Year 11 general maths.

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- MATHS QUEST Preliminary Mathematics General (4th Edition)
- CM Year 7
- cambridge-2-unit-mathematics-year-11
- Essential Mathematics Text Year 7
- MATHS QUEST HSC Mathematics General 2 (4th Edition)
- Year 12 Mathematics B
- Mathscape 9 Extention
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- Preliminary General Maths Text Book
- Maths in Focus, Margaret Grove - Prelims
- HSC General Mathematics Revision Guides
- Year 10 Maths
- Cambridge Maths Gold NSW Syllabus for the Australian Curriculum Year 7
- Essential Mathematics 8 For the Australian Curriculum
- Yr12 Maths in Focus 2U HSC
- Maths Quest 10 3ED Classpad Edition
- Cambridge Preliminary Mathematics (11U)
- International Mathematics 4
- Cambridge Mathematics Year 9

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G K Powers

Cambridge

Preliminary Mathematics General

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Cambridge Preliminary Mathematics General Second Edition has been completely revised for

the Stage 6 Mathematics General syllabus implemented from 2013, to prepare you for the HSC

General 1 or General 2 course.

Designed to cater for a wide range of learning styles and abilities, this student-friendly text

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studies: Mathematics and Driving, and Mathematics and Communication. These focus studies

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studies is provided for teachers via Cambridge GO, but the options are many.

Features:

Syllabus topics and their content are listed at the start of each chapter to outline the

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problem solving. Challenge questions in each exercise extend and enrich students, and

extra challenge questions are available in the Teacher Resource Package.

Essential rules, formulae and important concepts are highlighted throughout, while a

comprehensive glossary and HSC formula sheet are ideal for quick reference and revision.

Applications of relevant technologies are incorporated, such as graphics calculator and

spreadsheet activities, examples and questions.

End-of-chapter summaries and multiple-choice and short-response questions provide

opportunities to consolidate and revise knowledge and understanding.

Two complete HSC Practice Papers with answers provide valuable preparation for the

HSC course and exams.

Cambridge

Preliminary

Mathematics

General

Second

Edition

n

mo ry

m

Co mina

li

se

pre our

c or

f l 1&2

a

ner

Ge

Cambridge

PRELIMINARY

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

Second Edition

G K Powers

ISBN: 9781107627291

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Contents

Introduction

vii

Acknowledgements

Chapter 1

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

Chapter 2

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

2.8

Chapter 3

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

3.6

xii

FM1

1

Overtime and special allowances 6

Annual leave loading and bonuses 11

Commission 15

Piecework, royalties and income from government

Gross pay, net pay and deductions 22

Budgeting

27

Chapter summary

31

Sample HSC Objective-response questions 32

Sample HSC Short-answer questions 33

Algebraic manipulation

35

AM1

Multiplication and division of algebraic terms

Expanding algebraic expressions 43

Factorising algebraic expressions 47

Substitution 50

Linear equations

53

Equations with fractions 60

Using formulas 63

Chapter summary

69

Sample HSC Objective-response questions

Sample HSC Short-answer questions 71

Units of measurement and applications

18

39

70

73

MM1

Units of measurement 73

Measurement errors

79

Scientific notation and significant figures 83

Calculations with ratios

88

Rates and concentrations 92

Percentage change 96

Chapter summary 99

Sample HSC Objective-response questions 100

Sample HSC Short-answer questions 101

iii

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iv

Contents

4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4

Classification of data 108

Sample types 113

Designing a questionnaire 118

Chapter summary 121

Sample HSC Objective-response questions 122

Sample HSC Short-answer questions 123

5.1

5.2

5.3

5.4

5.5

AM2

Gradient and intercept 130

Gradient-intercept formula 134

Simultaneous equations 138

Linear functions as models 142

Chapter summary 147

Sample HSC Objective-response questions 148

Sample HSC Short-answer questions 149

6.1

6.2

6.3

6.4

6.5

6.6

6.7

6.8

DS1

FM2

Simple interest graphs 156

Compound interest 160

Compound interest graphs 164

Using prepared tables 168

Financial institutions: costs 172

Appreciation and inflation 175

Shares and dividends 179

Chapter summary 183

Sample HSC Objective-response questions 184

Sample HSC Short-answer questions 185

Chapter 7 Displaying and interpreting single data sets 193

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.7

7.8

7.9

DS2

Grouped frequency tables 197

Cumulative frequency 200

Range and interquartile range 204

Frequency and cumulative frequency graphs 209

Box-and-whisker plots 215

Sector and divided bar graphs 220

Radar charts 224

Dot plots and stem-and-leaf plots 227

Chapter summary 231

Sample HSC Objective-response questions 232

Sample HSC Short-answer questions 233

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Contents

8.1

8.2

8.3

8.4

8.5

8.6

Perimeter 239

Area 244

Field diagrams 250

Volume of prisms and cylinders 254

Capacity 258

Chapter summary 261

Sample HSC Objective-response questions 262

Sample HSC Short-answer questions 263

9.1

9.2

9.3

9.4

9.5

9.6

FM3

Taxable income 297

Medicare levy 301

Calculating tax 304

Calculating GST 309

Graphing tax rates 313

Chapter summary 317

Sample HSC Objective-response questions 318

Sample HSC Short-answer questions 319

11.1

11.2

11.3

11.4

11.5

PB1

Multistage events 271

Systematic lists 274

Definition of probability 279

Range of probabilities 283

Complementary events 286

Chapter summary 289

Sample HSC Objective-response questions 290

Sample HSC Short-answer questions 291

10.1

10.2

10.3

10.4

10.5

10.6

MM2

DS3

Mean and mode 325

The mean from larger data sets 330

Standard deviation 335

Comparison of summary statistics 339

Chapter summary 343

Sample HSC Objective-response questions 344

Sample HSC Short-answer questions 345

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vi

Contents

12.1

12.2

12.3

12.4

12.5

12.6

12.7

12.8

12.9

Problems involving similar figures 352

Scale drawings 357

Trigonometric ratios 360

Using the calculator in trigonometry 365

Finding an unknown side 369

Finding an unknown angle 373

Applications of right-angled triangles 376

Angles of elevation and depression 380

Chapter summary 385

Sample HSC Objective-response questions 386

Sample HSC Short-answer questions 387

13.1

13.2

13.3

13.4

13.5

FSCo

Phone usage tables and graphs 396

File storage 399

Digital downloads 403

Digital download statistics 406

Chapter summary 409

Sample HSC Objective-response questions 410

Sample HSC Short-answer questions 411

14.1

14.2

14.3

14.4

14.5

14.6

14.7

14.8

14.9

MM3

FSDr

Insurance 418

Stamp duty 421

Running costs (fuel) 424

Straight-line depreciation 428

Declining balance depreciation 431

Safety 435

Blood alcohol content 441

Driving statistics 446

Chapter summary 451

Sample HSC Objective-response questions 452

Sample HSC Short-answer questions 453

SC formula sheet 461

H

Glossary 463

Answers 469

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Introduction

New syllabus and Focus studies

Cambridge Preliminary Mathematics General Second Edition has been completely revised for

the stage 6 Mathematics General syllabus to be implemented from 2013, and the HSC General 2

examination being implemented in 2014. The Preliminary course is a common preparation for both

the General 1 and General 2 courses at HSC

This resource closely follows the syllabus and is divided into strands, topics and focus studies.

Each focus study is contained in a single chapter to provide easy access, and is designed to be

integrated across the strands. Teachers can decide on the integration depending on the ability

and knowledge of their students. The teaching program outlines one method of integration.

digital version and an online interactive version of the textbook.

Extra resources have been added to the teacher resources and to GO details given below.

Teaching program for the new syllabus can be downloaded from GO.

The more challenging questions are identied and extra ones have been added to the

exercises and to the companion website.

Extensive exercises divided into foundation, development and challenge questions cater for

students at different levels, and facilitate differentiation into General 1 and General 2 courses.

The sample HSC objective response questions can also be accessed via GO in a

self-marking Quiz Me format for web browsers and smartphones.

Two complete HSC Practice Papers.

Excel spreadsheet activities integrated in the text.

Graphics calculator explanations and problems integrated into the text.

Chapter reviews containing a summary plus sample HSC objective-response

(multiple-choice) and short-answer questions.

Comprehensive glossary and HSC formula sheet.

HOTmaths integrated program available (requires subscription).

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vii

viii

Introduction

Identifies challenge questions in the exercises.

Challenge questions 1

available on Cambridge GO.

1.1

1B

14.1

14A

subscription).

Spreadsheet file available on Cambridge GO.

Used in Chapters 112 to indicate where the teaching program suggests that a

Focus Study section be done next.

An alternative worksheet format is available for the exercise on Cambridge GO.

Study Guide 8

Cambridge GO

Lesson Notes a new resource: PowerPoint les containing comprehensive lesson notes

and additional examples which can be used in class or given to students as tutorials

Chapter tests as worksheets, with answers

Literacy worksheets activities to help with mathematical terminology

Spreadsheet skills worksheets to use with spreadsheet les provided

Copies of the teaching programs and scope and sequence charts

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Introduction

ix

Greg Powers is currently the Head of Mathematics at Cabramatta High

School and the coordinator of the Mathematics Head Teacher Western

Network. He is an experienced classroom teacher, having taught for over

30 years in a range of different schools. Greg has been a senior marker

for the HSC, educational consultant for the Metropolitan South West

Region and presented at numerous MANSW inservices. He has also

enjoyed several curriculum roles with the Department of Education and

Training. Greg is an experienced author who has written numerous texts

on mathematics and technology.

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Acknowledgements

The author and publisher wish to thank the following sources for permission to reproduce

material:

Images: Wikimedia Commons, p.9 (bottom), p.175, p.176, p.179 (bottom); Australian

Bureau of Statistics. Reprinted with permission. Commonwealth of Australia, p.106;

Privacy Commission, p.107; Picture by Steve Bowbrick, ickr.com/photos/bowbrick, p.178;

Courtesy of the Commonwealth Bank of Australia, p.417; Courtesy of the NSW Ofce of

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xii

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C H A P T E R

Syllabus topic FM1 Earning and managing money

Calculate payments from a salary

Calculate wages using hourly rate, overtime rates and allowances

Calculate annual leave loading and bonuses

Calculate earnings based on commission, piecework and royalties

Determine deductions and calculate net pay

Evaluate a prepared budget

Salary

1.1

Salary is a payment for a years work which is then divided into equal monthly, fortnightly or

weekly payments. People who are paid a salary include teachers and nurses.

Advantages

Permanent employment

Disadvantages

1 year = 52 weeks

Example 1

1 year = 26 fortnights

1 year = 12 months

Mitchell earns a salary of $65 208 per annum. He is paid fortnightly. How much does he

receive each fortnight? Assume there are 52 weeks in the year.

1

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Solution

1

2

3

4

Divide the salary by the number of fortnights in a

year or 26.

Evaluate and write using correct units.

Write your answer in words.

= $2508.00

Mitchell is paid $2508 per

fortnight.

Wages

Wage is a payment for work calculated on an hourly basis. People who are paid a wage

include shop assistants, factory workers and mechanics.

Advantages

Permanent employment

Example 2

Disadvantages

Calculating a wage

a

How much does Jasmine earn per hour?

b

What wages will Jasmine receive for a week where she works 38 hours?

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Divide the amount by the number of hours

worked.

Evaluate and give answer correct to two

decimal places.

Write the quantity to be found.

Multiply the rate by the number of hours

worked.

Evaluate and write using correct units.

Write your answer in words.

Salary

A payment for a years work, which is then

divided into equal monthly, fortnightly or

weekly payments.

= $27.45

Jasmine earns $27.45 per hour.

= $1043.10

Jasmine receives $1043.10 for

the week.

Wage

A payment for a weeks work and is

calculated on an hourly basis.

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Exercise 1A

1

Emily earns a salary of $92 648. Write, to the nearest dollar, her salary as amounts per:

a

week.

b

fortnight.

c

month.

The annual salary for 4 people is shown in the table below. Calculate their weekly and

fortnightly payments. (Answer correct to the nearest dollar.)

Name

Salary

Abbey

$57 640

Blake

$78 484

Chloe

$107 800

David

$44 240

Week

Fortnight

a

Amber earns $580 per week.

b

Tyler earns $1520 per fortnight.

c

Samuel earns $3268 per month.

d

Ava earns $2418 per week.

salary of $1500 per week.

a

How much does he receive per fortnight?

b

How much does he receive per year?

Dylan receives a weekly salary payment of $1560. What is his annual salary?

Stephanie is paid $1898 per fortnight and Tahlia $3821 per month. Calculate each

persons equivalent annual income. Who earns the most per week and by how much?

Laura is paid $1235 per fortnight and Ebony $2459 per month. Which person receives

the highest annual salary and by how much?

10

Tran is paid $1898 per week and Jake $8330 per month. Calculate each persons

equivalent annual income. What is the difference between their annual salaries?

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11

Joshua works as a labourer and is paid $25.50 an hour. How much does he earn for

working the following hours?

a

35 hours

b

37 hours

c

40 hours

d

42 hours

12

Lily earns $29.75 an hour. If she works 6 hours each day during the week and 4 hours a

day during the weekend, find her weekly wage.

13

Determine the wage for a 37-hour week for each of the following hourly rates.

a

$12.00

b

$9.50

c

$23.20

d

$13.83

14

Determine the income for a year (52 weeks) for each of the following hourly rates.

Assume 40 hours of work per week.

a

$7.59

b

$15.25

c

$18.78

d

$11.89

15

Suchitra works at the local supermarket. She gets paid $22.50 per hour. Her time card is

shown below.

Day

In

Out

Monday

Tuesday

a

b

Thursday

Friday

Find her weekly wage.

16

Grace earns $525 in a week. If her hourly rate of pay is $12.50, how many hours does

she work in the week?

17

Zachary is a plumber who earned $477 for a days work. He is paid $53 per hour. How

many hours did Zachary work on this day?

18

Lucy is a hairdresser who earns $24.20 per hour. She works an 8-hour day.

a

How much does Lucy earn per day?

b

How much does Lucy earn per week? Assume she works 5 days a week.

c

How much does Lucy earn per fortnight?

d

How much does Lucy earn per year? Assume 52 weeks in the year.

19

Alyssa is paid $36.90 per hour and Connor $320 per day. Alyssa works a 9-hour day.

Who earns the most per day and by how much?

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Development

20

Feng is retiring and will receive 7.6 times the average of his salary over the past three

years. In the past three years he was paid $84 640, $83 248 and $82 960. Find the amount

of his payout.

21

Liams salary is currently $76 000. He will receive salary increases as follows: 5%

increase from 1 July and then a 5% increase from 1 January. What will be his new salary

from 1 January?

22

1A

a

b

c

d

Cell E5 has a formula that multiplies cells C5 to D5. Enter this formula.

Enter the hours worked for the following employees:

Liam 20

Lily 26

Tin 38

Molly 40

Noth 37.5

Nathan 42

Joshua 38.5

Fill down the contents of E5 to E12.

Edit the hourly pay rate of Olivia Cini to $16.50. Observe the change in E5.

23

Isabelle earns $85 324 per annum. Isabelle calculated her weekly salary by dividing her

annual salary by 12 to determine her monthly payment and then divided this result

by 4 to determine her weekly payment. What answer did Isabelle get, what is the correct

answer, and what is wrong with Isabelles calculation?

24

Lucy earns $8 per hour and Ebony earns $9 per hour. Last week they both earned

at least $150. What is the least number of hours that Lucy could have worked last

week?

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Overtime

1.2

Overtime rates apply when employees work beyond the normal working day. Payment for

overtime is usually more than the normal pay rate. For example, a person whose normal pay

rate is $10 an hour would receive $20 ($10 2) an hour if they were paid overtime at double

time. Another common overtime rate is time-and-a-half. It is the normal pay rate multiplied

by 1 12 or 1.5. Here a person would receive $15 ($10 1.5) an hour.

Overtime rates

Time-and-a-half rate

Double time rate

Example 3

normal pay rate 2

Find Johns wage during one week where he works

40 hours at the normal rate of $16 an hour, 3 hours at

time-and-a-half rates and 1 hour at double time rates.

