a red picture card
e
a nine
f
the six of hearts
g
an even number
h
a picture card
i
a black ace

The weather on a particular day is described as either wet or dry. Therefore there is an
even chance of a wet day. Do you agree with this statement? Give a reason.

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Development
9

A die with 16 faces marked 1 to 16 is rolled. Find the probability that the number is:
a an odd number
b neither a 1 nor a 2
c a multiple of 3
d greater than 12
e less than or equal to 15
f a square number

10

A wheel contains 8 evenly spaced numbers labelled 1 to 8. The wheel is spun until it
stops at a number. It is given that the wheel is equally likely to stop at any number. Find
the probability that the wheel stops at:
a a 7
b a number greater than 5
c an odd number
d a 1 or 2
e a number less than 10
f a number divisible by 3

11

In poker, a player is dealt five


cards. Lucy is dealt four cards
from a normal deck: two aces
and two kings. What is the
probability that the next card is:
a another ace?
b another king?
c not an ace?
d not a king?

12

Two cards are drawn at random from a normal deck of cards. What is the probability that
the second card is:
a a two if the first card was a two?
b an ace if the first card was an ace?
c the six of clubs if first card was a ten?
d a two if the first card was a king?
e a diamond if the first card was a diamond?
f
a picture card if the first card was a picture card?

13

A four-digit number is formed from the digits 2, 3, 4 and 5 without replacement. What is
the probability that the number:
a starts with the digit 4?
b is greater than 3000?
c ends with a 2 or a 3?
d is 2345?

14

Six students enter a swimming race. The chance of a particular student winning is
Is this statement true or false? Give reasons to support your opinion.

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283

9.5 Range of probabilities

9.5

The probability of an event that is impossible is 0 and the


probability of an event that is certain is 1. Probability is
always within this range or from 0 to 1. It is not possible
to have the probability of an event as 2. The range of
probability is expressed as 0 P(E) 1 or P(E) 0 and
P(E) 1. It is also important to realise that the probability
of every event in an experiment will sum to 1.

Certain

0.75
0.5

Even chance

0.25
0

Impossible

Range of probability
Probability of an event is between 0 and 1 or 0 P(E) 1.
P(A) + P(B) + = 1
A, B, are all the possible outcomes or events.

Example 8

Using the range of probability

A box contains red, yellow and blue cards.


The probability of selecting a red card is

3
5

and the probability of selecting a yellow card


is

1
10

. What is the probability of selecting a

blue card?

Solution
1
2

Write the formula for the range of probability.


Substitute into the formula the probabilities of

the other events P( R) =


3
4
5

3
5

and P(Y ) = 10 .

Solve the equation by making P(B) the


subject of the equation.
Simplify the fraction if possible.
Write the answer in words.

P( R) + P(Y ) + P( B) = 1
3 1
+ + P( B) = 1
5 10
3 1
P( B) = 1
5 10
3
=
10
Probability of a blue card is

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.
10

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284

Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 9E
1

A hat contains tickets labelled as A, B and C. The probability of selecting ticket A is


3
7
and the probability of selecting ticket B is 15
.
10
a
What is the value of P(A)?
b
What is the value of P(B)?
c
What is the probability of selecting a ticket with the letter D?
d
What is the probability of selecting tickets A, B or C?
e
What is the probability of selecting ticket C?

A bag contains black, yellow and white cards. The probability of drawing a black card is
57% and the probability of drawing a yellow card is 8%. What is the value of the
following expressed as a fraction in simplest form:
a
P(Black)?
b
P(Yellow)?
c
P(White)?

In a particular event the probability of Blake winning a gold medal is 83 and a silver
medal is 1 . There is no bronze medal.
4

a
b

What are Blakes chances of winning a gold or a silver medal?


What are Blakes chances of not winning any medals?

Some picture cards from a deck of cards are placed face down on the table. The
probability of drawing a king is 0.25 and a queen is 0.60. What is the value of the
following expressed as a decimal:
a
P(king)?
b
P(jack)?
c
P(jack) + P(king)?
d
P(king) + P(queen) + P(jack)?

There are four outcomes of an experiment. Three of the outcomes have probabilities of
20%, 25% and 40% respectively. What is the probability of the fourth outcome?

A biased die is rolled. The probability of obtaining an even number is 0.4 and the
probability of a 1 or a 3 is 0.3. Find the value of the following probabilities.
a
P(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)
b
P(2, 4, 5, 6)
c
P(Odd)

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285

Development
7

A disc is chosen at random from a bag containing five different colours: black, green,
1
2
pink, red and white. If P( B) = 5 , P(G ) = 13
, P( P ) = 29 and P( R) = 61 , find the
probability of the following outcomes.
a
Black or green disc
b Pink or red disc
c
Black or red disc
d Black, green or pink disc
e
Black, green or red disc
f
Black, green, pink or red disc

A card is chosen at random from some playing cards. The probability of a spade is 0.24,
the probability of a club is 0.27 and the probability of a heart is 0.23. Find the probability
of the following outcomes.
a
Black card
b Red card
c
Club or a heart
d Spade or a heart
e
Diamond
f
Diamond or a club

Julia and Natasha are playing a game where a standard six-sided die is rolled. Julia wins
if an even number is rolled. Natasha wins if a number greater than three is rolled. What
is the probability that the number rolled is neither even nor greater than three?

10

A bag contains white, green and red marbles. The probability of selecting a white marble
is

2
7

and the probability of selecting a green marble is

1
8

. What is the probability of

selecting a red marble?

11

The numbers 1 to 20 are written on separate cards. One card is chosen at random. What
is the probability that the card chosen is a prime number or is divisible by 3?

12

One letter is selected at random from a word containing the letters TAMPR. It is given
1
.
that P(T ) = 1 , P( A) = 2 , P( M ) = 1 and P( P ) = 10
5
5
10

Find the probability of the following outcomes.


i
Letters T or A
ii Letters T or P
iii Letters M or P
iv Letters A, M or P
v Letter T, A, M or P
vi Letter R
The word contains 10 letters. From the letters TAMPR how many of the following
letters are in the word?
i
T
ii A
iii M
iv P
v R
What is the word? (Hint: Australian place)

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Preliminary Mathematics General

9.6 Complementary events

9.6

The complement of an event E is the event not including E. For example, when throwing a die
the complement of 2 are the events 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6. The complement of an event E is denoted
by E . An event and its complement represent all the possible outcomes and are certain to
occur. Hence the probability of an event and its complement will sum to be 1.
Complementary events
P( E ) + P( E ) = 1 or P( E ) = 1 P( E )
E Event or outcome.
E Complement of event E or the outcomes not including event E.

Example 9

Using the complementary event

Lisa selects a card at random from a normal


pack. Find the probability of obtaining the
following outcomes.
a
Not a ten
b
Not a black jack

Solution
2

Write the formula for the complement.


Substitute into the formula the probability
4
(ten)) = 52
for a ten ( or P (ten
).

Evaluate.

Simplify the fraction.

1
2

Write the formula for the complement.


Substitute into the formula the probability
2
for a black jack ( or P (bl
(black
ack jack
jack)) = 52
).

Evaluate.

Simplify the fraction.

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P (ten ) = 1 P (ten)
4
= 1
52
48
=
52
12
=
13

P (black jack ) = 1 P (black jack)


2
= 1
52
50
=
52
25
=
26

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Chapter 9 Relative frequency and probability

287

Exercise 9F
1

What is the event that is the complement of the following events?


a
Selecting a black card from a normal pack of cards
b
Winning first prize in Lotto
c
Throwing an even number when a die is rolled
d
Obtaining a tail when a coin is tossed
e
Drawing a spade from a normal pack of playing cards
f
Choosing a green ball from a bag containing a blue, a red and a green ball

Find the value of P( E ) given the following information about event E.


1
P( E ) =
a
b
P(E) = 0.9
c P(E) = 62%
d
P(E) = 1 : 4
5
3
e
P( E ) =
f
P(E) = 0.45
g P(E) = 37.5%
h
P(E) = 3 : 7
11
The chances of the Sydney Swans winning the premiership are given as 29%. What are
the chances that the Sydney Swans will not win the premiership?
a
Express your answer as a decimal.
b
Express your answer as a fraction.

The probability of obtaining a three on a biased die is 0.6. What is the probability of not
obtaining a three?

The probability of a rainy day in March is


day in March does not have rain?

The probability of drawing a red marble from a bag is


drawing a red marble? Express your answer as a:
a
fraction
b
decimal

11
15

. What is the probability that a particular

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8

. What is the probability of not


c

percentage

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288

Preliminary Mathematics General

Development
7

A ball is chosen at random from a bag containing four different colours: brown, orange,
2
purple and yellow. If P(O ) = 11
, P( P ) = 29 and P(Y ) = 14 , find the probability of the
following outcomes.
a
Not a yellow ball
b
Not an orange ball
c
Not a purple ball
d
Orange or a purple ball
e
Yellow or a purple ball
f
Not a brown ball
g
A brown ball
h
Not an orange or a yellow ball

Samuel selects a card at random from a normal pack. Find the probability of obtaining
the following outcomes.
a
Not a queen
b
Not a red ace

What is the probability that a person selected at random will:


a
not be born on Saturday?
b
not be born on a weekend?

10

14.2

A 12-sided die has 12 faces marked 1 to 12. The die is biased. If P(8) = 0.1, P(2) = 0.15
and P(( 3) = 0.91 , find:
a

P(( 8 )

P(( 2 )

P(8) + P
P(( 8 )

P(3)
P(2) + P
P(( 2 )

P( 3) + P
P(( 3)

P(2) + P(8)

P(2) + P
P((8)

11

One card is selected at random from a non-standard pack of playing cards. If


P(ace) = 8%, P(king) = 7% and P(queen) = 10%, find the probability of the following
outcomes.
a
Not an ace
b
Not a king
c
Not a queen
d
King or a queen
e
Ace or a queen
f
Not an ace, king or queen

12

The probability of selecting a card labelled with a T from 32 cards is given as


P(( T) = 163 .
a
b

What is the probability of not selecting a card labelled with a T?


How many of the 32 cards were labelled with a T?

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Chapter 9 Relative frequency and probability

Relative frequency

Study guide 9

Relative frequency is an estimate for the probability of an event.


Frequency of an event
Relative frequency =
Totaall number of frequencies

Equally likely outcomes

Outcomes have an equal chance of occurring.

Multistage events

Two or more events.

principle

Number of outcomes (two events) = p q.


p Number of outcomes of the first event.
q Number of outcomes of the second event.

Systematic lists

Orderly method of determining all the possible outcomes.

Fundamental counting

Definition of probability

Range of probability

Complementary events

Probability is the chance of something happening.


Outcome or result of a random experiment is called an event.
Number of favourable outtccomes
Probability (Event) =
Total number of outcomes
n( E )
P( E ) =
n( S )
Probability of an event that is impossible is 0.
Probability of an event that is certain is 1.
Probability of an event is between 0 and 1 or 0 P(E) 1.
P(A) + P(B) + = 1
A, B, are all the possible outcomes or events.
Complement of an event E is the event not including E.
Probability of an event and its complement will sum to be 1.
P( E ) + P( E ) = 1 or P( E ) = 1 P( E )
E Event or outcome.
E Complement of event E or the outcomes not including event E.

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Review

Chapter summary Relative frequency and probability

289

Review

290

Preliminary Mathematics General

Sample HSC Objective-response questions


1

The frequency of an event is 6 and the total number of frequencies is 20. What is the
relative frequency?
A 14%
B 26%
C 30%
D 70%

A local community has 220 motorbikes and 740 cars. What is the relative frequency for a
car? Answer as a fraction in lowest terms.
11
220
37
740
A
B
C
D
48
960
48
960

How many possible outcomes are there when four coins are tossed?
A 4
B 8
C 16
D 32

How many different ways can the letters of the word FORBES be arranged in a row?
A 6
B 21
C 24
D 720

One card is selected from a normal deck of cards. What is the probability that it is a
diamond?
1
1
1
3
A
B
C
D
52
13
4
4

A three-digit number is formed from the digits 5, 7, 8 and 9. What is the probability that
the number will be odd?
A 0.25
B 0.50
C 0.75
D 0.80

One card is selected from cards labelled 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. What is the probability of an even
number and/or a number divisible by 5?
A 10%
B 50%
C 60%
D 100%

A bag contains black, white and grey balls. The probability of selecting a black ball is 0.3
and a grey ball is 0.6. What is the probability of selecting a white ball?
A 0.1
B 0.36
C 0.63
D 0.9

A letter is chosen at random from the word NEWCASTLE. What is the probability that the
letter will not be a vowel?
1
2
1
2
A
B
C
D
9
9
3
3

10

What is the value of P( E ) given that P(E) = 0.32?


A 0.32
B 0.64
C 0.68

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Chapter 9 Relative frequency and probability

291

A class frequency table shows the scores


in a test. What is the relative frequency for the
following outcomes? Answer correct to two
decimal places.
a 5059
b 6069
c 7079
d 8089

Score

Frequency

5059

6069

7079

8089

Relative freq.

The local football club sold 350 raffle tickets to raise money for some equipment. Liam
sold 60 of these tickets. What is the relative frequency of Liams tickets? Answer as a
percentage correct to the nearest whole number.

Last year Oscar bought a packet of biscuits every week and found 30 of these packets
contained broken biscuits. What is the relative frequency of this event? Answer as a
decimal correct to two decimal places.

There were 23 people who applied for a particular job. Are the chances of each person
getting the job equally likely? Why?

A paper bag contains 3 green, 4 brown and 5 yellow beads. To win a game, Greg needs to
draw two green beads from the bag. How many elements are in the sample space?

List all the possible ways to answer the first three questions of a true or false test.

A poker machine has three reels, with 12 symbols on each wheel. How many arrangements
are possible when the poker machine is spun?

A PIN has four digits. How many possible PINs are there?

A raffle ticket is drawn from a box containing 50 raffle tickets numbered from 1 to 50. Find
the probability of the following outcomes.
a The number 50
b Even number
c Less than 20
d Greater than 30
e Divisible by 5
f Square number

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Sample HSC Short-answer questions

Review

292

Preliminary Mathematics General

Chapter
Earning
Money
10 Whatsummary
is the probability
of choosing
a black card from a standard deck of cards?
11

Four kings are taken from a standard deck of cards and placed face down on a table. One
card is selected at random. What is the probability of selecting:
a the king of clubs?
b a black king?
c a picture card?

12

A house contains 4 girls, 3 boys and 2 adults. If one person is chosen at random, what is
the probability that the person:
a is a girl?
b is a boy?
c is a girl or a boy?

13

An eight-sided die has the numbers 1 to 8 on it. What is the probability of rolling the
following outcomes?
a Number 2
b Either a 3 or a 5
c Number 9
d Divisible by 3
e Odd number
f Prime number

14

There are five students in a group whose names are Adam, Sarah, Max, Hayley and David.
If one name is chosen at random, find the probability of selecting a name:
a with 5 letters.
b with the letter a.
c with exactly one
vowel.

15

A fair coin is tossed three times. The probability of throwing three tails is 0.125, two tails
is 0.375 and one tail is 0.375. What is the probability of the following outcomes?
a No tails
b Three or two tails
c At least one tail
d Not throwing a head
e Not throwing exactly two tails
f Throwing one head

16

There are three outcomes of a rugby league


game: win, lose or draw. If P(( Win ) = 75 and
P(( Lose) = 15 , find the probability of the

following.
a Winning or losing the match
b Drawing the match
c Not winning the match
d Not losing the match

17

Caitlin selects a card at random from a standard deck of cards. Find the probability of
obtaining the following outcomes.
a Not an ace
b Not a heart
c Not a red six

18

The probability of drawing a blue card from a bag is

5
16

. What is the probability of not

drawing a blue card? Express your answer as a percentage.


Challenge questions 9
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C H A P T E R

10

Taxation
Syllabus topic FM3 Taxation
Calculate the allowable deductions from gross income
Calculate the taxable income
Calculate the Medicare levy
Determine PAYE tax payable or refund owing
Calculate the GST payable
Create graphs that describe different tax rates

10.1 Allowable deductions


Allowable deductions are deductions allowed by the
Australian Taxation Office (ATO). Details of allowable
deductions are given on the ATO website (www.ato.gov.au).

Allowable deductions include:


Work-related expenses costs incurred while performing your job
Self-education expenses costs of education related to your work
Travel expenses costs of travel directly connected with your work
Car expenses costs of using your car related to your work
Clothing expenses costs of work clothing and laundry
Tools cost of work tools
Gifts and donations gifts made to an eligible organisation.
293
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Allowable deductions
Deductions allowed by the Australian Taxation Office include work-related,
self-education, travel, car, clothing, tools and donations.

Example 1

Calculating allowable deductions

Riley works as an information technology


consultant. He is entitled to the following tax
deductions:
equipment costs of $1260
car expenses of $1060
professional learning of $985
union fees of $650
charity donations of $250
tax agent fee of $212.
What is Rileys total allowable tax deduction?
Solution
1
2
3
4

Write the quantity (tax deduction) to be


calculated.
Add all the allowable deductions.
Evaluate and write using correct units.
Write the answer in words.

Example 2

Tax deduction = 1260 + 1060 + 985 +


650 + 250 + 212
= $4417
Riley has an allowable tax deduction
of $4417.

Calculating allowable deductions

Ava has used her own car for a total of 7900 km on work related travel this financial year.
Calculate her tax deduction if she is entitled to claim 70 cents per kilometre.
Solution
1
2
3
4

Write the quantity (tax deduction) to be


calculated.
Multiply the kilometres travelled by the
rate per kilometre.
Evaluate and write using correct units.
Write the answer in words.

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Tax deduction = 7900 0.70


= $5530

Ava has an allowable tax deduction


of $5530.

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Chapter 10 Taxation

295

Exercise 10A
1

Stephanie works as a waitress and is entitled to an allowance for the cost of her work
clothing and laundry. Her clothing expenses are listed below. Calculate the total cost for
each item of clothing and her allowable deduction for clothing.
Work clothing

Quantity Unit cost Total cost

Blue shirt

$55.00

Black trouser

$110.00

Belt

$45.00

Tie

$34.00

Dry-cleaning

$32.00

Zara is a child care worker who is entitled to the following tax deductions:
$420 for union fees
tax agent fee of $125
charity donations of $160
self-education fee of $840
stationery costs of $46.
What is Zaras total tax deduction?

Chris is entitled to the following tax deductions: training courses of $1460, motor vehicle
expenses of $1420, stationery costs of $760, union fees of $480, charity donations of
$310 and accountant fee of $184. What is Chriss total allowable tax deduction?

Car expenses are claimed according to the engine capacity of the motor vehicle. The rate
per kilometre for travel in a private vehicle is listed below.
Engine capacity

Allowable deduction

0 to 1600 cc

58 c/km

1600 cc to 2600 cc

69 c/km

Greater than 2600 cc

70 c/km

Calculate the tax deduction for the following car expenses related to work.
a 3560 km in a Toyota Corolla with an engine capacity of 1.8 L (1788 cc)
b 1280 km in a Ford Falcon with an engine capacity of 4.0 L (3984 cc)
c 4580 km in a Holden Barina with an engine capacity of 1.6 L (1598 cc)
d 2340 km in a Honda Civic with an engine capacity of 1.3 L (1339 cc)
e 3105 km in a Nissan Pulsar with an engine capacity of 1.8 L (1769 cc)
f
2818 km in a Mazda CX-9 with an engine capacity of 3.7 L (3726 cc)

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Development
5

Harrison buys a new van costing $42560 for his business. He is entitled to claim as a tax
deduction 12% of the cost of the vehicle if the motor vehicle travels more than 5000
business kilometres in a year. What is Harrisons allowable deduction for the van if he
travelled 16230 kilometres for business?

Joel is a wheat farmer. He has


capital equipment on the farm
worth $240000. The ATO allows a
tax deduction for the depreciation
of capital equipment based on a
percentage of the current value.
What is the tax deduction using the
following rates of depreciation?
a 10% p.a.
b 20% p.a.
c 30% p.a.
d 40% p.a.

Mitchell has an investment property that contains furnishings valued at $12600. The
furnishings are an allowable deduction with a rate of depreciation of 15% p.a. How much
can be claimed for depreciation over the year?

Xiang is a teacher who bought a $2350 laptop for school use. The laptop is an allowable
deduction with a rate of depreciation of 33% p.a. of the current value. How much can be
claimed for depreciation in each of the following years?
a First year
b Second year
c Third year

9 

Dylan is the owner of a newspaper shop in a shopping centre. He pays rent of $860 per
week, has an electricity bill of $280 per quarter and a telephone bill of $110 per month.
These expenses are work related so he is entitled to a tax deduction. What is Dylans total
allowable tax deduction?

10

Chelsea has a small office in her home to run a business. The office in her home is 8%
of the area of the house. The tax office allows 8% of the household bills as a tax
deduction if it is a work-related expense. Calculate the allowable tax deduction for the
financial year on the following household bills.
a Electricity bill of $360 per quarter
b Telephone bill of $70 per month
c House insurance of $684 per year
d Rent of $440 per fortnight

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10.2 Taxable income


Each year people who earn an income are
required to complete a tax return. A tax return
is a form that states a persons income, the
amount of tax paid and any allowable tax
deductions. Most people have PAYG tax
deducted from their wage or salary throughout
the year. This PAYG tax can be greater or less
than the required amount of tax to be paid.
Tax is calculated on the taxable income. The
taxable income is the gross income minus
any allowable deductions. The gross income
is the total amount of money earned from
all sources. It includes interest, profits from
shares or any payment received throughout
the year.
Taxable income
Taxable income = Gross income allowable deductions
Example 3

Calculating taxable income

Anthony is a businessman who earns a gross


salary of $93 250 per year. His accountant
completed his tax return and calculated $2890
in allowable deductions.
What is Anthonys taxable income?

Solution
1
2
3

Write the quantity (taxable income) to be


calculated.
Subtract the deductions from the gross
income.
Evaluate and write using the correct units.

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Taxable income = 93 250 2890


= $90 360

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Example 4

Calculating taxable income

Emily is a journalist with a gross annual salary of $87 620. She also made $5680 from her
share portfolio and received $7320 from royalties. If Emily has tax deductions totaling $6472,
calculate her taxable income.
Solution
1
2
3
4

Calculate the gross income by adding


all income.
Write the quantity (taxable income) to
be calculated.
Subtract the deductions from the gross
income
Evaluate.

Example 5

Gross income = 87 620 + 5680 + 7320


= $100 620

Taxable income = 100 620 6472


= $94 148

Calculating taxable income

Nicole is a scientist who earns a gross weekly


pay of $1624. She has allowable tax deductions
of $8 per week for dry-cleaning, $60 for
work-related travel per year, $460 per year for
union fees and she made donations to charities of
$620 throughout the year.
a What is Nicoles gross yearly salary?
b What is Nicoles total allowable tax deduction?
c Calculate Nicoles taxable income.
Solution
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Write the quantity (salary) to be


calculated.
Multiply the weekly pay by 52.
Evaluate.

Salary = 1624 52
= $84 448

Write the quantity (tax deduction) to be


calculated.
Add all the allowable deductions.
Evaluate.

Tax deduction = (8 52) + 60 +


460 + 620
= $1556

Write the quantity (taxable income) to be


calculated.
Subtract the deductions from the gross
income.
Evaluate.

Taxable income = 84 448 1556


= $82 892

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Chapter 10 Taxation

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Exercise 10B
1

Benjamin has a gross income of $84 000. What is Benjamins taxable income given the
following allowable deductions?
a $5120
b
$9571
c
$4720
d $24 104
e
$8205
f
$17 594
g $12 520
h
$23 890
i
$34 560

Chris earns a gross salary of $67 840 per year. His tax deductions total $3462. Calculate
Chriss taxable income.

Jessica earned a gross income of $75 480 in the last financial year.
Allowable deductions

Amount

Work-related expenses

$1260

Self-education expenses

$680

Travel expenses

$940

Clothing expenses

$320

a
b

The table above is a summary of her allowable deductions. What is her total
allowable deduction?
Calculate Jessicas taxable income in the last financial year.

Eliza earned $88 784 from her employer in the last financial year. She also earned bank
interest of $380. Eliza spent $240 on books, $520 on stationery and $380 on a printer, all
of which are needed for her work.
a What is Elizas gross income?
b What are Elizas total allowable deductions?
c Calculate Elizas taxable income.

Daniel is a police officer who earned


a gross income of $63 620. He claimed
a tax deduction for a utility belt ($160),
a pair of safety glasses ($390), bullet
proof vest ($1240) and handcuffs ($420).
a What is Daniels total allowable
deduction?
b Calculate Daniels taxable income.

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Development
6

Nicholas earns a gross weekly pay of $1120. He has tax deductions of $1460.
a What is Nicholass gross yearly salary?
b What is Nicholass taxable income?

Abbey is a real estate salesperson who earns a commission of 2% on all sales. During the
year Abbey sold real estate to the value of $3232100.
a What is Abbeys gross annual income?
b Abbey has calculated her tax deductions to be $4320. What is her taxable income?

Isabelle works for a travel agency and earns a gross fortnightly pay of $2780. She pays
PAYG tax of $602 per fortnight and has tax deductions of $7 per week for dry-cleaning,
$80 for work-related travel per year and $380 per year for union fees.

a
b
c
d

9 

What is Isabelles gross yearly salary?


How much tax is deducted each week?
What is Isabelles total allowable tax deduction?
Calculate Isabelles taxable income.