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

Wage = (40 16)

normal pay

Normal wage is 40 multiplied

by $16.

Payment for time-and-a-half is

+ (3 16 1.5) time-and-a-half pay

3 multiplied by $16 multiplied

by 1.5.

Payment for double time is 1

+ (1 16 2) double time pay

multiplied by $16 multiplied by 2.

= $744.00

Evaluate and write your answer in

words.

Johns wage is $744.

Special allowances

Employees receive an allowance if they work under difficult or dangerous conditions such

as wet weather, extreme temperatures, confined spaces or isolated areas. Allowances are also

paid when an employee has an expense related to their line of work such as uniform, meals,

travel or tools.

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Casual work

Casual work involves a set amount paid for each hours work. It can be paid weekly or

fortnightly.

Advantages

Example 4

Disadvantages

fast-food company. His rate of pay is $15

per hour plus time-and-half on Saturday

and double time on Sunday.

Last week Milan worked from

10.30 a.m. until 2.30 p.m. on Thursday,

from 9.30 a.m. until 2.00 p.m. on

Saturday, and from 12 noon until 4 p.m.

on Sunday. How much did Milan earn

last week?

Solution

1

2

5

6

Normal wage is 4 hours (Thursday

10.30 a.m. until 2.30 p.m.)

multiplied by $15.

Payment for time-and-a-half is

4.5 hours (Saturday 9.30 a.m. until

2.00 p.m.) multiplied by $15

multiplied by 1.5.

Payment for double time is 4 hours

(Sunday 12 noon until 4 p.m.)

multiplied by $15 multiplied by 2.

Evaluate and write using correct

units.

Write your answer in words.

Wage = (4 15)

normal pay

+ (4.5 15 1.5)

time-and-a-half

pay

= $281.25

Milans wage is $281.25

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Exercise 1B

1

Calculate the payment for working 4 hours overtime at time-and-a half given the

following normal pay rates.

a

$18.00

b

$39.50

c

$63.20

d

$43.83

Calculate the payment for working 3 hours overtime at double time given the following

normal pay rates.

a

$37.99

b

$19.05

c

$48.78

d

$61.79

He works 38 hours a week at normal

time and 5 hours a week at double time.

Find his weekly wage. Answer correct to

the nearest cent.

Mei is a casual employee who worked 8 hours at normal time and 2 hours at time-and-ahalf. Her normal rate of pay is $12.30 per hour. What is her pay for the above time?

Oliver earns $23.80 an hour. He earns normal time during week days and time-and-a-half

on weekends. Last week he worked 34 hours during the week and 6 hours during the

weekend. Find his weekly wage.

George works in a take-away food store. He gets paid $18.60 per hour for a standard

35-hour week. Additional hours are paid at double time. His time card is shown below.

Day

Out

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

a

In

Find his weekly wage.

Dave works for 5 hours at double time. He earns $98.00. Find his normal hourly rate.

Ella works 3 hours at time-and-a-half and earns $72.00. Find her normal hourly rate.

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Zahid is paid a set wage of $774.72 for a 36-hour week, plus time-and-a-half for

overtime. In one particular week he worked 43 hours. What are Zahids earnings?

10

Samantha is paid a set wage of $962.50 for a 35-hour week, plus double time for

overtime. In one particular week she worked 40 hours. What are Samanthas earnings?

11

hour and a height allowance of $55

per day. If he works 9 hours each

week day, calculate the:

a

amount earned each week day

b

total weekly earnings for five days

of work.

12

Anna works in a factory and is paid $18.54 per hour. If she operates the oven she is paid

temperature allowance of $4.22 per hour in addition to her normal rate. Find her weekly

pay if she works a total of 42 hours including 10 hours working the oven.

13

Scott is a painter who is paid a normal rate of $36.80 per hour plus a height allowance of

$21 per day. If Scott works 9 hours per day for 5 days on a tall building, calculate his

total earnings.

14

Kathy is a scientist who is working in a remote part of Australia. She earns a salary of

$86 840 plus a weekly allowance of $124.80 for working under extreme and isolated

conditions. Calculate Kathys fortnightly pay.

15

hour plus an additional allowance of

$12.50 per hour for disarming

explosives. What is his total weekly

pay if he works from 6 a.m. to

2 p.m. for 7 days a week on

explosives?

16

A miner earns a wage of $46.20 per hour plus an allowance of $28.20 per hour for

working in cramped spaces. The miner worked a 10-hour day for 5 days in small shaft.

What is his weekly pay?

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10

Development

17

Vien is employed on a casual basis. His rate of pay is shown below. Last week Vien

worked from 11.30 a.m. until 3.30 p.m. on Thursday, from 8.30 a.m. till 2.00 p.m. on

Saturday, and from 12 noon till 6 p.m. on Sunday. How much did Vien earn last week?

Rate of pay

Weekdays

Saturday

Time-and-a-half

Sunday

Double time

18

A mechanics industrial award allows for normal rates for the first 7 hours on any day. It

provides for overtime payment at the rate of time-and-a-half for the first 2 hours and

double time thereafter. Find a mechanics wage for a 12-hour day if their normal pay rate

is $42.50 an hour.

19

Day

In

Out

Meal break

opposite. She gets paid $12.80

Monday

8.30 a.m. 5.30 p.m. 1 hour

per hour during the week,

time-and-a-half for Saturdays and

Tuesday

8.30 a.m. 3.00 p.m. 1 hour

double time for Sundays. Abbey

Wednesday 8.30 a.m. 5.30 p.m. 1 hour

is not paid for meal breaks.

Thursday

8.30 a.m. 9.00 p.m. 2 hours

a

How much did Abbey earn at

Friday

4.00 p.m. 7.00 p.m. No break

the normal rate of pay during

this week?

Saturday

8.00 a.m. 4.00 p.m. No break

b

How much did Abbey earn

Sunday

10.00 a.m. 3.00 p.m. 30 minutes

from working at penalty rates

during this week?

c

What percentage of her pay did Abbey earn by working at penalty rates?

20

Connor works a 35-hour week and is paid $18.25 per hour. Any overtime is paid at

time-and-a-half. Connor wants to earn enough overtime to earn at least $800 each week.

What is the minimum number of hours overtime that Connor will need to work?

21

Max works in a shop and earns $21.60 per hour at the normal rate. Each week he works

15 hours at the normal rate and 4 hours at time-and-a-half.

a

Calculate Maxs weekly wage.

b

Max aims to increase his weekly wage to $540 by working extra hours at the normal

rate. How many extra hours must Max work?

c

Maxs rate of pay increased by 5%. What is his new hourly rate for normal hours?

d

What will be Maxs new weekly wage assuming he maintains the extra working

hours?

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11

Annual leave loading

1.3

Annual leave loading is a payment calculated as a fixed percentage of the normal pay over a

fixed number of weeks. It is usually paid at the beginning of the annual holidays to meet the

increased expenses of a holiday.

Annual leave loading

Annual leave loading or holiday loading is usually at the rate of 17 12 %.

Holiday loading = 17 12 % Normal weekly pay Number of weeks leave

Example 5

Thomas works a 40-hour week at a rate of $18.50 per hour. He receives 17 12 % of 4 weeks

normal pay as holiday loading. What is Thomass pay for the holiday?

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Multiply the pay rate by the number of hours

worked during the week by the number of

weeks (4).

Evaluate.

Write the quantity (loading) to be found.

(2960).

Evaluate.

Write the quantity (holiday pay) to be found.

Add the 4 weeks pay (2960) and the loading

(518).

Evaluate.

Write your answer in words.

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= $2960

Loading = 17 12 % of $2960

= 0.175 2960

= $518

Holiday pay = $2960 + $518

= $3478

holiday pay.

12

Bonus

A bonus is an extra payment or gift earned as reward for achieving a goal. It is paid in addition

to the normal income. Bonuses are an incentive for employees to work harder. For example, an

employee may receive a bonus of 5% of their annual salary or $1000.

Bonus

Bonus is an extra payment or gift earned as reward for achieving a goal.

Example 6

Calculating a bonus

Ambers employer has decided to reward all their employees with a bonus. The bonus awarded

is 5% of their annual salary. What is Ambers bonus if her annual salary is $68 560?

Solution

1

2

3

4

Multiply the bonus percentage (5%) by the annual

salary ($68 560).

Evaluate.

Write the answer in words.

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Bonus = 5% of $68560

= 0.05 68560

= $3428

Amber receives a bonus of

$3428.

13

Exercise 1C

1

A business pays 17 12 % holiday loading on 4 weeks normal pay. Calculate the amount of

holiday loading for these employees.

a

Nicholas earns $6240 normal pay for 4 weeks.

b

Kumar earns $5130 normal pay for 4 weeks.

c

Samantha earns $5320 per fortnight.

d

Andrew earns $2760 per fortnight.

e

Bilal earns $1680 per week.

The local government pays its employees 17.5% holiday loading on 4 weeks normal pay.

Calculate the amount of holiday loading for these employees.

a

Paige earns an annual salary of $105 560. (Assume 52 weeks in a year.)

b

Jack earns an annual salary of $58 760. (Assume 52 weeks in a year.)

c

Riley earns $32 per hour and works a 35-hour week.

d

Aishah earns $41.50 per hour and works a 37-hour week.

Laura works a 37-hour week at a rate of $20.50 per hour. When she takes her 4 weeks

annual leave, she is paid a loading of 17 12 %. What is Lauras holiday pay when she takes

her leave?

Ethan is paid $660 per week. He receives a holiday leave loading of 17.5% for three

weeks holiday pay. What is his total holiday pay?

depends on the persons achievements. Calculate the following bonuses.

a

6% of $48 360

b

3% of $96 540

c

2% of $103 290

d

2 12 % of $88 580

1 14 % of $164 400

Grace received a bonus of 12% of her weekly wage. What was Graces bonus if her

weekly wage is $1850?

Patricks boss has decided to reward all employees with a bonus. The bonus awarded is

7 3 % of their annual salary. What is Patricks bonus if his annual salary is $74 980?

4

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14

Development

8

Chen receives 17.5% of 4 weeks normal pay as leave loading. If Chens leave loading

was $379.40, what was his normal weekly pay?

1C

b

c

d

e

f

10

Jim receives holiday loading of 17 12 % of 4 weeks pay. His loading was $996.80.

a

b

11

It is the formula that calculates a $400 bonus if the employer has more than 10 years

of service and more than 50 hours of overtime.

Fill down the contents of E6 to E10 using this formula.

Edit the overtime amount for Sienna Humes to 52.

Observe the changes in E7.

Edit the years of service for Ava White to 10.

Observe the changes in E10.

Edit the overtime amount for Dylan Fraser to 60.

Observe the changes in E6.

Edit the years of service for Xay Sengmany to 20.

Observe the changes in E9.

Edit the overtime amount for Benjamin Huynh to 40.

Observe the changes in E8.

Find his normal hourly pay rate if he usually works a 40 hour week.

a

Calculate her weekly wage.

b

Holiday loading is calculated at 17 12 % of four weeks pay. Calculate Chloes holiday

loading.

c

Chloes employer has proposed to increase her annual salary by 1%. What is Chloes

new annual salary?

d

The increase in Chloes annual salary is compensation for removing holiday loading.

Explain why Chloe is worse off financially with the 1% increase.

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15

1.4 Commission

Commission is usually a percentage of the value of the goods sold. People such as real estate

agents and salespersons are paid a commission.

1.4

Advantages

plus the commission

Disadvantages

high

Commission

Commission = Percentage of the value of the goods sold

Example 7

Zo sold a house for $650 000. Find the commission from the sale if her rate of commission

was 1.25%.

Solution

1

2

3

4

= 0.0125 650 000

= $8125

Commission earned is $8125.

Multiply 1.25% by $650 000.

Evaluate and write using correct units.

Write the answer in words.

Example 8

An electrical goods salesman is paid $570.50 a week plus 4% commission on all sales over

$5000 a week. Find his earnings in a week where his sales amounted to $6800.

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

$1800.

Write the quantity (earnings) to be found.

Add weekly payment and commission of

4% on $1800.

Evaluate and write using correct units.

Write the answer in words.

= 1800

Earnings = 570.50 + (4% of $1800)

= 570.50 + (0.04 1800)

= $642.50

Earnings were $642.50.

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16

Exercise 1D

1

Jake earns a commission of 4% on the sales price. What is the commission on the

following sales?

a

$8820

b

$16 740

c

$34 220

earns 2% on all sales. Calculate Michaels

commission on these sales.

a

$456 000

b

$420 000

c

$285 500

d

$590 700

Olivia sold a car valued at $54 000. Calculate Olivias commission from the sale if her

rate of commission is 3%.

Sophie earns a weekly retainer of $355 plus a commission of 10% on sales. What are

Sophies total earnings for each week if she made the following sales?

a

$760

b

$2870

c

$12 850

Chris earns $240 per week plus 25% commission on sales. Calculate Chriss weekly

earnings if he made sales of $2880.

Ella is a salesperson for a cosmetics company. She is paid $500 per week and a

commission of 3% on sales in excess of $800.

a

What does Ella earn in a week when she makes sales of $1200?

b

What does Ella earn in a week when she makes sales of $600?

A real estate agent charges a commission of 5% for the first $20 000 of the sale price and

2.5% for the balance of the sale price. Copy and complete the following table.

Sale price

a

$150 000

$200 000

$250 000

$300 000

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17

Development

8

Jade is a real estate agent and is paid an annual salary of $18 000 plus a commission of

2.5% on all sales. She is also paid a car allowance of $50 per week. What was Jades total

yearly income if she sold $1 200 000 worth of property?

The commission that a real estate agent charges for selling a property is based on the

selling price and is shown below.

Selling price

Commission

5%

3%

Thereafter

1%

What is the commission charged on properties with the following selling prices?

a

$100 000

b

$150 000

c

$200 000

10

Harry is a sales person. He earns a basic wage of $300 per week and receives

commission on all sales. Last week he sold $20 000 worth of goods and earned $700.

What was Harrys rate of commission?

11

Caitlin and her assistant, Holly, sell perfume. Caitlin earns 20% commission on her own

sales, as well as 5% commission on Hollys sales. What was Caitlins commission last

month when she made sales of $1800 and Holly made sales of $2000?

12

A real estate agency charges a commission for selling a property based on the selling

price below.

Commission rates

Up to $300 000

4%

5%

Bailey is paid by the real estate agent $180 per week plus 5% of the commission received

by the real estate agency. This week, Bailey sold one property for $290 000 and one for

$600 000. He sold no properties in the previous week.

a

What is the commission paid to the real estate agency for the property worth

$290 000?

b

What is the commission paid to the real estate agency for both properties?

c

Calculate Baileys pay for this week.

d

What is Baileys average weekly income for the two-week period?

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18

Piecework

Piecework is a fixed payment for work completed. People who are employed to complete a

particular task, such as an electrician installing lights, are earning piecework.

Advantages

with more work completed

Disadvantages

No permanent employment

Piecework

Piecework = Number of units of work Amount paid per unit

Example 9

Noah is a tiler and charges $47 per square metre to lay tiles. How much will he earn for laying

tiles in a room whose area is 14 square metres?

Solution

1

2

3

4

Multiply number of square metres (14) by the

charge ($47).

Evaluate and write using correct units.

Write the answer in words.

Earnings = 14 $47

= $658

Royalties

A royalty is a payment for the use of intellectual property such as a book or song. It is

calculated as a percentage of the revenue or profit received from its use. People such as

creative artists and authors receive a royalty.

Advantages

increases with a better product

Disadvantages

Royalty

Royalty = Percentage of the goods sold or profit received

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Example 10

19

Calculating a royalty

Andrew is an author and is paid a royalty of 12% of books sold. Find his royalties if there

were 2480 books sold at $67.50 each.

Solution

1

2

3

4

Multiply 12% by the total sales or 2480

$67.50

Evaluate and write using correct units.

Write the answer in words.

= 0.12 2480 67.50

= $20 088

Andrew earns $20 088 in royalties.