Oscar is a tradesman who receives a yearly gross salary of $92200. He also works
part-time at TAFE for a wage of $135 per week. Oscar received $360 in share dividends.
a What is Oscars gross annual income?
b Oscar is entitled to tax deduction for travelling between his two places of
employment. Oscar has calculated that he travelled 340 km and the allowable
deduction is 69 c/km. What is Oscars travel expense?
c In addition to the above travel expenses Oscar is entitled to the following tax
deductions: $530 for union fees, tax agent fee of $180, charity donations of $280 and
equipment costs of $750. Calculate Oscars total allowable deduction.
d What is Oscars taxable income?

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10.3 Medicare levy


The Medicare levy is an additional charge to support Australias universal health care system.
It ensures that all Australians have access to free or low-cost medical and hospital care. The
Medicare levy is calculated at a rate of 1.5% of taxable income.
Medicare levy
Additional charge for health services. It is calculated at 1.5% of the taxable income.

Example 6

Calculating the Medicare levy

The Medical levy is 1.5% of the taxable income. What is the Medicare levy if the taxable
income is $90 600?
Solution
1
2
3
4

Write the Medicare rate of the taxable


income.
Express 1.5% as a decimal 0.015.
Evaluate using correct units.
Write the answer in words.

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Medicare levy = 1.5% of $90 600


= 0.015 90 600
= $1359
Medicare levy payable is $1359.

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 10C
1

The Medicare levy is 1.5% of the taxable income. What is the Medicare levy on the
following taxable incomes? Answer correct to the nearest dollar.
a $23 000
b
$88 541
c
$40 600
d $46 906
e
$67 800
f
$200 592
g $170 300
h
$15 790
i
$90 640

Liam has a taxable income of $56 400. He is required to pay $11 520 in tax plus a
Medicare levy of 1.5% of his taxable income.
a How much is Liams Medicare levy?
b Calculate the total amount of tax due including the Medicare levy.

Mia works for a superannuation fund and received a taxable income of $124 800. She is
required to pay $36 520 in income tax.
a Medicare levy is 1.5% of the taxable income. How much is Mias Medicare levy?
b Calculate the total amount of tax due including the Medicare levy.

The government is planning to change the rate of Australias Medicare levy. Calculate the
Medicare levy payable on $120 000 for the following rates.
a 0.50%
b
0.75%
c
1.00%
d 1.25%
e
1.50%
f
1.75%
g 2.00%
h
2.25%
i
2.50%

Sami has a taxable income of $88 900. He is required to pay $22 160 in tax plus a
Medicare levy of 2.0% of his taxable income.
a How much is Samis Medicare levy?
b Calculate the total amount of tax due including the Medicare levy.

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Development
6

The rate of the Medicare levy is 1.5% of the taxable income. What is the taxable income
given the following Medicare levies?
a $300.00
b $675.00
c $2250.00
d $1689.30
e $888.09
f
$543.21
g $2105.52
h $1131.18
i
$367.74

7 

Create the spreadsheet below. Formulas have been entered in cells B5 to B10.

10C

a
b
c
d

Cell B5 has a formula (=A5*0.015) that calculates the Medicare levy. The rate of the
Medicare levy is 1.5% of the taxable income. Enter this formula.
The formulas in cells B6 to B10 are similar to the formula in B5. Fill down the
contents of B6 to B9 using the formula in cell B5.
Use the spreadsheet to calculate the Medicare levy payable on a taxable income of:
i $10000
ii $210000
iii
$49740
The Australian Government has decided to decrease the Medicare levy from 1.5% to
1.25% of the taxable income. Modify the spreadsheet.

Oscar is a coach driver who paid a


Medicare levy of $1193.40. What was
Oscars taxable income if the rate of the
Medicare levy is 1.5% of the taxable
income? Answer correct to the nearest
dollar.

Laura paid a Medicare levy of $1303.40. What was Lauras taxable income if the rate of
the Medicare levy is 2.5% of the taxable income?

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Preliminary Mathematics General

10.4 Calculating tax


The amount of taxation varies according to the amount of
money you earn. A tax return must be lodged with the ATO
each year. It is a statement of the income earned and
the tax paid during the financial year from 1 July to
30 June. The ATO publishes a TaxPack to assist
people in completing their tax return. The
TaxPack provides information about the
current income tax rates.

10.4

Personal income tax rates


The personal income tax rates are regularly changed to take into account government
policy and inflation. The tax rates are listed in the table below. (Note: these are not the current
tax rates.)
Taxable income

Tax payable

0$6000

Nil

$6001$30000

Nil + 15 cents for each $1 over $6000

$30001$80000

$3600 + 30 cents for each $1 over $30000

$80001$180000

$18600 + 40 cents for each $1 over $80000

$180001 and over $58600 + 45 cents for each $1 over $180000


The tax payable is dependent on the taxable income. If the taxable income is $6000 or less
then there is no tax payable. The tax rates then increase progressively. It starts out at 15 cents
for every $1, for amounts between $6001 and $30000.The highest tax rate is 45 cents for
every $1 over $180000. Most people have PAYG tax deducted from their wage or salary
throughout the year. This PAYG tax can be greater or less than the required amount of tax
to be paid. If a person pays more throughout the year than they are required to pay they will
receive a tax refund. On the other hand, if a person pays less than the required amount of tax
throughout the year they will have tax owing.
Tax refund

Tax owing

Tax refund = Tax paid Tax payable

Tax owing = Tax payable Tax paid

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Chapter 10 Taxation

Example 7

305

Calculating the tax payable

Manjula has a taxable income of $25 000. How much tax will she have to pay? Manjula has
paid $4050 in PAYG tax. What is her refund?
Solution
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Look at the income tax rates


table on page 304.
Taxable income of $25 000 is
between $6001 and $30 000 (row 2).
Read the information in the tax
payable column for this range (row 2).
Write an expression for tax payable.
The word over implies more than.
Evaluate using correct units.
Write in words.
Find the tax refund by subtracting
the tax payable from the tax paid.
Evaluate.
Write in words.

Example 8

Tax payable = Nil + (25 000 6000) 0.15


= $2850

Manjula needs to pay $2850 in tax.


Tax refund = $4050 $2850
= $1200
Manjulas refund is $1200.

Calculating a tax refund

Joel has a taxable income of $200 000 and has paid $72 000 in tax instalments. How much
does the tax department owe Joel at the end of the financial year?
Solution
1
2
3
4
5

Look at the income tax rates


Tax payable = 58 600 + (200 000 180 000) 0.45
table on page 304.
= $67 600
Taxable income of $200 000 is
between $180 000 and over.
Write an expression for tax
payable.
Evaluate.
Find the tax refund by
Tax refund = 72 000 67 600
subtracting the tax payable
= $4400
from the tax paid.
Evaluate.
Tax department owes Joel $4400.

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 10D
1

The table below shows personal income tax rates.


Taxable income

Tax payable

Tax bracket

0$6000

Nil

$6001$30 000

Nil + 15 cents for each $1 over $6000

$30 001$80 000

$3600 + 30 cents for each $1 over $30 000

$80 001$180 000

$18 600 + 40 cents for each $1 over $80 000

$180 001 and over

$58 600 + 45 cents for each $1 over $180 000

Which tax bracket (A, B, C, D or E) from the table applies to these taxable incomes?
a $16 000
b
$2500
c
$75 000
d $122 500
e
$230 000
f
$80 000
g $30 001
h
$180 000
i
$4500
2

Calculate the tax payable on the following taxable incomes by completing the tax payable
expression.
a $16 000
Tax payable = Nil + (16 000 6000) 0.15 =
b

$32 500

Tax payable = 3600 + (32 500 30 000) 0.30 =

$75 000

Tax payable = 3600 + (75 000 30 000) 0.30 =

$122 600

Tax payable = 18 600 + (122 600 80 000) 0.40 =

$230 000

Tax payable = 58 600 + (230 000 180 000) 0.45 =

$80 000

Tax payable = 3600 + (80 000 30 000) 0.30 =

Avas taxable income was $28 000. The first $6000 was tax-free and the balance was
taxed at a marginal rate of 15%. Calculate the amount of tax payable.

Tylers taxable income was $111 000. The tax payable on the first $80 000 is $18 600 and
the balance was taxed at a marginal rate of 40%. Calculate the amount of tax payable.

Use the tax table on page 304 to calculate the tax payable on the following taxable
incomes.
a $6001
b
$30 001
c
$80 001

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Chapter 10 Taxation

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Development
Use the tax table on page 304 to answer questions 6 to 11.
6

What is the tax payable on the following taxable incomes?


a $10890
b $73966
c $37814
d $115900
e $196430
f
$53410

Calculate the tax refund or tax owing for the following:


a Taxable income of $34850 with tax instalments paid of $4678.
b Taxable income of $129864 with tax instalments paid of $31272.

Ebonys gross income is $32540 with allowable deductions of $4120.


a What is Ebonys taxable income?
b Calculate the amount of tax due.
c Ebony has paid $95 per week in tax. How much refund should she receive for the
year?

Charlies gross income is $55730. His allowable deductions are $5230.


a What is Charlies taxable income?
b Calculate the amount of tax due.
c Charlie has paid $160 per week in tax. How much tax has been paid for the year?
d Will Charlie receive a refund or will he have to pay more tax? Justify your answer.

10

Ruby is a dentist with a taxable


income of $145684.
a Find the tax payable on this
amount.
b What percentage of her income
is paid as tax? Answer correct to
one decimal place.

11

Nathan has a taxable income of $106770. He has paid $980 per fortnight in tax.
a How much tax has Nathan paid for the year?
b Calculate the amount of tax payable by Nathan.
c Will Nathan receive a refund or will he have to pay more tax? Justify your answer.
d What percentage of his income is paid as tax? Correct to one decimal place.

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12

Create the spreadsheet below.

10D

a
b

14.3

Formulas have been entered into cells C13, C14, C15, C16, E14, E16 and E18. These
formulas are shown above. Enter all the formulas.
Change the taxable income (cell B4) to the following amounts and observe the
results.
i $50000
ii $10000
iii $200000

13

Emma received an income of $75420 from her main job for the last financial year and
paid $18680 in tax instalments. In addition, Emma earned an income of $6890 from a
part-time job and paid tax of $2980.
a How much tax has Emma paid for the year?
b Calculate the amount of tax payable by Emma.
c Will Emma receive a refund or will she have to pay more tax? Justify your answer.
d What percentage of her income is paid as tax? Answer correct to one decimal place.

14

Alexander earns an income of $42000. He also has $15000 in a bank account which
earns interest at a rate of 8.5% p.a. Alexander has to pay tax on his total income.
a How much interest does Alexander earn from his bank account this year?
b Calculate the tax payable.

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Chapter 10 Taxation

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10.5 Calculating GST


GST
10.5

The Australian Government collects a tax when people purchase goods and services. The tax
is called the GST (Goods and Services Tax) and is 10% of the purchase price of the item.
There are exceptions for basic food items and some medical expenses.
GST


To calculate the GST, find 10% of the pre-tax price.


To calculate the total cost of an item, add the GST to the pre-tax price. Alternatively,
find 110% of the pre-tax price.
To calculate the pre-tax price given the total cost of an item, divide the total cost
by 110%.

Example 9

Finding the GST

John bought a ticket for $142 to see a concert


at the Sydney Olympic Stadium. He was also
required to pay a 10% GST.
a How much GST is payable?
b What was the total cost of his ticket
including the GST?
c What is the pre-tax price of a ticket if the
final price of the ticket was $149.60?
Solution
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Write the quantity (GST) to be calculated.


Multiply 0.10 by 142.
Evaluate and write using correct units.

GST = 10% of $142


= 0.10 142
= $14.20

Write the quantity (total cost) to be


calculated.
Add the GST to the cost of the ticket.
Evaluate and write using correct units.

Total cost = $142 + $14.20


= $156.20

Write the quantity (pre-tax price) to be


calculated.
Divide the final price by 1.10.
Evaluate and write using correct units.

Pre-tax price = $149.60 110%


= $149.60 1.10
= $136

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VAT
In some countries the GST is called the VAT (Value Added Tax). The rate of the VAT ranges
from 2% to 25%. The calculations for the VAT are similar to the calculations for the GST
except the rate of taxation is different.
VAT


To calculate the VAT, find the VAT rate of the pre-tax price.
To calculate the total cost of an item, add the VAT to the pre-tax price. Alternatively,
find 100% + VAT rate of the pre-tax price.
To calculate the pre-tax price given the total cost of an item, divide the total cost by
100% + VAT rate.

Example 10

Finding the VAT

Singapore has a Value Added Tax (VAT) levied at 5%. Olivia bought a microwave in
Singapore for $275 plus a VAT of 5%.

a
b
c

How much VAT is payable?


What was the total cost of her microwave including the VAT?
What is the pre-tax price of the microwave if the final price of the microwave was $672?
Solution
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Write the quantity (VAT) to be calculated.


Multiply 0.05 by 275.
Evaluate and write using correct units.

VAT = 5% of $275
= 0.05 275
= $13.75

Write the quantity (total cost) to be calculated.


Add the VAT to the cost of the ticket.
Evaluate and write using correct units.

Total cost = $275 + $13.75


= $288.75

Write the quantity (pre-tax price) to be


calculated.
Divide the final price by 1.05.
Evaluate and write using correct units.

Pre-tax price = $672 105%


= $672 1.05
= $640

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Chapter 10 Taxation

311

Exercise 10E
1

Calculate the GST payable on each of the following items. The GST rate is 10%.
a Football at $36
b
Shoes at $140
c
Dinner at $170
d Bucket at $3.20
e
Dress at $490
f
Book at $42
g Belt at $42.90
h
Ring at $2600
i
Camera at $370

Blake received a $620 bill for electrical work and was required to pay a 10% GST.
a How much GST is payable?
b What was the total cost of the electrical work including the GST?

Isabelle received an invoice for her gym membership of $780. In addition she was
required to pay a 10% GST.
a How much GST is payable?
b What was the total cost of her gym membership including the GST?

Great Britain has a Value Added Tax (VAT) similar to the GST. The VAT is 17 12 % on
clothing. How much VAT is payable on the following items?

a
c
5

Football jumper worth 150


Football shorts worth 20

b
d

Football boots worth 80


Football socks worth 8

What is the VAT payable in the following countries on a car worth 42 000? Answer
correct to the nearest dollar.
a Argentina 21% VAT
b
Canada 7% VAT
c China 17% VAT
d
India 12.5% VAT
e Russia 18% VAT
f
Singapore 5% VAT
g South Africa 14% VAT
h
Switzerland 6.5% VAT

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Development
6

The cost of the following items includes a 10% GST. What was the pre-GST charge?
a Pen at $17.60
b Calculator at $24.20
c Chair at $99
d DVD at $38.50
e Plant at $15.40
f
Watch at $198

New Zealand has a Value Added Tax


(VAT) levied at 12.5%.
a Ata bought a jacket in New Zealand
for $480 plus the VAT. What price
did she pay for the jacket?
b A jacket costs $390 including the
VAT. What was the price of the
jacket before VAT is added? Answer
correct to the nearest dollar.

8 

Create the spreadsheet below.

10E

a
b

Cell C5 has a formula that calculates a 10% GST. Enter this formula.
The formula in cell D5 adds the cost price and the GST. Enter this formula. Fill
down the contents of B6 to B10 using this formula.

After the 10% GST was added, the price of a mobile phone was $362. What was the
price without GST? Answer correct to the nearest cent.

10

What was the original cost of a notebook computer with a GST-included price of $1850?
The rate of GST is 10%. Answer correct to the nearest cent.

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Chapter 10 Taxation

313

10.6 Graphing tax rates


The personal income tax rates and a graph of these rates are shown below. (Note: these are
not the current tax rates.) The taxable income is the horizontal axis and the tax payable is the
vertical axis. Each change in the rate of tax results in a different line segment.
Taxable income

Tax payable

0$6000

Nil

$6001$30000

Nil + 15 cents for each $1 over $6000

$30001$80000

$3600 + 30 cents for each $1 over $30000

$80001$180000

$18600 + 40 cents for each $1 over $80000

$180000 and over

$58600 + 45 cents for each $1 over $180000

70
(180, 58.6)

Tax payable (thousands of dollars)

60
50
40
30
20

(80, 18.6)

10
(6, 0)

(30, 3.6)
20

40

60
80
100
120
140
Taxable income (thousands of dollars)

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160

180

200

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Preliminary Mathematics General

The personal income tax table on the previous page can be used to determine five points to
be graphed. The points are (0, 0), (6, 0), (30, 3.6), (80, 18.6) and (180, 58.6). These values
are in thousands of dollars: the first number is the taxable income and the second number
is the tax payable. The point (180, 58.6) represents a taxable income of $180 000 and a tax
payable of $58 600.
The gradient of each line segment represents the rate of tax. For example, the gradient of the
line between (80, 18.6) and (180, 58.6) is calculated below.
Gradient =

Vertical
r
rtical
rise
Horizontal run

58.6 18.6
180 80

40
100

= 0.440
The gradient of 0.40 corresponds to the rate of tax of 40 cents for each $1.
Graphing tax rates
1
2
3

Draw a number plane with the taxable income as the horizontal axis and the
tax payable as the vertical axis.
Use information in the tax rate table to determine the points. Plot the points.
Join the points to make a straight line segment for each rate of tax.

Example 11

Finding information from tax rate graph

Amy pays $10 000 in tax. Use the graph on the previous page to determine her taxable
income.
Solution
1
2
3
4

Find 10 on the vertical axis. This represents a tax


payable amount of $10 000.
Use a ruler read a horizontal line from 10 until it
reaches the line graph. Place a marker.
Read vertically from the marker to the horizontal
axis. Place a marker (about 50).
Read and then approximate the value of the marker.

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Taxable income is
approximately $50 000.

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Chapter 10 Taxation

315

Exercise 10F
The line graph below shows taxable income against tax payable.

Tax payable (thousands of dollars)

30
25
20
15
10
5
20

40
60
80
Taxable income (thousands of dollars)

100

Use the line graph to approximate the tax payable on the following taxable incomes.
a $5000
b
$90 000
c $15 000
d
$70 000
e $50 000
f
$80 000
2

Use the line graph in question 1 to approximate the taxable income on the following tax
payable.
a $12 000
b
$30 000
c $6000
d
$9000
e $25 000
f
$15 000

Max paid $21 000 in tax. Use the line graph in question 1 to determine his taxable
income.

Use the line graph in question 1 to determine the tax rate (or gradient) for the following
amounts.
a Taxable income between $0 and $10 000
b Taxable income between $10 000 and $30 000
c Taxable income between $30 000 and $60 000
d Taxable income between $60 000 and $100 000

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Development
5

The straight line on the graph represents a flat tax rate of 20%. The other line graph
shows the current tax structure.

Tax payable (thousands of dollars)

60

50

40
30

20

10

20

a
b
c
d

6 

40

60
80
100
120
140
Taxable income (thousands of dollars)

160

180

Calculate the tax payable on the flat tax rate for a taxable income of $40000.
What range of incomes would the flat rate of tax be a better system? Answer to the
nearest ten thousand.
What is the difference in tax payable between the two systems on a taxable income of
$180000?
What is the difference in tax payable between the two systems on a taxable income of
$80000?

Draw a line graph of the tax rates shown in the table below. Use taxable income as the
horizontal axis and tax payable as the vertical axis.
Taxable income

Tax payable

0$10000

Nil

$10001$50000

Nil + 15 cents for each $1 over $10000

$50001$100000

$7500 + 30 cents for each $1 over $50000

$100001$200000

$22500 + 40 cents for each $1 over $100000

$200000 and over

$62500 + 45 cents for each $1 over $200000

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Chapter 10 Taxation

Study guide 10

Allowable deductions

Deductions allowed by the Australian Taxation Office include


work-related, self-education, travel, car, clothing, tools and
donations.

Taxable income

Tax is calculated on the taxable income.


Gross income is the total amount of money earned.
Taxable income = Gross income Allowable deductions.

Medicare levy

Additional charge for health services.


Medicare is calculated at 1.5% of the taxable income.

Calculating tax

Calculating GST and VAT

To calculate the GST find 10% (or VAT rate) of the pre-tax
price.
To calculate the total cost of an item, add the GST (or VAT)
to the pre-tax price.
To calculate the pre-tax price given the total cost of an item,
divide the total cost by 110% (or 100% + VAT rate).

Draw a number plane with the taxable income as the


horizontal axis and the tax payable as the vertical axis.
2 Use information in the tax rate table to determine the points.
Plot the points.
3 Join the points to make a straight line segment for each rate
of tax.
Tax payable (thousands of dollars)

Graphing tax rates

Personal income tax tables have an increasing rate of tax.


Tax refund = Tax paid Tax payable
Tax owing = Tax payable Tax paid

70
(180, 58.6)

60
50
40
30
20
10

(80, 18.6)
(6, 0) (30, 3.6)
20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
Taxable income (thousands of dollars)

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Review

Chapter summary Taxation

317

Review

318

Preliminary Mathematics General

Sample HSC Objective-response questions


1

Alexei is a landscape gardener and entitled to the following tax deductions: union fees
of $484, donations of $720, equipment cost of $860, and car expenses of $1455. What is
Alexeis total allowable tax deduction?
A $484
B $860
C $1455
D $3519

Stephanie has an allowable deduction of $4690. What is her taxable income if her gross
annual salary is $43720?
A $39030
B $43720
C $48410
D $90620

William has a taxable income of $53684. What is his Medicare levy? (Assume the
Medicare levy is calculated at a rate of 1.5% of the taxable income.)
A $80.53
B $805.26
C $8052.60
D $80526

The rate of the Medicare levy is 1.5% of the taxable income. What is the taxable income if
the Medicare levy was $1208.85? Answer correct to the nearest dollar.
A $18
B $1813
C $80590
D $139018

Charlotte is a librarian who has a taxable income of $69410. The tax payable on the first
$30000 is $3600 and the balance was taxed at a marginal rate of 30%.
How much does Charlotte have to pay in tax?
A $3600
B $15423
C $30000
D $24423

A house owner receives an electricity bill for $598, before a GST of 10% is added. How
much is the GST?
A $5.98
B $59.80
C $592.02
D $538.20

After the 16% VAT was added, the price of a DVD player was $278. What was the price
without VAT? Answer to the nearest cent.
A $44.48
B $239.66
C $239.67
D $322.48

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Chapter 10 Taxation

319

Sienna owns a clothing store and is entitled to the following tax deductions: $570 for union
fees, tax agent fee of $375, charity donations of $390, information technology costs of
$3910 and printing costs of $528. What is Siennas total tax deduction?

What is the taxable income if the gross salary is $82390 and the allowable tax deduction is
$4870?

Ryan is a small business owner who bought a $3850 computer for business use. The
computer is an allowable deduction with a rate of depreciation of 33% p.a.
a How much can he claim for depreciation in the first year?
b What is the depreciated value of the computer after the first year?

James works for a modelling agency and earns a gross fortnightly pay of $3720. He pays
PAYG tax of $986 per fortnight and has tax deductions of $15 per week for dry-cleaning,
$1450 for work-related travel and $1000 per year for charities.
a What is Jamess gross yearly salary?
b How much tax is deducted each week?
c What is Jamess total allowable tax deduction?
d Calculate Jamess taxable income.

Jessica has a gross weekly pay of $1024. She received $490 in interest from a term deposit
account. Jessica has an allowable deduction of $1380.
a What is Jessicas gross annual income?
b Calculate Jessicas taxable income.
c The Medicare levy is 1.5% of the taxable income. How much will Jessica pay for the
Medicare levy?
d Each week $262.50 PAYG tax was deducted from Jessicas pay. How much did Jessica
pay in PAYG tax for the year?

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Review

Sample HSC Short-answer questions

Preliminary Mathematics General

Chapter
Earning
Money Calculate the tax payable on this amount. Use the
6 Rubysummary
has a taxableincome
of $134830.
personal income tax rates on page 304.
7

Cooper is a retail store manager. After he received a $2300 annual pay rise, his salary
became $73450. How much of the $2300 pay rise was he required to pay in tax? Use the
personal income tax rates on page 304.

Thomas received a bill for internet access of $286. In addition he was required to pay
10% GST.
a How much GST is payable?
b What was the total cost of internet access including the GST?

The straight line graph shows taxable income against tax payable.

60

50
Tax payable (thousands of dollars)

Review

320

40

30

20

10

20

a
b
c

40
60
80
100
Taxable income (thousands of dallars)

120

140

Use the graph to estimate the tax payable on a taxable income of $30000.
Use the graph to estimate the taxable income on a tax payable of $20000.
What is the rate of tax between a taxable income of $10000 and $30000?
Challenge questions 10

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C H A P T E R

11

Summary statistics
Syllabus topic DS3 Summary statistics
Calculate the median
Calculate the mean, mode and median
Determine the mean from grouped data
Calculate the standard deviation
Compare a summary of statistics from various samples

A statistic is any number that can be calculated from data. Summary statistics are special statistics
that indicate certain features of the data. They are generally measures of the centre or the spread.

11.1 The median


Median
11.1

The median is the middle score or value. To find the median, list all the scores in increasing
order and select the middle one. For example, the median of 7, 5, 2, 4 and 9 is found by
sorting the five scores and finding the middle score, or 5.
2

When there is an even number of scores, the median is the average of the two middle scores.
For example, the median of 1, 7, 5, 2, 4 and 9 is found by sorting the six scores and finding
the average of 4 and 5, or 4.5.
1

321
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Preliminary Mathematics General

Median
2

Arrange all the scores in increasing order.


Count the total number of scores. This is represented by the letter n.

If there is an odd number of scores then the median is

If there is an even number of scores then the median is average of the


the n + 1 score.

n+1
2

score.
n
2

and

Example 1

Calculating the median

The table below shows the number of


rainy days for the first six months.

a
b
c

12

15

13

10

Sort the data in ascending order.


Calculate the median.
Calculate the median using a graphics
calculator.
Solution
1
2
3

4
5
6

Write the scores in increasing order.


Count the total number of scores (n = 6).
There is an even number of scores so the
median is the average of the 3rd (score 10) and
the 4th scores (score 12).
The average of 10 and 12 is 11.

Select the STAT menu.


Enter the data into List1. Press EXE to enter
each number.

8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15


n=6,
2 2
=3

n +1= 6 +1
2
2
=4
10 + 12
Median =
2
= 11

Select 1VAR to view the summary statistics.


The median is MED.

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Chapter 11 Summary statistics

323

Exercise 11A
1

There is an odd number of scores. Find the median of these numbers.


a
3, 9, 10
b
3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 15
c
23, 28, 29, 30, 34, 45, 46, 49, 50
d
1002, 1010, 1100, 1120, 1160
e
2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 9, 9
f
14, 15, 100, 101, 102
g
0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 7, 8, 8, 8, 8
h
2, 7, 9, 10, 10, 14, 18

There is an even number of scores. Find the median of these numbers.


a
2, 5, 6, 8, 8, 9
b
12, 14, 18, 22
c
20, 20, 20, 21, 22, 24
d
3, 4, 5, 9, 10, 14, 16, 18, 18, 18
e
100, 110, 130, 140
f
1, 1, 1, 1, 3, 3, 3, 5, 5, 5, 6, 6
g
10, 20, 22, 40, 60, 61, 70, 80
h
3, 5, 8, 10, 11, 14, 18, 19

The number of senior citizens entering a


restaurant in the past 9 hours was 18, 17,
16, 17, 19, 13, 10, 16 and 15.
a
What is the smallest value?
b
What is the largest value?
c
What is the median?

Arrange these scores in order and find the median.


a
13, 6, 0, 9, 6, 5, 6, 17, 1
b
22, 31, 28, 22, 43, 22
c
9, 15, 9, 3, 6, 9, 13, 10, 7, 9
d
1, 1, 7, 9, 5, 9, 10
e
8, 12, 5, 5, 9, 10, 13, 3, 7
f
3, 0, 1, 2, 11, 9, 7, 7, 5
g
13, 6, 9, 9, 3, 9, 15, 7, 9, 10, 4, 5
h
10, 18, 7, 2, 14, 9, 10, 8

Find the missing number in these data sets.


a
The scores 8, 9, 15, , 20, 27 and 30 have a median of 20.
b
The scores 1, 1, , 3, 5 and 8 have a median of 2.
c
The scores 9, 10, 12, 14, , 15, 17, 19 and 19 have a median of 14.
d
The scores 3, 4, 4, 4, , 7, 8 and 9 have a median of 5.

Find the median of each data set.


a
23, 25, 29, 23

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7, 4, 5, 6, 15, 13, 11, 11, 9

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324

Preliminary Mathematics General

Development
7

Use the stem-and-leaf plot opposite to answer these questions.


a How many scores are there?
b What is the lowest score?
c What is the median?
d Remove 42 from the data. What is the new median?

Use the dot plot opposite to answer these questions.


a What is the highest score?
b What is the lowest score?
c Calculate the median.
d How many scores would need to be added to
make the median 23?
e What is the median if 26 is included in the data?

10

19 20 21 22 23 24 25

The table opposite shows the ages of players in the


local football team.
a What is the age of the oldest player?
b What is the age of the youngest player?
c What is the range of ages?
d What is the median age?
The frequency histogram opposite shows the
number of jeans sold for each size.
a What is the maximum size?
b What is the minimum size?
c What is the range in sizes?
d Calculate the median size.
e Construct a frequency table.

Age

Frequency

13

14

15

16

7
6
5
4
3
2
1
6

The cumulative frequency histogram and


polygon opposite shows the results of
a survey.
a How many people participated in
the survey?
b What is the median?

8 10 12 14 16
Size of jeans

30
Cum freq

11

78
2359
126799
017
27

4
3
2
1

Frequency

0
1
2
3
4

25
20
15
10
5
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
Score

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Chapter 11 Summary statistics

325

11.2 Mean and mode


Mean
11.2

The mean is a measure of the centre. It is calculated by summing all the scores and dividing
by the number of scores. For example, consider the scores 1, 6, 3 and 2. The mean is
1+ 6 + 3+ 2
4

= 3. The mean of a set of data is what most people call the average.
Mean

Mean =

Sum of scores
Number of scores

or

x=

x
n

or

x=

fx
f

The mean formula contains symbols or statistical notation that enables complex formulas to
be written in a compact form. The meaning of the symbols is as follows:

Sum of (Greek capital letter sigma)


x A score or data value
x Mean of a set of scores
n Total number of scores
f Frequency
Example 2

Calculating the mean

The number of people who travelled from overseas to


attend five meetings in Sydney was 2, 5, 6, 9 and 3.
What is the mean of this data?

Solution
1
2
3

Write the formula x = nx .


Sum all of the scores and divide by the value
of n. There are 5 scores so n = 5.
Evaluate.

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x
n
2 +5+6 + 9+ 3
=
5
=5

x=

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326

Preliminary Mathematics General

Calculating the mean using the graphics calculator

Example 3

The table below shows the number of sunny days for the first six months.

a
b

15

13

12

10

What is the mean? Answer correct


to two decimal places.
Calculate the mean using a graphics
calculator. Answer correct to two
decimal places.

Solution
1

Write the mean formula x = nx .

Sum all of the scores and divide by the


value of n. There are 6 scores so n = 6.

Evaluate.
Express answer correct to two decimal
places.

5
6

Select the STAT menu.


Enter the data into List1. Press EXE to
enter each number.

x
n
15 + 13 + 12 + 10 + 9 + 8
=
6
67
=
6
= 11.1666666
= 11.17

x=

Select 1VAR to view the summary


statistics. The mean or x is the located at
the top.

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327

Chapter 11 Summary statistics

Mode
The mode is the score that occurs the
most. It is the score with the highest
frequency. The mode is useful for
categorical data which do not allow
numerical calculations. For example, the
data collected may be a colour. Modes may
occur at the beginning or end of a range
of values. Therefore, conclusions based
only on the mode may be inaccurate. It is
common for data to have several modes.
For example, if there are two modes then
data is referred to as bimodal. When data is
grouped into classes, the class that occurs
the most is called the modal class.

Mode
1
2

Determine the number of times each score occurs.


Mode is the score that occurs the most number of times. If two or more
scores occur the same number of times they are both regarded as the mode.

Example 4

Calculating the mode

The table opposite shows the number of sunny days for


the first six months.
a
What is the mode?
b
Find the mode using a graphics calculator.

15

13

12

10

Solution
1
2
3
4
5

Each score occurs only once.


Mode is each of the scores.

Select the STAT menu.


Enter the data into List1. Press EXE to enter
each number.
Select 1VAR to view the summary statistics.
The mode is MOD.

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Mode is 8, 9, 10, 12,


13 and 15

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328

Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 11B
1

Find the mean of each data set.


a
6, 9, 9, 15, 9, 3, 7, 9, 13, 10
c
5, 5, 8, 12, 13, 3, 7, 9, 10
e
6, 5, 6, 17, 13, 6, 0, 9, 1
g
3, 5, 24, 19, 13, 13, 13, 9, 3, 8, 11

b
d
f
h

22, 28, 22, 31, 43, 22


7, 5, 11, 3, 0, 1, 2, 9, 7
39, 35, 39, 41, 47, 49, 44
55, 24, 14, 18, 13, 3, 2, 2, 2, 7, 14

Find the mean of each data set. Answer correct to one decimal place.
a
13, 14, 15
b
5, 6, 7, 8, 9
c
5, 7, 8, 9, 13, 15
d
6, 8, 11, 13
e
6, 7, 10, 11, 13, 19
f
1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 3
g
9, 9, 10, 10, 10, 11, 11, 11, 11
h
6, 6, 9, 9, 9, 10, 10, 10, 10

Twenty people measured their heart rate using a


heart-rate monitor. The results were 64, 68, 64,
72, 75, 67, 91, 80, 77, 73, 68, 81, 73, 72, 60, 62,
74, 68, 55 and 62.
a
What is the sum of these heart rates?
b
Find the mean heart rate. Answer correct to
two decimal places.
c
Another person with a heart rate of 63 is
included in this data. What is the new
mean? Answer correct to two decimal
places.

Find the mode of each data set.


a
18, 7, 9, 10, 2, 14, 10
c
13, 3, 2, 2, 7, 14, 55, 24, 14, 18, 2
e
24, 19, 3, 5, 13, 8, 11, 13, 13, 9, 3
g
13, 6, 9, 9, 3, 9, 15, 7, 9, 10

b
d
f
h

6, 17, 6, 5, 9, 1, 13, 6, 0
22, 31, 22, 28, 43, 22
13, 3, 7, 9, 5, 5, 8, 12, 10
47, 49, 39, 35, 39, 41, 44

Eleven students were surveyed on the number of hours they used the internet in the past
week. Their answers were: 3, 5, 15, 13, 12, 12, 9, 12, 13, 14 and 16. Find the mode
number of hours of internet usage.

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Development
6

Nine students were surveyed on the number of hours they slept last night. Their answers
were 10, 8, 7, 7, 4, 7, 8, 9 and 11.
a Find the mean number of hours slept.
b Find the mode number of hours slept.
c A tenth student was then surveyed and the mean changed to 7.5. What was the
number of hours slept by the tenth student?

Create the spreadsheet below.

11B

a
b
c
d

Cell C5 has a formula that multiplies cells A5 to B5. Enter this formula.
Enter formulas into cells C6 to C11 to complete the fx column.
Enter a formula in cell B12 to sum the frequency column.
Enter a formula in cell B13 to calculate the mean.

8 

The mean height of five basketball players


at the start of the game is 1.92 m. During
the game a player who is 1.80 m tall is
injured and replaced by a player who is
1.98 m tall. What is the mean height of
the five players now? Answer correct to
two decimal places.

A score was added to the set of scores: 15, 18, 20, 22, 24 and 26. The new mean is equal
to 20. What score was added?

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Preliminary Mathematics General

11.3 The mean from larger data sets


Mean from ungrouped data
11.3

To calculate the mean from a frequency table, another column is added: the frequency
score or fx column. See the example below. The sum of the fx column (or fx) gives the sum
of all the scores and the sum of the f column (or f ) gives the number of scores.
Mean
Mean =
or x =

Sum of scores
Sum of ffxx column
=
Number of scores Sum off f column
fx
fx

Calculating the mean from a frequency table

Example 5

Find the mean from the following frequency distribution table.


Score (x)

Frequency ( f )

18

19

20

21

Frequency Score ( fx )

Solution
1

Complete the fx column by multiplying the


score (x) by the frequency ( f ).

Sum the f column (f = 16).

Sum the fx column ( fx = 320).

4
5
6

fx
Write the formula x = f .

Substitute the values for fx and f.


Evaluate.

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fx

18

18

19

95

20

60

21

147

16

320

fx
f
320
=
16
= 20

x=

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Mean from grouped data


To calculate the mean from a grouped frequency table, the class centre is used instead of the
score (x). The frequency score (fx) column becomes the frequency class centre column.
The same formula for the mean is used. When the mean is calculated from grouped data it is
an approximation.
Example 6

Finding the mean from a grouped frequency table

The result of a speed camera on Glen Rd is


shown below in the grouped frequency table.
The data represents the number of cars over
the speed limit (km/h).

Class

Class centre (x)

Frequency ( f )

15

40

610

25

1115

13

20

1620

18

10

2125

23

fx

What is the mean over the speed limit for this data?
Solution
1
2
3

4
5
6

Complete the fx column by multiplying


the class centre (x) by the frequency (f ).
Sum the f column ( f = 100).
Sum the fx column ( fx = 875).

fx
Write the formula x = f .

Substitute the values for fx and f.


Evaluate.

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fx

40

120

25

200

13

20

260

18

10

180

23

115

100

875

fx
f
875
=
100
= 8.75

x=

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Exercise 11C
1

Complete the following tables and calculate the mean, correct to two decimal places.
a

Freq ( f )

Score (x)

Freq ( f )

15

16

17

18

19

Score (x)

Freq ( f )

22

fx

fx

Score (x)

Freq ( f )

23

24

25

26

fx

fx

Find the mean of the data in the following table. Answer correct to two decimal places.
a

Score (x)

Score

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

Frequency

Score

Frequency

12

10

15

12

14

15

Dylan selected 28 students at random and asked each


of them how many text messages they sent from a
mobile phone within the last day. The results are
summarised in the opposite table.
a
Copy the table and insert an fx column.
b
Calculate the mean number of text messages.
Answer correct to one decimal place.

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Text messages Frequency


0

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Chapter 11 Summary statistics

Find the mean of the data in the following table. Answer correct to two decimal places.
Class

09

1019

2029

3039

4049

5059

6069

Class centre

4.5

14.5

24.5

34.5

44.5

54.5

64.5

Frequency
5

The grouped frequency table shows the number of passengers carried by an airliner.
Class

a
b
c

333

Class centre (x)

Freq. (f)

1519

20

2024

29

2529

22

3034

18

3539

32

4044

18

4549

23

fx

Copy and complete the table by finding


the class centre and fx column.
How many passengers were carried?
Find the mean of this data. Answer
correct to the nearest whole number.

The grouped frequency table shows the


weights of randomly selected packets of
sugar. All the packets were labelled as 1 kg.
Class

a
b
c

Class centre (x)

Freq. ( f )

980984

985989

16

990994

130

995999

352

10001004

353

10051009

128

10101014

19

10151019

fx

Copy and complete the table by finding the class centre and the fx column.
How many packets of sugar were selected?
Find the mean of this data. Answer correct to one decimal place.

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Development
7

The heights in centimetres of 20 boys are recorded below.


Height range

Class centre (x)

Frequency ( f )

140149

150159

fx

6
170179
180189
a
b
c
d
e
f

8 

What is the class for the middle height range?


What is the frequency for the 170179 class?
Copy and complete the table by finding the class centre and the fx column.
Find the mean of this data to the nearest whole number.
What percentage of students is in the 150159 class?
What percentage of students is in the 180189 class?

The number of breakdown calls received by the NRMA road service are shown below.
82

69

78

83

75

89

82

89

68

90

80

79

83

68

79

91

82

79

70

90

75

70

90

74

74

75

90

80

80

85

a
b
c
d
e
f

Decide on appropriate classes for a grouped frequency table.


Calculate the class centres for these
classes.
Construct a grouped frequency table
using these class intervals.
How many pieces of data have been
collected?
Find the mean of this data. Answer
correct to one decimal place.
Which class had the largest number
of breakdown calls received by the
NRMA?
Which class had the smallest number
of breakdown calls received by the
NRMA?

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11.4 Standard deviation


The standard deviation is a measure of the spread of data about the mean. It is an average of
the squared deviations of each score from the mean. Standard deviation is calculated from the
formula shown below.
11.4

( x x )2 where is the standard deviation


n

The calculations involved with this formula are complex and time consuming. Fortunately, the
calculator is able to perform these calculations easily.
Standard deviation
Standard deviation measures the spread of data about the mean.
n Population standard deviation.

Calculating the population standard deviation

Example 7

The results of six students in a Mathematics test are shown below.


Test A
a
b

59

65

70

62

71

66

Find the population standard deviation of Test A, correct to two decimal places.
Calculate the population standard deviation using the graphics calculator.
Solution
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Enter the statistics mode of the


calculator.
Clear the contents of the memory.
Enter each score into the calculator.
Select the n key to view the result.

Select the STAT menu.


Enter scores for Test A into List1. Press
EXE to enter each number.
Select CALC then 1VAR to view the
statistics for Test A. The population
standard deviation is xn.

Population standard deviation is


n = 4.19

n = 4.19

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Sample standard deviation


There are slightly different methods for calculating the standard deviation. The population
standard deviation (n) is a better measure when we have all of the data or the entire
population. However, when a sample is taken from a large population the sample standard
deviation (n1) is a better measure.
Sample standard deviation
n1 Sample standard deviation.

Example 8

Calculating the sample standard deviation

Hannah decorates and sells cupcakes at the local market. The frequency table below shows the
number of cakes sold during the first three hours of the day.
Score (x) Frequency ( f )
1

13

19

14

10

Find the sample standard deviation. Answer correct to two decimal places. Check the result
using the graphics calculator.
Solution
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Enter the statistics mode of the calculator.


Clear the contents of the memory.
Enter the data into the calculator by using score
frequency. Type 1 13 Data , 2 19 Data ,
Select the n1 key to view the result.
Select the STAT menu.

Sample standard deviation


is n1 = 1.33

Enter scores into List1 and the frequencies into List2.


Select SET to make list2 frequencies.
Select CALC then 1VAR to view the statistics.
The sample standard deviation is xn1.

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Exercise 11D
1

Find the population standard deviation of each data set, correct to one decimal place.
a
4, 6, 8, 10, 12
b
23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29
c
0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24
d
3, 3, 5, 7, 9, 9
e
6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6
f
124, 135, 145, 132, 130, 145, 156
g
4.3, 5.6, 3.4, 7.8, 2.3, 9.1
h
112, 4, 0, 100, 7, 98, 1

An amateur athletics championship was


recently conducted. The following
distances in metres were recorded in a
long-jump championship.
4.9, 3.9, 4.0, 4.3, 4.6, 4.7, 4.3, 4.4, 4.1,
4.9, 3.9, 4.7, 4.8, 5.0
a
Calculate the population standard
deviation. Answer correct to the
nearest hundredth.
b
Two athletes did not have their results
recorded. Add 3.7 and 5.1 to the data.
What is the new population standard deviation? Answer correct to the nearest
hundredth.

Find the population standard deviation in each of the following tables. Answer correct to
one decimal place.
a

Score

10

11

Frequency

Score

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

Frequency

The tables below show the average number of cloudy days per month for two cities.
Calculate the population standard deviation, correct to two decimal places.
a

Score

Frequency

16

Score

Frequency

12

17

18

19

12

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Development
5

The results for Andrew and Kayla in their tests this term are listed below.
Andrew

17

18

15

13

10

13

14

16

16

Kayla

16

10

15

11

15

16

19

a
b
c

What are the mean and population standard deviation for Andrews results?
What are the mean and population standard deviation for Kaylas results?
Which student had the more consistent results throughout the term? Give a reason.

Find the sample standard deviation of each data set, correct to one decimal place.
a 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13
b 20, 21, 22, 31, 28, 22, 43, 22
c 13, 10, 7, 9, 9, 15, 9, 3, 6, 9
d 100, 100, 7, 9, 5, 9, 10
e 1.0, 1.3, 3.4, 7.5, 8.9
f 11, 9, 7, 7, 5, 3, 0, 1, 2

7 

A sample of the ratings for a television news program


was 34, 28, 29, 36, 22, 26, 30, 28 and 31. All ratings
are a percentage of the total audience.
a What is the sample standard deviation, correct to
two decimal places?
b The best and the worst ratings were not included
in this data. The best rating was 42 and the worst
was 18. What is the new sample standard
deviation? (Answer correct to two decimal
places.)

The age of 30 customers entering a shopping centre is


recorded below.
Age range

Class centre (x)

Frequency ( f )

019

2039

4059

6079

Use your calculator to estimate the sample standard deviation. Answer correct to one
decimal place.

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11.5 Comparison of summary statistics


Mean, median or mode
11.5

The selection and use of the appropriate statistic (mean, median, or mode) depends on the
nature of the data and the relative merits of each measure. For example, if the data contains
one or two extreme scores then the value of the mean will greatly increase or decrease.
Advantages

Easy to calculate.
Easy to understand.
Depends on every score.
Varies least from sample to sample.

Disadvantages

Distorted by outliers.
Not suitable for categorical data.

Advantages

Easy to understand.
Not affected by outliers.

Mean

Median Disadvantages

Not suitable for categorical data.


May not be central.
Varies more than the mean in a sample.

Advantages

Easy to determine.
Most typical value.
Not affected by outliers.
Suitable for categorical data.

Disadvantages

May be more than one mode.


May not be central.
Often varies with sample.

Mode

Mean, median or mode


Selection and use of the mean, median or mode depends on the nature of the
data and the relative merits of each measure.

Outliers
An outlier is a score that is separated from the majority of the data. For example, the data 0, 0,
0, 1, 1, 2, 45 has an outlier of 45. In small sets of data, the presence of an outlier will have a
large effect on the mean, a smaller effect on the median and usually no effect on the mode.

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Example 9

Comparing the mean, median and mode

The data below is the number of soft drink


cans recycled in each of the past nine days.
8, 3, 4, 8, 8, 8, 4, 5, 8
a
Find the mean, median and mode for this
data. Answer correct to one decimal place.
b
Which is the better measure for the centre
of this data? Explain your answer.

Solution
1
2
3

x
Write the mean formula x = n .

Sum all the scores and divide by the value


of n. There are 9 scores so n = 9.
Evaluate. Write correct to one decimal place.

x
n
56
=
9
= 6.2

Mean x =

Median is the middle score.


Write the scores in increasing order.

Median
3, 4, 4, 5, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8

Count the total number of scores (n = 9).

n +1 = 9 +1
2
2
=5

There is an odd number of scores so the


median is the 5th (or score 8).

Median is 8.

Mode is the score that occurs the most


number of times (or score 8).

Mode is 8.

Look at the data. The median and mode are


both 8 and it is not the centre of the data.

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The mean is central and typical


of the data. The median and
the mode are the end score (8).
Even though the median and
mode are easy to calculate, they
are not a good measure.

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Chapter 11 Summary statistics

341

Exercise 11E
1

The students in a Year 11 class were given a short quiz. The


test was marked out of ten and the results are listed opposite.
Find the following measures, correct to one decimal place.
a
Mean
b
Median
c
Mode
d
Which is the better measure for the centre of this data?
Explain your answer.

Score

Frequency

10

The area of each suburb of a city is listed below.


3.0 27.5 19.5 40.2 2.3 2.3 3.6 4.3 3.4 11.5 28.2 7.4
a
Find the mean, median and mode areas.
b
Which is the better measure for the centre of this data? Explain your answer.

9.0

A local community were concerned about the


number of people rescued from one of their
beaches. The number of people rescued in
past 13 days is recorded below.
0
a
b

Find the mean, median and mode of this data.


Which is the better measure for the centre
of this data? Explain your answer.

The number of accidents in a particular workplace in one month was: 0, 3, 0, 0, 0, 6, 1,


0, 4, 3, 0, 1, 1 and 3.
a
Find the mean, median and mode. Answer correct to the nearest whole number.
b
Which is the best measure to use when summarising this data? Give a reason.

Consider the following set of scores: 12, 15, 16, 16, 18, 18, 19, 20, 20, 60.
a
Calculate the mean and median of the set of scores.
b
What is the effect on the mean and the median of removing the outlier?

A hospitality class has eight students. The class sat for a test and the results were: 99, 96,
92, 95, 96, 12, 96 and 95.
a
Find the mean, median and mode scores. Answer correct to the nearest
whole number.
b
Molly scored 92. She told her father that her result was above the average. Do you
agree with Mollys statement? Give a reason for your answer.

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Development
7

Senior students were surveyed and the results of two samples are shown below.
Sample A
Score
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Sample B

Score

Frequency

For sample A find, correct to one decimal place, the:


i
Median
ii
Mean
iii Mode
iv Standard deviation

For sample B find, correct to one decimal place, the:


i
Median
ii
Mean
iii Mode
iv Standard deviation

What are the similarities and differences between the two samples?

Frequency

Create the spreadsheet below.

11E

a
b
c
d

9 

13.5

The formulas for cells D4:D11 are shown above. Enter these formulas.
Compare the mean, median and mode for this data. Which measure does not provide
an accurate measure of the centre? Explain your answer.
Modify the data so that the mean, median and mode are the same value.
Modify the data so that the mode is smaller than the mean and the median.

Real estate agents and the media use the median as a measure to compare house prices.
Why is the median a better measure than the mean or the mode?
14.9

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Chapter 11 Summary statistics

Median

Study guide 11

The median is the middle score or value. To find the median:


1
Arrange all the scores in increasing order.
2
Count the total number of scores (n).
3
If n is odd then the median is the n+1 score.
2

Mean

If n is even then the median is average of the


n
+ 1 score.
2

n
2

and the

Sum of scores
Number of scores
x or x = fx
x=
f
n

Mean =

Sum of.
x A score or data value.
x Mean of a set of scores.
n Total number of scores.
f Frequency.
Mode

Mode is the score that occurs the most number of times.


Score with the highest frequency.

Standard deviation

Measures the spread of data about the mean.


n Population standard deviation.
n1 Sample standard deviation.

Comparison of summary statistics

Selection and use of the appropriate statistic (mean, median


or mode) depends on the nature of the data and the relative
merits of each measure.

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Review

Chapter summary Summary statistics

343

Review

344

Preliminary Mathematics General

Sample HSC Objective-response questions


1

The scores 6, 7, 8, 9, , 12, 13, 15, 15 and 16 have a median of 12. What is the missing
number?
A 9
B 10
C 11
D 12

What is the median of 12, 20, 9, 4, 16, 11 and 13?


A 4
B 11
C 12
D 13

What is the mean of the data in the table opposite?


A 45.00
B 46.35
C 46.50
D 47.00

What is the median of the data in the table opposite?


A 46.00
B 46.50
C 47.00
D 47.50

What is the mode of 7, 15, 5, 9, 10, 11, 12, 7 and 14?


A 5
B 7
C 10
D 14

What is the class centre of 3035?