Some people receive a pension, allowance or benefit

from the government. For example, the age pension

is payable for a person who has reached 65 years

of age (male). The requirements for receiving these

incomes may change according to the priorities of

the current government.

Example 11

Status

$194.50

$355.40

$355.40

$233.90

How much youth allowance does Ryan receive in a year if he is over 18 and living at home

while studying?

Solution

1

2

3

4

Multiply allowance per fortnight ($233.90) by 26.

Evaluate and write using correct units.

Write the answer in words.

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Allowance = $233.90 26

= $6081.40

Youth allowance is $6081.40.

Cambridge University Press

20

Exercise 1E

1

A dry cleaner charges $9 to clean a dress. How much do they earn by dry cleaning:

a

250 dresses?

b

430 dresses?

c

320 dresses?

Abbey is an artist who makes $180 for each large portrait and $100 for each small

portrait. How much will she earn if she sells 13 large and 28 small portraits?

Angus works part-time by addressing envelopes at home and is paid $23 per 100

envelopes completed, plus $40 to deliver them to the office. What is his pay for

delivering 2000 addressed envelopes?

Emilio earns a royalty of 24% on net sales from writing a fiction book. There were

$18 640 net sales in the last financial year. What is Emilios royalty payment?

a

3590 books sold at $45.60 with a 8% royalty payment

b

18 432 DVDs sold at $20 with a 10% royalty payment

c

4805 computer games sold at $65.40 with a 5% royalty payment

Austudy provides financial help for people aged 25 or older who are studying full-time.

Status

a

b

Fortnightly payment

Single, no children

$355.40

$465.60

$390.20

Partnered, no children

$355.40

How much does Madison receive in a year if she is single with a child and studying

full-time? Madison is 29 years old.

How much does Oscar receive in a year if he is partnered with no children and

studying full-time? Oscar is 35 years old.

Child-care benefit is available to support parents in the workforce. The rate per fortnight

is shown below.

No. of children Fortnightly pay

1

$337.00

$704.34

$1099.26

a

One child

b

Two children

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Three children

21

Development

8

Tahlia receives $19.40 for delivering 200 brochures. She receives an additional $30 per

day when delivering in wet weather. How much does she receive for delivering:

a

600 brochures on a clear day?

b

1000 brochures on a clear day?

c

800 brochures on a wet day?

d

1400 brochures on a wet day?

Mitchell works in a factory that makes key rings. Each key ring completed earns him

$0.34. Mitchell also receives an additional $25 if he works on the weekend. How much

does he earn for making:

a

420 key rings on Friday?

b

460 key rings on Wednesday?

c

380 key rings on Saturday?

d

230 key rings on Sunday?

10

a consultation. He works for 6 hours a day

and usually sees 5 patients per hour.

a

How much money does the doctor

receive each day?

b

The doctor also has costs of $410 per

day. What is the profit for the day?

11

Austudy is reduced by 50 cents for every dollar between $62 and $250 of fortnightly

income. Tyler is 28 years of age, partnered and has one child. He is studying full-time but

earning $126 per fortnight in a part-time job. What will be Tylers fortnightly payment

from Austudy? Use the Austudy table on the previous page.

12

Anthony writes crime novels. He has just received his half-yearly statement of sales of

his latest novel. He has been informed that 20 000 copies were printed and there are 8760

left in stock. Anthony receives 15% of the retail price as royalties.

a

How many copies of his latest novel were sold?

b

What is Anthonys royalty if the retail price of his latest novel is $24.95?

c

What is Anthonys royalty if the retail price of $24.95 was discounted by 10%?

13

The maximum youth allowance is reduced by $1 for every $4 that the youths parents

income is over $31 400. By how much is Charlottes youth allowance reduced if her

parents earn a combined income of $34 728?

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22

1.6

Employers must pay the minimum rate of an award or enterprise agreement. The rate

will depend on the type of work and the actual times worked. Gross pay is the total of an

employees pay including allowances, overtime pay, commissions and bonuses. It is the

amount of money before any deductions are made. The amount remaining after deductions

have been subtracted is called the net pay or take-home pay.

Deductions are a regular amount of money subtracted from a persons wage or salary. People

have many different deductions subtracted from their gross pay such as:

employees wages into a superannuation fund.

Gross pay, net pay and deductions

Net pay = Gross pay Deductions

Example 12

She has the following deductions taken from her pay:

Superannuation $67.95.

What is Lauras net pay?

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

found.

Write the formula for net pay.

Substitute the values for gross pay

and deductions.

Evaluate and write using correct units.

Write the answer in words.

= 2345 (861 + 48.25 + 67.95)

= $1367.80

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Example 13

23

Oscar received the following pay slip. What amount is received this pay for:

a

gross pay?

b

net pay?

c

superannuation?

d

PAYG tax?

Ordinary time

Annual holiday

Total Gross Earnings

Hours

26.00

0.0

$25.000 $650.00

$25.994 $ 0.0

$650.00

$1 300.00

PAYG Tax

$100.00

$ 200.00

Social Club

HECS Repayments

Superannuation

Less Post-tax deductions

$

$

$

$

2.00

13.00

35.00

50.00

$

4.00

$ 26.00

$ 70.00

$ 100.00

Net Pay

$450.00

$ 900.00

$450.00

$ 900.00

Direct Credit to

account: 00000000

Total Payments

Solution

1

2

3

4

Read the value for net pay.

Read the value for superannuation.

Read the value for PAYG tax.

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a

b

c

d

Net pay is $450.00.

Superannuation is $35.00.

PAYG tax is $100.00.

24

Exercise 1F

1

a

Isabella receives a gross pay of $1386 and has total deductions of $875.

b

Kim-Ly receives a gross pay of $985 and has total deductions of $265.

c

Christopher receives a gross pay of $715 and has total deductions of $222.

a

Daniel receives a gross weekly wage of $1056 and has deductions of $294.75 for

income tax, $28.80 for superannuation and $325.05 for loan repayments.

b

Hannah receives a gross weekly wage of $3042 and has deductions of $1068 for

income tax, health fund payments for $50.85, superannuation for $53.55 and savings

for $450.

c

Kapil receives a gross weekly wage of $2274. He has deductions of $768 for income

tax, $28.95 for health insurance, $49.02 for superannuation, $15.30 for life insurance

and $450 for loan repayments.

$48 750. The deductions are

$9150 for income tax, $1462

for health insurance and $5280

for superannuation.

a

What are Jacks total

deductions?

b

What is Jacks annual

net pay?

a

Aaron receives a net weekly pay of $1245 and has deductions of $374.15 for income

tax, $45.60 for superannuation and $25.20 for union membership.

b

Hannah receives a net weekly pay of $2645 and has deductions of $1068 for income

tax, $53.95 for health fund payments and $83.75 for superannuation.

c

Ivan receives a net weekly pay of $2511. He has deductions of $913 for income tax,

$31.95 for health insurance, $59.46 for superannuation, $18.20 for life insurance and

$470 for loan repayments.

Harrys net pay is $57 908. The deductions are $12 580 for income tax, $2087 for health

insurance and $6910 for superannuation. What is Harrys gross pay?

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25

Monday 170

Tuesday 130

Wednesday 145

Thursday 210

Friday 190.

a

What is his gross salary at $0.55 per piece of fruit?

b

What is his net salary if he has total deductions of $121?

Charlotte owns an investment property that is rented out for $320 per week. She pays the

real estate agent a fee of 3% for managing the property.

a

How much does she pay the real estate agent each week?

b

How much does Charlotte receive each week from the investment property?

c

What is the net income received by Charlotte from this property over the year?

Nicholas receives a yearly gross salary of $74 568. He pays 18% of his weekly gross

salary in income tax. He contributes 9% of his weekly gross salary to his superannuation

fund and has $155 in miscellaneous deductions each week.

a

What is his gross weekly

pay?

b

How much income tax is

deducted each week?

c

How much superannuation

is he contributing each

week?

d

What is the total amount

of deductions made each

week?

e

What is his net weekly

pay this week?

Lakshmi receives a fortnightly pay of $2240. She pays 15% of her weekly gross salary in

income tax. She contributes 9% of her weekly gross salary to her superannuation fund

and has $95 in miscellaneous deductions each week.

a

What is her gross weekly pay?

b

How much income tax is deducted each week?

c

How much superannuation is she contributing each week?

d

What is the total amount of deductions made each week?

e

What is her net weekly pay this week?

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26

Development

13.1

10

Charlie is a building worker who receives $48.50 per hour for a 38-hour week. In

addition he receives an allowance of $3.50 per hour for work on a multistorey

development. Charlie is currently working on six-storey apartment block. Each week he

has deducted from his pay a superannuation contribution of 9% of his gross pay and

union fees of $28.45. Because he only started working late in the financial year, he

doesnt yet have to pay tax.

a

What is his gross weekly pay this week?

b

How much superannuation is he contributing each week?

c

What is his net weekly pay this week?

11

Emily receives a gross fortnightly salary of $2703 and has deductions of $891.75 for

income tax, $54.30 for health fund payments, $753 for car loan payments and $14.55 for

union subscription.

a

What is Emilys net income each fortnight?

b

What percentage of her gross income is deducted for income tax? (Answer correct to

one decimal place.)

12

Liam received a gross fortnightly salary of $3795. His pay deductions were $937.20, for

income tax, $215.25 for superannuation, $21.45 for union fees and $201 for a home loan

repayment.

a

What is his net income each fortnight?

b

What was his weekly net pay?

c

What percentage of his gross income was deducted for income tax? (Answer correct

to one decimal place.)

d

If Liams loan repayment increased by 10%, what was his new fortnightly net pay?

13

$54 per hour. In one particular week she worked

42 hours and received overtime at the rate of

time-and-a-half. Her deductions for the week

were income tax $602.20, medical fund $49.60,

superannuation $74.40 and motor vehicle

repayment $417.40.

a

What was Janes gross weekly wage?

b

What was her net income for the week?

c

What percentage of her gross income is spent

on a motor vehicle repayment? Answer correct

to the nearest per cent.

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27

1.7 Budgeting

Budgeting involves balancing of income and the expenses. It is planning how to manage your

income. Budgets are created for a specified time such as weekly, monthly or yearly.

Creating a budget

1.7

1

2

3

4

List all the expense categories.

Calculate the total of the income and expenses categories.

Balance the budget by modifying the categories or by entering a balance category.

Example 14

Balancing a budget

Income

Expenses

Salary

$1726.15

Clothing

$ 73.08

Bonus

$114.80

Investment

$ 156.78

Groceries

$467.31

Part-time work

$ 393.72

Insurance

$171.34

Loan repayments

$847.55

$105.96

Phone

$ 38.26

$ 51.82

Rates

$ 54.82

Recreation

$216.79

Work-related costs

$ 68.76

20.00

Balance

Total

Total

Solution

1

balance.

Subtract the total expenses from the total

income.

Write the result of step 3 as the balance.

3

4

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= $2296.65

Expenses = 73.08 + + 68.92

= $2210.49

Balance = Income Expenses

= 2296.6 2210.49

= $86.16

Cambridge University Press

28

Example 15

Creating a budget

Maya and Logan have a weekly net wage of $954. Their monthly expenses are home loan

repayment $1032, car loan repayment $600, electricity $102, phone $66 and car maintenance

$120. Their other expenses include insurance $2160 annually, rates $1800 annually, food

$180 weekly, petrol $48 fortnightly and train fares $36 weekly. Maya and Logan allow $72 for

miscellaneous items weekly and need to save $84 per week for a holiday next year.

a

Prepare a monthly budget for Maya and Logan. Assume there are four weeks in a month.

b

What is the balance?

c

How can Maya and Logan ensure they have their holiday next year?

Solution

a

Income

Wage

Expenses

$3816

Car loan repayment

$600

Electricity

$102

$66

Phone

Car maintenance

$120

Insurance

$180

Rates

$150

Food

$720

Petrol

$96

Train fares

$144

Miscellaneous

$288

Holiday

$336

Balance

$18

$3816

1

2

3

4

$1032

$3816

List all the monthly expenses categories.

Calculate the total income and expenses

categories.

Subtract the total expenses from the total

income to calculate the balance.

Total income = $3816

Total expenses = $3834

indicates an increase in their income or

reduction in their expenses.

= $18

Maya and Logan need to

increase income or reduce

expenses by $18.

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Exercise 1G

1

Oscar and Jill are living in a unit. Part of their budget is shown below. Calculate the

total amount paid over one year for:

a

Electricity

Insurance

Food

Rent.

Item

When

Cost

Electricity

Quarterly

$ 384

Food

Weekly

$ 360

Insurance

Biannually $ 1275

Rent

Monthly

$ 1950

Sarah earns $67 365 annually. She has budgeted 20% of her salary for rent. How much

should she expect to pay to rent an apartment for one year?

Income

Expenses

Wage

$ 4 634.42

Interest

$ 1 543.56

Electricity

$ 1 956.87

Entertainment

$ 4 987.80

Food

$17 543.90

Insurance

$ 2 348.12

Loan repayments

$16 789.34

$ 2 458.91

Telephone

832.98

Work-related costs

812.67

Balance

Total

a

b

c

4

Total

Calculate the total expenses.

Balance the budget.

Dimitri had a total weekly income of $104 made up of a part-time job earning $74

and an allowance of $30. He decided to budget his expenses in the following way:

sport $24, movies $22, school $16 and food $20.

a

Prepare a weekly budget showing income and expenses.

b

What is the balance?

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29

30

Development

5

1G

a

b

c

d

e

14.1

The formula for cell E5 is =C5/$C$7. It is the formula for relative percentage. Fill

down the contents of E5 to E7 using this formula.

Enter formulas in E9:E17 to calculate the relative percentages for expenses.

Edit the amount spent per month on eating out from $200 to $240. Observe the

changes.

Edit the amount of savings per month from $300 to $360. Observe the changes.

Edit the amount of car expenses per month from $100 to $150. Observe the

changes.

a

Ava has a mortgage with an annual repayment of $13 676. Calculate the amount that

Ava must budget each fortnight for her mortgage.

b

Ava has budgeted $180 per week for groceries, $60 per week for entertainment, $468

per year for medical expenses and $80 per week to run a car. Express these as

fortnightly amounts and calculate their total.

c

Ava has an electricity bill of $130 per quarter, telephone bill of $91 per quarter and

council rates of $1118 per annum. Express these amounts annually and convert to

fortnightly amounts. What is the total of these fortnightly amounts?

d

Prepare a fortnightly budget showing income and expenses.

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Commission

Budgeting

Study guide 1

into equal monthly, fortnightly or weekly payments

Wage payment for work that is calculated on an hourly

basis

Overtime work beyond the normal working day

Casual rate set amount paid for each hours work

Time-and-a-half rate = normal rate 1.5

Double time rate = normal rate 2

Allowance payment for difficult or dangerous

conditions

Annual leave loading payment for going on holidays

Holiday loading = 17 12 % normal weekly pay weeks

leave

Bonus extra payment or gift earned as a reward

Commission percentage of the value of the goods sold

Retainer small payment in addition to the commission

Piecework payment for work completed

Piecework = Number of units of work Amount paid

per unit

Royalty percentage of the goods sold or profit received

Government income pension, allowance or benefit

Gross pay total of the employees pay including

allowances, overtime pay, commissions and bonuses

Deductions regular amount of money subtracted from a

persons wage or salary such as income tax

Net pay = Gross pay Deductions

Budgeting balancing of income and expenses. Budgets

are created for a specified time such as weekly.

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Review

31

Review

32

Chapter HSC

Sample

summary

Objective-response

Earning Moneyquestions

1

Alyssa receives a salary of $85 640. How much does she receive each fortnight?

A $3293.84

B $3293.85

C $1646.92

D $1646.93

Christopher receives a normal hourly rate of $22.60 per hour. What is his pay when he

works 8 hours at a normal rate and 3 hours at time-and-a-half?

A $180.80

B $248.60

C $282.50

D $316.40

Rana works a 38-hour week at a rate of $26.00 per hour. She receives 17 1 % of 4 weeks

2

normal pay as holiday loading. What is Ranas holiday loading?