A 32
B 32.5
C 33

Score

Frequency

44

45

46

47

48

49

33.5

The mean of five scores is 4. What is the missing score if four of the scores are 2, 5,
5 and 7?
A 1
B 2
C 4
D 5

What is the mode of the data in the table opposite?


A 3
B 4
C 5
D 7

10

fx

What is the population standard deviation of the data in the table


opposite?
A 1.49
B 1.52
C 1.58
D 1.61

Score Frequency
1

What is the population standard deviation for 6, 10, 14, 18, 22,
26 and 30?
A 6
B 8
C 10
D 12

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Review

Sample HSC Short-answer questions


1

Arrange these scores in order and find the median.


a 18, 11, 5, 14, 11, 10, 11, 22, 6
b 37, 46, 43, 37, 58, 37

Find the mean of each data set.


a 11, 13, 9, 9, 12, 16, 17, 7, 14
b 14, 11, 12, 13, 18, 16, 22, 20, 18

Find the mode of each data set.


a 14, 6, 8, 16, 16, 12, 27, 22, 16, 11, 6
b 35, 27, 30, 34, 25, 29, 31, 27, 32

The number of major road accidents on the Pacific Highway in the past 12 months is:
4, 8, 7, 9, 14, 4, 6, 5, 8, 4, 9 and 10.
a What is the median?
b What is the mode?
c What is the mean?

A score of 20 is added to the table opposite. Calculate the value


of the following measures, correct to the one decimal place.
a Mean
b Median
c Mode

Score

Frequency

20

21

22

23

The number of teenagers who attended on each day of a young leaders conference was
4, 7, 8, 11 and 5. What is the mean of this data?

Find the population standard deviation of each data set. Answer correct to one decimal
place.
a 24, 30, 12, 18, 36
b 21, 22, 23, 18, 19, 20, 24

Find the population standard deviation in the following table. Answer correct to two
decimal places.
Score

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

Frequency

12

11

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Find the sample standard deviation of each data set. Answer correct to one decimal place.
a 24, 18, 12, 22, 19, 16, 18, 18, 15, 18
b 10, 18, 50, 18, 50, 14, 20

10

Ten people were surveyed on the number of hours


they watched television yesterday. Their answers
were: 2, 5, 3, 0, 1, 5, 0, 0, 3 and 10.
a What is the median?
b What is the mean?
c Find the mode.
d Calculate the sample standard deviation. Answer
correct to one decimal place.
e Calculate the population standard deviation.
Answer correct to one decimal place.
f Another person was surveyed and the mean changed to 3. How many hours did this
person watch television?

11

The numbers 3, 6, x, 9 and 11 have a mean of 8. What is the value of x?

12

The frequency table opposite shows the results


of a test out of 24.
a Copy and complete the fx column.
b Calculate the class centres.
c What is the modal class?
d Find the mean of this data to the nearest
whole number.

Class

Class
centre

Freq. (f)

1012

1315

1618

1921

2224

13

A science class has 20 students. The results of the first assessment task were:
67, 88, 69, 90, 75, 78, 81, 63, 90, 79, 89, 90, 80, 77, 32, 70, 69, 85, 91 and 24.
a Find the mean, median and mode scores. Answer correct to one decimal place.
b Which is the better measure for the centre of the data? Explain your answer.

14

Sales for a new book were: 2, 5, 0, 2, 0, 11, 3, 2, 6, 0, 0, 3, 3 and 5. Which is the best
measure to summarise this data mean, median or mode? Give a reason.

fx

Challenge questions 11

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C H A P T E R

12

Similarity and right-angled


triangles
Syllabus topic MM3 Similarity and right-angled triangles
Find scale factors of similar gures
Solve problems involving similar gures
Dene the trigonometric ratios sine, cosine and tangent
Find unknown sides with trigonometry
Find unknown angles using trigonometry
Using trigonometry to solve a variety of problems

12.1 Similar figures and scale factors


The pictures of the three pieces of cake are similar. Similar figures are exactly the same shape
but they are different sizes.
12.1

When we enlarge or reduce a shape by a scale factor, the original and the image are similar. Similar
shapes have corresponding angles equal and corresponding sides in same ratio or proportion.
20 mm
A

40 mm
B

5 mm

10 mm

For example, the above rectangles are similar. All the angles are 90. The corresponding
sides are in the same ratio 10 = 40 = 2 . The measurements in rectangle B are twice the
5
20
measurements in rectangle A. Rectangle B has been enlarged by a scale factor of 2.

347
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Preliminary Mathematics General

Similar gures



Similar figures are exactly the same shape but are a different size.
Corresponding (or matching) angles of similar figures are equal.
Corresponding (or matching) sides of similar figures are in the same ratio.
Scale factor is the amount the first shape is enlarged or reduced to get the second shape.

Example 1

Calculating the scale factor

What is the scale factor for these two similar rectangles?

12

Solution
1

Look carefully at the similar figures.

Match the corresponding sides. (9 matches


with 3 and 12 matches with 4.)
Write the matching sides as a fraction
(measurement in rectangle B divided by the
matching measurement in rectangle A).
Simplify the fraction by dividing both terms by
the same number. This fraction is the scale
factor.

Example 2

Rectangle B is smaller than


rectangle A and is rotated.
3
4
or
9
12
1
= (or 1:3)
3

Scalee ffactor =

Rectangle B is
rectangle A.

1
3

the size of

Using a scale factor

What is the length of the unknown side in the following


pair of similar triangles?

48

8
10

Solution
1
2

3
4

Match the corresponding sides. (8 matches


with 48 as it is opposite the same angle.)
Write the matching sides as a fraction (second
shape to the first shape). This fraction is the scale
factor.
Match the corresponding side for x (side marked
with a 10 as it is opposite the same angle).
Calculate x by multiplying 10 by 6 the scale factor
(or 6).

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48
8
= 6 (or
(or 6:1
6 :1 )

Scalee ffactor =
x = 10 6
= 60

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349

Chapter 12 Similarity and right-angled triangles

Exercise 12A
1

Match the following pairs of similar shapes.


124
56
A
56
124

135

71

68

E
99

54

D
56

56

101
G
H

67

101

3
8

101
67

54

99

3
56

68

101

124

3.5

1
124

71

56

56

135

56

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Preliminary Mathematics General

What is the scale factor for the following pairs of similar figures?
a


b
3

12

15

5
4

12

2
8

2 124
56
56
124
4

124
56

56
3
124

63

72

4
45

72

63

45
12

Use the scale factor to find the length of the unknown side in the following pairs of
similar figures.
a

b
3
6
2

101

10

101

d
c

67
101 10

68
67

101

15

56

68

56

56

9
56

45
4

Shapes A and B shown opposite are regular pentagons.


a Why are these shapes similar?
b What is the scale factor for these similar figures?

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A

4
B

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351

Development
5

Shape A and B consist of a rectangle and a triangle. Shape B is an enlargement of shape A.


a What is the ratio of the:
3

i lengths of the rectangle B to A?
1.5

ii breadths of the rectangle B to A?
2
B
b What is the scale factor?
A 1
5

2.5

A data projector is used to display a


computer image measuring 12 cm by
15 cm onto a screen. The scale factor used
by the data projector is 1:9. What are the
dimensions of the screen?

7 

Consider these three triangles and write true or false to the following statements.
55
A

25
a

Diagrams not to scale

65

Triangle A is similar to triangle B.

Triangle A is similar to triangle C.

Consider these two triangles.


18 cm

m
2 cm
6 cm
a
c

Why are these triangles similar?


Find the value of m.

15 cm
b
d

What is the scale factor?


Find the value of n.

Let BC = a, AC = b, BD = x, AD = y and DC = z.
a Why is ADC similar to ABC?
b Write an expression for the three corresponding sides of
the similar triangles.

z
C

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a
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Preliminary Mathematics General

12.2 Problems involving similar figures


The lengths of the corresponding (or matching) sides in similar figures are in the same ratio or
proportion. This property is used to calculate the length of an unknown side.
12.2

Finding an unknown side in similar gures


1
2

3
4

Determine the corresponding or matching sides in the similar figures.


Write an equation using two fractions formed from the matching sides a
measurement from the second shape divided by a matching measurement from the
first shape. This is the scale factor.
Solve the equation.
Check that the answer is reasonable and units are correct.

Example 3

Finding an unknown side in similar figures

What is the length of the unknown sides in the following pair of similar triangles?
1.5

y
1.875

20

12

Solution

Determine the matching sides in the similar


triangles (x and 1.875, 12 and 1.5, 20 and y).
Write an equation using matching sides
involving x. Use x (second shape) and 1.875
(first shape) equal to 12 (second shape) and
1.5 (first shape).
Solve the equation.

x
12 Second shape
=
1.875 1.5 First shape
12
x=
1.875
1.5
= 15

Write an equation using matching sides


involving y. Use 20 (second shape) and y
(first shape) equal to 12 (second shape) and
1.5 (first shape).

Solve the equation.

20 12 Second shape
=
y 1.5 First shape
12 y = 2200 1.5
20 1.5
y=
12
= 2.5

Check that the answers are reasonable.

x = 15 and y = 2.5

1
2

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Chapter 12 Similarity and right-angled triangles

Similar figures are used to solve problems that


require the length of an object. For example,
we can calculate the height of a tree without
physically measuring the height. A similar figure
is drawn using a metre rule and the length of its
shadow is measured (see example below). This is a
very useful concept.

Solving a worded problem using similar gures


1
2
3
4
5
6

Read the question and underline the key terms.


Draw similar figures and label the information from the question.
Use a pronumeral (x) to represent an unknown side.
Write an equation using two fractions formed from matching sides.
Solve the equation.
Check that the answer is reasonable and units are correct.

Example 4

Solving a problem involving similar figures

A tree casts a 5 m long shadow on the ground. At the same


time a one metre rule casts a shadow with a length of
80 cm. What is the height of the tree? Answer in metres
correct to two decimal places.

1m
5m

80 cm

Solution

Divide 80 cm by 100 to convert it to metres.


Determine the matching sides in the similar
triangles (1 and x, 0.8 and 5).
Write an equation using matching sides
involving x. Use 1 (second shape) and x (first
shape) equal to 0.8 (second shape) and 5 (first
shape).
Solve the equation.
Write the answer correct to two decimal
places.
Write the answer in words.

Let x be the height of the tree.


80 cm = 0.8 m

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1
2
3

4
5
6

1 0.8 Second shape


=
x
5 First shape
0.8 x = 5
5
x=
0.8
= 6.25
25 m
The height of the tree is 6.25 m.

354

Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 12B
1

Find the length of the pronumeral for the following pairs of similar triangles. All
measurements are in centimetres.
a

1.5

12
6

21

10
x

Find the length of the unknown sides for the following pairs of similar triangles. All
measurements are in centimetres.
a

15

16

10

24
12

9
p

12
6

7
4

10

28

20

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355

Chapter 12 Similarity and right-angled triangles

A tree casts a shadow 3.5 m long. At the same time a one metre ruler casts a shadow
0.5 m long. What is the height of the tree? Answer correct to
one decimal place.
1m
0.5 m

3.5 m
4

A building casts a shadow 9 m long. At the same time a one


metre ruler casts a shadow 0.75 m long. What is the height
of the building? Answer correct to the nearest metre.
1m
0.75 m

9m

A stick 2 m high throws a shadow 1.5 m long. At the


same time a tower throws a shadow 30 m long. How high
is the tower? Answer correct to one decimal place.

Tower
Stick

David is 1.8 m in height. When he is standing out in the sun


his shadow is 2.4 m long. At the same time a block of units
casts a shadow of 18 m. How tall is the block of units?
Answer correct to the nearest metre.

Jessica found that her shadow was 3 m long when the


shadow of a flagpole was 9 m long. If Jessicas height
is 1.5 m, what is the height of the flagpole? Answer to
the nearest metre.

Flagpole
Jessica

A 5.4 m high pole casts a shadow of 3.6 m in length. At the same time,
the shadow of a building falls exactly over the pole and its shadow. The
shadow cast by the building measures 14.4 m. How high is the building?
Answer correct to one decimal place.
A fence is 1.5 m in height and has a shadow of length
2.1 m. At the same time the shadow thrown by a light
pole is 3.6 m. How high is the light pole? Answer
correct to one decimal place.

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Pole

Light pole
Fence

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Development
10

Find the value of the pronumerals in the following diagrams.


a

12

8
x
3

6
y

7
3
9
z
11

Lucas and his younger brother Nathan are standing side by side. Nathan is 1.4 m tall and
casts a shadow 3.5 m long. How tall is Lucas if his shadow is 5 m long? Answer correct
to one decimal place.

12

Wollongongs lighthouse casts a shadow of


length 15 m. At the same time a one-metre
beach umbrella casts a shadow whose length
is 1.25 m.
a What is the height of the lighthouse?
Answer correct to nearest metre.
b A nearby wall casts a shadow 5 m long.
Calculate the height of this wall to the
nearest metre.

13

A tree and a 1 m vertical stick cast their shadows at a particular time of the day. The
shadow of the tree is 32 m and the shadow of the vertical stick is 4 m.
a Draw two triangles to represent the above information.
b Give a reason why the two triangles are similar.
c Find the height of the tree correct to the nearest metre.

14

A 3.5 m ladder has a support 80 cm long placed 1.5 m from


the top of the ladder. How far apart are the feet of the ladder?
Answer in centimetres correct to the nearest whole number.

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80 cm

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357

12.3 Scale drawings


A scale drawing is a drawing that
represents the actual object. The
scale factor of a scale drawing
12.3 is the ratio of the size of the
drawing to the actual size of the
object. For example, a map is a
scale drawing. It is not the same
size as the area it represents. The
measurements have been reduced
to make the map a convenient
size. The scale of a drawing may
be expressed with or without
units. For example, a scale of
1 cm to 1 m means 1 cm on the
scale drawing represents 1 m on
the actual object. Alternatively, a
scale of 1 : 100 means the actual
distance is 100 times the length
of 1 unit on the scale drawing.

Scale drawing
Scale of a drawing = Drawing length : Actual length
Scale is expressed in two ways:
Using units such as 1 cm to 1 m (or 1 cm = 1 m).
No units such as 1 : 100.

Example 5

Using a scale

A scale drawing has a scale of 1 : 50.


a
Find the actual length if the drawing length is 30 mm. Answer to the nearest centimetre.
b
Find the drawing length if the actual length is 4.5 m. Answer to the nearest millimetre.
Solution
1
2
3
4

Multiply the drawing length by 50


to determine the actual length.
Divide by 10 to change millimetres
to centimetres.
Divide the actual length by 50 to
determine the drawing length.
Multiply by 1000 to change metres
to millimetres.

Actual length = 30 50 mm
= 1500 mm
= 150 cm

Drawing length = 4.5 50 m


= 0.09 m
= 90 mm

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 12C
1

A scale drawing has a scale of 1 : 100. What is the actual length of these drawing lengths?
Express your answer in metres.
a
2 cm
b
10 mm
c
3.4 cm
d
28 mm
e
8.5 cm
f
49 mm

A scale drawing has a scale of 1 : 25 000. What is the drawing length of these actual
lengths? Express your answer in millimetres.
a
2 km
b
750 m
c
4000 cm
d
3.5 km
e
50 000 mm
f
1375 m

Express each of the following scales as a ratio in the form 1 : x.


a
1 cm to 2 cm
b
1 mm to 5 cm
c
1 cm to 3 km

The scale on a map is 1 : 1000. Calculate the actual distances if these are the distances on
the map. Express your answer in metres.
a
Road 20 cm
b
Shops 10 cm
c
Pathway 5 cm
d
Parking area 10 mm
e
Bridge 34 mm
f
Park 80 mm

The scale on a map is given as 1 cm = 15 km.


What is the actual distance if the distance on
the map is:
a
2.5 cm?
b
45 cm?

Woy Woy
Palm Beach
Penrith
Parramatta

Mona
Vale

SYDNEY
Coogee

The scale on a map is 1 : 5000. Calculate the map distances if these are actual distances.
Express your answer in millimetres.
a
50 m
b
80 m
c
100 m
d
120 m
e
150 m
f
240 m

The scale on a map is given as 1 mm = 50 m. If the distance between two points is


350 m, what is the map distance between these points?

A scale drawing has a scale of 1 : 75. Find the:


a
actual length if the drawing length is 15 mm.
b
drawing length if the actual length is 3 m.

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359

Development
9

The Parkes radio telescope dish has a diameter of


64 metres. The image opposite uses a photograph
of the dish.
a Determine a scale for the image.
b Estimate the height of the top of the antenna
above the ground.

10

The scale of a model is 2:150. Calculate the model lengths if these are actual lengths.
Express your answer in millimetres.
a 75 cm
b 180 cm
c 300 cm
d 45 m
e 6 m
f
36 m

11

A scale drawing of the space shuttle is shown opposite.


The actual length of the space shuttle is 47 metres.
a What is the scale factor?
b Calculate the length of the wing span.
c Calculate the width of the shuttle.
d What is the length of the nose of the shuttle?

12

The total length of the Sydney Harbour Bridge is 1150 metres. A scale model is built for
a coffee table of length 1.2 metres using the picture below.

a
b
c
d

What scale would be suitable?


What is the maximum height of the bridge if the scale model has a height of 20 cm?
Estimate the height of the bridge pillars.
Estimate the length of the Sydney Opera House.

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Preliminary Mathematics General

12.4 Trigonometric ratios


Trigonometric ratios are defined using the sides of a right-angled triangle. The hypotenuse is
opposite the right angle, the opposite side is opposite the angle and the adjacent side is the
remaining side.
12.4

Naming sides in a triangle


hypotenuse

opposite

adjacent

The opposite and adjacent sides are located in relation to the position of angle . If was in
the other angle, the sides would swap their labels. The letter is the Greek letter theta. It is
commonly used to label an angle.
Example 6

Naming the sides of a right-angled triangle

What are the values of the hypotenuse, the opposite side and the
adjacent side in the triangle shown?

Solution
1
2
3

Hypotenuse is opposite the right angle.


Opposite side is opposite the angle .
Adjacent side is beside the angle , but not the
hypotenuse.

Hypotenuse is 5 (h = 5)
Opposite side is 4 (o = 5)
Adjacent side is 3 (a = 5)

The trigonometric ratios


The trigonometric ratios sin , cos and tan are defined using the sides of a right-angled
triangle.
sin =

opposite
hypotenuse

cos =

adjacent
hypotenuse

tan =

opposite
adjacent

sin =

o
(SOH)
h

cos =

a
(CAH)
h

tan =

o
(TOA)
a

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361

Trigonometric ratios
The mnemonic SOH CAH TOA is pronounced as a single word.
SOH: Sine-Opposite-Hypotenuse
CAH: Cosine-Adjacent-Hypotenuse
TOA: Tangent-Opposite-Adjacent
The order of the letters matches the ratio of the sides.

The meaning of the trigonometric ratios


Consider the three triangles drawn below.

6
2
30

4
1

2
30

30

The three triangles drawn above show the ratio of the opposite side to the hypotenuse as 0.5
1 2
3
2 , 4 or 6 . This is called the sine ratio. All right-angled triangles with an angle of 30 have
a sine ratio of 0.5. If the angle is not 30 the ratio will be different, but any two right-angled
triangles with the same angle will have the same value for their sine ratio.
Similarly, the three triangles drawn below show the ratio of the opposite side to the adjacent
1 2
3
side as 1 , or . This is called the tangent ratio. All right-angled triangles with an angle
3
1 2
of 45 have a tangent ratio of 1.

3
2
1
45
1

45

45
2

The ratio of the opposite side to the hypotenuse (sine ratio), the ratio of the adjacent side to
the hypotenuse (cosine ratio) and the ratio of the opposite side to the adjacent side (tangent
ratio) will always be constant irrespective of the size of the right-angled triangle.

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Example 7

Finding the trigonometric ratio

Find the sine, cosine and tangent ratios for angle in the
triangle shown.

15

17
Solution
1
2
3

4
5

6
7

Name the sides of the right-angled triangle.


Write the sine ratio (SOH).
Substitute the values for the opposite side and
the hypotenuse.
Write the cosine ratio (CAH).
Substitute the values for the adjacent side and
the hypotenuse.
Write the tangent ratio (TOA).
Substitute the values for the adjacent side and
the opposite side.

Example 8

o
h
8
=
17
a
cos =
h
15
=
17
o
tan =
a
8
=
15
sin =

Finding a trigonometric ratio

Find sin in simplest form given tan =

6
.
8

Solution
1
2
3
4
5

6
7
8

Draw a triangle and label the opposite and


adjacent sides.
Find the hypotenuse using Pythagoras

theorem.
8
Substitute the length of the sides into
Pythagoras theorem.
Take the square root to find the hypotenuse (h). h2 = 6 2 + 82
Evaluate.
h = 6 2 + 82
= 10
o
sin =
Write the sine ratio (SOH).
h
Substitute the values for the opposite side and
6
the hypotenuse.
=
10
Simplify the ratio.
3
=
5

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Chapter 12 Similarity and right-angled triangles

363

Exercise 12D
1

State the values of the hypotenuse, opposite side and adjacent side in each triangle.
a

8
10

13

12

5
e

39

5
f

30

18

36

15

12

15

24

State the values of the hypotenuse, opposite side and adjacent side in each triangle.
a

e
a

Write the ratios for sin , cos and tan for each triangle in question 1.

Write the ratios for sin , cos and tan for each triangle in question 2.

Name the trigonometric ratio represented by the following fractions.


26

10
24

ii

iii

10
26
24
26
10
24

12

20
16

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i
ii

iii

12
20
16
12
16
20

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364

Preliminary Mathematics General

Development
6

Find the sine, cosine and tangent ratios in simplest form for each angle.
a

angle
ii angle
i

11

angle
ii angle
i

32

40

60

61

angle
ii angle
i

45

51

angle
ii angle
i

24

24

Find the sine and cosine ratios in simplest form for angle A and B for each triangle.
a

b
A
20
C
A

34

16

30

8 

15
B

25

Draw a right-angled triangle for each of the following trigonometric ratios and

i find the length of the third side.

ii find the other two trigonometric ratios in simplest form.
a

tan =

3

4

cos =

7
25

sin =

8
10

Draw the following two triangles using a protractor and a ruler.

2
60
a
b
c

60

Measure the length of the hypotenuse, adjacent and opposite sides in each triangle.
What is the value of the cosine ratio for 60 in both triangles?
What is the value of the sine ratio for 60 in both triangles?

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365

12.5 Using the calculator in trigonometry


In trigonometry an angle is usually measured in degrees, minutes and seconds. Make sure the
calculator is set up to accept angles in degrees. It is essential in this course that the degree
mode is selected.
Degrees

Minutes

1 degree = 60 minutes
1 = 60

1 minute = 60 seconds
1 = 60

Finding a trigonometric ratio


A calculator is used to find a trigonometric ratio
of a given angle. It requires the sin , cos
and tan keys. The trigonometric ratio key is
pressed followed by the angle. The degrees,
minutes and seconds ''' or DMS is then
selected to enter minutes and seconds. Some
calculators may require you to choose degrees,
minutes and seconds from an options menu.

Example 9

Finding a trigonometric ratio

Find the value of the following, correct to two decimal places.


3
a
sin 60
b
2 cos 40.5
c
d
sin 3420
tan 75
Solution
1

Press sin 60 = or exe

sin 60 = 0.866 025 403 8


= 0.87

Press 2 cos 40.5 = or exe

2 cos 40.5 = 1.520 811 31


= 1.52

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366

Preliminary Mathematics General

Press 3 tan 75 = or exe

Press sin 34 ''' 20 ''' = or exe

3
= 0.803 847 577 3
tan 75
= 0.80
sin 3420 = 0.564 006 558 1
= 0.56

Finding an angle from a trigonometric ratio


A calculator is used to find a given angle from a trigonometric ratio.
Check that the degree mode is selected. To find an angle use the sin1 ,
cos1 and tan1 keys. To select these keys press the SHIFT or a 2nd
function key. The degrees, minutes and seconds ''' or DMS is then
selected to find the angle in minutes and seconds.

Example 10
a
b

Finding an angle from a trigonometric ratio

Given sin = 0.6123, find the value of to the nearest degree.


Given tan = 1.45, find the value of to the nearest minute.
Solution
1

Press SHIFT sin1 0.6123 = or


exe .

sin = 0.6123
= 37.755 994 38
= 38

Press SHIFT tan1 1.45 = or exe


Convert the answer to minutes
by using the ''' or DMS .

tan = 1.45
= 5524 27.76
= 5524

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Chapter 12 Similarity and right-angled triangles

367

Exercise 12E
1

What is the value of the following angles in minutes?


a
1
b
7
c
20
d
1
e
0.5
f
g
0.2
h
3

60
5

What is the value of the following angles in degrees?


a
120 minutes
b 480 minutes
c 60 minutes
e
30 minutes
f 15 minutes
g 45 minutes

d
h

600 minutes
20 minutes

Find the value of the following trigonometric ratios, correct to two decimal places.
a
sin 20
b cos 43
c tan 65
d cos 72
e
tan 13
f sin 82
g cos 15
h tan 48

Find the value of the following trigonometric ratios, correct to two decimal places.
a
cos 6330
b sin 4010
c cos 5245
d cos 3523
e
sin 2256
f tan 5342
g tan 682
h cos 6557

Find the value of the following trigonometric ratios, correct to one decimal place.
a
4 cos 30
b 3 tan 53
c 5 sin 74
d 6 sin 82
e
11 sin 2130
f 7 cos 3240
g 4 sin 2512
h 8 tan 3924

Given the following trigonometric ratios, find the value of to the nearest degree.
a
sin = 0.5673
b
cos = 0.1623
c
tan = 0.2782
1
5
3
sin =
cos =
tan =
d
e
f
2
8
4

Given the following trigonometric ratios, find the value of to the nearest minute.
a
tan = 0.3891
b
sin = 0.6456
c
cos = 0.1432
3
1
1
sin =
d
e
f
tan = 1
cos =
5
3
4

Find the value of x. Answer correct to two decimal places.


a
x = 4 tan 27
b
x = 7 sin 1517
c
cos x = 0.5621

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368

Preliminary Mathematics General

Development
9

10

11

Find the value of the following trigonometric ratios, correct to two decimal places.
a

5
tan 40

4

cos 389

1
sin 63
5

tan 7236

12
cos 25

3
sin 42

6

sin 5548

7
cos 7116

Given the following trigonometric ratios, find the value of to the nearest degree.
a

sin =

3

2

tan =

4
6

tan =

cos =

5
6

cos =

3

2

sin =

Given the following trigonometric ratios, find the value of to the nearest minute.
a

cos =

sin =

3

4

tan =

5
12

sin =

7

7

tan =

2

7

cos =

11

12

Given the following trigonometric ratios, find the value of to the nearest degree.
a tan = 1:6
b sin = 2:5
c cos = 3:8

13

Given that sin = 0.4 and angle is less than 90, find the value of:
a to the nearest degree.
b cos , correct to one decimal place.
c tan , correct to two decimal places.

14

Given that tan = 2.1 and angle is less than 90, find the value of:
a to the nearest minute.
b sin, correct to three decimal places.
c cos, correct to four decimal places.

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Chapter 12 Similarity and right-angled triangles

369

12.6 Finding an unknown side

12.6

Trigonometric ratios are used to find an unknown side in a right-angled triangle, given at least
one angle and one side. The method involves labelling the sides of the triangle and using the
mnemonic SOH CAH TOA. The resulting equation is rearranged to make x the subject and the
calculator used to find the unknown side.
Finding an unknown side in a right-angled triangle
1
2
3
4
5

Name the sides of the triangle h for hypotenuse, o for opposite and
a for adjacent.
Use the given side and unknown side x to determine the trigonometric
ratio. The mnemonic SOH CAH TOA helps with this step.
Rearrange the equation to make the unknown side x the subject.
Use the calculator to find x. Remember to check the calculator is set up
for degrees.
Write the answer to the specified level of accuracy.

Example 11

Finding an unknown side

Find the length of the unknown side x in the triangle shown. Answer
correct to two decimal places.

25
34

Solution
1
2
3
4

5
6

Name the sides of the rightangled triangle.


Determine the ratio (SOH).
Substitute the known values.
Multiply both sides of the
equation by 25.

o
h
x
sin 34 =
25
25 sin 34 = x
x = 25 sin 34
= 13.979 822 59
sin =

Press 25 sin 34 = or exe .


Write the answer correct to two
decimal places.

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=13.98

Cambridge University Press

370

Preliminary Mathematics General

Finding an unknown side in the denominator


It is possible that the unknown side (x) is the denominator
of the trigonometric ratio. For example, in the triangle
below, the unknown x is the hypotenuse of the triangle. This
2
results in the trigonometric ratio .
x
o
h
2
sin 60 =
x
sin =

x
60

To solve these types of equations multiply both


sides by x. Then divide both sides by the trigonometric
expression (sin 60) to make x the subject.

Example 12

Finding an unknown side in the denominator

Find the length of the unknown side x in the triangle shown. Answer
correct to two decimal places.

x
40
12

Solution

Name the sides of the right-angled


triangle.
Determine the ratio (CAH).
Substitute the known values.
Multiply both sides of the equation by x.
Divide both sides by cos 40.

Press 12 cos 40 = or exe .

Write answer correct to two decimal


places.

1
2
3
4

a
h
12
cos 40 =
x
x cos 40 = 12
12
x=
cos 40
= 15.6664 887 47

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cos =

= 15.66

Cambridge University Press

Chapter 12 Similarity and right-angled triangles

371

Exercise 12F
1

Find the length of the unknown side x in each triangle, correct to two decimal places.
a

15

31

35

x
x

24

23
42

9
43

76
x

55

60
x

26.7
x

20

60

34

7
48.4
x

21.1

Find the length of the unknown side x in each triangle, correct to two decimal places.
a

47

67

5845
x

31
4435

2620

389
27

29
355

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5
188
x

Cambridge University Press

372

Preliminary Mathematics General

Development
3

Find the length of the unknown side x in each triangle, correct to two decimal places.
a

34

48

90

77

11

70

42

44

Find the length of the unknown side x in each triangle, correct to one decimal place.
a

87
6815

256
29

1650

47


4953

287

12

321

51

47

4 

33

63

47

Find the length of the unknown side x in each triangle, correct to three decimal places.

21.7

12.5
x

80.9
39

64

42

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373

Chapter 12 Similarity and right-angled triangles

12.7 Finding an unknown angle

12.7

Trigonometric ratios are used to find an unknown angle in a right-angled triangle, given
at least two sides. The method involves labelling the sides of the triangle and using the
mnemonic SOH CAH TOA. The resulting equation is rearranged to make the subject and
the calculator is used to find the unknown angle.
Finding an unknown angle in a right-angled triangle
1
2

3
4
5

Name the sides of the triangle h for hypotenuse, o for opposite


and a for adjacent.
Use the given sides and unknown angle to determine the
trigonometric ratio. The mnemonic SOH CAH TOA helps with
this step.
Rearrange the equation to make the unknown angle the subject.
Use the calculator to find . Remember to check the calculator is
set up for degrees.
Write the answer to the specified level of accuracy.

Example 13

Finding an unknown angle

Find the angle in the triangle shown. Answer correct to the


nearest degree.

16

24

Solution
1
2
3
4

Name the sides of the right-angled triangle.


Determine the ratio (SOH).
Substitute the known values.
Make the subject of the equation.

o
h
16
sin =
24
sin =

16
= sin 1
24
5

Press SHIFT sin1 (16 24) = or exe

or
6

Press SHIFT sin1 16 a bc 24 = or exe

Write answer correct to the nearest degree.

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= 41.810 314 9
= 42

Cambridge University Press

374

Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 12G
1

Find the unknown angle in each triangle. Answer correct to the nearest degree.
a

55

12

13

38

15

26

40

57

26

19

16

33

37

42

57

40

Find the unknown angle in each triangle. Answer correct to the nearest degree.
a

10.2

2.4

42.3

3.0

7.9

50.6

9.8
8.3

3.3

98.3

4.5

67.5

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375

Chapter 12 Similarity and right-angled triangles

Development
3

Find the unknown angle in each triangle. Answer correct to the nearest minute.
a

b

c
8
22

19

16

25

61


43

66

13

7
47

Find the unknown angle in each triangle. Answer correct to the nearest degree.
a

b

c
1 23

4 12

7
8

2 14

4 35

3 34

5 

Find the unknown angle in each triangle. Answer correct to the nearest degree.
a

b

c
3
29
17

15

20

21

Find the angle and in each triangle. Answer correct to the nearest minute.
a
b
c
26
8
30

10
24

34

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16

10

Cambridge University Press

376

Preliminary Mathematics General

12.8 Applications of right-angled triangles

12.8

Trigonometry is used to solve many practical problems. How high is that tree? What is
the height of the mountain? Calculate the width of the river. When solving a trigonometric
problem make sure you read the question carefully and draw a diagram. Label all the
information given in the question on this diagram.
Solving a trigonometric worded problem
1
2
3
4
5

Read the question and underline the key terms.


Draw a diagram and label the information from the question.
Use trigonometry to calculate a solution.
Check that the answer is reasonable and units are correct.
Write the answer in words and ensure the question has been answered.

Example 14

Application requiring the length of a side

An Australian flagpole casts a shadow 8.35 m long. The suns rays


make an angle of 44 with the level ground. Find the height of the
flagpole. Answer correct to two decimal places.

44
8.35 m

Solution
1

Draw a diagram and label the required height


as x.

x
44
8.35 m

2
3
4
5
6
7

Name the sides of the right-angled triangle.


Determine the ratio (TOA).
Substitute the known values.
Multiply both sides of the equation by 8.35.
Press 8.35 tan 44 = or exe .
Write the answer correct to two decimal
places.

tan =

o
a

x
8.35
8.35 tan 44 = x
x = 8.35 tan 444
x = 8.06
tan 44 =

Height of the flagpole is 8.06 m.


8

Write the answer in words.

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Chapter 12 Similarity and right-angled triangles

377

Trigonometry has many applications, such as in building and construction. Any vertical parts
of a structure make a right angle with horizontal parts. Sloping lines in the structure complete
a right-angled triangle, and trigonometry can be used to calculate its other angles and side
lengths.

Example 15

Application requiring an angle

The sloping roof of a shed uses sheets of Colorbond steel 4.5 m long on a
shed 4 m wide. There is no overlap of the roof past the sides of the walls.
Find the angle the roof makes with the horizontal. Answer correct to the
nearest degree.

4.5 m

4m
Solution
1

Draw a diagram and label the required angle as .


4.5 m

4m

Name the sides of the right-angled triangle.

Determine the ratio (CAH).

Substitute the known values.

Make the subject of the equation.

Press SHIFT cos1 (4 4.5) = or exe

Write the answer correct to the nearest degree.

Write the answer in words.

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a
h
4
cos =
4.5
cos =

4
= cos1
4.5
= 27.266 044 45

= 27
The roof makes an angle
of 27.

Cambridge University Press

378

Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 12H
1

A balloon is tied to a string 25 m long. The other end of the string


is secured by a peg to the surface of a level sports field. The wind
blows so that the string forms a straight line making an angle of 37
with the ground. Find the height of the balloon above the ground.
Answer correct to one decimal place.
A pole is supported by a wire that runs from the top of the pole to a
point on the level ground 5 m from the base of the pole. The wire
makes an angle of 42 with the ground. Find the height of the pole,
correct to two decimal places.

25 m
37

42
5m

Ann noticed a tree was directly opposite her on the far bank of
Tree
the river. After she walked 50 m along the side of the river, she
found her line of sight to the tree made an angle of 39 with the
river bank. Find the width of the river, to the nearest metre.

A ship at anchor requires 70 m of anchor chain. If the chain is


inclined at 35 to the horizontal, find the depth of the water,
correct to one decimal place.

39
50 m
Ann

Boat
70 m
35

Vertical tent pole is supported by a rope of length 3.6 m tied


to the top of the pole and to a peg on the ground. The pole is
2 m in height. Find the angle the rope makes to the
horizontal. Answer correct to the nearest degree.

2m

A 3.5 m ladder has its foot 2.5 m out from the base of a wall. What
angle does the ladder make with the ground? Answer correct to the
nearest degree.

3.6 m

3.5 m

2.5 m

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Chapter 12 Similarity and right-angled triangles

379

Development
7

A plane maintains a flight path of 19 with the horizontal after it takes off. It travels for
4 km along the flight path. Find, correct to one decimal place:
a the horizontal distance of the plane from its take-off point.
b the height of the plane above ground level.

A wheelchair ramp is being provided to


allow access to the first floor shops. The
first floor is 3 m above the ground floor.
The ramp requires an angle of 20 with
the horizontal. How long will the ramp be,
measured along its slope? Answer correct
to two decimal places.

A shooter 80 m from a target and level with it, aims 2 m above the bullseye and hits it.
What is the angle, to the nearest minute, that his rifle is inclined to the line of sight from
his eye to the target?

10

A rope needs to be fixed with one end attached to the top of a 6 m vertical pole and the
other end pegged at an angle of 65 with the level ground. Find the required length of
rope. Answer correct to one decimal place.

11

Two ladders are the same distance up the wall. The shorter
ladder is 5 m long and makes an angle of 50 with the ground.
The longer ladder is 7 m long. Find:
a the distance the ladders are up the wall, correct to two
decimal places.
b the angle the longer ladder makes with the ground, correct
to the nearest degree.

12

7m

5m
50

A pole is supported by a wire that runs from the top of the pole to a point on the level
ground 7.2 m from the base of the pole. The height of the pole is 5.6 m. Find the angle,
to the nearest degree, that the wire makes with the ground.

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380

Preliminary Mathematics General

12.9 Angles of elevation and depression


The angle of elevation is the angle measured upwards from the horizontal.
The angle of depression is the angle measured downwards from the horizontal.
12.9

Angle of elevation

Angle of depression
Horizontal

Horizontal

Angle of
elevation

Angle of
depression

The angle of elevation is equal to the angle of depression as they form alternate angles
between two parallel lines. This information is useful to solve some problems.

Angle of
depression

Example 16

Angle of
elevation

Angle of elevation

A park ranger measured the top of a plume of volcanic ash to


be at an angle of elevation of 41. From her map she noted that
the volcano was 7 km away. Calculate the height of the plume of
volcanic ash. Answer correct to two decimal places.

Volcanic
plume
41
7 km

Solution
1

Draw a diagram and label the required


height as x.
x
41

Name the sides of the right-angled triangle.

Determine the ratio (TOA).

Substitute the known values.

Multiply both sides of the equation by 7.

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7 km

o
a
x
tan 41 =
7
7 tan 41 = x
x = 7 tan 41
tan =

Cambridge University Press

Chapter 12 Similarity and right-angled triangles

6
7
8

Press 7 tan 41 = or exe .


Write the answer correct to two decimal
places.
Write the answer in words.

Example 17

381

x = 6.085 007 165


= 6.09
The height of the volcanic
plume was 6.09 km.

Angle of depression

The top of a cliff is 85 m above sea level. Minh saw a tall


ship. He estimated the angle of depression to be 17.
How far was the ship from the base of the cliff? Answer
to the nearest metre.

Solution
1

Draw a diagram and label the required


distance as x.

17
85 m
17
x

Name the sides of the right-angled triangle.

Determine the ratio (TOA).

Substitute the known values.

Multiply both sides of the equation by x.


Divide both sides by tan 17.
Press 85 tan 17 = or exe .

6
7

8
9

Write the answer correct to nearest metre.


Write the answer in words.

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o
a
85
tan17 =
x
x tan17 = 85
85
x=
tan17
= 278.0224726
tan =

x = 278
The ship is 278 metres from
the base of the cliff.

Cambridge University Press

382

Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 12I
1

Luke walked 400 m away from the base of a tall building, on level
ground. He measured the angle of elevation to the top of the building
to be 62. Find the height of the building. Answer correct to the
nearest metre.
62
400 m

The angle of depression from the top of a TV tower to a satellite


dish near its base is 59. The dish is 70 m from the centre of the
towers base on flat land. Find the height of the tower. Answer
correct to one decimal place.

59
x
70 m

When Sarah looked from the top of a cliff 50 m high, she noticed a
boat at an angle of depression of 25. How far was the boat from the
base of the cliff? Answer correct to two decimal places.

The pilot of an aeroplane saw an airport at sea level at an


angle of depression of 13. His altimeter showed that the
aeroplane was at a height of 4000 m. Find the horizontal
distance of the aeroplane from the airport. Answer correct
to the nearest metre.

25
50 m

13
4000 m

The angle of elevation to the top of a tree is 51 at a distance of 45 m


from the point on level ground directly below the top of the tree. What is
the height of the tree? Answer correct to one decimal place.
51
45 m

A iron ore seam of length 120 m slopes down at an angle of


depression from the horizontal of 38. The mine engineer wishes to
sink a vertical shaft, x, as shown. What is the depth of the required
vertical shaft? Answer correct to the nearest metre.

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38
x

120 m

Cambridge University Press

383

Chapter 12 Similarity and right-angled triangles

A tourist viewing the Sydney Harbour from a building 130 m


above the sea level observes a ferry that is 800 m from the
base of the building. Find the angle of depression. Answer
correct to the nearest degree.

130 m

800 m
8

What would be the angle of elevation to the top of a radio


transmitting tower 130 m tall and 300 m from the observer?
Answer correct to the nearest degree.

130 m

300 m

Lachlan observes the top of a tree at a distance of 60 m


from the base of the tree. The tree is 40 m high. What is
the angle of elevation to the top of the tree? Answer
correct to the nearest degree.

40 m

60 m

10

11

A town is 12 km from the base of a mountain. The town is also a


distance of 12.011 km in a straight line to the mountain. What is the
angle of depression from the top of a mountain to the town? Answer
to the nearest degree correct to one decimal place.

12.011 km
12 km

Find, to the nearest degree, the angle of elevation of a railway


line that rises 7 m for every 150 m along the track.

7m
150 m

12

The distance from the base of the tree is 42 m. The tree is 28 m


in height. What is the angle of elevation measured from ground
level to the top of a tree? Answer correct to the nearest degree.

28 m
42 m

13

A helicopter is flying 850 m above sea level. It is also 1162 m


in a straight line to a ship. What is the angle of depression from
the helicopter to the ship? Answer correct to the nearest degree.

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850 m

1162 m

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384

Preliminary Mathematics General

Development
14

A rocket launching pad casts


a shadow 35 m long when
the angle of elevation of the
sun is 52. How high is the
top of the launching pad?
Answer correct to correct to
nearest metre.

15

The angle of elevation to the top of a tree from a point A on the ground is 25. The point
A is 22 m from the base of the tree. Find the height of the tree. Answer correct to nearest
metre.

16

A plane is 460 m directly above one end of a 1200 m runway. Find the angle of
depression to the far end of the runway. Answer correct to the nearest minute.

17

A communication tower is located on the top of a hill. The angle of elevation to the top
of the hill from an observer 2 km away from the base of the hill is 6. The angle of
elevation to the top of the tower from the observer is 8. Find, to the nearest metre, the
height of the:
a hill.
b hill and the tower.
c tower.

18

Jack is on the top of a 65 m high cliff. He observes


a man swimming out to sea at an angle of depression
of 51. Jack also sees a boat out to sea at an angle of
depression of 30. Find, to the nearest metre, the
distance:
a x of the man from the base of the cliff.
b y of the boat from the base of the cliff.
c from the man to the boat.

19

51

30

65 m

x
y

The angle of elevation from a boat out to sea to the top of a 350 m cliff is 13. After the
boat travels directly towards the cliff, the angle of elevation from the boat is 19. How far
did the boat travel towards the cliff? Answer correct to the nearest metre.

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Cambridge University Press

Chapter 12 Similarity and right-angled triangles

Similar figures and scale factors

Solving a worded problem using

similar figures

2
3
4
5
6

Trigonometric ratios

Finding an unknown side

sin =

o
a
o
(SOH) cos = (CAH) tan = (TOA)
h
h
a

4
1
2
3
4
Applications of right-angled

triangles

2
3
4

Angle of depression

Read the question and underline the key terms.


Draw similar figures and label the information from the
question.
Use a pronumeral (x) to represent an unknown side.
Write an equation using two fractions formed from
matching sides.
Solve the equation.
Check that the answer is reasonable and units are correct.
opposite
adjacent
opposite
cos =
tan =
hypotenuse
hypotenuse
adjacent

Angle of elevation

Similar figures are the same shape but are different sizes.
Corresponding (or matching) angles of similar figures are
equal.
Corresponding sides of similar figures are in the same ratio.
Scale factor is the amount of enlargement or reduction.

sin =

Finding an unknown angle

Study guide 12

Name the sides of the triangle.


Use the given side and unknown side x to determine the
trigonometric ratio. Use SOH CAH TOA.
Rearrange the equation to make the x the subject.
Use the calculator to find x.
Name the sides of the triangle.
Use the given sides and unknown angle to determine the
trigonometric ratio. Use SOH CAH TOA.
Rearrange the equation to make the subject.
Use the calculator to find .
Read the question and underline the key terms.
Draw a diagram and label the information.
Use trigonometry to calculate a solution.
Check that the answer is reasonable and units are correct.
Angle of
elevation

Horizontal

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Horizontal

Angle of
depression

Cambridge University Press

Review

Chapter summary Similarity and right-angled triangles

385

Review

386

Preliminary Mathematics General

Sample HSC Objective-response questions


1

What is the scale factor for these triangles?


1
A
B 3
3
C 4
D 6

2
3

A small tree 3 m high throws a shadow 1.5 m long. At the same time a large tree throws a
shadow 24 m long. What is the height of the large tree in metres?
A 12
B 25.5
C 32
D 48

What is the value of cos ?


9
12
A
B
15
9
12
9
C
D
15
12

What is the length of x?


A 18 cos 58
B 18 sin 58
18
18
C
D
sin 58
cos58

15

12

x
58
18

What is the length of x?


A 45 cos 34
B 45 sin 34
45
45
C
D
cos 34
sin 34
How would angle be calculated?
5
4
A tan 1
B tan 1
4
5
C

5
tan
4

34
45

4
tan
5

What is the size of angle in question 6? (Answer correct to one decimal place.)
A 38.6
B 39.0
C 51.0
D 51.3

What is the angle of elevation to the top of a tower 80 m tall and 100 m from the observer?
Answer in degrees correct to one decimal place.
A 51.3
B 51.4
C 38.6
D 38.7

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Chapter 12 Similarity and right-angled triangles

387

Review

Sample HSC Short-answer questions


1

Find the length of the unknown sides for the following pairs of similar triangles.
a

20

6
24

a
b

12

16

6
g

12

14

21

28

n
8

The wall of a house casts a shadow 6 m long. At the


same time a one-metre ruler casts a shadow 0.90 m
long. What is the height of the building? Answer
correct to the nearest metre.
1m
0.90 m

In the triangle shown, state the value of the:


a hypotenuse.
b opposite side.
c adjacent side.
What are these ratios in simplest form?
a sin
b cos
c tan

18

6m

30
24
24
26

10

Find the value of the following trigonometric ratios, correct to two decimal places.
a tan 68
b cos 13
c sin 23
d cos 82

Given the following trigonometric ratios, find the value of to the nearest degree.
1
c tan = 0.2
a cos = 0.4829
b sin =
3

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388

Preliminary Mathematics General

Find the value of x, correct to two decimal places.


a

b
x

63

47

24

x
6515
36

Find the unknown angle in each triangle. Answer correct to the nearest degree.
a

b

c
10
11
17

10

Find the unknown angle in each triangle. Answer correct to the nearest minute.
a

b

c
28
27

10

46
35

33

10

A pole casts a shadow of 5.4 m long. The suns rays make an angle of 36 with the level
ground. Find the height of the pole to the nearest metre.

Sun

36
5.4 m
11

Susan looked from the top of a cliff 62 m high and noticed a ship at an
angle of depression of 31. How far was the ship from the base of the
cliff? Answer correct to one decimal place.

31
62 m

Challenge questions 12

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C H A P T E R

13

Mathematics and
communication
Focus study FSCo Mathematics and communication
Read and interpret mobile phone plans and bills
Calculate the cost of calls using the given time and duration
Determine a suitable mobile phone plan using phone usage
Construct and interpret tables and graphs of phone usage
Use prexes to describe the size of units of storage
Convert units of le storage
Calculate the time to download a le using the download speed
Interpret statistics related to the effect of downloading les

13.1 Mobile phone plans


Mobile phones that are used irresponsibly or with the wrong
choice of mobile phone plan can result in unexpectedly
large bills. Mobile phone bills are often a concern of people
who make unnecessary calls on their mobile. Mobile phones
provide immediate pleasure and can be somewhat addictive.
Text messaging is usually cheaper than voice calls; however,
premium text messaging services that use 1900 are billed
at a higher rate. Extra costs are involved when mobile phones
are used for internet access, 3D games, music, video
downloads, email and photo messaging.

389
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Preliminary Mathematics General

The cost of making a mobile phone call is determined by the connection fee (or flagfall),
call rate and the length of the call. The connection fee and call rate charged depends on the
mobile phone network and mobile phone plan. In general the longer the phone call the greater
the cost. There are thousands of mobile phone plans available from hundreds of providers. It
is essential to do some research and choose the most appropriate plan. There are two broad
categories: prepaid and postpaid.
Mobile phone charge
Call charge = Connection fee + Time used Call rate

Prepaid plan
A prepaid mobile phone requires the user to purchase credit in advance. This credit is used to
pay for phone calls, text messages and data downloads. If users have no available credit then
the mobile phone is blocked for use. Users are able to increase their credit at any time using
their phone or at a retail store. A prepaid plan makes it easier to control spending by limiting
debt. There are also fewer contractual arrangements. However, users often pay more for their
calls and text messages.

Postpaid plan or fixed term contract


Postpaid plan involves a contract that varies in
length from one to two years. It involves a
range of charges such as a connection fee,
monthly access fees, call costs, disconnection
fee and data charges. To compare different
contracts you need to know your general
phone usage. Be aware that some plans
charge per second while others charge for
blocks of 30 seconds or 60 seconds. Most
contracts allow for calls up to a certain value
as part of the access fee. This is referred to as
free calls. When calls exceed that value they
are charged at the specified rate.

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Chapter 13 Mathematics and communication

Example 1

Calculating mobile phone charges

Plan A

Plan B

Monthly access fee

$19.00

$24.00

Free calls

$50.00

$20.00

Connection fee Flagfall

$0.35

$0.25

Call rates (per 30 sec)

$0.47

$0.40

SMS

$0.25

$0.25

MMS

$0.50

$0.50

Messaging

391

The table above shows two mobile phone plans. Joel uses Plan A. Paige uses Plan B.
a
What is the call charge if Joel makes a 2-minute call?
b
What is the call charge if Paige makes a 5-minute call?
c
Mia makes 100 calls in a month with each call lasting 1 minute. What is the monthly cost
on Plan B?
Solution
1
2

3
4
5
6

7
8
9
10
11
12

Add the flagfall to the local rate.