A $172.90

B $691.60

C $3952.00

D $4643.60

Taylah earns a weekly retainer of $425 plus a commission of 8% on sales. What are her

weekly earnings when she made sales of $8620?

A $34.00

B $459.00

C $689.60

D $1114.60

Ahmet is a carpet layer and charges $37.50 per square metre of carpet laid. How much will

he earn for laying carpet in a room whose area is 9 square metres?

A $37.50

B $46.50

C $337.50

D $675.00

Isabelle earns a royalty of 18% on net sales from writing her autobiography. There were

$24 520 net sales in the last year. What is Isabelles royalty payment?

A $4413.60

B $20 106.40

C $24 520.00

D $28 933.60

Anguss net pay is $68 806. The deductions are $20 630 for income tax, $1051 for health

insurance and $5487 for superannuation. What is his gross pay?

A $27 168

B $41 638

C $47 125

D $95 974

Adam has the following bills: electricity $250 per quarter, phone $70 per month, rates

$1200 per year and rent $300 per week. What is the total amount Adam should budget for

the year?

A $358

B $1553

C $1820

D $18 640

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33

Jake earns $96 470.40 per annum and works an average of 48 hours per week.

a What is his average weekly wage?

b Calculate Jakes hourly rate of pay.

Alex works for a fast-food company and is paid $13.50 per hour for a 35-hour week.

He gets time-and-a-half pay for overtime worked on the weekdays and double time

for the weekends. Last week he worked a normal 35-hour week plus three hours of

overtime during the week and four hours of overtime on the weekend. What was his

wage last week?

Carlos employer has decided to reward all employees with a bonus. The bonus awarded is

6 14 % of their annual salary. What is Carlos bonus if his annual salary is $85 940?

The public service provides all employees with a 17 12 % holiday loading on four weeks

normal wages. Lucy works a 37-hour week for the public service in Canberra. She is paid a

normal hourly rate of $32.40.

a How much will Lucy receive in holiday loading?

b Calculate the total amount of pay that Lucy will receive for her holidays.

Chelsea is a real estate agent and charges the following commission for selling the

property: 3% on the first $45 000, then 2% for the next $90 000 and 1 12 % thereafter.

a What is Chelseas commission if she sold a property for $240 000?

b How much would the owner of the property receive from the sale?

Patrick is a comedian who makes $120 for a short performance and $260 for a long

performance. How much will he earn if he completes 11 short and 12 long performances?

Challenge questions 1

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Review

Chapter HSC

Sample

summary

Short-answer

Earning Money

questions

Review

34

Bailey is paid a royalty of 11.3% on the net sales of his book. The net sales of his book in

the last financial year was $278 420.

a What is Baileys royalty payment in the last financial year?

b Net sales this financial year are expected to decrease by 15%. What is the expected

royalty payment for this financial year?

The maximum youth allowance is reduced by $1 for every $4 that the youths parents

income exceeds $31 400. By how much is Hannahs youth allowance reduced if her parents

earn a combined income of $35 624?

William works as a builder. His annual union fees are $278.20. William has his union fees

deducted from his weekly pay. What is the size of Williams weekly union deduction?

10

Quan received a gross fortnightly salary of $2968. His pay deductions were $765.60 for

income tax, $345.15 for superannuation and $23.40 for union fees.

a What was his fortnightly net pay?

b What percentage of his gross income was deducted for income tax? (Answer correct to

one decimal place.)

11

Joel is a carpet layer and charges $16 per square metre to lay carpet. How much will he earn

for laying carpet in a house whose area is 32 square metres?

12

Daniel has a gross monthly wage of $3640. He has the following deductions taken from his

pay: $764 for income tax, $71.65 for superannuation and $23.23 for union membership.

What is Daniels net pay?

13

Hannah has budgeted $210 per week for groceries, $70 per week for leisure, $23 per

fortnight for medical expenses and $90 per week to run a car. Calculate the monthly

expenses. Assume 4 weeks in a month.

14

Amelie earns $90 345 annually. She has budgeted 30% of her salary for a loan repayment.

How much should she expect to pay for a loan repayment for one year?

Challenge questions 1

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C H A P T E R

Algebraic manipulation

Syllabus topic AM1 Algebraic manipulation

Add and subtract like terms

Multiply and divide algebraic terms

Expand and factorise algebraic expressions

Evaluate the subject of the formula through substitution

Solve linear equations involving up to 3 steps

Solve equations following substitution

A pronumeral (letter) represents a number. It may stand for an unknown value or series of

values that change. For example, in the equation x + 5 = 8, x is a pronumeral that represents a

value. Its value can be determined because we know 3 + 5 = 8, so x = 3.

2.1

When a term has a pronumeral and a number, the number is written before the pronumeral and

is called the coefficient. For example, the term 3xy has a coefficient of 3 and its pronumerals

are written after the coefficient in alphabetical order.

Like terms

Terms that have exactly the same pronumerals such as 2a and 5a are called like terms. Only

like terms can be added and subtracted. It involves adding and subtracting the coefficients.

Adding and subtracting like terms simplifies the algebraic expression. It is often called

collecting the like terms.

35

The Powers Family Trust 2013

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36

1

2

3

Find the like terms or the terms that have exactly the same pronumerals.

Only like terms can be added or subtracted; unlike terms cannot.

Add or subtract the coefficients or the numbers before the pronumeral of the like terms.

Example 1

Solution

1

2

the like terms.

Add and subtract the coefficients.

Example 2

= 7ab 4

Solution

1

2

grouping the like terms.

Add and subtract the coefficients.

= y2 + y

To add and subtract algebraic fractions rewrite each fraction as an equivalent fraction with

a common denominator, then add or subtract the numerators. A common denominator can

always be found by multiplying the denominators of both fractions together.

Example 3

Simplify

x x

+ .

6 4

Solution

1

2

3

4

divide into 12. Alternatively, multiply 6 by 4 and use 24.

Multiply the first fraction by 2 (6 2 = 12) and the

second fraction by 3 (4 3 = 12).

Write the equivalent fractions.

Add the numerators of the equivalent fractions.

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x x x2 x3

+ =

+

6 4 62 43

2 x 3x

=

+

12 12

5x

=

12

Exercise 2A

1

a

4r, 6p, r, 7

b

5x, 3xy, 2x

c

2

d

xy, 4xy, xy , 3yx

e

3, 2m, mn, 9m

f

c, cd, cde, dc, ce

a

4y + 3y

3 p + 1177 p

7h 6 h

3xx x

d + 4d

6 y 1122 y

d + ( 4 d )

33tt + ( 11t )

11 f ( 5 f )

4 hg + 66gh

5ab + 22ba

xyz + 3 xyz

a

5c + 4 + 2 c

4 f +4 f 7

8 + 5r

5r + 12 r

6 x + 4 y 3x

3b + 7a 2 a

h + 2d 6 h

4 de + ed 22de

7a + b + 2a

2 a 2b

xy + 2 yx + 3 xy

6ba 2b

2b + ( aabb )

7a + ( b ) + 22aa 2b

5 g + h + ( g ) + 8h

a

8 x 2 3x x 2 + 4

4 a + a 2 33aa 2 + a

7t + 8t 2 6t 7t 2

3m 2 + 8m 4 m m 2

e 2 + 2e + e 2 e

d + d 2 5d + d 2

2w + w 2 + 5 + w

6 v2 + v 4

8r 7 7r 33r 2

a

a a

+

3 3

3x 2 x

5

5

2 m 3m

+

4

4

3x x

7 7

d 2d

+

11 11

6y 2y

15 15

4 s 9s

+

3

3

9f 4f

8

8

y y

+

2 4

7e e

6 3

g 4g

+

2 6

r 4r

2 10

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37

38

Development

6

a

2 m + m + 22n

m3 + n2

5m 4 m + 3n n

7m 4 m + 2 n n

3n n + m 22m

2 m + 5m 2 n + 3n

Copy and add like terms where possible to complete the table.

+

x+y

3x

3x

7y

x-y

2y

8

Matteo has $y for shopping. He spent $x for a pair of jeans, $3x for a shirt and $2x for a

belt. Write an expression in simplified form for how many dollars he has left.

boundary of the shape. The plane shape opposite is a rectangle

with a length l and a breadth b. Write an expression for the

perimeter of this rectangle by collecting like terms.

10

lengths are 3x + y, 3x + y and x + 2y. Write an expression in

simplified form for the perimeter of this triangle by

collecting like terms.

b

l

3x + y

x + 2y

3x + y

11

a

d

g

j

w w

+

4 3

z z

3 5

u 4u

+

10 15

3a a a

+

5 4 2

b

e

h

k

a a

4 5

3h h

+

8 6

3e e

4 10

7x x x

+

10 6 3

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c

f

i

l

x 2x

+

7 3

5r r

12 8

w w w

+ +

2 4 6

d d

d+

2 10

39

2.2

Algebraic terms are multiplied and divided to form a single algebraic expression. Terms

usually contain a coefficient before a pronumeral. The multiplication sign between the

coefficient and the pronumeral is omitted. For example, the algebraic term 4x can be written

in expanded form as 4 x. After an algebraic expression is written in expanded form, the

coefficients can be multiplied or divided and the pronumerals can be multiplied or divided.

Index notation should be used to write expressions in a shorter way such as a a = a2. If the

algebraic terms contain fractions it is easier to cancel any common factors in the numerator

and denominator. This makes the calculations easier.

Multiplication and division of algebraic terms

1

2

3

4

5

6

If the algebraic term is a fraction cancel any common factors.

Multiply and divide the coefficients.

Multiply and divide the pronumerals.

Write the coefficient before the pronumerals.

Write the pronumerals in alphabetical order and express in index notation.

Example 4

a

2cd (3de )

x2 3x 4 x

Solution

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

5

Multiply the coefficients (2 3 = 6).

Write the pronumerals in alphabetical

order.

Express answer using index notation

(d d = d 2).

Write in expanded form.

Multiply the coefficients (1 3 4 = 12).

Write the coefficient before the

pronumerals.

Write the pronumerals using index

notation.

Express the answer using index notation

(x2 x x = x4).

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2 cd (3de ) = 2 c d 3 d e

= 6 c d d e

= 6 cd 2 e

x 2 3 x 4 x = 12 x 2 x x

= 12 x 2 x1 x1

= 12 x 4

= 12 x 4

40

Example 5

Simplify 18a 2b 6 a.

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

6

Write in expanded form.

Divide the coefficients (18 6 = 3).

Cancel the pronumeral a in both the

numerator and denominator (common factor

of a, aa = a a = 1).

Write the coefficient before the pronumerals.

Write the pronumerals in alphabetical order.

Dividing algebraic terms with fractions

Example 6

Simplify

18a 2b

6a

18 a a b

=

6a

3 a a1 b

=

a1

= 3 a b

= 3ab

18a 2b 6a

6a =

x

8 xy

.

12 y 20

Solution

1

2

5

6

7

8

Determine any common factors in

the numerator and the

denominator.

Cancel out the common factors

(4 is a common factor of 8 and 12,

2 is a common factor of 2 and 4).

Cancel the pronumeral y in both

the numerator and denominator as

it is a common factor.

Multiply the numerators together.

Multiply the denominators

together.

Express the answer using index

notation (x x = x2).

Write the coefficient before the

pronumerals. However, it is

acceptable to leave the answer

as x .

x

8 xy

x

8 x y

12 y 20 12 y

20

4 1 2 1 x y 1

x

=

41 3 y1

42 5

x x

=

3 2 5

x2

1 2

=

or

x

30 30

30

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Exercise 2B

1

a

6g 4

b

7 5m

20 x 5 x

d

a 7a

e

2 4d

4 7

5s s 6

33 f 1155 f

a

mn 4mn

b

15 yz 3 y

5 pq (2 pr )

3e 7e 2

4 w (4

(4w )

3x 2 2 x

2 r 3 4r 2

24 q2 2 q2

3st 3 5 st

de 2 ( 5d 2 e )

z2 4z 5z

6 mn

18

12 y

16 a

a

b

6

4

14b

2b

12 m 3

12 m

2 xyz

26 x

8 x2

64 x

5r 2

15rs

10 pq

2q

27 h2 ( 3)

a

20 z 4

b

22 w 2 2

d

33 y 11 y

12 ab 4 a

25kj 2 5kj

4 x 3 2288 x 2

2 s 8s 2

7m 2211m 3

12 x

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41

42

Development

7

Multiply the algebraic terms in the first column by each algebraic term given to complete

the table.

2p2

pq

5p

6pq

2q2

c

5w

2w

9

2 3a

a 6

5w 2 w

7

9

m 6 mn

9n 15

d c

e 3d

8y

4y

3

6d

5 x 12

4

x

10a 3b

b

4

2d

5

Divide the algebraic terms in the first column by each algebraic term given to complete

the table.

2r

4rt

8r

12rt

4r2

10

11

12

5x

2

breadth of 3x2. Write an expression in simplest form for the area of

this rectangle.

3x2

3 2

Express 8 x y in simplest form.

16 x 2 y 3

a

15h2 3k 3

3k

4

21v 2 5u 3

15uv

7

18a 2 6b 3 a

12b

9a 2

9m 3 6 mn 2

3m 2 n

3( m + 1)

4m3

8m

2( m + 1)

7 y4

5( y 2 )

10( y 2 )

21 y 6

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43

Grouping symbols in algebraic expressions indicate the order of operations. The two most

commonly used grouping symbols are parentheses ( ) and brackets [ ]. They are removed by

using the distributive law or a (b + c) = ab + ac. This is illustrated below.

2.3

2 ( 3 + 1) = 2 4

=8

2 ( 3 + 1) = 2 3 + 2 1

=6+2

=8

To expand an algebraic expression using the distributive law, multiply the number or terms

inside the grouping symbols by the number or term outside the grouping symbols. The

resulting algebraic expression is simplified by collecting the like terms.

Make sure you remember to multiply all the terms inside the grouping symbol by the number

or term outside the grouping symbols.

Expanding algebraic expressions

1

a first term inside the grouping symbol.

b second term inside the grouping symbol.

Simplify and collect like terms if required.

a(b + c ) = a b + a c a(b c ) = a b a c

= ab + ac

= ab ac

Example 7

Expand 5( 2 y 3).

Solution

1

2

3

the number outside the parenthesis (5).

Multiply the second term inside the parenthesis (-3)

by the number outside the parenthesis (5).

Write in simplest form.

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5( 2 y 3) = 5 2 y 5 3

= 10 y 15

44

Example 8

Solution

1

2

3

by the number outside the parenthesis (-1).

Multiply the second term inside the parenthesis

(-5) by the number outside the parenthesis (-1).

Write in simplest form.

Example 9

( m 5) = 1 ( m 5)

= 1 m 1 5

= m + 5

Remove the grouping symbols for 2(3x + 4) + 3(x - 1) and simplify if possible.

Solution

1

2

3

4

(3x) by the number outside the parenthesis (2).

Multiply the second term inside the parenthesis

(+4) by the number outside the parenthesis (2).

Repeat the first two steps for the second

parenthesis.

Simplify by collecting the like terms.

Example 10

2( 3 x + 4 ) + 3(

3( x 1)

= 2 3 x + 2 4 + 3 x + 3 1

= 6 x + 8 + 3x 3

= 9x + 5

Solution

1

2

3

4

(3a) by the term outside the parenthesis (a).

Multiply the second term inside the

parenthesis (+2) by the term outside the

parenthesis (a).

Repeat the first two steps for the second

parenthesis.

Simplify by collecting the like terms.

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a( 3a + 2 ) a( a 1)

= a ( 3a + 2 ) a ( a 1)

= a 3a + a 2 a a a 1

= 3a 2 + 2 a a 2 + a

= 2 a 2 + 3a

Exercise 2C

1

Ryan was required to remove the grouping symbols. This was his solution.