Local rate is charged for every
30 seconds. A 2-minute call is
120 seconds. Divide 120 by 30 to
determine the cost.
Evaluate.
Write the answer in words.
Add the flagfall to the local rate.
Local rate is charge for every
30 seconds. A 5-minute call is
300 seconds. Divide 300 by 30 to
determine the cost.
Evaluate.
Write the answer in words.
Multiply the calculation for each
call by 100.
Evaluate.
Subtract the free calls and add the
monthly fee to the call charge.
Write the answer in words.

Charge = 0.35 + (120 30) 0.47]


= $2.23
Joel is charged $2.23.

Charge = 0.25 + (300 30) 0.40


= $4.25
Paige is charged $4.25.

Charge = 100 [0.25 + (60 30) 0.40]


= $105
Cost = 105 20 + 24
= $109
Cost of plan B is $109.

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 13A
1

A mobile phone fixed contract has a minimum


monthly fee of $49, call connection fee of $0.37
and voice calls of $0.40 per 30-second block.
What is the cost of these calls?
a
One-minute call
b
Three-minute call
c
Five-minute call
d
Ten-minute call
e
Twenty-minute call

The table below shows four mobile phone plans.

13A

Basic

d
e

Super

Mega

Monthly access fee

$29

$49

$79

$99

Free calls

$120

$300

$600

$800

Connection fee Flagfall

$0.30

$0.30

$0.30

$0.30

Call rates (per 30 sec)

$0.44

$0.40

$0.40

$0.35

SMS

$0.25

$0.25

$0.25

$0.25

MMS

$0.50

$0.50

$0.50

$0.50

Messaging
a

Big

Jack uses the Basic plan.


i
What is his monthly access fee?
ii
What is the charge for a two-minute call?
Chelsea uses the Super plan.
i
What value of free calls does she receive?
ii
What is the charge for a three-minute call?
Adam uses the Mega plan.
i
What is the cost of an SMS message?
ii
What is the charge for a four-minute call?
Lauren used the Big plan last month for SMS messages and was charged $20.00
in addition to her monthly access fee. How many SMS messages did she send?
How many 30-second free calls are possible on the Mega plan?

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393

A part of a mobile phone bill is shown below.


Telephone Bill
User Name: Bill Sample
Special Discounts
From

To

Details

Quantity

15-Apr
15-Apr

14-May
14-May

Up to 50 free SMS
50 calls
Talk Time included value
($10 Rollover to next month)

Amount
11.35CR
54.14CR
$65.49CR

Equipment
From

To

Details

Quantity

Rate

Amount

15-May
15-May

14-Jun
14-Jun

50 SMS for $10 Add on


Talk Time Monthly Access

1
1

9.09
22.73

9.09
22.73
$31.82

Mobile Call Charges


Date

Time

Origin

Destination Min:sec Rate

Amount

15-Apr
15-Apr
15-Apr
15-Apr
15-Apr
16-Apr
17-Apr
18-Apr
19-Apr
19-Apr

10:10am
11:34am
11:45am
12:02pm
12:15pm
10:10am
11:34am
11:45pm
08:02pm
10:10pm

Sydney
Melbourne
Brisbane
Adelaide
Brisbane
Sydney
Melbourne
Brisbane
Adelaide
Sydney

Mobile
Mobile
Mobile
Mobile
Mobile
Div-Mobile
Mobile
Mobile
Mobile
Info Access

0.45
0.63
0.50
3.77
0.05
5.46
5.46
0.00
0.00
2.16

a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
4

0:10:30
0:00:30
0:02:30
0:03:00
0:03:30
0:05:00
0:05:00
0:05:00
0:05:00
0:12:30

Peak
Peak
Peak
Off Peak
Peak
Peak
Peak
Talk Time
Talk Time
Special

What is the total of all charges on this bill?


How much was the mobile call charge on 16 April?
How many free SMS messages were available on this plan?
What is the monthly access fee?
How much was the mobile call to Adelaide on 15 April?
How many free calls are listed as having been made?
What was the time of the call to Melbourne on 15 April?
What was the length of the call to Sydney on 15 April?

A Prepaid phone has a call connection fee of $0.38 and voice calls of $0.48 per
30-second block. What is the cost of the following?
a 30-second call
b 1 minute and 30 seconds call
c 3-minute call
d 30-minute call.

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Development
5

The table below shows two mobile phone plans.


Monthly access fee
Free calls

Casual
$39.00
$150

Frequent
$69.00
$300

Connection fee Flagfall

$0.32

$0.32

Call rates (per 30 sec)

$0.45

$0.38

Messaging

$0.22
$0.44

$0.20
$0.40

a



b



c
d
e
f

g
h

SMS
MMS

John uses the Casual plan.


i
What is his monthly access fee?
ii What is the charge for a call lasting 160 seconds?
iii What is the charge for a call lasting 4.25 minutes?
Georgina uses the Frequent plan.
i
What is her monthly fee?
ii What is the charge for a call lasting 160 seconds?
iii What is the charge for a call lasting 4.25 minutes?
How many free 30-second calls do you receive on the Casual plan?
How many free 30-second calls do you receive on the Frequent plan?
How many more free 30-second calls do you receive on the Frequent plan compared
to the Casual plan?
How many 30-second calls are required to exceed the difference in the monthly
access fee between the Casual and Frequent plans? (Use the Casual call rate and
ignore free calls.)
How many SMS messages are required to exceed the difference in the monthly
access fee between the Casual and Frequent plans? (Use the Casual SMS rate.)
Hannah is deciding on one of the above mobile phone plans. She will be using her
mobile phone to make 300 calls (30 seconds) and 100 SMS messages each month.
What plan should she choose?
Jackson is deciding on one of the above mobile phone plans. He will be using his
mobile phone to make 200 calls (30 seconds) and 500 SMS messages each month.
What plan should he choose?

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395

A mobile phone plan has a monthly charge of $29 on a 24-month contract. The call rate
is $0.98 per 60-second block plus there is a $0.38 flagfall. The contract includes $150 of
free calls and 200 MB of data per month with excess data charged at $0.50 per MB.
a What is the minimum cost of the contract?
b What is the cost of making 200 calls in a month where the duration of each call is
less than one minute? (Include monthly charge.)
c What is the cost of a call lasting 4 minutes and 45 seconds? Assume the $150 free
calls have been used.
d The providers on the above plan decide to reduce the cost per MB to $0.125.
Assuming the monthly charge remains at $29, what is the new amount of
included data?

7 

The table below shows four mobile phone plans.


Light

Normal

Heavy

Pro

$29

$49

$79

$99

Call rates (per minute)

$0.98

$0.95

$0.90

Unlimited

Connection fee

$0.38

$0.35

$0.35

Unlimited

SMS messages

$0.25

$0.25

Unlimited

Unlimited

Free calls

$100

$150

$300

Unlimited

500 MB

1 GB

3 GB

5 GB

$0.50/MB

$0.30/MB

$0.25/MB

$0.25/MB

Monthly access fee

Included data
Excess data
a


b


c

What is the charge for downloading 5 GB of data in the last month excluding the
monthly access fee?
i
Light plan
ii Normal plan
iii Heavy plan
iv Pro plan
What is the total cost including monthly access fee of making 150 calls (60 seconds)
in the last month?
i
Light plan
ii Normal plan
iii Heavy plan
iv Pro plan
Noah does not use his phone to make calls. However, his data usage for the past three
months was 500 MB, 1 GB and 4 GB. Which mobile phone plan is more economical
for Noah?
Ava uses less than 200 MB of data each month. However, she made 100 calls,
150 calls and 70 calls in the past three months. Each call lasted for 1 minute.
Which mobile phone plan is the most cost-effective for Ava?

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Preliminary Mathematics General

13.2 Phone usage tables and graphs


A step-function or step graph consists of
horizontal line segments or intervals. These
line segments create a graph that looks like
13.2 staircase pattern. The end-points of the line
segments consist of a closed circle or an open
circle. The values on the vertical axis are read
from the closed circle (shaded) and not the
open circle. For example, in the graph below
the cost of a 1-minute call is 20 cents and not
30 cents.
A linear piecewise function is similar to the
step-function. It consists of series of line
segments which may not be horizontal. Each
line segment is drawn separately and may not
connect to the next line segment.
Reading a step-function graph

A phone company charges 20 cents for the


first minute and 10 cents for each additional
minute rounded up to the next minute. The
step-function graph is shown opposite.
a
What is the charge if Dylan makes a
2-minute call?
b
What is the charge if Sarah makes a
3.5-minute call?

Phone charges
50

Cost (cents)

Example 2

40
30
20
10
0

3
2
Time (min)

Solution
1
2

Read from the graph


(when time = 2 min, cost = 30).
Read from the graph
(when time = 3.5 min, cost = 50).

Dylan is charged $0.30.

Sarah is charged $0.50.

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Chapter 13 Mathematics and communication

Exercise 13B
1

The phone charges are described by the


Phone charges
step-function graph opposite.
a
How much is charged in the first
75
minute?
60
b
What is the charge for each
45
additional minute?
30
c
What is the charge for a 2-minute
call?
15
d
What is the charge for a 3.2-minute
0
call?
3
1
2
Time (min)
e
What is the charge for a 20-second
call?
f
Copy the step-function graph and extend the graph to include the costs for a
5-minute call and a 6-minute call. Assume the same pattern of charges.
Cost (cents)

13B

A mobile phone plan has a monthly


Total monthly charge
service fee plus call costs where the
50
rate changes after 40 calls as shown in
the graph opposite.
40
a
How much is the monthly service
fee?
30
b
How much does the company
charge if you make 20 calls a
20
month?
c
How much does the company
10
charge if you make 40 calls a
month?
d
How much does the company
0
20
60
80
100
40
charge if you make 60 calls a
Monthly calls
month?
e
How many calls are made if the total monthly charge is $40?
f
How many calls are made if the total monthly charge is $25?
g
How many calls are made if the total monthly charge is $15?
h
What is the gradient of the line segment between 0 and 40 calls?
i
What is call charge for making 0 to 40 calls?
j
What is the gradient of the line segment between 40 and 100 calls?
k
What is call charge for making 40 to 100 calls?
l
Copy the linear piecewise graph and extend the graph to include the call charges of
$0.20 per call for 100 to 140 calls.
Charge ($)

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Development
3

The call charges for a phone company are as follows: $0.15 for the first minute or part
thereof, then $0.20 for the second minute or part thereof, then $0.25 for the third minute
or part thereof and $0.30 additional for a call lasting between 3 and 4 minutes.
a Draw a step-function graph to
illustrate the call charges, with
the Time (minutes) on the
horizontal axis and Cost ($) on
the vertical axis.
b What is the call cost for 30
seconds? Use the step graph.
c Max started a call at 11.20 a.m.
and ended the call at 11.24 a.m.
How much did he pay for call
charges?
d During the month, Hannah made 28 calls lasting 1 minute, 45 calls lasting 2 minutes
and 35 calls lasting 3 minutes. What is her total call charge for the month?
e Modify the step graph to include another line segment. The call charge is $0.20
additional for a call lasting between 4 and 5 minutes.

linear piecewise graph represents the total monthly call charge. Each line segment
has a different call rate.
a How much is the monthly service fee?
Total monthly charge
b The total monthly call charge for 30 calls
40
is $24. What is the gradient of the first
35
line segment?
30
c The total monthly call charge for 60 calls
25
is $30. What is the gradient of the second
20
line segment?
15
d The total monthly call charge for 80 calls
10
is $32. What is the gradient of the third
5
line segment?
e What is the equation of the first line
0
60
80
20
40
segment?
Monthly calls
f
What is the equation of the second line
segment?
g Copy the linear piecewise graph and extend the graph to include call charges of
$0.08 per call for 80 to 100 calls.
Charge ($)

4 The

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Chapter 13 Mathematics and communication

399

13.3 File storage


Files are used to store data in a storage device. The data can be modified and transferred to
other devices such as mobile phones. Electronic data is represented in digital form. It uses only
two digits: 0 and 1. Two digits are easily represented electronically by circuits being off or on.
Each on or off digit is called a bit (BInary digiT). A bit is the smallest unit of data stored in an
electronic device.
A byte is a group of 8 bits that represents a single unit. If the data is text then a byte would
represent a character, such as a letter, a number, a punctuation mark or a space. The prefixes
kilo, mega, giga and tera are then added and more commonly used to measure data. The
lowercase b is used to represent a bit while the uppercase B is used to represent a byte.
Unit

Symbol

Byte

Meaning

Exact value

One byte

Power of two
1

(20)

1024

(210)

Kilobyte

KB

Thousand bytes

Megabyte

MB

Million bytes

1048576

(220)

Gigabyte

GB

Billion bytes

1073741824

(230)

Terabyte

TB

Trillion bytes

1099511627776

(240)

File storage units


Convert file storage units by using the exact value.
Use the calculator and the power of 2 to obtain the exact value.

Storage devices
A storage device is any device that can store data and allow it to be retrieved when required.
There are many different types of storage devices:
Hard disk has a storage capacity measured in the TB.
USB flash drive is available in range of different sizes such as 32 GB.
Mobile phones and media players will store different types of data and have different
sizes.
Memory cards are used to increase the storage capacity of these devices.
A compact disc (CD) stores up to 800 MB.

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Converting file storage units

Example 3

Complete:

5 KB =

1.3 TB =

MB

Solution
1
2
3
4

Find the conversion factor. There are 210


or 1024 bytes in one kilobyte.
To change KB to B, multiply by 210.
Find the conversion factor. There are 220
or 1 048 576 megabytes in one terabyte.
To change MB to TB multiply by 220.

5 KB = 5 210
= 5 1024
= 5120 B
1.3 TB = 1.3 220 MB
= 1.3 1 048 576
= 1 363 148.8

Converting file storage units

Example 4

Complete:

1536 KB =

MB

8 388 608 KB =

GB

Solution
1

2
3

Find the conversion factor. There


are 210 or 1024 kilobytes in one
megabyte.
To change KB to MB, divide
by 210.
Find the conversion factor. There
are 220 or 1 048 576 kilobytes in one
megabyte.
To change KB to GB divide
by 220.

Example 5

1536 KB = 1536 210 MB


= 1536 1024
= 1.5

8 388 608 KB = 8 388 608 220 GB


= 8 388 608 1 048 576 GB
= 8 GB

Solving problems involving file storage

How many MP3 files of average size 3.2 MB can be stored on a 2 GB MP3 player?
Solution
1
2
3

Convert to the same units. There are 210


or 1024 gigabytes in one megabyte.
To change GB to MB multiply by 210 or
1024.
Divide the file size into storage size of
the MP3 player.

2 GB = 2 210 MB
= 2048 MB

Files = 2048 3.2


= 640

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Chapter 13 Mathematics and communication

401

Exercise 13C
1
13C

Complete the following.


a

2 KB =

4 MB =

KB

7 TB =

KB

3 TB =

MB

9 TB =

GB

6 MB =

B = 8 TB

B = 4 GB

2.5 TB =

MB

5.3 TB =

MB

2 097 152 KB =

GB

3 145 728 KB =

GB

8 388 608 KB =

MB

k
2

4.8 KB =

GB = 5 TB

Complete the following.


a

1024 B =

6 291 456 MB =

5 368 709 120 B =

KB
TB
GB

KB = 7168 B

TB = 3 221 225 472 MB

How many kilobytes are there in 2 gigabytes?

Madison has received a 50 KB file in JPEG format from a friend. How many files of this
size could she store on a:
a
1 GB USB flash drive?
b
500 MB MP3 player?
c
800 KB compact disc?
d
100 GB external hard drive?

A USB flash drive has 2.5 GB of video data. What is the total file storage (in gigabytes)
in the flash drive if the following files are added to the USB? Answer correct to
one decimal place.
a
330 MB
b
1200 MB
c
4000 MB

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Development
6

Complete the following. Answer correct to 4 decimal places when appropriate.


a

3072 B =

2048 KB =

4194304 MB =

MB

3.2 GB =

MB = 2056 KB

KB

TB

TB

MB = 7168 KB

Tyler brought a video camera


to the party and created 15 video
files with average file size 250 MB.
How much space (in MB) remains on
his hard drive if it has the following
storage capacity?
a 200 GB
b 50 TB
c 1 TB
d 10000 MB

What is the difference in file storage between the following devices?


a USB flash drive with a storage capacity of 4 GB and a compact disc with a storage
capacity of 800 MB. Give your answer to the nearest MB.
b Hard drive with a storage capacity of 2 TB and an external hard drive with a storage
capacity of 300 GB. Give your answer to the nearest GB.

Order 200 MB, 0.002 TB, 2000 KB and 200000 B in:


a ascending order (smallest to largest)
b descending order (largest to smallest).

10

Joel produces a 220 MB video file each day at work.


a How many days will it take for the file storage to exceed a gigabyte?
b How many days will it take for the file storage to exceed a terabyte?

11

A manufacturer claims that an 8 GB MP3 player holds 2000 songs.


a What is the average file size (MB) of a typical song to the nearest whole number?
b Do you think the manufacturers claims are correct? Give a reason for your answer.

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Chapter 13 Mathematics and communication

403

13.4 Digital downloads


The speed of data transfer is measured by the number of bits per second (bps) or the bit
rate. Common units of measurement for the transmission of data are kilobits (Kbps),
megabits (Mbps), gigabits (Gbps) or terabits (Tbps). The prefix is used to convert the
units of measurement. The meaning of the prefixes are kilo (1000), mega (1 000 000), giga
(1 000 000 000) and tera (1 000 000 000 000).
Unit

Symbol

Bit per second

Approximate value

bps

Kilobit per second

Kbps

1 000

Megabit per second

Mbps

1 000 000

Gigabit per second

Gbps

1 000 000 000

Terabit per second

Tbps

1 000 000 000 000

Converting data transfer rates


1
2
3

Learn the order of the prefixes.


Use the prefixes to determine the conversion factor.
An increase in the order of the prefix represents a
conversion factor of 1000.

tera
giga
mega
kilo
unit

1000
1000
1000
1000

Converting digital download times

Example 6

Complete

1000
1000
1000
1000

4 Mbps =

Kbps

2 000 000 bps =

4 Mbps = 4 1000 Kbps


= 4000 Kbps

2 000 000 bps


= 2 000 000 1 000 000 Mbps
= 2 Mbps

Mbps

Solution
1
2
3
4

Find the conversion factor. There are


approximately 1000 Kbps in 1 Mbps.
To change Mbps to Kbps, multiply
by 1000.
Find the conversion factor. There are
1 000 000 bps in 1 Mbps.
To change bps to Mbps, divide
by 1 000 000.

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 13D
1

Complete the following.

13D

6 Mbps =

Kbps

2 Tbps =

Kbps

3 Kbps =

bps

5 Tbps =

Gbps

9 Tbps =

Mbps

7 Mbps =

bps

Gps = 7 Tbps

bps = 2 Tbps

2.1 Kbps =

bps

4.8 Tbps =

Mbps

9000 bps =

Kbps

8 000 000 Mbps =

5 500 000 000 bps =

k
2

7.3 Tbps =

Mbps

bps = 8 Gbps

Complete the following.


a

9 000 000 Kbps =

3000 Kbps =

4 780 000 Kbps =

Gbps

Gbps
Mbps

Kbps = 6 700 000 bps

Tbps = 3 200 000 000 Mbps

h
j

Tbps
Gbps

Mbps = 4900 Kbps


Kbps = 2400 bps

Search the internet to find an online data transfer rate converter to check your answers to
questions 1 and 2.

How many megabits per second are in 7 terabits per second?

A file is 8 000 000 bits in size. How many seconds would it take to download the file at
the following transfer rates?
a
2 Mbps
b
4 Kbps
c
8 Tbps
d
1 bps
e
20 Mbps
f
1000 Kbps

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Development
6

Order 700000 bps, 700 Mbps, 0.007 Tbps and 7000 Kbps in:
a ascending order (smallest to largest) of speed
b descending order (largest to smallest) of speed.

A 306 byte file is being downloaded from the internet.


a How many bits make up this file? Assume 1 byte is 8 bits.
b How many seconds would it take to download this file at 3 bps?
c How many seconds would it take to download this file at 6 Kbps?
d How many seconds would it take to download this file at 2 Mbps?

A 413696 byte music file is being


downloaded from the internet.
a How many bits make up this file?
Assume 1 byte is 8 bits.
b How many seconds would it take
to download this file at 2 Kbps?
c How many seconds would it take
to download this file at 8 Mbps?

Hayley has taken a 696320 byte picture on her camera.


a How many bits make up this file? Assume 1 byte is 8 bits.
b How many seconds would it take to download this file at 50 bps?
c How many seconds would it take to download this file at 34 Kbps?
d How many seconds would it take to download this file at 40 Mbps?

10

How many seconds would it take to upload a 2.4 MB file if the transfer rate is 4 Kbps?
Answer correct to the nearest second. Assume 1 byte is 8 bits and 1 MB is 1024 KB.

11

Luke has a connection to the internet at a speed of 40 Mbps. What is the largest possible
file size (MB) that can be downloaded in the following time?
a 1 second
b 1 minute
c 1 hour

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Preliminary Mathematics General

13.5 Digital download statistics


People are downloading digital media at an increasing rate. They use the internet to download
files containing text, graphics, animation, music, video and software. Faster broadband has
resulted in an increase in quantity and quality of music and video files that are downloaded
from the internet. Downloading has also raised the issue of copyright.
Digital download statistics
Use summary statistics (mean, median, mode, range and interquartile range)
to interpret the effect of downloading music and video files.

Example 7

Calculation of summary statistics

Tim collected data on the location where people have downloaded music files. He asked each
person where they most preferred to download music. The result of his survey is shown below.
Location

People

Home

105

Work

65

School

80

Internet cafe

75

What is the mode? Which location is the most popular for downloading music?

What percentage of the people preferred to download music from home?


Answer correct to two decimal places.
Solution
1
2
3
4

5
6

Mode is the score that occurs the most.


Location with the mode is home.
Find the total number of people surveyed
by adding the people column.
Divide the number of people downloading
in the home by the total number of
people.
Multiply by 100 to express as a
percentage.
Write the answer in words.

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a
b

Mode is downloading from home.


Most popular location is home.
Total = 105 + 65 + 80 + 75 = 325
Home =

105
100%
325

= 32.31%
32.31% preferred to download
at home.

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Chapter 13 Mathematics and communication

407

Exercise 13E
1

The time (in minutes) spent sending SMS messages to friends by five teenagers was 82,
130, 57, 107 and 82. Find the following summary statistics.
a
Mean
b
Median
c
Mode
d
Range
e
Interquartile range
f
Sample standard deviation (to 3 decimal places)
g
Population standard deviation (to 3 decimal places)
h
What is the total number of minutes spent sending SMS messages to friends by these
teenagers?

A 5.22 MB music file was downloaded from the


internet on 15 consecutive days. The time taken
(in seconds) to download the file was recorded:
24, 28, 25, 35, 21, 27, 29, 28, 23, 30, 28, 27, 33,
57 and 27.
a
What is the mean time (to 2 decimal places)?
b
What is the median time?
c
What is the mode?
d
Which is the better measure for the centre for
the data? Explain your answer.

The number of video files downloaded by 30 students is recorded below.

13E

4
2
a
b
c
d
e

1 5 3 5 1 0 2 1 2 5 3 4 1 0
Construct a frequency table for this data.
What was the most common number of video files that have been downloaded?
Insert an fx column and calculate the mean.
Insert a cumulative frequency column and calculate the median.
What percentage of students have not downloaded any video files (to 1 decimal
place)?

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Development
4

The sale of CDs from a traditional music store was 262, 288, 322, 276, 290, 301, 308,
318, 292 and 307. During the same period, sales from an online music store were 178,
195, 224, 190, 201, 228, 219, 216, 210 and 228.
a What is the mean of sales from
each store (to 1 decimal place).

i Traditional

ii Online
b What is the sample standard
deviation of sales from each store
(to 1 decimal place)?

i Traditional

ii Online
c Compare and contrast the mean
and standard deviation from each
store.

The grouped frequency table shows the number of people who have downloaded a video
file. A sample of 200 people was taken in each age group.
Age range

Class centre (x)

Frequency (f)

1524

98

2534

39

3544

28

4554

23

5564

17

se your calculator to estimate the following summary statistics for the downloaders.
U
Answer correct to one decimal place.
a Mean
b Sample standard deviation
c Population standard deviation

6 

The time taken to download a music file is shown in the table below.

File size (MB)


5
10
15
20
25
30 35 40 45
8
26
39
57
71
84 102 113 131
Time (sec)
a Construct a column graph for this data. Use file size as the horizontal axis and time
as the vertical axis.
b What is the average increase in time taken to download the file when the file
increases by 5MB? Answer to the nearest second.
c Estimate the time it would take to download a 50 MB file.
d Describe the relationship between the file size and the time taken.
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Chapter 13 Mathematics and communication

Study guide 13

Mobile phone plans

The cost of making a mobile phone call is determined by the connection


fee (or flagfall), call rate and the length of the call.
Call charge = Connection fee + Time used Call rate
Postpaid plan involves a contract that varies in length from one to
two years. It involves a range of charges such as a connection fee,
monthly access fees, call costs, disconnection fee and data charges.

Phone usage tables and

A step-function or step graph consists of horizontal line segments or


intervals. The end points of the line segments consist of a closed circle
or an open circle. The values on the vertical axis are read from the
closed circle (shaded) and not the open circle.

graphs

File storage

Digital download

Convert file storage units by using the exact value.


Use the calculator and the power of 2 to obtain the exact value.
Unit

Symbol

Byte

(20)

1024

(210)

One byte

KB

Thousand bytes

Megabyte

MB

Million bytes

1048576

(220)

Gigabyte

GB

Billion bytes

1073741824

(230)

Terabyte

TB

Trillion bytes

1099511627776

(240)

Converting data transfer rates:


1 Learn the order of the prefixes.
2 Use the prefixes to determine the conversion factor.
3 An increase in the order of the prefix is a conversion factor of 1000.

Bit per second

statistics

Exact value

Kilobyte

Unit

Digital download

Meaning

Power
of two

Symbol
bps

Approximate
value
1

Kilobit per second

Kbps

1000

Megabit per second

Mbps

1000000

Gigabit per second

Gbps

1000000000

Terabit per second

Tbps

1000000000000

Use summary statistics (mean, median, mode, range and interquartile


range) to interpret the effect of downloading music and video files.

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Chapter summary Mathematics and communication

409

Review

410

Preliminary Mathematics General

Sample HSC Objective-response questions


1

A prepaid mobile phone plan charges a call connection fee of $0.32 and voice calls of
$0.44 per 30-second block. What is the cost of making a ten-minute call?
A $4.40
B $4.72
C $8.80
D $9.12

Alice has a mobile phone contract that charges a monthly access fee of $59, free calls
$150, flagfall $0.25 and call rate of $0.45 per 30 seconds. What is the monthly charge if
Alice made 200 calls of duration less than 30 seconds?
A $59.00
B $81.50
C $96.50
D $209.00

How many kilobits per second are there in 5000 megabits per second?
A 0.005
B 5
C 5000000
D 5000000000

A file has 3000000 bits. How many seconds would it take to download
the file at 6 Mbps?
A 0.002
B 0.5
C 2
D 500

How many bytes in 6 MB?


A 1024
B 6144
C 1048576
D 6291456

How many terabytes in 3072 GB?


A 0.0029
B 3
C 3145728
D 3221225472

How many data files of average size 7.2 MB can be stored on a 4 GB USB drive?
A 568
B 4096
C 7372
D 582542

The time taken (in seconds) to download 12 files was recorded:


48, 56, 49, 70, 34, 58, 62, 60, 41, 37, 45 and 39. What is the median?
A 48.5
B 49
C 49.9
D 50

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Chapter 13 Mathematics and communication

411

What is the cost of a call of duration 3 minutes and 40 seconds given that there is a
connection fee of 29 cents and the call rate is 45 cents per 30-second block?

The table below shows two mobile phone plans.


$59 plan

$99 plan

Monthly access fee

$59

$99

Included allowance

$550

$900

Connection fee

$0.35

$0.32

Call rates (per minute)

$0.90

$0.88

Unlimited

Unlimited

Text

What is the charge for a call lasting 3 minutes and 20 seconds on the $59 plan?

What is the charge for a call lasting 3 minutes and 20 seconds on the $99 plan?

What is the maximum number of free calls (60 seconds) on the $59 plan?

What is the maximum number of free calls (60 seconds) on the $99 plan?

Determine the monthly charge for making 400 calls (60 seconds) on the $59 plan?

Determine the monthly charge for making 400 calls (60 seconds) on the $99 plan?

Determine the monthly charge for making 900 calls (60 seconds) on the $59 plan?

Determine the monthly charge for making 900 calls (60 seconds) on the $99 plan?

Isaac is deciding on one of the mobile phone plans show in the table above. He will be
using his mobile phone to make 600 calls (60 seconds) and 500 SMS messages each
month. What plan should he choose?

Tahlia is deciding on one of the above mobile phone plans. She will be using her mobile
phone to make 300 calls (30 seconds) and 100 SMS messages each month. What plan
should she choose?

A mobile phone plan has a monthly charge of $49 on a 24-month contract. The call rate is
$0.90 per 60-second block with a $0.35 flagfall. The contract includes $450 of free calls,
text and MMS. What is the monthly charge for making 400 voice calls (60 second)?

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Review

Sample HSC Short-answer questions

Preliminary Mathematics General

Chapter
summary
Mathematics
and
communication
4 The phone
chargesare
described by the
step-function
graph below.
Phone charges
1

Cost (dollars)

Review

412

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
1

a
b
c
d
e
f

How much is charged in the first minute?


What is the charge for each additional minute?
What is the charge for a 3-minute call?
What is the charge for a 2-minute call?
What is the charge for a 1.5-minute call?
What is the charge for a 30-second call?

Complete the following.


a

7 Kbps =

13 Mbps =

4000000 Mbps =

9000000 Kbps =

2 Tbps =

0.005 Tbps =

Tbps

1230000 Kbps =

Gbps

2800000000 bps =

GB = 4.5 TB

bps
Kbps

Gbps
Kbps
Mbps
Gbps

Complete the following.


a

3
2
Time (min)

6 TB =

MB

B = 3 GB

5242880 MB =

2147483648 B =

TB
GB

0.2 TB =

6144 MB =

24576 KB =

GB
GB
MB

The time taken (in seconds) to download seven different YouTube videos was 121, 145,
168, 118, 140, 164 and 175. Calculate, correct to two decimal places, the:
a mean
b median
c interquartile range.
Challenge questions 13

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C H A P T E R

14

Mathematics
and driving
Focus study FSDr Mathematics and driving
Calculate the percentage decrease in the value of a vehicle
Determine the cost of repayments and total amount repaid on a loan
Describe the different types of motor vehicle insurance
Calculate the cost of stamp duty on a vehicle
Calculate the fuel consumption and running costs of a vehicle
Determine the straight-line and declining balance depreciation
Use the formula for distance, speed and time, and calculate stopping distance
Calculate and interpret blood alcohol content
Construct and interpret tables and graphs related to motor vehicles

14.1 Cost of purchase


The cost of a purchasing a motor vehicle depends
on many factors such as whether it is new or used,
the make, the model, whether it is manual or
14.1 automatic, the number of kilometres travelled and
the engine size. In addition, the list of installed
optional equipment such as alloy wheels or cruise
control has an effect on the purchase price.
A motor vehicle is not an investment. It decreases in value immediately. In the first year of
ownership, a new car can lose up to 20% of its value, and by the fifth year, your car will
decrease in price by over 65%. The percentage decrease is determined by dividing the price
decrease by the purchase price and multiplying the result by 100.
413
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Preliminary Mathematics General

Example 1

Calculating the percentage decrease

A new vehicle is bought for $25 000 and sold one year later for $19 000. Calculate the
percentage decrease in the value of the new vehicle.
Solution
1
2

Subtract $19 000 from $25 000


($6000).
Divide the price decrease
($6000) by the purchase price
($25 000).
Express as a percentage (multiply
by 100).

$6000
100
$25 000
= 24%

Percentage decrease =

Percentage increase is 24%.

Finance
Many car dealers allow people to borrow money using the dealers finance arrangements.
The purchaser pays a deposit and then makes a large number of repayments. The total cost in
purchasing a motor vehicle using finance is greater than the sale price for cash.
Buying on nance
Total cost = Deposit + Total repayments
Total repayments = Repayment Number of repayments
Interest paid = Total cost Sale price

Example 2

Calculating the cost of repayments

A four-wheel drive is for sale at $45 000. Finance is available at $5000 deposit and monthly
repayments of $1470 for 5 years.
a
b
c

What is the total cost of the repayments?


How much is the total cost using this finance package?
What is the interest paid?
Solution
1
2
3

Multiply the repayment by the


number of repayments.
Add the deposit to the total cost of
the repayments.
Subtract the sale price from the
total cost.

a
b
c

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Total repayment = 1470 12 5


= $88 200
Total cost = 5000 + 88 200
= $93 200
Interest paid = 93 200 45 000
= $48 200

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Chapter 14 Mathematics and driving

415

Exercise 14A
1

Calculate the percentage decrease in the price of a new vehicle after one year.
a
Purchase price is $25 500. Market value after one year is $21 420.
b
Purchase price is $36 800. Market value after one year is $27 600.
c
Purchase price is $54 250. Market value after one year is $48 825.
d
Purchase price is $23 826. Market value after one year is $20 900.

Calculate the price of the following cars after the trade-in.


a
Sale price is $35 500. Trade-in is worth $6000.
b
Sale price is $16 850. Trade-in is worth $2980.
c
Sale price is $24 120. Trade-in is worth $9460.
d
Sale price is $64 870. Trade-in is worth $11 820.

Calculate the amount of the deposit needed to purchase the following cars.
a
Sale price is $21 400. Deposit 25%.
b
Sale price is $19 240. Deposit 15%.
c
Sale price is $45 100. Deposit 35%.
d
Sale price is $65 200. Deposit 40%.

Calculate the total repayments to purchase the following cars.


a
Sale price is $14 800. Monthly repayments of $410 for 5 years.
b
Sale price is $19 240. Monthly repayments of $1120 for 2 years.
c
Sale price is $45 100. Weekly repayments of $360 for 3 years.
d
Sale price is $85 200. Weekly repayments of $610 for 4 years.

Charlotte has been offered terms to purchase a car. The price of the car is $24 560 or
50% deposit and repayments of $90 per week for 200 weeks.

14A

a
b
c

What is the amount of the deposit?


Find the total cost of the repayments.
What is the cost of purchasing the car on terms?

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Development
6

A utility vehicle is for sale at $42000. Finance is available at $7500 deposit and monthly
repayments of $1280 for 5 years.
a What is the total cost of repayments?
b How much will the car cost if you use the finance package?
c What is the interest paid?

Jacob has seen a used car he would like to buy, priced at $13400. He has saved $7000
towards the cost of the car. His parents have offered to lend him the balance to pay for it.
Jacob agrees to pay $40 each week to repay his parents.
a How much will Jacob need to borrow from his parents?
b How long will it take Jacob to repay the loan from his parents?

A used car is for sale at $27000. Finance is available at 10% deposit and monthly
repayments of $630 for 4 years.
a How much deposit is to be paid?
b What is the total cost of repayments?
c How much will the car cost if you use the finance package?
d What is the interest paid?

Emily has two choices of finance packages for a new car.


Package A: Deposit of $3000, $1400 per month over 5 years.
Package B: No deposit, $1540 per month over 6 years.
a Determine the total cost of package A.
b Determine the total cost of package B.
c How much will be saved by selecting the cheaper package?

10

A prestige car is for sale at $65000. Finance from the car dealer is available at a deposit
of 40% and weekly repayments of $530 for 4 years. A personal loan of $39000 is
available from the bank at 15% p.a. simple interest for 4 years.
a How much deposit is required?
b What is the interest paid using the finance from the car dealer?
c What is the interest paid using the finance from the bank?

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Chapter 14 Mathematics and driving

11

417

Registration of a motor vehicle involves the payment of a fee. These are not current fees.
Registration fees
Size of vehicle

Tare weight

Private use

Business use

Cars, station wagons and trucks

up to 975 kg

$218

$321

976 kg to 1154 kg

$239

$354

1155 kg to 1504 kg

$269

$404

1505 kg to 2504 kg

$383

$583

up to 254 kg

$52

$133

255 kg to 764 kg

$143

$200

765 kg to 975 kg

$218

$321

976 kg to 1154 kg

$239

$354

1155 kg to 1504 kg

$269

$404

1505 kg to 2499 kg

$383

$583

$101

$101

Trailers (including caravans)

Motor cycle
a
b
c
d

What is the cost of registering a car for private use whose weight is 1000 kg?
What is the cost of registering a truck for business use whose weight is 1500 kg?
What is the cost of registering a car for business use whose weight is 925 kg?
What is the cost of registering a motor cycle for private use?

12 Bailey

is buying a used car for $12000. He is required to pay a transfer fee of $26 and
stamp duty of $360. Finance from the car dealer is available at a deposit of 20% and
monthly repayments of $380 for 4 years. How much above the price is Bailey paying the
car dealer?

13 Personal

loan calculators are used to determine the monthly repayments.

Use a personal loans calculator with a monthly gross salary of $5000 and monthly
expense details of $2000 to determine the maximum amount to be borrowed.
a Current variable rate of interest and a loan term of 4 years.
b Current variable rate of interest and a loan term of 2 years.
c Current fixed rate of interest and a loan term of 4 years.
d Current fixed rate of interest and a loan term of 2 years.

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Preliminary Mathematics General

14.2 Insurance
Insurance is a major cost in keeping a motor vehicle on the road. There are three main types of
insurance:

Green slip or Compulsory Third Party insurance protects vehicle owners and drivers who
are legally liable for personal injury to any other party in the event of a personal injury
claim made against them by other road users.

Third Party Property


insurance covers you for
damage caused by your
car to property owned by a
third party in the event of
an accident.

Comprehensive insurance
covers you for damage to
your own vehicle as well as
damage your car may cause
to another persons vehicle
or property.
Insurance premium is the cost of taking out insurance cover. Many insurance companies offer
an online calculator for your vehicle insurance premium. It requires information on the make/
model of car, your age/driving history, finance, modifications/accessories and location. The
cost of insurance is also affected by:

No claim bonus is a discount on an insurance premium. This discount increases if no


claim is made on the policy until it reaches the maximum discount level.

Excess is paid when a claim is made on the policy. The standard excess can be varied plus
there are excesses for younger drivers.
Example 3

Calculating the insurance premium

Elle has been quoted $960 for comprehensive car insurance. She has a no claim
bonus of 40%. How much is Elle required to pay?
Solution
1
2
3
4

No claim discount of 40% requires


payment of 60%.
Calculate 60% of $960.
Evaluate.
Write the answer in words.

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Premium = 60% of $960


= 0.60 960
= $576
Elle is required to pay $576.

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Chapter 14 Mathematics and driving

419

Exercise 14B
1

What is the cost of comprehensive car insurance for the following premiums?
a
Premium of $1080 with a no claim bonus of 60%.
b
Premium of $1690 with a no claim bonus of 30%.
c
Premium of $880 with a no claim bonus of 40%.
d
Premium of $1320 with a no claim bonus of 70%.
e
Premium of $2350 with a no claim bonus of 50%.

The graph below shows the percentage of claims for each age group.

14B

Percentage making a claim

Insurance claims
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
a
b
c
d

10

20

30
40
Age in years

50

60

70

What is the percentage of claims for people 50 years old?


What age group made the least number of claims?
Calculate the gross percentage change in claims between the ages of 60 and 70.
How do insurance companies cater for the large number of claims made by people
20 years old?

Dan is 20 years old and has received this quote for comprehensive insurance.

a
b

Premium details

Excesses

Cost

12 month policy
$678.00
30% No claim bonus

Standard

$500

Male under 21

$1200

Female under 21

$900

Calculate the cost of the insurance.


What is Dans excess if he makes a claim?

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Development
4

Connor has been quoted an insurance premium of $980.60 from his insurance company.
The company had given him a 20% no-claim bonus as he had not made a claim in the
previous year. What would the insurance premium have been without his no-claim
bonus?

The sector graph shows the road crash costs


according to categories. The total insurance cost was
$1.2 billion.
a What is the insurance cost for minor injury?
b What is the insurance cost for serious injury?
c What is the insurance cost for a fatal accident?
d What is the insurance cost for property damage?

6 

19.8

21.7

8.3
50.2

Fatal

Minor injury

Serious injury

Property damage

The premiums quoted below are for clients with a maximum no claim bonus. The car is
owned outright by a mature age driver and driven for private use.

Mosman

Penrith

Mosman

Brand A

$20100

$540

$605

$600

$760

Brand B

$38890

$810

$899

$770

$1500

Brand C

$24400

$615

$650

$615

$860

b
c
d
e
f
g
h
j

Premium B

Model of car

Premium A

Agreed
value

Penrith

Which suburb has the highest premium? Suggest a reason.


Do expensive cars have higher premiums?
What is the best quote for the Brand B?
What is the best quote for the Brand A?
Which model has the lowest premium?
What is the average premium for the Brand B?
What is the average premium for the Brand C?
What is the average premium for Mosman?
What is the average premium for Penrith?
Premium A is being increased by 3%. What would be the new premium for a
Brand A car at Mosman?

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14.3 Stamp duty


Stamp duty is the tax you pay to the government when registering or transferring a motor
vehicle. The amount of stamp duty payable is based on the price of the motor vehicle.
For example, a new passenger car purchased for $40 000 would require a duty of $3 per $100
or $1200 (0.03 40 000). That is, for every $100 you paid for the vehicle, the stamp duty is $3
or a tax of 3%.

Stamp duty on vehicles


1
2
3

Round up the cost of the vehicle to the nearest $100 (per $100), $200 (per $200) etc.
Express the stamp duty as a fraction or decimal. ($3 per $100 is 3/100 or 0.03.)
Multiply the answer obtained in step 1 by the fraction or decimal obtained in step 2.

Example 4

Calculating stamp duty on vehicles

A used car is bought for $17 730. Calculate the stamp duty payable if the charge is $3 per
$100 or part $100.
Solution
2

Round $17 730 up to the nearest $100.


Express the stamp duty as a fraction.

Multiply $17 800 by

Evaluate.
Write the answer in words.

3
.
100

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Value of vehicle = $17 800


$3 per $100 is the fraction
Stamp duty = 17 800

3
.
100

3
100

= $534
Stamp duty payable is $534.

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Exercise 14C
1

The table below is used to calculate the stamp duty payable on a vehicle.

14C

Value of vehicle

Stamp duty payable

$0$45 000

$3 per $100
or part $100

More than $45 000

$1350 plus $5 per $100


(or part $100) over $45 000

Calculate the stamp duty payable on the following vehicles.


a
$32 600
b
$26 500
c
$45 000
d
$13 790
e
$35 521
f
$23 802
g
$52 700
h
$98 435
i
$120 080
2

The table below is used to calculate the stamp duty payable on a vehicle.
Value of vehicle

Stamp duty payable

$0$60 000

$5 per $200
or part $200

More than $60 000

$1500 plus $7 per $200


(or part $200) over $60 000

Calculate the stamp duty payable on the following vehicles.


a
$13 200
b
$29 790
c
$45 410
d
$73 800
e
$61 670
f
$88 605
g
$57 326
h
$79 190
i
$91 456
3

The table below is used to calculate the stamp duty payable on a used vehicle.
Value of vehicle Passenger

Non-passenger

All prices

$7 per $300
or part $300

$5 per $300
or part $300

Calculate the stamp duty payable on the following


vehicles.
a
Passenger car $21 300.
b
Passenger car $69 500.
c
Non-passenger car $45 880.
d
Non-passenger car $36 614.

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Development
4

Stamp duty is calculated at 3% of the market value of a vehicle up to $45000, plus 5%


of the value of the vehicle over $45000. Use the following graph to answer the questions
below.
3500
Stamp duty ($)

3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0

a
b
c
d
e
f

5 

20 000 40 000 60 000 80 000


Market Value ($)

How much stamp duty is payable on a car whose market value is $20000?
How much stamp duty is payable on a car whose market value is $60000?
How much stamp duty is payable on a car whose market value is $45000?
How much stamp duty is payable on a car whose market value is $70000?
What is the market value if the stamp duty paid was $300?
What is the market value if the stamp duty paid was $2300?

Construct a line graph to represent the following stamp duty charge. Stamp duty is
calculated at 2.5% of the market value of a vehicle up to $60000, plus 4% of the value
of the vehicle over $60000. Use your graph to answer the questions below.
a How much stamp duty is payable on a car whose market value is $30000?
b How much stamp duty is payable on a car whose market value is $60000?
c How much stamp duty is payable on a car whose market value is $80000?
d What is the market value if the
stamp duty paid was $500?
e What is the market value if the
stamp duty paid was $1000?
f
What is the market value if the
stamp duty paid was $3000?

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Preliminary Mathematics General

14.4 Running costs (fuel)


The running costs covered here are fuel costs, which depend on the price of fuel and the fuel
consumption. A motor vehicles fuel consumption is the number of litres of fuel it uses to
travel 100 kilometres. The fuel consumption is calculated by filling the motor vehicle with
fuel and recording the kilometres travelled from the odometer. When the motor vehicle is
again filled with fuel, record the reading from the odometer and how many litres of fill it takes
to refill the tank. The distance travelled is the difference between the odometer readings.
Fuel consumption
Fuel consumption =

Amount of fuel (L) 100


Distance travelled (km)

The cost of fuel for a journey can be calculated from the price of fuel ($/L) multiplied by the
amount of fuel used (L). Fuel prices can be found in your local area from websites such as the
one shown below.

Example 5

Calculating fuel consumption

A medium-sized car travelled 750 km using 60 L of petrol.


What was the fuel consumption?
Solution
1
2
3
4

Write the fuel consumption formula.


Substitute 60 for the amount of fuel
and 750 for the distance travelled.
Evaluate.
Write the answer in words.

Amount of fuel 100


Distance travelled
60 100
=
750
= 8.0 L / 100 km

Fuel Consumption =

Fuel consumption is 8 L per 100 km.


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Chapter 14 Mathematics and driving

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Exercise 14D
1

Calculate the fuel consumption (litres per 100 km) for each of the following:
a
Abbeys car uses 38.2 litres of petrol to travel 400 km.
b
A sports car travelled 900 km using 79.38 litres of petrol.
c
Joels sedan uses 30.36 litres of LPG to travel 600 km.
d
A small car uses 41.05 litres of petrol to travel 500 km.
e
Lucys car uses 139.8 litres of petrol to travel 1500 km.
f
Maxs motorbike uses 70 litres of LPG to travel 2000 km.

Chelsea has bought a used car whose fuel consumption


is 10 litres of petrol per 100 kilometres. She is planning
to travel around Australia. Calculate the number litres
of petrol Chelseas car will use on the following
distances:
a
A trip of 2716 km from Perth to Adelaide.
b
A trip of 732 km from Adelaide to Melbourne.
c
A trip of 658 km from Melbourne to Canberra.
d
A trip of 309 km from Canberra to Sydney.
e
A trip of 982 km from Sydney to Brisbane.
f
A trip of 3429 km from Brisbane to Darwin.
g
A trip of 4049 km from Darwin to Perth.

Rileys car uses 11.26 litres of petrol per 100 km.


a
How many litres of petrol will his car use on a trip
of 155 km from Sydney to Newcastle?
b
The petrol cost is $1.60 cents per litre. How much will the petrol cost for the trip?

Sienna filled her car with petrol. The odometer read 64 080 km at that time. When she
next filled the petrol tank, the odometer read 64 605 km. The car took 42 L of petrol.
a
How far has the car travelled between fills?
b
What was the average fuel consumption in kilometres per litre?

14D

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Development
5

Stephanie travels 37 km to work and 37 km from work each day.


a How many kilometres does she travel to and from work in a 6-day working week?
b Stephanie drives an SUV with a fuel consumption of 8.38 L/100 km to and from
work. How many litres of petrol does Stephanie use travelling to and from work in a
week? Answer correct to one decimal place.
c What is Stephanies petrol bill for work if petrol costs are $1.35 per litre?

A family car uses LPG at a rate of 15 L/100 km and the gas tank holds 72 litres. How far
can it travel on a tank of LPG?

Grace drives a four-wheel drive whose petrol consumption is 15.2 L/100 km and the
petrol tank is 95 litres. She is planning a trip from Sydney to Bourke via Dubbo. The
distance from Sydney to Dubbo is 412 km and from Dubbo to Bourke is 360 km. Grace
filled her petrol tank at Sydney. How many times will she need to fill her tank before
arriving at Bourke? Give reasons for your answer.

The graph below shows a motor vehicles fuel consumption at various speeds.
Petrol used to travel 200 km
50
Litres

40
30
20
10
0

a
b
c
d
e
f

30

50

70
90
Speed (km/h)

110

How many litres of fuel were used at 70 km/h?


How many litres of fuel were used at 110 km/h?
What is the fuel consumption rate at 30 km/h?
What is the fuel consumption rate at 90 km/h?
What speed used fuel the most efficiently?
How many litres of fuel were saved by travelling at 90 km/h instead of 110 km/h?

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Dylan owns a V8 car with a fuel consumption of 11 L/100 km in the city and 8 L/100 km
in the country. Dylan travels 8000 km per year in the city and 10000 km per year in the
country. The average cost of petrol is $1.50 per litre in the city and 10 cents higher in the
country.
a Determine the cost of petrol to drive in the city for the year.
b Determine the cost of petrol to drive in the country for the year.
c What is the total cost of petrol for Dylan in one year?
d What is the total cost of petrol for Dylan in one year if the average cost of petrol
increased to $1.80 per litre in the city?

10

Holly is planning a trip from Sydney to Brisbane using a car with a fuel consumption
of 13litres/100 km. The distance from Sydney to Brisbane via the Pacific Highway is
998 km and via the New England Highway it is 1027 km. The cost of LPG is 79.2 cents
per litre.
a How much will the trip cost via the Pacific Highway?
b How much will the trip cost via the New England Highway?
c How much money is saved by travelling via the Pacific Highway?

11

Tyler buys a new car with a fuel consumption of 11.2 litres/100 km. Oscar buys the LPG
version of Tylers new car, with a fuel consumption 15.4 litres/100 km. Both Tyler and
Oscar average 300 km in a week in the same conditions. The average price of ULP is
$1.40 cents/litre and LPG is $0.79 cents per litre.
a How many litres of fuel are used by Tyler in a week?
b How many litres of fuel are used by Oscar in a week?
c Calculate each cars yearly consumption of fuel.
d What is Tylers yearly fuel bill?
e What is Oscars yearly fuel bill?
f
Oscar paid an additional $1500 for the LPG version of the Ford Falcon. How many
years will it take for the fuel savings to reach $1500 or the break-even point? Answer
correct to the nearest whole number.
g Research the current fuel prices of ULP and LPG. How long will it take for the fuel
saving to exceed the initial costs?