3( 3 x 2 ) = 9 x 2

Where is the error in Ryans working?

a

3( a + 2 )

2( d + 1)

2( 3 x + 4 )

2(5 x 7)

7(b 2 )

4( 9b + 1)

4(5 + 2t )

6(1 2 w )

5( 3 + 9d )

8(5e 2 d )

5( 4 a + 9b )

7( 2 h + 8 g )

3( y + 5)

a

4( x + 3)

b

(b + 8)

7( k 2 )

6( w 1)

2( x 13)

2( 4 + 2 q)

5( 3 4 r )

7(8 2 s )

n( n + 10)

d (6 d 2 )

c(d + 4e )

b

y( y + 1)

x( 2 x 3)

v(v + 4)

e( 3e + 5)

z (7e + 33ff )

a( 2b 3c )

a

2( g + 1) + 4 g

7( s + 2 ) + s

3( y 9) 2 y

5 x 4(

4( x 2 )

6 z + 2(

2( z 1)

3q 7(

7( q 5)

4( x 1) + 2 x + 5 b 7( 3 y 2 ) + 4 y 2

a

c

2(5b + 2 ) b 8

4 r + 17

17 + 5(

5( r 3)

2 n 8 + 3( n + 2 )

5q + 2 ( q + 9)

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45

46

Development

7

a

2( x + 1) + 5( x 1)

3( y + 2 ) + 2( y + 1)

5( a + 2 ) + 3( a + 4 )

8( c 3) + 5( c + 3)

6( s + 6 ) + 2( 2 s 1)

5( h + 7) + 2( 2 h 7)

4( 3 x 1) 2(

2( x 2 )

9( z + 5) 7( z 2 )

5( 2 c 4 ) 3(

3( c + 7)

5(5 g 1) 4(

4( g 2 )

7( 2 u 3) ( u 3)

( 4 d 1) 3( d 3)

Taylah was required to remove the grouping symbols and simplify. This was her solution.

6( 3 x 2 ) 22(( x + 3) = 1188 x 12

12 2 x + 6

= 16x

16 x 6

Where is the error in Taylahs working?

a

x( x 5) + x( x + 2 )

b(b + 3) + b(b + 1)

y( y 3) + y( y + 8)

g ( 2 g + 3) g ( g + 3)

v ( v 7) + v (6 v + 4 )

b(5b 1) b( 2 + 4b )

2 u( u 2 ) + u( u + 9)

4 n( n 6 ) n( n + 1)

3d ( d + 7) + d ( 2 d + 5)

e ( e + 2 ) 7e ( e 9)

6 k ( k 3) + k ( k + 3)

t (5 3t ) + 7t ( 2 t )

10

)

11

12

x 2 ( 2 x + 3) 2( x + 1)

a 2 ( a + 2 ) 4(

4( a + 3)

y 2 (5 y + 2 ) 3( y + 7)

z ( 3 z 1) + z 2 ( z 5)

x ( x 2 + 7) x ( x 2 + 2 )

b(b + 7) b 2 ( 3b + 2 )

e (7 e ) e 2 ( 2 e + 6 )

v( 2 v 2 ) v(1 v 2 )

a( 2 a 2 1) + a( a 2 + 4 )

a 2 ( a + b ) bb(( a + b )

x 2 ( x 2 + y ) x(

x( x + 3 y )

y 2 ( y + 4 z ) y ( z 2 + 1)

)n2 (7n + r )n2.

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47

2.4

Factorising is the reverse process to expanding. For example, expanding the expression

5(2y 3) produces 10y 15, whereas factorising the expression 10y 15 produces

5(2y 3). The first step in factorising an expression is to find the largest factor of both terms

or the highest common factor (HCF). In this case the HCF of 10y and 15 is 5. The HCF is

written outside the grouping symbol and terms inside are found by dividing the HCF into

each term.

Factorising algebraic expressions

1

2

3

4

Write the HCF outside the grouping symbol.

Divide the HCF into each term to find the terms inside the grouping symbols.

Check the factorisation by expanding the expression.

Example 11

Factorise 3p 6.

Solution

1

2

3

4

Write the HCF or 3 outside the grouping symbol.

Divide the HCF or 3 into each term to find the terms

inside the grouping symbols.

Check by expanding the expression.

Example 12

3p 6 = 3 p 3 2

= 3 ( p 2)

= 3( p 2 )

Solution

1

2

3

4

Write the HCF or 2x outside the grouping symbol.

Divide the HCF or 2x into each term to find the

terms inside the grouping symbols.

Check by expanding the expression.

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2 x 2 + 6 x = 2 x x + 22x 3

= 2 x ( x + 3)

= 2 x( x + 3)

48

Exercise 2D

1

a

3m + 9 = ( m + 3)

b

4 x 16

16 =

( x 4)

10 y + 20 =

( y + 2)

5 x 30

30 =

( x 6)

14 a + 56 =

( 2 a + 8)

6 w 22

22 =

( 3w 11)

8e + 12

12 =

9n 12

12 =

( 3n 4 )

2y +8 = 2

a

+

( 2 e + 3)

(

7x 7 = 7(

14 v + 70 = 7

6d 9 = 3

)

)

(

8 h 24

24 = 8 (

5a + 20

20 = 5

15s 45 = 5

10 + 5 x = 5

)

)

Jakob was required to factorise an algebraic expression. This was his solution.

2 x 6 = 2( x 6 )

Where is the error in Jakobs working?

a

5a + 220

b

3 x + 118

d

7 z + 221

e

32 + 4 d

g

4 n + 110

h

16 c + 36

j

24 16 x

k

28 g 8

c

f

i

l

8 p 556

27 9t

15 f + 20

9w 221

6 y + 18

18 = 6(

6( y + 3)

How can she check that the factorisation is correct?

3q 15

a

2 a 12

b

c

5m 20

16 4 y

d

9 s + 90

e

f

32 8h

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49

Development

7

a

x 2 + 4 x = x(

2 e 3e 3 = e(

10r 2 14 r = 2 r (

q4 + 5q2 = q2 (

6 n3 + 8n = 2 n(

6 y y 2 = y(

6 k 7k 4 = k(

9 x 2 + 3x = 3x(

w 2 2w 3 = w 2 (

6t 5 + 9t = 3t (

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

a

y2 5 y

10m 2 + 5m

4 x 2 1166 x

3v + v 2

8g + 4g3

4 d 2 + 1122 d 4

2 ab + 44a

5 xy 2 + 110 xy

6b 2 c 1155b 2

deff 2 e 2 f

de

5 x 2 y + 33xy

xy 2

r 3t 2 r 2t 2

Stacey was required to completely factorise an algebraic expression. This was her

solution.

12 x + 8 x 2 = 4(

4( 3 x + 2 x 2 )

Where is the error in Staceys working?

10

11

Factorise each of the following by taking out the highest common factor.

4 x + 12

12 y + 8

10 x 5 y + 115 z

a

b

c

2 a + 4b 6 c

d

9 y 2 + 6 y 12

8 4r

4r + 6r 2

3 + 6h

6 h2 + 9 h

10v 15v 2 + 25

8m 4 mn + 12

9c + 15

15cd + 1188d

a

2ab + ac + ag

7 g gh + 1144 g 2

d 2 3d + de

b 2 + bc

bc 5b

k 4 k 2 h + 2 kkh

xyz + 5 xy 2 2 x 2 y

mn 2 m 2 n + mn2

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50

2.5 Substitution

Substitution involves replacing the pronumeral in an algebraic expression with one or more

numbers. The resulting numerical expression is evaluated and expressed to the specified level

of accuracy.

2.5

Substitution of values

1

2

3

4

Replace the variables in the expression with the numbers given in the question.

Evaluate using the calculator.

Write the answer to the specified level of accuracy and correct units if necessary.

Example 13

Substituting values

Solution

1

2

3

Substitute the values for a, b and c into

the algebraic expression.

Evaluate.

Example 14

3a 4b + c = 3 2 4 5 + 10

= 6 20 10

= 24

Substituting values

a

( 2 a + 5)

3a3

Solution

1

2

3

1

2

3

Substitute the value for a into

the algebraic expression.

Evaluate.

Write the algebraic expression.

Substitute the value for a into

the algebraic expression.

Evaluate.

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( 2 a + 5) = 2 2 + 5

= 9

=3

3a3 = 3 23

=38

= 24

Exercise 2E

1

a

5aa + b

a + 4b

a2 + b2

abc

2

4bb (2 a)

a

b2 c

a = 6 and b = -4

2

a = and b = 1

3

g

2

a

a = 5 and b = 5

b

d

a

e=1

b

e=3

d

e=2

e

e = -1

1

e=

g

h

e = 3.1

2

Find ( w 7) if:

a

w = 100

d

w = 25

g

a = -7 and b = -2

w=9

c

f

i

w = 144

w = 49

w=1

4

a

m = 4 and n = 4

b

c

m = 20 and n = 8

d

e

m = 0.5 and n = -11 f

ab+c

2ab

2ab

c

a = 0 and b = 0

1

a = 2 and b =

2

e = 10

e = -2

1

e=

5

w = 256

w = 400

1

w=

4

if:

m = 10 and n = 2

m = 1 and n = -6

m = 2 and n = 0.25

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51

52

Development

6

a

x2 + z2 + y

4x + z 1

3 xy 2

z

y3 4 x

z + 4 y2

6 y2

5 zx

R is the radius of the outer circle and r the radius of the inner circle. Find the area of an

annulus if R is 8 cm and r is 4 cm. Answer correct to one decimal place.

Evaluate

2

3

2 y + 3 if y = 12.

10

decimal places.

11

12

1

Find the value of

if f = 10 and c = 2. Give your answer correct to three decimal

2 fc

places.

13

3Rr

Find the value of

when R = 8.2 and r = 4.9. Give your answer correct to two

R+r

decimal places.

14

yA

What is the value of ( y + 12 ) when y = 9 and A = 15. Give your answer correct to the

nearest whole number.

l

g

u 2 + 2 aas if u = 6, a = 7 and s = 2.

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53

An equation is a mathematical statement that says that two things are equal. It has an equal

sign. For example, these are all equations:

x+4=7

2 p = 118

6 y 1 = 23

2.6

Linear equations have all their variables raised to the power of 1. The above three equations

are linear equations. An equation such as x2 = 9 is not a linear equation as the variable is

raised to the power of 2.

Solving an equation

The process of finding the unknown value for

the variable is called solving the equation.

When solving an equation look to perform the

opposite operation:

+ is opposite to

is opposite to

x2 is opposite to x

Make sure the equation remains balanced like

a set of scales. The same operation needs to be

done on both sides of the equal sign to keep the

balance.

Solving an equation

1

2

3

4

Add or subtract the same number to both sides of the equation OR

Multiply or divide both sides of the equation by the same number.

To solve two- or three-step equations, repeat the above steps as required. It

is often easier to firstly add or subtract the same number to both sides of the

equation.

When a solution has been reached it can be checked. The solution of the equation must

satisfy the equation. Always check your solution by substituting your answer into the original

equation. The left-hand side of the equation must equal the right-hand side.

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54

Example 15

Solving an equation

Solution

1

2

3

x+4=7

The opposite operation to adding 4 is subtracting 4.

Subtract 4 from both sides of the equation.

Check that the solution is correct by substituting

x = 3 into the original equation.

Example 16

x+ 4 = 7

x=3

Solving an equation

Solution

1

2

3

The opposite operation to multiplying by 2 is

dividing by 2. Divide both sides of the equation by 2.

Check that the solution is correct by substituting

p = 9 into the original equation.

Example 17

2 p = 118

2 p 18

=

2

2

p=9

Solution

1

2

3

The opposite operation to adding 5 is subtracting 5.

Subtract 5 from both sides of the equation.

The opposite operation to multiplying by 4 is dividing

by 4. Divide both sides of the equation by 4.

( ) by writing it as a

6

4

Check that the solution is correct by substituting

( )

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4 a + 5 = 1

5

4a + 5 = 1

4 a = 6

4 a 6

=

4

4

2

a = 1

4

1

= 1

2

55

Example 18

y

Solution

1

Add 4 to both sides of the equation.

4

5

2 y 4 = 36 3 y

+4

2 y = 40 3 y

+3y. Add +3y to both sides of the equation.

+3 y

+3 y

2 y = 40 3 y

5 y = 40

5 y 40

=

5

5

by 5. Divide both sides of the equation by 5.

Check that the solution is correct by substituting y = 8

into the original equation.

Example 19

+4

2 y 4 = 36 3 y

y=8

a

Write and equation using x to represent the number.

b

Solve the equation for x.

Solution

1

statement.

7 for seven

+ for added

3 for three

for times

= for result

Subtract 7 from both sides of the equation.

3

4

Divide both sides of the equation by 3.

Check that the solution is correct by substituting x = 5 into

the original equation.

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7 + 3x

3 x = 22

7 + 3 x = 22

7

7 + 3 x = 22

3 x = 115

3 x 15

=

3

3

x=5

56

Graphics calculators have an equation mode that may be used to solve any type of linear

equation. The red letters on the keypad are used as the variable. After the equation is entered,

set the required variable to zero and choose the solver key. The calculator will show the

answer and the values of the left-hand side and right-hand side of the equation.

Example 20

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

6

Select SOLVER (F3).

Enter the equation. To place the variable (y) use

the ALPHA key to access the letters in red above

the keys.

Highlight the required variable or Y = 0.

Press SOLV and the calculator will show the

answer.

The values of the left (Lft) and right (Rgt) sides of

the formula are shown and should be equal.

Example 21

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

Select SOLVER (F3).

Enter the equation. To place the variable (x) use the

ALPHA key to access the letters in red above the

keys.

Highlight the required variable or X = 0.

Press SOLV and the calculator will show the answer.

The values of the left (Lft) and right (Rgt) sides of

the formula are shown and should be equal.

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Exercise 2F

1

a

y + 8 = 17

b

x + 13 = 28

c + 7 = 4

d

e

m+9= 4

g

h

8 + h = 111

9+r = 4

j

5=x+2

k

12 = m + 7

Solve the following linear equations.

a

a-7=3

b

k-5=5

d

s - 5 = -4

e

z - 12 = -7

g

11 - v = 4

h

7-x=3

j

9=h-5

k

11 = f - 4

Solve the following linear equations.

a

4x = 12

b

5w = 45

d

2t = -12

e

6h = -30

g

2w = 13

h

3c = -23

j

17 = 8k

k

-75 = 7d

Solve the following linear equations.

y

d

a

b

=4

=8

2

7

f

a

d

e

=5

=5

3

7

g

j

d

= 9

12

y

6=

2

h

k

s

= 3

11

m

10 =

2

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c

f

i

l

c

f

i

l

c

f

i

l

c

f

i

l

a + 7 = 12

4 + d = 5

10 + q = 1

-3 = g + 5

d - 9 = 14

k - 7 = -9

6-j=7

-4 = c - (-1)

7v = 28

-4a = 40

7e = -8

-14 = -3e

w

=4

6

g

=2

9

x

= 4

5

w

9=

9

57

58

a

2x + 4 = 8

b

5y + 3 = 33

c

4q + 6 = 14

d

6d - 1 = 59

e

7v - 3 = 25

f

4m - 2 = 10

g

10g - 5 = -25

h

9x - 4 = -13

i

11p - 6 = -50

j

45 = 3v - 3

k

22 = 7n + 1

l

69 = 5b - 11

a

3 + 2y = 11

b

2 + 3c = 5

c

5 + 3a = 23

d

31 = 7y + 10

e

5 = 7 + 2m

f

33 = 18 - 3d

g

28 - 4q = 16

h

90 - 10r = 100

i

48 - 16e = -16

j

14 = 8 + 2h

k

36 = 8 + 7d

l

78 = 18 - 10w

Solve the following linear equations. Express your answer as a simplest fraction.

a

4m + 1 = 26

b

3c + 16 = 27

c

2y + 13 = 16

d

28 = 16 + 5b

e

37 = 6 + 4x

f

11 = 28 + 8d

g

2z - 3 = 4

h

5h - 7 = 14

i

6e - 2 = 13

j

21 = 2q + 10

k

32 = 3y - 5

l

17 = 9x + 9

Rajiv was required to solve the following equation for homework. This was his solution.

7x + 6 = 8

7 x = 114

x=2

Where is the error in Rajivs working?

a

Write an equation using x to represent the number.

b

Solve the equation for x.

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59

Development

10

a

3x + 2 = 2x + 7

b

3y + 5 = 2y + 7

d

9b - 4 = 2 + 7b

e

6d + 1 = 16 + 3d

g

8 + a = 3a - 10

h

11 + 2w = 6w + 3

c

f

i

5v + 7 = 4v - 8

8z - 5 = 9 + z

4 + 3e = 9 - 2e

11

the Royal Easter show, each costing the

same price, $p.

a

Using p as the cost of one show

bag, write an equation showing the

cost of the six show bags.

b

Use the equation to find the cost of

one show bag.

12

If 12 is added to a certain number, the result is three times the number. Find the number.

13

14

Isabella was required to solve the following equation for homework. This was her

solution. Where is the error in Isabellas working?

4 x 3 = 11 + 6 x

2 x = 114

x=7

15

a

Write an equation using x to represent the number.

b

Solve the equation for x.

16

A number is increased by 4 and then this amount is doubled. The result is 20.

a

Write an equation for this information.

b

Find the number.

17

a

Write an equation using n to represent the number.

b

Solve the equation for n.

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60

Equations with fractions are solved in exactly the same way as other equations. Look to

perform the opposite operation (+ is opposite to -, is opposite to ) to both sides of the

equation. Check your solution by substituting your answer into the original equation.

2.7

Example 22

e

+ 4 = 110.

3

Solution

1

2

3

4

The opposite operation to adding 4 is subtracting 4.

Subtract 4 from both sides of the equation.

The opposite operation to dividing by 3 is multiplying

by 3. Multiply both sides by 3.

Check that the solution is correct by substituting

e = 18 into the original equation.

Example 23

e 4 4

+ 4 = 110

3

e

=6

3

e

3 = 6 3

3

e = 18

3x 5

= 6.

2

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

The opposite operation to dividing by 2 is multiplying

by 2. Multiply both sides of the equation by 2.

The opposite operation to subtracting 5 is adding 5.

Add 5 to both sides of the equation.

The opposite operation to multiplying by 3 is dividing

by 3. Divide both sides of the equation by 3.

Check that the solution is correct by substituting x = 5 23

into the original equation.

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3x 5

=6

2

+5

+5

3 x 5 = 12

3 x = 117

3 x 17

=

3

3

17

x=

3

2

=5

3

Exercise 2G

1

1

x + 2 = 11

a

2

1

3a = 5

d

6

g

k

a

= 10

10

3d

d

=6

4

k

g

8=

3

e

a

+ 4 = 110

3

d

g

x

1

=3

2

5

s

5

2

4y

5 = 1+

3

4=

1

a

x+3=

4

1

d

(e + 2) = 1

3

1

g

(6 + 2 c ) = 6

2

b

e

h

b

e

h

e

h

b

e

h

1

2

y 3 = 10

3

3

2

6s = 2

5

r

1

=1

5

4

x

= 10

2

y

5=2+

3

5r

7=2+

9

6+

y+5=

m4

5v = 2

d

= 7

4

7a

= 14

2

5q

20 =

3

2

3

1

( h 4) = 2

5

1

(11 5a ) = 1

4

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2

1

=1

5

3

c

f

i

f

i

c

f

i

9

10

h

2

=4

2

7

v

=4

12

2z

=4

5

2n

16 =

3

d

+ 11 = 13

2

b

6 = 1

9

2v

2=

8

7

a2=

3

7

1

( x + 3) = 1

2

1

(1 7u ) = 5

3

61

62

Development

5

a

b5

=9

8

t4

= 5

3

3x 5

=6

2

1 + 2x

2

=7

3

4 + 2w

= 6

5

2 + 3m

=5

4

a+4 1

=

6

2

c5 1

=

8

4

2e + 1 4

=

2

5

There are thirty-six times as many cars in Australia as trucks. Let C stand for the number

of cars and T for the number of trucks.

a

Write an equation with C as the subject of the equation that correctly describes the

relationship between the number of cars and trucks.

b

A local community has 120 trucks. How many cars are in the community?

x x

+ =5

a

2 3

y y

+ = 12

6 2

n n

+

=3

5 10

c c

=7

2 4

s s

=2

5 6

m m

=4

7 9

3x x

=7

2 3

5a a

= 11

3 5

y 2y

=6

2 5

r r

= 1

4 3

3w w

= +8

10 2

3x 2 x

=

+2

2

3

a

2y 3=

y+3

2

x +1

( x 1) = 1

2

2y 3=

x + 4 x + 10

=

2

3

d + 6 2d + 4

=

3

4

3x 5 2 x + 1

=

2

3

y +1 y +1

+

=9

4

3

a + 4 2a 3

= 1

3

2

3x 5 2 x + 1

=2

2

3

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y+3

2

63

2.8

S = TD is a formula for relating the speed, distance and time. S, D and T are the variables.

P = 4L is a formula for finding the perimeter of a square, where P is the perimeter and L is

the side length of the square. P and L are the variables.

By substituting all the known variables into a formula, we are able to find the value of an

unknown variable.

Using a formula

1

2

3

4

Replace the variables in the formula with the numbers given in the question.

Evaluate using the calculator.

Write the answer to the specified level of accuracy and correct units if

necessary.

Example 24

Using a formula

is given by the formula

C = 4t + 7

where C is the cost in dollars

and t is the time in hours.

Kayla wants to sail for 3 hours.

How much will it cost her?

Solution

1

2

3

4

Substitute the value for t into the formula.

Evaluate.

Write your answer in words.

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C = 4t + 7

= 4 3+ 7

= 19

It will cost Kayla $19 to hire the

windsurfer for 3 hours.

64

Example 25

Using a formula

2

T

l = 980

2

Find l, correct to two decimal places, if T is 5.

Solution

1

Evaluate.

decimal places.

Example 26

a

b

T

l = 980

2

5

= 980

2

= 620.5922498

= 620.59

Using a formula

the outside of a shape. Add all the

sides to determine the perimeter.

Write the formula.

Substitute 27 for P into the formula.

Evaluate.

x

x+3

x+4

2x 5

Solution

620.59.

If the perimeter is 27 cm, calculate the value of x.

P = x + ( x + 4 ) + ( 2 x 5) + ( x + 3)

= 5x + 2

P = 5x + 2

27 = 5 x + 2

25 = 5 x

x = 5 cm

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Graphics calculators have an equation mode that

may be used to enter a formula. The coloured

letters on the keypad are used as the variable.

After the formula is entered, set the unknown

variable to zero and enter the values for the known

variables. It is not necessary for the known variable

to be the subject of the formula.

Select the solver key to obtain the answer. The

calculator will show the answer and the values

of the left-hand side and right-hand side of the

equation.

Example 27

The circumference, C, of a circle with radius, r, is given by the formula C = 2 r. Find the

circumference of a circle with a radius of 5 cm using a graphics calculator.

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Select SOLVER (F3).

Enter the formula. To place the variables (C and r)

use the ALPHA key to access the letters in red above

the keys.

Enter the known variable. The radius is 5 so R = 5.

Highlight the required variable or C = 0.

The values of the left (Lft) and right (Rgt) sides of

the formula are shown and should be equal.

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65

66

Exercise 2H

1

a

l = 16, b = 2

b

l = 28, b = 7

c

l = 30, b = 10

a

s=9

b

s=6

c

s = 32

If A =

a

1

bbh find the value of A when:

2

b = 10, h = 4

b = 15, h = 2

b = 2, h = 3

a

l = 8, b = 10

b

l = 2, b = 11

c

l = 3, b = 9

a

b

c

b

c

8

18 b

to find the value of a when:

2

b=8

b=1

b = -2

If p =

a

Mv 2

if:

r

12 x

find the value of p when:

x+4

x=7

x=5

x = -3

The cost of hiring a hall is given by the rule C = 30t + 1000 where C is the total cost in

dollars and t is the number of hours for which the hall is hired. Find the cost of hiring the

hall for:

a

2 hours

b

5.5 hours

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10

a truck in t hours at an average

speed of s km/h is given by the

formula d = st. Find the distance

travelled by a truck travelling at a

speed of 70 km/h for 5 hours.

Given that H =

a

E

find the value of H when:

T

11

The formula used to convert temperature from degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius is

C = 59 ( F 32 ) . Use this formula to convert the following temperatures to degrees

Celsius. Answer correct to the nearest whole number.

a

40F

b 110F

12

a

Make u the subject of the formula.

b

Make a the subject of the formula.

c

Make t the subject of the formula.

13

a

Make r the subject of the formula.

b

Find the radii of circles with the following circumferences. (Answer correct to two

decimal places.)

i

3 cm

ii 6.9 mm

14

a

b

m

where m is the mass in kg and h is the height in m.

h2

Make m the subject of the formula.

Find m to the nearest whole number when:

i

B = 22.78 and h = 1.79 m

ii

B = 31.8 and h = 1.86 m

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67

68

Development

15

Find the value of v (correct to one decimal place) in the formula v = u 2 + 2 as if:

a

u = 4, a = 7 and s = 12

b

u = -2, a = 10 and s = 5

16

a

17

19

20

3V

to find the value of R (correct to two decimal places) when:

4

b

V = 44

c

V = 100

ut + 12 aat 2 if:

u = 2, a = 5 and t = 15

PRT

The formula for calculating simple interest is I =

where P is the principal, R is the

100

interest rate per annum and T is the time in years. Calculate the interest earned, correct to

the nearest cent, on the following investments.

a

$10 000 at an interest rate of 9% p.a. for 3 years

b

$88 000 at an interest rate of 11.2% p.a. for 2 years

3

c

$24 000 at an interest rate of 7 % p.a. for 2 years

4

a

18

V = 12

u = -5, a = 4 and t = 6

1

The volume of a cone is evaluated using V = r 2 h where h is height and r is radius.

a

Write the formula with h as the subject. 3

b

Calculate the height of a cone, correct to two decimal places, if the volume of the

cone is 18 cm3 and the radius is 2 cm.

4

The volume of a sphere is given by the formula V = r 3 where r is the radius.

3

a

Write the formula with r as the subject.

b

What is the radius in metres of a spherical balloon with a volume of 2 m3? Answer

correct to one decimal place.

14.8

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algebraic terms

Study guide 2

2 Only add or subtract like terms.

3 Add or subtract the coefficients of the like terms.

Write in expanded form and cancel any factors in a

fraction.

2 Multiply and divide the coefficients and pronumerals.

3 Write the pronumerals in alphabetical order and express

in index notation.

a First term inside the grouping symbol.

b Second term inside the grouping symbol.

2 Simplify and collect like terms if required.

Linear equations

Substitution

Using formulas

2 Write the HCF outside the grouping symbol.

3 Divide the HCF into each term to find the terms inside

the grouping symbols.

4 Check the factorisation by expanding the expression.

Perform the opposite operation (+ and -, and ).

2 Add/subtract the same number to both sides of the equation.

3 Multiply/divide both sides of the equation by the same

number.

Use the same steps as linear equations.

2 Substitute the values and evaluate.

Write the formula.

2 Substitute the values and evaluate.

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Review

69

Review

70

1

A -16xy

B -2xy

Simplify

A

7 x2

16

96a2

6c

3c.

5

9c

5

9c 2

5

18c

5

18c 2

5

-10d - 15e

-10d + 15e

-10d - 3e

-10d + 3e

4(4w2 + 6w)

4w(4w + 6)

8w(2w + 3)

b =1

16w(w + 8)

b=3

25

b=

11

35

A

7x

16

16xy

7x

8

7 x2

8

5x 2 x

+ .

8

8

Simplify

6xy

A -96a2

B -32a2 + 3

C -4a + 3

b=

11

15

4

11

a 2 + b 2 if a = 4 and b = 3.

14

A

1.75

2

11

28

1

bbh if A is 14 and h is 4?

2

D 112

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Review

1

a 11st + 5 - 4st - 4

d + 4d2 2d 3d2

7x

5x

a

2

2 w 3w 3

12 y 8 y 2

c c

5y 2 y

a

b

+

6 6

3

3

m 2m

+

8

3

a

7(x - 1)

5(2 + 2r)

7(5x - 1)

3(4a - b)

7(d + 7e)

-2(8v - 2s)

-(9b - 2h)

4(w - 4) + 2(w + 2)

y(y + 2z)

a

7b + 35

2v - 14

-3v + 15

6y + 9

4x - 14y

12x + 21y

21 - 15x

24b - 16c + 4

12s - 15v + 9

a

d-4=7

4h = 20

5+r=8

2t + 3 = 11

r

= 12

6

5 = 2x - 5

2

1

v+3 =1

3

6

7n + 5 = 33

1

4m = 2

5

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71

Review

72

a 6x + 4 = 5x - 7

b 3 - 4r = 5r + 12

d 8(b - 1) = 2(b + 2)

e y - 12 = 2(y - 7)

7(n - 2) = n + 4

6(2v - 7) = -(v + 1)

a

10

u+3

=4

5

z z

+ = 12

4 8

1

( x + 4) = 2

5

horizon from h in metres above the sea level, is

given by the formula

d = 5

a

b

h

.

2

Find h when d is 10 kilometres.

2V

to find the value of R (correct to two decimal places) when:

3

11

a V=9

b V = 24

c V = 200

12

Einsteins equation E = mc2 states that the energy E in joules equals the mass of m kg

multiplied by the square of the speed of light c (3 108 m/s). Find the amount of energy

produced by a:

a mass of 500 kg

b mass of 200 kg

13

The cost of hiring a hall is given by the formula C = 20t + 2000 where C is the total cost in

dollars and t is the number of hours for which the hall is hired.

a Make t the subject of the equation.

b Find t when C is $2060.

Challenge questions 2

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C H A P T E R

applications

Syllabus topic MM1 Units of measurement

and applications

Determine and convert appropriate units of measurement

Convert units of area and volume

Calculate the percentage error in a measurement

Use numbers in scientic notation

Express numbers to a certain number of signicant gures

Calculate and convert rates

Find ratios of two quantities and use the unitary method

Calculate repeated percentage changes

3.1

the size of a quantity. It usually

involves using a measuring

instrument. For example, to measure

length, instruments that can be

used include the rule, tape measure,

caliper, micrometer, odometer and

GPS. There are a number of systems

of measurement that define their

units of measurement. We use the SI

metric system.

73

The Powers Family Trust 2013

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74

SI units

The SI is an international system of units of measurement based on multiples of ten. It is

a version of the metric system which allows easy multiplication when converting between

units. Units shown in red (below) are non-SI units approved for everyday or specialised use

alongside SI units.

Quantity

Name of unit

Symbol

Value

Length

Metre

Millimetre

Centimetre

Kilometre

Nautical mile

m

mm

cm

km

nm

Base unit

1000 mm = 1 m

100 cm = 1 m

1 km = 1000 m

1 nm = 1852 m

Area

Square metre

Square centimetre

Hectare

m2

cm2

ha

Base unit

10 000 cm2 = 1 m2

1 ha = 10 000 m2

Volume

Cubic metre

Cubic centimetre

Litre

Millilitre

Kilolitre

m3

cm3

L

mL

kL

Base unit

1 000 000 cm3 = 1 m3

1L = 1000 cm3

1000 mL = 1 L

1 kL = 1000 L

Mass

Kilogram

Gram

Tonne

kg

g

t

Base unit

1000 g = 1 kg

1 t = 1000 kg

Time

Second

Minute

Hour

Day

s

min

h

d

Base unit

1 min = 60 s

1 h = 60 min

1 d = 24 h

A prefix is a simple way to convert between units. It indicates a multiple of 10. Some common

prefixes are mega (1 000 000), kilo (1000), centi

( ) and milli ( ).

1

1000

1

100

1000

1000

100

10

mega

kilo

unit

centi

milli

Time

1000

24

1000

60

100

60

10

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days

hours

minutes

seconds

24

60

60

Example 1

75

a

35 cm =

mm

4500 m =

km

Solution

1

Example 2

35 cm = 35 10 mm

= 350 mm

4500 = 4500 1000 km

= 4.5 km

3 h and 15 min =

a

min

10 080 min =

Solution

1

3 h 15 min = 3 60 + 15 min

= 195 min

10 080 min = 10 080 60 h

= 168 h

= 168 24 d

=7d

To convert area units, change the side length units and compare the values for area.