12

Investigate the costs for two common cars on a family trip in your local area. Calculate
the cost for the return trip in each case. You will need to determine the distance of the
trip, fuel consumption for each car and the average price of fuel in the local area.

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Preliminary Mathematics General

14.5 Straight line depreciation


Straight line depreciation occurs when the value of the item decreases by the same amount
each period. For example, if you buy a car for $20 000 and it depreciates by $2000 each year,
the value of the car after one year is $20 000 $2000 or $18 000. After the second year the
value of the car is $20 000 $2000 $2000 or $16 000.
Straight line depreciation
S = V0 Dn
S Salvage value or current value of an item. Also referred to as the book value.
V0 Purchase price of the item. Value of the item when n = 0.
D Depreciated amount per time period.
n Number of time periods.

Example 6

Calculating the straight line depreciation

Molly pays $14 500 for a used car. It depreciates $1100 each year. How much will it be worth
after three years?
Solution
1
2
3

Write the straight line depreciation formula.


Substitute V0 = 14 500, D = 1100 and n = 3
into the formula.
Evaluate. Write the answer in words.

Example 7

S = V0 Dn
= 14 500 1100 3
= $11 200
The value of the car is $11 200.

Calculating the salvage value

A new car is purchased for $25 800. After 4 years its salvage value is $15 160. What is the
annual amount of depreciation, if the amount of depreciation is constant?
Solution
2

Write the straight-line depreciation formula.


Substitute V0 = 25 800, S = 15 160 and n = 4
into the formula.

Evaluate.

15160 = 25800 D 4
25800 15160
D=
4
= $2660

Write the answer in words.

Annual depreciation is $2660.

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S = V0 Dn

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Exercise 14E
1

Mia bought a used car for $15 200. She estimates that her car will depreciate in value by
$3040 each year.
a
What is the loss in value (depreciation) during the first year?
b
What is the value of the car at the end of the first year?
c
What is the loss in value (depreciation) during the second year?
d
What is the value of the car at the end of the second year?
e
What is the loss in value (depreciation) during the third year?
f
What is the value of the car at the end of the third year?

Harrison pays $9500 for a motor bike.


It depreciates $850 each year. What will
be the value of the bike after:
a
three years?
b
five years?
c
seven years?
d
nine years?

Patrick buys a car for $55 500 and it is depreciated at a rate of 10% of its purchase price
each year. What is the salvage value of the car after four years?

The graph shows the depreciation of a


car over four years.
a
What is the initial value?
b
How much did the car depreciate
each year?
c
What is the value of the car after
3 years?
d
When was the car worth $8000?
e
What is the value of the car after
1
3 years?
2
f
What is the value of the car after
6 months?

16000
12000
Value ($)

14E

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8000
4000

2
Years

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Development
5

Ryan bought a commercial van three years ago. It has a salvage value of $36000 and
depreciated $4650 each year. How much did Ryan pay for the van?

Lucy bought a used car four years ago. It has a salvage value of $16400 and depreciated
$1250 each year. How much did Lucy pay for the used car?

Ethan has a car worth $9220. It depreciates by $420 each year.


a When will the car be worth $5440?
b When will the car be worth $3340?

A ute is purchased for $18600. After two years it has depreciated to $14800 using the
straight line method of depreciation.
a When will the ute be worth $3400?
b When will the ute be worth $1500?

A truck is purchased new for $64000. After 3 years its market value is $44800.
a What is the annual amount of depreciation, if the amount of depreciation is constant?
b Determine the book value of the truck after 7 years.

10

Grace bought an SUV costing $38000. It is expected that the SUV will have an effective
life of 10 years and then be sold for $14000. Assume the SUV depreciated by the same
amount each year. What is the annual depreciation?

11

A utility van is purchased new for $24000. After 3 years its book value is $15000. What
is the annual amount of depreciation, if the amount of depreciation is constant?

12

A caravan is bought for $82000. It is expected to be used for 4 years and then sold for
$50000. Assume the caravan depreciates by the same amount each year.
a How much does the caravan depreciate each year?
b What is the total amount of depreciation for 4 years?
c Copy and complete the following depreciation table for the first four years.
Year

Current value

Depreciation

Depreciated value

1
2
3
4
d

Graph the value in dollars against the age in years.

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Chapter 14 Mathematics and driving

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14.6 Declining balance depreciation


Declining balance depreciation occurs when the value of the item decreases by a fixed
percentage each time period. For example, if you buy a car for $20 000 and it depreciates by
10% each year then the value of the car after one year is $20 000 $2000 or $18 000. After
14.6 the second year the value of the car is $20 000 $2000 $1800 or $16 200. Notice that the
amount of depreciation has decreased in the second year.
Declining balance depreciation
S = V0(1 r)n
S Salvage value or current value of an item. Also referred to as the book value.
V0 Purchase price of the item. Value of the item when n = 0.
r Rate of interest per time period expressed as a decimal.
n Number of time periods.

Example 8

Calculating the declining balance depreciation

Eva purchased a new car two years ago for


$32 000. During the first year it had depreciated
by 25% and during the second it had depreciated
20% of its value after the first year. What is the
current value of the car?

Solution
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Write the declining balance depreciation formula.


Substitute V0 = 32 000, r = 0.25 and n = 1 into the
formula.
Evaluate.
Write the declining balance depreciation formula.
Substitute V0 = 24 000, r = 0.20 and n = 1 into the
formula.
Evaluate.
Write the answer in words.

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First year
S = V0(1 r)n
= 32 000 (1 0.25)1
= $24 000
Second year
S = V0(1 r)n
= 24 000 (1 0.20)1
= $19 200
Current value is $19 200.

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Preliminary Mathematics General

Example 9

Calculating the salvage value

Angus buys a car that depreciates at the rate of 26% per annum. After ve years the car has a
salvage value of $17 420. How much did Angus pay for the car, to the nearest dollar?
Solution
1
2
3
4
5
6

Write the declining balance depreciation


formula.
Substitute S = 17 420, r = 0.26 and n = 5 into
the formula.
Make V0 the subject of the equation.
Evaluate.
Express the answer correct to the nearest
whole dollar.
Write the answer in words.

Example 10

S = V0(1 r)n
17 420 = V0 (1 0.26)5
17 420
(1 0.26 )5
= $78 503.596 21

V0 =

= $78 504
Angus paid $78 504 for the car.

Calculating the percentage rate of depreciation

Madison bought a delivery van four years


ago for $27 500. Using the declining balance
method for depreciation, she estimates its
present value to be $8107. What annual
percentage rate of depreciation did she use?
Answer to the nearest whole number.
Solution

Write the declining balance depreciation formula.


Substitute S = 8107, V0 = 27 500 and n = 4 into the
formula.
Make (1 r)4 the subject of the equation.

Take the fourth root of both sides.

Rearrange to make r the subject.


Evaluate.
Express the answer correct to the nearest whole
number.
Write the answer in words.

1
2

6
7
8

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S = V0(1 r)n
8107 = 27 500 (1 r)4
(1 r )4 =

1 r =

8107
27500

8107
27500

8107
27500
= 0.263 145 28
= 26%

r = 1 4

Rate of depreciation is 26%.

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Chapter 14 Mathematics and driving

433

Exercise 14F
1

A motor vehicle is bought for $22 000. It depreciates at 16% per annum and is expected
to be used for 5 years. What is the salvage value of the motor vehicle after the following
time periods? Answer to the nearest cent.
a
one year
b
two years
c
three years

Emma purchased a used car for $6560 two years ago. Use the declining balance method
to determine the salvage value of the used car if the depreciation rate is 15% per annum.
Answer to the nearest dollar.

Bailey purchased a motor cycle for $17 500. It depreciates at 28% per year. Answer to the
nearest dollar.
a
What is the book value of the motor cycle after three years?
b
How much has the motor cycle depreciated over the three years?

A new car is bought for $52 000. It depreciates at 22% per annum and is expected to be
used for 4 years. How much has the car depreciated over the 4 years? Answer to the
nearest dollar.

Chloe purchased a car for $19 900. It depreciates at 24% per year. Answer to the nearest
dollar.
a
What is the salvage value of the car after five years?
b
How much has the car depreciated over the five years?

The depreciation of a used car over four


years is shown in the graph opposite.
a
What is the initial value of the used car?
b
How much did the used car depreciate
during the first year?
c
When is the value of the used car
$2000?
d
When is the value of the used car
$1500?
e
What is the value of the used car
after 4 years?
f
What is the value of the used car
1
after 1 years?
2

4000
3000
Value ($)

14F

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2000
1000

2
Years

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434

Preliminary Mathematics General

Development
7

A hatchback vehicle was purchased for $16980 three years ago. By using the declining
balance method of depreciation, the current value of the vehicle is $9614. What is the
annual percentage rate of depreciation, correct to two decimal places?

A new car is valued at $35000. After


one year using the declining balance
method, it is valued at $25500.
a Determine the annual percentage
rate of depreciation. Answer correct to
3 decimal places.
b What is the value of the new
car after three years? Answer correct
to the nearest dollar.

Philip and Amy spent $200000 on a luxury car 7 years ago. Its current value is $104350.
Using the declining balance method, find the percentage depreciation rate over this
period. Answer correct to one decimal place.

10

Jessica invested $18820 to buy a new car for her business. How many years would it take
for this car to depreciate to $4520? Assume declining balance method of depreciation
with a rate of depreciation of 30%. (Answer to the nearest year.)

11

A motor vehicle is bought for $32000. It depreciates at 16% per annum and is expected
to be used for 5 years.
a How much does the motor vehicle depreciate in the first year?
b Copy and complete the following depreciation table for the first five years.
Answer to the nearest dollar.
Year

Current value

Depreciation

Depreciated value

1
2
3
4
5
c

Graph the value in dollars against the age in years.

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14.7 Safety
Distance, speed and time
Speed is a rate that compares the
distance travelled to the time taken.
14.7
The speed of a car is measured in
kilometres per hour (km/h). The
speedometer in a car measures the
instantaneous speed of a car. They are
not totally accurate but have a tolerance
of 5%. GPS devices are capable of
showing speed readings based on the
distance travelled per one-Hertz
interval. Most cars also have an
odometer to indicate the distance
travelled by a vehicle.
Distance, speed and time
D
D
or T =
or D = S T
T
S
D Distance
S Speed
T Time
S=

Example 11
a
b

Road sign on the right is used


to remember the formulas.
Hide the required quantity to
determine the formula.

D
S

Finding the distance, speed and time

Find the distance travelled by a car whose average speed is 65 km/h if the journey lasts
5 hours. (Answer correct to the nearest kilometre.)
How long will it take a vehicle to travel 150 km at a speed of 60 km/h?
Solution
1
2
3
4
5

Write the formula.


Substitute 65 for S and 5 for T into the formula.
Evaluate and express answer correct to the
nearest kilometre.
Write the formula.
Substitute 150 for D and 60 for S into the
formula.
Evaluate and express answer correct to the
nearest hour.

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D=ST
= 65 5
= 325 km
D
T=
S
150
=
60
= 2.5 h

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436

Preliminary Mathematics General

Stopping distance
The stopping distance is the distance a vehicle travels from the time a driver sees an event
occurring to the time the vehicle is brought to a stop. It is calculated by adding the reaction
distance and the braking distance. Reaction distance (or thinking distance) is the distance
travelled by the vehicle when a driver decides to brake to when the driver first commences
braking. The reaction time averages 0.75 second for a fit and alert driver. The braking distance
is affected by the road surface (wet, slippery, uneven or unsealed), slope of the road (uphill or
downhill), weight of the vehicle and condition of the brakes.
Stopping distance
Stopping distance = Reaction distance + Braking distance
5Vt V 2
d=
+
(formula is an approximation using average conditions)
18 170
d Stopping distance in metres.
V Velocity or speed of the motor vehicle in km/h.
t Time reaction in seconds.

Example 12

Calculating the stopping distance

Tahlia was driving at a speed of 45 km/h


and reaction time of 0.75 seconds. Calculate
the stopping distance using the formula
5Vt V 2
d=
+
.
18 170
Answer correct to the nearest whole metre.

Solution
1
2

3
4
5

Write the stopping distance


formula.
Substitute V = 45 and t = 0.75 into
the formula.
Evaluate.
Express the answer correct to one
decimal place.
Write the answer in words.

5Vt V 2
+
18 170
5 45 0.75 452
=
+
18
170
= 21.28676471 21 m

d=

Stopping distance is 21 m.

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Chapter 14 Mathematics and driving

437

Exercise 14G
1

Find the average speed (in km/h) of a vehicle which travels:


a
180 km in 2 hours
b
485 km in 5 hours
1
c
360 km in 4.5 hours
d
21 km in hour
4
1
e
240 km in 2 hours
f
16 km in 20 minutes
2

Find the distance travelled by a car whose average speed is 56 km/h if the journey lasts
(answer correct to the nearest kilometre):
a
3 hours
b
7 hours
1
c
2.6 hours
d
1 hours
4
1
3
e
3 hours
f
2 hours
2
4

How long will it take a vehicle to travel (answer correct to the nearest hour):
a
160 km at a speed of 80 km/h
b 150 km at a speed of 60 km/h
c
120 km at a speed of 48 km/h
d 225 km at a speed of 45 km/h
e
240 km at a speed of 40 km/h
f 556 km at a speed of 69.5 km/h

The Melbourne Formula 1 track is 5.303 km


in length. The track record is 1 minute and
24 seconds. What is the average speed (km/h)
for the lap record? Answer correct to
two decimal places.

Caitlin lives in Wollongong and travels to Sydney daily. The car trip requires her to travel
at different speeds. Most often she travels 30 kilometres at 60 km/h and 40 kilometres at
100 km/h.
a
What is the total distance of the trip?
b
How long (in hours) does the trip take?
c
What is her average speed (in km/h) when travelling to Sydney? (Answer correct to
two decimal places.)

Thomas drives his car to work 3 days a week. The length of the trip is 48 km. The trip
took 43 minutes on Monday, 50 minutes on Tuesday and 42 minutes on Wednesday.
a
Calculate the average time taken to travel to work.
b
What is the average speed (in km/h) for the three trips?

14G

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Preliminary Mathematics General

The graph opposite


shows the reaction
distance and the braking
distance.

Metres
10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85

50 km/h

Reaction

55 km/h

Braking

60 km/h

Travelling at 60 km/h:
65 km/h
a what is the reaction
70 km/h
distance?
b what is the braking
distance?
c what is the stopping distance?

What is the stopping distance for each of the following?


a Reaction-time distance of 25 metres and braking distance of 22 metres.
b Reaction-time distance of 19 metres and braking distance of 30 metres.

Michael is driving with a reaction time of 0.75 seconds. Calculate the stopping distance
5Vt V 2
(to the nearest metre) using the formula d =
for each of the following speeds.
+
18 170
a 30 km/h
b 50 km/h
c 70 km/h
d 90 km/h
e 110 km/h
f
130 km/h

10

Sarah was driving her car at 40 km/h


through a school zone (reaction time is
0.50 seconds). A school student ran
onto the road 12 metres in front of her.
a Do you think Sarah was able to
stop without running over the
child? Give a reason for your
answer.
b What would have happen if Sarah
was driving her car at 60 km/h?
Explain your answer.

11

Oliver uses the freeway to travel to work. His reaction time is 0.60 seconds. Oliver
usually drives at the speed limit of 110 km/h.
5Vt V 2
d
=
+
?
a What is the stopping distance on the freeway using the formula
18 170
b Determine a safe distance between cars on the freeway that are travelling at
110 km/h. Give a reason for your answer.

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Chapter 14 Mathematics and driving

439

Development
12

Find the average speed (in km/h) of a vehicle that travels (answer correct to the nearest
whole number):
a 500 km in 6 hours and 10 minutes
b 64 km in 1 hour and 30 seconds
c 36000 m in 45 minutes
d 320 m in 10 seconds

13

Find the distance travelled by a car whose average speed is 68 km/h if the journey lasts
(answer correct to the nearest kilometre):
a 30 minutes
b 2 minutes
c 1 hour and 20 minutes
d 4 hours 10 seconds

14

How long will it take a vehicle to travel (answer correct to the nearest minute):
a 450 km at a speed of 82 km/h
b 50 km at a speed of 60 km/h
c 250 km at a speed of 49 km/h
d 580000 m at a speed of 62 km/h
e 24000 m at a speed of 72 km/h
f 100 km at a speed of 1 km/h

15

The land speed record is 20.4 km/min.


a Express this speed in km/h.
b How far does this vehicle travel in 5 minutes?
c How far does this vehicle travel in 1 second?
d How long would it take for this vehicle to travel from Sydney to Brisbane (982 km)?
Answer to the nearest minute.

16

The Bathurst 1000 motor race has a lap record of 2 min and 12.339 seconds. The length
of the lap is 6.213 km.
a What is the average speed (to nearest km/h) for the lap record?
b How long is the race if the winning car travels the 161 laps at the average speed for
the lap record? Answer to the nearest minute.

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440

Preliminary Mathematics General

17

If you double your speed you need to double your reaction distance.
5Vt
to complete the table. Assume reaction time of 0.75 seconds.
a Use d =
18
Speed (km/h)

Reaction distance (m)

10
20
40
80
b
18

Do you agree with the above statement? Give a reason.

If you double your speed you need to quadruple your braking distance.
V2
to complete the table.
a Use d =
170
Speed (km/h)

Braking distance (m)

10
20
40
80
b

Do you agree with the above statement? Give a reason.

19

Joshua is driving with a speed of 30 km/h.


5Vt V 2
+
with t as the subject.
a Write the formula d =
18 170
b Find the value of t when d = 10 metres. Answer correct to one decimal place.
c Find the value of t when d = 20 metres. Answer correct to one decimal place.
d Find the value of t when d = 30 metres. Answer correct to one decimal place.

20

Liam is driving at a speed of 60 km/h.


5Vt
a Use the formula d =
to complete the table below.
18
Reaction time (sec)

Reaction distance (m)

0.50
1.00
1.50
b

What effect does increasing the reaction time have on the stopping distance? Use the
calculations in the above table to reach your conclusion.

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Chapter 14 Mathematics and driving

441

14.8 Blood alcohol content


Blood alcohol content (BAC) is a measure of the amount of alcohol in your blood. The
measurement is the number of grams of alcohol in 100 millilitres of blood. For example, a
BAC 0.05 means 0.05 g or 50 mg of alcohol in every 100 mL of blood. BAC is inuenced by
the number of standard drinks consumed in a given amount of time and a persons mass. Other
factors that affect BAC include gender, fitness, health and liver function.
Blood alcohol content (BAC)
BACMale =
BAC
N
H
M

(10 N 7.5 H )
(10 N 7.5 H )
or BACFemale =
6.8 M
5.5 M

Blood alcohol content.


Number of standard drinks consumed.
Hours drinking.
Mass in kilograms.

Example 13

Calculating the BAC

Madison is 82 kg and has consumed 7 standard drinks


in the past two hours. She was stopped by police for a
random breath test. What would be Madisons BAC?
Answer correct to 3 decimal places.

Solution
1

Write the formula.

Substitute the 7 for N, 2 for H and 82 for


M into the formula.
Evaluate.
Express the answer correct to 3 decimal
places.
Write the answer in words.

3
4
5

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(10 N 7.5 H )
5.5 M
(10 7 7.5 2 )
=
(5.5 822 )
= 0.121 951 219 5
0.122

BACFemale =

Madisons BAC is 0.122.

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442

Preliminary Mathematics General

NSW has three blood alcohol limits: zero, 0.02 and 0.05. Zero or 0.02 BAC laws apply in
Australia for people under 25 who have held a licence for less than three years, including
learner and probationary drivers. This means you cannot drink at all and then drive, as you
will be over the limit and likely to lose your licence. The BAC is measured with a breathalyser
or by analysing a sample of blood.
Hours to wait before driving
BAC
0.015
BAC Blood alcohol content.
Number of hours =

Using BAC tables

Example 14

The table below shows BAC and body weight (kg).


Body weight (kg)
Drinks

45

55

65

75

85

0.008

0.007

0.006

0.005

0.004

0.041

0.033

0.028

0.025

0.022

0.074

0.060

0.051

0.044

0.039

0.106

0.087

0.074

0.064

0.056

0.139

0.114

0.096

0.083

0.074

0.172

0.140

0.119

0.103

0.091

Terry weighs 65 kg and consumes four standard drinks in an hour. Calculate the number of
hours to wait before driving. (Answer to the nearest hour.)
Solution
1
2
3
4
5

Write the formula.


Substitute the 0.074 for BAC into the
formula.
Evaluate.
Write answer correct to nearest hour.
Write the answer in words.

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BAC
0.015
0.074
=
0.015
= 4.933 33 5

Number of hours =

Terry waits 5 hours to drive.

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Chapter 14 Mathematics and driving

443

Exercise 14H
1

Calculate the BAC for the following females. Answer correct to two decimal places.
a
Sarah is 48 kg and has consumed 4 standard drinks in the past 2 hours.
b
Sienna is 59 kg and has consumed 3 standard drinks in the past hour.
c
Alyssa is 81 kg and has consumed 6 standard drinks in the past 2 hours.
d
Kayla is 65 kg and has consumed 8 standard drinks in the past 6 hours.
e
Tahlia is 71 kg and has consumed 13 standard drinks in the past 3 hours.
f
Mia is 55 kg and has consumed 9 standard drinks in the past 5 hours.

Calculate the BAC for the following males. Answer correct to two decimal places.
a
Dylan is 53 kg and has consumed 3 standard drinks in the past 3 hours.
b
Riley is 64 kg and has consumed 5 standard drinks in the past hour.
c
Thomas is 98 kg and has consumed 2 standard drinks in the past 2 hours.
d
Zachary is 47 kg and has consumed 10 standard drinks in the past 5 hours.
e
Charlie is 85 kg and has consumed 12 standard drinks in the past 4 hours.
f
Jacob is 104 kg and has consumed 7 standard drinks in the past 6 hours.

James and Olivia are twins and both weigh 73 kg. At a party they consume 6 standard
drinks in two hours.

14H

a
b
c
4

What is Jamess BAC? Answer correct to 2 decimal places.


What is Olivias BAC? Answer correct to 2 decimal places.
How long does James need to wait before he drives home?

Calculate the number of hours to wait before driving. Answer to the nearest minute.
a
BAC of 0.056.
b
BAC of 0.123.
c
BAC of 0.087.
d
BAC of 0.153.
e
BAC of 0.092.
f
BAC of 0.172.

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444

Preliminary Mathematics General

The table below shows the BAC after one hour.


Body weight (kg)

Drinks

45

55

65

75

85

95

105

115

0.008

0.007

0.006

0.005

0.004

0.004

0.004

0.003

0.041

0.033

0.028

0.025

0.022

0.019

0.018

0.016

0.074

0.060

0.051

0.044

0.039

0.035

0.032

0.029

0.106

0.087

0.074

0.064

0.056

0.050

0.046

0.042

0.139

0.114

0.096

0.083

0.074

0.066

0.060

0.054

0.172

0.140

0.119

0.103

0.091

0.081

0.074

0.067

Calculate the number of hours to wait before driving. (Answer to the nearest minute.)
a Joshua weighs 85 kg and consumes 5 standard drinks in an hour.
b Mitchell weighs 115 kg and consumes 3 standard drinks in an hour.
c Harrison weighs 45 kg and consumes 6 standard drinks in an hour.
d Cooper weighs 65 kg and consumes 2 standard drinks in an hour.
e Zachary weighs 95 kg and consumes 4 standard drinks in an hour.
f
Angus weighs 75 kg and consumes 1 standard drink in an hour.
6

Use the above table to construct three separate column graphs. Make the number of
drinks the horizontal axis and the BAC the vertical axis.
a Body weight of 45 kg.
b Body weight of 115 kg.

The formula for calculating standard drinks is S = V A 0.789 where S is the number
of standard drinks, V is the volume of drink in litres and A is the percentage of alcohol.
How many standard drinks are in each of the following drinks? Answer correct to
one decimal place.
a 345 mL bottle of full strength beer at 5.2% alcohol.
b 750 mL bottle of champagne at 13.5% alcohol.
c 150 mL glass of white wine at 12.5% alcohol.
d Mixed drink with a 30 mL of brandy at 38% alcohol.
e 360 mL can of light beer at 2.1% alcohol.

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Chapter 14 Mathematics and driving

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Development
8

a
b

9 

11

(10 N 7.5 H )
if:
6.8 M
BACMale = 0.066, M = 60 and N = 5. (Answer correct to the nearest minute.)
BACMale = 0.050, M = 79 and N = 7. (Answer correct to the nearest minute.)

Find the value of H in the formula BACMale =


a

10

BAC
if:
0.015
Number of hours to wait before driving is 5. (Answer correct to 3 decimal places.)
Number of hours to wait before driving is 3. (Answer correct to 3 decimal places.)

Find the value of BAC in the formula Number of hours =

Find the value of N in the formula BACFemale =

(10 N 7.5 H )
if:
5.5 M

BACFemale = 0.066, M = 48 and H = 2. (Answer correct to one decimal place.)

BACFemale = 0.120, M = 57 and H = 4. (Answer correct to one decimal place.)

The graph below relates the lifetime risk of death to the number of standard drinks
consumed per day.

Lifetime risk per 100

10
9

Men

Women

7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0


a
b

4
5
6
7
Australian standard drinks per day

10

What is lifetime risk for a female and a male who consumes 7 drinks per day?
Why is the effect of alcohol greater on a female than on a male?

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446

Preliminary Mathematics General

14.9 Driving statistics


Motor vehicle tables and graphs
A distance-time graph describes a journey involving different events. Each event is a line
segment on the distance-time graph and represents travelling at a constant speed. The steeper
14