=

1m

100 cm

100 cm

1m

1 m2 = 10 000 cm2

1

or 1 cm 2 =

m2

10 000

To convert volume units, change the side length units and compare the values for volume.

1m

100 cm

1m

1m

100 cm

100 cm

1 m3 = 1000 000 cm3

1

or 1 cm 3 =

m3

1 000 000

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76

Exercise 3A

1

a

5 cm

m=

890 m =

9400 m =

49 000 cm =

mm

m

ccm

kkm

km

78 m =

57 cm =

600 mm =

22 000 m =

45 kg =

ccm

mm

cm

kkm

2 km

m=

6 km

m=

ccm

8100 cm =

51 mm =

76 t =

0.52

52 t =

45 000 000 g =

60 000 g =

m

cm

a

3t=

8100 kg =

4t=

6800 g =

kkg

9 300 000 g =

300 kg =

2300 g =

12 kL =

9 kL

L=

mL

m

300 kL =

210 000 mL =

8 000 000 mL =

kg

g

g

t

kkg

kkg

kg

t

kkg

a

2 L=

7800 kL =

50 L =

6100 L =

kkL

400 mL =

80 mL =

79 000 mL =

min

2 min =

20 d =

4.5 d =

10 h =

min

48 000 s =

min

96 h =

390 min =

780 s =

mL

L

kL

mL

m

mL

kL

kL

a

2.5 h =

40 min =

720 min =

1080 h =

h

d

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min

a Length of a pen

b Height of a building

c Thickness of a credit card

d Distance from Sydney to Newcastle

e Height of a person

f Length of a football field

a Weight of an elephant

b Mass of a mug

c Bag of onions

d Weight of a baby

e Mass of a truck

f Mass of a teaspoon of sugar

a Lesson at school

b Reheating a meal in a microwave

c Age of a person

d School holidays

e Accessing the internet

f Movie

a What amount of chemical remains if 750 mL is

removed from the container? Answer in litres.

b How many containers are required to make a

kilolitre of the chemical?

sultanas remains if he ate 800 grams? Answer in

kilograms.

10

of the Hawkesbury River is 80000 m. What is the

difference in their lengths? Answer in metres.

11

There are three tonnes of grain in a truck. What is the mass if another 68 kg of grain is

added to the truck? Answer in kilograms.

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77

78

Development

12

A cyclist travels to and from work over a 1200-metre long bridge. Calculate the distance

travelled in a week if the cyclist works for 5 days. Answer in kilometres.

13

Madison travels 32 km to work each day. Her car uses 1 litre of petrol to travel 8 km.

a

How many litres of petrol will she use to get to work?

b

How many litres of petrol will she use for 5 days of work, including return travel?

14

a

Ascending order (smallest to largest)

b

Descending order (largest to smallest)

15

a

1 km 2 =

m2

1 m2 =

1 cm 2 =

mm 2

1000 cm 2 =

m2

2000 mm 2 =

5000 m 2 =

kkm

m2

3.9 m 2 =

cm 2

310 km 2 =

m2

4.7 m 2 =

mm 2

74300 m 2 =

kkm

m2

6500 mm 2 =

4000 cm 2 =

m2

cm 2

cm 2

mm 2

16

The area of a field is 80 000 square metres. Convert the area units to the following.

a

Square kilometres

b

Hectares

17

50-metre pool.

a

How many kilometres does he

cover?

b

If his goal is 4 kilometres, how

many more lengths must he swim?

18

Eliza worked from 10.30 a.m. until 4.00 p.m. on Friday, from 7.30 a.m. until 2.00 p.m.

on Saturday, and from 12 noon until 5.00 p.m. on Sunday.

a

How many hours did Eliza work during the week?

b

Express the time worked on Friday as a percentage of the total time worked during

the week. Answer correct to the nearest whole number.

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79

There are varying degrees of instrument error and measurement uncertainty when measuring.

Every time a measurement is repeated, with a sensitive instrument, a slightly different result

will be obtained. The possible sources of errors include mistakes in reading the scale, parallax

error and calibration error. The accuracy of a measurement is improved by making multiple

measurements of the same quantity with the same instrument.

Accuracy in measurements

The smallest unit on the measuring instrument is

called the limit of reading. For example, a 30 cm

rule with a scale for millimetres has a limit of

reading of 1 mm. The accuracy of a measurement is

restricted to 1 of the limit of reading. For example,

2

if the measurement on the ruler is 10 mm then the

range of errors is 10 0.5 mm. Here the upper limit

is 10 + 0.5 mm or 10.5 mm and the lower limit is

10 0.5 mm or 9.5 mm.

1 cm

Every measurement is an approximation and has an error. The absolute error is the difference

between the actual value and the measured value indicated by the instrument. The maximum

value for an absolute error is 1 of the limit of reading.

2

Limit of reading

Absolute error

Maximum value is 1 limit of reading

2

Relative error gives an indication of how good a measurement is relative to the size of the

quantity being measured. The relative error of a measurement is calculated by dividing the

limit of reading by the actual measurement. For example, the relative error for the above

measurement is

0.5

10

called the percentage error. For example, the percentage error for the above measurement

is 010.5 100 = 5% .

( )

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80

Relative error

Percentage error

Absolute error

Measurement

Absolute error

100%

Measurement

Example 3

a

b

c

d

e

ruler?

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

What is the limit of reading?

What is the upper and lower limit for each measurement?

Find the relative error. Answer correct to three decimal places.

Find the percentage error. Answer correct to one decimal place.

Solution

1

2

3

4

6

7

8

9

10

11

38 mm.

Limit of reading is the

smallest unit on the ruler

(millimetre).

Calculate half the limit of

reading.

Lower limit is the measured

value minus 1 the limit of

2

reading.

Upper limit is the measured

value plus 1 the limit of

2

reading.

Write the formula for

relative error.

Substitute the values for

absolute error and the

measurement.

Evaluate correct to three

decimal places.

Write the formula for

percentage error.

Substitute the values for

absolute error and the

measurement.

Evaluate.

Length is 38 mm.

1

2

limit of reading =

1

2

= 0.5 mm

Lower limit = 38 0.5 = 37.5 mm

Upper limit = 38 + 0.5 = 38.5 mm

Absolute error

Relative error =

Measurement

0.5

38

= 0.013

Absolute error

Percentage error =

100%

Measurement

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0.5

100%

38

= 1.3%

81

Exercise 3B

1

B

10

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

What is the limit of reading?

What the largest possible absolute error?

What is the upper and lower limit for each measurement?

Calculate the relative error, correct to three decimal places, for each measurement.

Calculate the percentage error, correct to one decimal place, for each measurement.

a

b

c

d

e

f

20

0

4.5

8 0

4kg

10lb

9lb

1lb

2lb

8

8

1kg

4kg

6lb 8 5lb

3kg

4lb

2kg

b

c

d

e

f

8 0

1lb

2lb

1.5

3.5

1kg

8lb

3lb

8

7lb

6lb 8 5lb

3kg

2.5

10lb

3lb

7lb

0.5

9lb

8lb

3.5

4.5

0.5

4lb

1.5

2kg

2.5

What is the limit of reading?

What the largest possible absolute error?

What is the upper and lower limit for each measurement?

Calculate the relative error, correct to three decimal places, for each measurement.

Calculate the percentage error, correct to one decimal place, for each measurement.

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82

Development

3

measured the mass of the dishwasher as 50 kg to the nearest

kilogram.

a Find the absolute error.

b Find the relative error. Answer correct to three decimal

places.

c Find the percentage error to the nearest whole number.

mass of the iPod as 235 g to the nearest gram.

a Find the absolute error.

b Find the relative error. Answer correct to three decimal

places.

c Find the percentage error correct to two decimal places.

measured the mass of the screen as 3 kg to the nearest

kilogram.

a Find the absolute error.

b Find the relative error. Answer correct to three decimal

places.

c Find the percentage error correct to three decimal places.

A measurement was taken of a skid mark at the scene of a car accident. The actual length

of the skid mark was 25.15 metres, however it was measured as 25 metres.

a What is the absolute error?

b Find the relative error. Answer correct to three decimal places.

c Find the percentage error. Answer correct to one decimal place.

7

The length of a building at school is exactly 56 m. Cooper measured the length of the

building to be 56.3m and Filip measured the building at 55.8 m.

a What is the absolute error for Coopers measurement?

b What is the absolute error for Filips measurement?

c Compare the relative error for both measurements. Answer correct to four decimal

places.

d Compare the percentage error for both measurements. Answer correct to three

decimal places.

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83

Scientific notation

3.3

Scientific notation is used to write very large or very small numbers more conveniently. It

consists of a number between 1 and 10 multiplied by a power of ten. For example, the number

4 100 000 is expressed in scientific notation as 4.1 106. The power of ten indicates the

number of tens multiplied together. For example:

4.1 106 = 4.1 (10 10 10 10 10 10)

= 4 100 000

When writing numbers in scientific notation, it is useful to remember that large numbers have

a positive power of ten and small numbers have a negative the power of ten.

Writing numbers in scientific notation

1

2

3

4

Place a decimal point between these two digits. This is the number between 1 and 10.

Count the digits between the new and old decimal point. This is the power of ten.

Power of ten is positive for larger numbers and negative for small numbers.

Example 4

approximately 153 400 000 square

kilometres. Express this area more

conveniently by using scientific

notation.

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

Place the decimal point between these numbers.

Count the digits from the old decimal point (end of

the number) to position of the new decimal point.

Large number indicates the power of 10 is positive.

Write in scientific notation.

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1.534

1.53 400 000 eight digits

Power of 10 is +8 or 8

153 400 000 = 1.534 108

84

Significant figures

Significant figures are used to specify the accuracy of a number. It is often used to round a

number. Significant figures are the digits that carry meaning and contribute to the accuracy of

the number. This includes all the digits except the zeros at the start of a number and zeros at

the finish of a number without a decimal point. These zeros are regarded as placeholders and

only indicate the size of the number. Consider the following examples.

The significant figures in a number not containing a decimal point can sometimes be unclear.

For example, the number 8000 may be correct to 1 or 2 or 3 or 4 significant figures. To prevent

this problem, the last significant figure of a number is underlined. For example, the number

8000 has two significant figures. If the digit is not underlined the context of the problem is a

guide to the accuracy of the number.

Writing numbers to significant figures

1

2

3

Count the digits in the number to determine its accuracy (ignore zeros at the end).

Round the number to the required significant figures.

Example 5

a

153 400 000 (3 significant figures)

b

0.000 657 (2 significant figures)

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Count the digits in the number.

Round the number to 3 significant figures.

Write answer in scientific notation correct

to 3 significant figures.

1.534 has 4 digits

1.53 rounded to 3 sig. fig.

153 400 000 = 1.53 108

Count the digits in the number.

Round the number to 2 significant figures.

Write answer in scientific notation correct

to 2 significant figures.

6.57 has 3 digits

6.6 rounded to 2 sig. fig.

0.000 657 = 6.6 104

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85

Exercise 3C

1

a

7600

c

590 000

e

35 000

g

77 100 000

i

95 400 000 000

Write these numbers in scientific notation.

a

0.000 56

c

0.000 000 812

e

0.000 058

g

0.26

i

0.000 000 000 167

b

d

f

h

b

d

f

h

6 800 000

310 000 000

523 000 000 000

0.000 068 7

0.0043

0.000 003 12

0.092

a

Write this number in scientific notation.

b

Express this number correct to one

significant figure.

a

1.12 105

c

5.2 103

e

2.4 102

g

3.9 106

i

6.4 104

a

3.5 104

c

1.63 107

e

4.9 102

g

4.12 108

i

3.0 109

b

d

f

h

b

d

f

h

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5.34 108

8.678 107

7.8 109

2.8 101

7.9 106

5.81 103

9.8 101

6.33 105

86

Convert a measurement of 5.81 103 grams into kilograms. Express your answer in

scientific notation.

a

(2.5 103) (5.9 106)

b

(4.7 105) (6.3 102)

c

(7.1 105) (4.2 102)

d

(3.0 104) (6.2 105)

9.1 105

7.2 107

4.8 104

a

b

c

2.8 102

4.8 103

3.2 105

10

a

1 561 231 (2 sig. fig.) b 3 677 720 (4 sig. fig.)

c

789 001 (5 sig. fig.)

d

3 300 000 (1 sig. fig.) e 777 777 (3 sig. fig.)

f

3 194 729 (5 sig. fig.)

g

821 076 (4 sig. fig.)

h

7091 (1 sig. fig.)

i

49 172 (2 sig. fig.)

11

a

0.0035 (1 sig. fig.)

b

0.191 785 (4 sig. fig.)

d

0.111 222 33 (6 sig. fig.) e 0.000 0271 (1 sig. fig.)

g

0.008 12 (2 sig. fig.)

h

0.092 71 (3 sig. fig.)

c

f

i

0.019 832 6 (5 sig. fig.)

0.000 419 (2 sig. fig.)

12

Express this length correct to two

significant figures.

13

Convert a measurement of 2654 kilograms into centigrams. Express your answer correct

to two significant figures.

14

Convert a measurement of 4 239 810 milligrams into grams. Express your answer correct

to four significant figures.

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87

Development

15

a

16

17

x = 9.8 103

The arc length of a circle is l =

360

radius of the circle. Use this formula to calculate the arc length of a circle when = 30

and r = 7.4 108. Answer in scientific notation correct to one significant figure.

Given that V =

a

13.3

x = 2.4 103

h

V = 5 104 and h = 9 106

b

V = 6 107 and h = 4 102

18

Use the formula E = md2 to find d correct to three significant figures given that:

a

m = 0.08 and E = 5.5 109

b

m = 2.7 103 and E = 1.6 104

19

20

Light travels at 300 000 kilometres per second. Convert this measure to metres per

second and express this speed in scientific notation.

21

Use the formula E = 3p q to evaluate E given that p = 7.5 105 and q = 2.5 104.

Answer in scientific notation correct to one significant figure.

22

The volume of a cylinder is V = r2h where r is the radius of the cylinder and h is the

height of the cylinder. Use this formula to calculate the volume of the cylinder if

r = 5.6 104 and h = 2.8 103. Answer in scientific notation correct to three significant

figures.

23

The Earth is 1.496 108 km from the Sun. Calculate the distance travelled by the Earth

in a year using the formula c = 2r. Answer in scientific notation correct to two

significant figures.

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88

3.4

same units in a definite order. For example,

the ratio 3:4 represents 3 parts to 4 parts or

3 or 0.75 or 75%.

4

in the same way as a fraction. For example,

the ratio 15:20 can be simplified to 3:4

by dividing each number by 5. Equivalent

ratios are obtained by multiplying or

dividing each amount in the ratio by the

same number.

3

15 : 12 = 5 : 4

5 : 4 = 15 : 12

When simplifying a ratio with fractions, multiply each of the amounts by the lowest common

denominator. For example, to simplify 1 : 3 multiply both sides by 8. This results in the

8 4

equivalent ratio of 1:6.

Ratio

A ratio is used to compare amounts of the same units in a definite order.

Equivalent ratios are obtained by multiplying or dividing by the same number.

Ratio problems may be solved by dividing a quantity in a given ratio. This method divides

each amount in the ratio by the total number of parts.

Dividing a quantity in a given ratio

1

2

3

4

Calculate the total number of parts by adding each amount in the ratio.

Divide the quantity by the total number of parts to determine the value of one part.

Multiply each amount of the ratio by the result in step 2.

Check by adding the answers for each part. The result should be the original quantity.

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Example 6

89

Mikhail and Ilya were given $450 by their grandparents to share in the ratio 4:5. How much

did each person receive?

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

amount in the ratio (4 parts to 5 parts).

9 parts = $450

Divide the quantity ($450) by the total number of

$450

1 part =

= $5

50

parts (9 parts) to determine the value of one part.

9

Multiply each amount of the ratio by the result in

4 parts = 4 $50

50 = $200

step 2 or $50.

5 parts = 5 $50

50 = $250

Check by adding the answers for each part. The

($200 + $250 = $450)

result should be the original quantity or $450.

Mikhail receives $200 and

Write the answer in words.

Ilya receives $250.

The unitary method involves finding one unit of an amount by division. This result is then

multiplied to solve the problem.

Using the unitary method

1

2

Multiply the result in step 1 by a number to solve the problem.

Example 7

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

6

question.

Find 1 L of petrol by dividing 360 km by the amount

or 30.

Multiply the 360 by a 7 to solve the problem.

30

Evaluate.

Write answer to an appropriate degree of accuracy.

Write the answer in words.

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30 L = 360 kkm

360

1 L=

km

30

360

7 L=

7 km

30

= 84 km

The car travels 84 km.

90

Exercise 3D

1

a

15:3

b

10:40

d

14:30

e

8:12

c

f

9:18:9

5:10:20

1 1

:

2 5

2 3

:

3 7

24:16

49:14

1

1:

3

3

:1

4

A delivery driver delivers 1 parcel on average every 20 minutes. How many hours does it

take to drop 18 parcels?

a

2:1

b

3:2

c

1:5

d

7:5

A bag of 500 grams of chocolates is divided into the ratio 7:3. What is the mass of the

smaller amount?

At a concert there were 7 girls for every 5 boys. How many girls were in the audience

of 8616?

Molly, Patrick and Andrew invest in a business in the ratio 6:5:1. The total amount

invested is $240 000. How much was invested by the following people?

a

Molly

b

Patrick

c

Andrew

flour to sugar is 5:3:2. A 250 g packet of mixed fruit is

used to make the cake. How much sugar and flour is

required?

a

1 kg

b

10 kg

c

14 kg

d

6 kg

The cost of 3 pens is $42.60. Find the cost of:

a

1 pen

b

4 pens

c

6 pens

d

10 pens

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91

Development

10

A punch is made from pineapple juice, lemonade and passionfruit in the ratio 3:5:2.

a

How much lemonade is needed if one litre of pineapple juice is used?

b

How much pineapple juice is required to make 10 litres of punch?

11

Angus, Ruby and Lily share an inheritance of $500 000 in the ratio of 7:5:4. How much

will be received by the following people?

a

Angus

b

Ruby

c

Lily

12

Samantha and Mathilde own a restaurant. Samantha gets 3 of the profits and Mathilde

5

receives the remainder.

a

What is the ratio of profits?

b

Last week the profit was $2250. How much does Mathilde receive?

c

This week the profit is $2900. How much does Samantha receive?

13

A jam is made by adding 5 parts fruit to 4 parts of sugar. How much fruit should be

added to 2 12 kilograms of sugar in making the jam?

14

A local council promises to spend $4 for every $3 raised in public subscriptions for a

community hall. The cost of the hall is estimated at $1.75 million. How much does the

community need to raise?

15

The ratio of $5 to $10 notes in Stephanies purse is 3:5. There are 24 notes altogether.

What is the total value of Stephanies $5 notes?

16

Nathan makes a blend of mixed lollies using 5 kg jelly babies, 4 kg licorice and 1 kg

skittles. What is the cost of the blend per kilogram to the nearest cent?

Mixed lollies

Jelly babies $5.95 per kg

17

Licorice

$6.95 per kg

Skittles

$11.90 per kg

The three sides of a triangle are in the ratio of 2:3:4. The longest side of the triangle is

12.96 mm. What is the perimeter of the triangle?

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92

Rates

3.5

different units. For example, we may compare

the distance travelled with the time taken.

In a rate the units are different and must be

specified.

The order of a rate is important. A rate is

written as the first amount per one of the

second amount. For example, $2.99/kg

represents $2.99 per one kilogram or 80 km/h

represents 80 kilometres per one hour.

Converting a rate

1

2

3

4

Write the rate as a fraction. First quantity is the numerator and 1 is the denominator.

Convert the first amount to the required unit.

Convert the second amount to the required unit.

Simplify the fraction.

Example 8

Converting a rate

a

55 200 m/h to m/min

b

$6.50/kg to c/g

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

The numerator is 55 200 m and the denominator

is 1 h.

No conversion required for the numerator.

Convert the 1 hour to minutes by multiplying by 60.

Simplify the fraction.

Write the rate as a fraction.

The numerator is $6.50 and the denominator is 1 kg.

Convert the $6.50 to cents by multiplying by 100.

Convert the 1 kg to g by multiplying by 1000.

Simplify the fraction.

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55 200 m

1h

55 200 m

=

1 60 min

= 920 m/min

55 200 =

6.50 =

$6.50

1 kg

6.50 100 c

=

1 1000 g

= 0.665 c/g

93

Concentrations

A concentration is a measure of how much of a given substance is mixed with another

substance. Concentrations are a rate that has particular applications in nursing and agriculture.

It often involves mixing chemicals. Concentrations may be expressed as:

Finding a percentage concentration

1

2

Multiply the fraction by 100 to convert it to a percentage.

Example 9

Converting a concentration

A medicine is given as a concentration of 2.5 mL per 10 kg. What is the dosage rate for this

medicine in mL/kg?

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

6

The numerator is 2.5 mL and the denominator is

10 kg.

Divide the numerator by the denominator.

Evaluate.

Write answer to an appropriate degree of

accuracy.

Write the answer in words.

Example 10

2.5 mL

10 kg

2.5 mL

=

10

kg

= 0.25

2 5 mL

L//kg

2.5 mL/10 kg =

Solution

the second amount.

Multiply the fraction by 100 to convert it to a

percentage.

Evaluate.

1

2

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6.2 g

50 g

6.2

=

100%

50

= 12.4%

6.2 g/50 g =

Percentage composition

is 12.4%.

94

Exercise 3E

1

a

Cost of apples is $2.50/kg. What is the cost of 5 kg?

b

Tax charge is $28/m. What is the tax for 7 m2?

c

Cost savings are $35/day. How much is saved in 5 days?

d

Cost of a chemical is $65/100 mL. What is the cost of 300 mL?

e

Cost of mushrooms is $5.80/kg. What is the cost of 12 kg?

f

Distance travelled is 1.2 km/min. What is the distance travelled in 30 minutes?

g

Concentration of a chemical is 3 mL/L. How many mL of the chemical is needed

for 4 L?

h

Concentration of a drug is 2 mL/g. How many mL is needed for 10 g?

a

300 km on 60 L [km per L]

b

15 m in 10 s [m per s]

c

$640 for 5 m [$ per m]

d

56 L in 0.5 min [L per min]

e

78 mg for 13 g [mg per g]

f

196 g for 14 L [g per L]

a

39 240 m/min [m/s]

c

88 cm/h [mm/h]

e

0.4 km/s [m/s]

g

6.09 g/mL [mg/mL]

i

12 600 mg/g [mg/kg]

b

d

f

h

2 m/s [cm/s]

55 200 m/h [m/min]

57.5 m/s [km/s]

4800 L/kL [mL/kL]

a

How much does Mia earn for working a 9-hour day?

b

How many hours does Mia work to earn $1200?

c

What is Mias annual income if she works 40 hours a week? Assume she works

52 weeks in the year.

a

Express this concentration in litres per litre.

b

What is the percentage concentration?

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95

Development

6

A tap is dripping water at a rate of 70 drops per minute. Each drop is 0.2 mL.

a How many millilitres of water drip from the tap in one minute?

b How many litres of water drip from the tap in a day?

a Find the charge for 12560 MJ of natural gas. Answer to the nearest dollar.

b The charge for natural gas was $160.27. How many megajoules were used?

Olivias council rate is $2915 p.a. for land valued at $265000. Lucy has a council rate of

$3186 on land worth $295000 from another council.

a What is Olivias council charge as a rate of $/$1000 valuation?

b What is Lucys council charge as a rate of $/$1000 valuation?

Miras car uses 9 litres of petrol to travel 100 kilometres. Petrol costs $1.50 per litre.

a What is the cost of travelling 100 kilometres?

b How far can she drive using $50 worth of petrol? Answer to the nearest kilometre.

10

speed. When the speed is 90 km/h

the bike consumes 5 litres of

petrol for every 100 kilometres

travelled.

a The petrol tank holds 30 litres.

How many kilometres can the

bike travel on a full tank of

petrol when its speed is

90 km/h?

b When the speed is 110 km/h

the bike consumes 30% more petrol per kilometre travelled. Calculate the number of

litres per 100 kilometres consumed when the bike travels at 110 km/h.

11

A plane travelled non-stop from Los Angeles to Sydney, a distance of 12027 kilometres

in 13 hours and 30 minutes. The plane started with 180 kilolitres of fuel, and on landing

had enough fuel to fly another 45 minutes.

a What was the planes average speed in kilometres per hour? Answer to the nearest

whole number.

b How much fuel was used? Answer to the nearest kilolitre.

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96

Percentage change involves increasing or decreasing a quantity as a percentage of the original

amount of the quantity.

3.6

Percentage increase

1

2

Multiply the above percentage by the

amount.

Example 11

Percentage decrease

1

2

Multiply the above percentage by

the amount.

The retail price of a toaster is $36 and is to be increased by 5%. What is the new price?

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

Write the quantity (new price) to be found.

Multiply the above percentage (105%) by the

amount.

Evaluate and write using correct units.

Write the answer in words.

Example 12

100% + 5% = 105%

New price = 105% of $36

= 1.05 36

= $37.80

New price is $37.80.

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Write the quantity (new price) to be found.

Multiply the above percentage (120%) by the

amount.

Evaluate and write using correct units.

Subtract the 20% decrease from 100%.

Write the quantity (new price) to be found.

Multiply the above percentage (80%) by the

amount.

Evaluate and write using correct units.

Write the answer in words.

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New price = 120% of $75

= 1.20 75

= $90

100% 20% = 80%

New price = 80% of $90

= 0.80 90

= $72

New price is $72.

97

Exercise 3F

1

a

Increase of 10% on $48

b

Increase of 30% on $120

c

Increase of 15% on $66

d

Increase of 25% on $88

e

Increase of 40% on $1340

f

Increase of 36% on $196

g

Increase of 4.5% on $150

h

Increase of 1 % on $24

2

a

Decrease of 20% on $110

b

Decrease of 60% on $260

c

Decrease of 35% on $320

d

Decrease of 75% on $1096

e

Decrease of 6% on $50

f

Decrease of 32% on $36

g

Decrease of 12.5% on $640

h

Decrease of 1 14 % on $56

30% off the retail price of all clothing. Find

the amount saved on the following items.

a

Mens shirt with a retail price of $80

b

Pair of jeans with a retail price of $66

c

Ladies jacket with a retail price of $450

d

Boys shorts with a retail price of $22

e

Jumper with a retail price of $124

f

Girls skirt with a retail price of $50

30%

origi

OFF

nal p

rice

A manager has decided to award a salary increase of 6% for all employees. Find the new

salary awarded on the following amounts.

a

Salary of $46 240

b

Salary of $94 860

c

Salary of $124 280

d

Salary of $64 980

Molly has a card that entitles her to a 2.5% discount at the store where she works.

How much will she pay for the following items?

a

Vase marked at $190

b

Cutlery marked at $240

c

Painting marked at $560

d

Pot marked at $70

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98

Development

6

A used car is priced at $18 600 and offered for sale at a discount of 15%.

a

What is the discounted price of the car?

b

The car dealer decides to reduce the price of this car by another 15%. What is the

new price of the car?

a

Increase $100 by 20% and then decrease the result by 20%.

b

Increase $280 by 10% and then increase the result by 5%.

c

Decrease $32 by 50% and then increase the result by 25%.

d

Decrease $1400 by 5% and then decrease the result by 5%.

e

Increase $960 by 15% and then decrease the result by 10%.

f

Decrease $72 by 12.5% and then increase the result by 33 13 % .

An electronic store offered a $30 discount on a piece of software marked at $120. What

percentage discount has been offered?

The cost price of a sound system is $480. Retail stores have offered a range of successive

discounts. Calculate the final

price of the sound system at

the following stores.

a

Store A: Increase of

10% and then a decrease

of 5%

b

Store B: Increase of

40% and then a decrease

of 50%

c

Store C: Increase of

25% and then a decrease

of 15%

d

Store D: Increase of

30% and then a decrease

of 60%

10

a

What percentage discount has been applied?

b

Two months later the price of the clock was increased by the same percentage

discount. What is new price of the clock?

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Units of measurement

1000

1000

100

10

mega

kilo

unit

centi

milli

1000

24

1000

60

100

60

10

Study guide 3

days

hours

minutes

seconds

24

60

60

10000 cm2 = 1 m2

1 ha = 10000 m2

1000000 cm3 = 1 m3

Writing numbers in

scientific notation

Writing numbers in

significant figures

2 Place a decimal point between these two digits.

3 Power of ten is number of the digits between the new and the

old decimal point. (Small number negative value, Large

number positive value)

2 Count the digits in the number to determine its accuracy.

3 Round the number to the required significant figures.

Ratios

order. Equivalent ratios are obtained by multiplying or dividing by

the same number.

Unitary method

Converting a rate

Percentage change

2 Multiply the result in step 1 by the number.

Write the rate as a fraction. First quantity is the numerator

and 1 is the denominator.

2 Convert the first amount to the required unit.

3 Convert the second amount to the required unit.

4 Simplify the fraction.

Add the % increase or subtract the % decrease from 100%.

2 Multiply the above percentage by the amount.

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Review

99

Review

100

1

A 0.0075 mm

B 75 mm

7500 mm

A 10

B 100

C 1000

10000

A 4.5 106

B 4.5 105

4.5 106

0.066

750 mm

4.5 105

A 0.06

B 0.07

C 0.065

The ratio of adults to children in a park is 5:9. How many adults are in the park if there are

630 children?

A 70

B 126

C 280

D 350

A 360 gram lolly bag is divided in the ratio 7:5. What is the mass of the smaller amount?

A 150 g

B 168 g

C 192 g

D 210 g

A hose fills a 10 L bucket in 20 seconds. What is the rate of flow in litres per hour?

A 0.0001

B 30

C 1800

D 7200

A 60 km/h

B 100 m/s

C 10000 m/min

6000 m/h

A 0.1 mL

B 10 mL

C 27 mL

D 90 mL

10

What is the new price when $80 is increased by 20% then decreased by 20%?

A $51.20

B $76.80

C $80.00

D $115.20

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101

There are six tonnes of iron ore in a train. What is the mass (in tonnes) if another 246 kg of

iron ore is added to the train?

a

b

c

m2

4000 cm 2 =

mm 2

3 km 2 =

m2

A field has a perimeter of exactly 400 m. Lily measured the field to be 401.2 m using a

long tape marked in 0.1 m intervals.

500 cm 2 =

What is the absolute error for Lilys measurement?

What is the percentage error for Lilys measurement? Answer correct to three decimal

places.

a 4.8 106

b 6.25 104

1.9 102

a 50 800

b 0.0036

4.6 10 4

a (7.2 105) (2.1 104)

b

2.3 10 2

Convert a measurement of 3580 tonnes into milligrams. Express your answer in scientific

notation correct to two significant figures.

Find the value of 45 154 and express your answer in scientific notation correct to two

significant figures.

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Review

Review

102

a 500:100

d 10:15:30

g

10

e

h

20:30

12:9

3 1

:

4 2

c

f

28:7

56:88

A 5 kg bag of rice costs $9.20. What is the cost of the following amounts?

a

d

11

4.8:1.6

10 kg

7 kg

b

e

40 kg

500 g

a $15/kg to $/g

c 120 cm/h to mm/min

e 14 L/g to mL/kg

c

f

b

d

f

3 kg

250 g

4800 kg/g to kg/mg

$3600/g to c/mg

12

A car travels 960 km on 75 litres of petrol. How far does it travel on 50 litres?

13

Daniel and Ethan own a business and share the profits in the ratio 3:4.

a The profit last week was $3437. How much does Daniel receive?

b The profit this week is $2464. How much does Ethan receive?

14

Jill has a shareholder card that entitles her to a 5% discount at a supermarket. How much

will she pay for the following items? Answer to the nearest cent.

a Breakfast cereal at $7.60

b Milk at $4.90

c Coffee at $14.20

d Cheese at $8.40

15

An electrician is buying a light fitting for $144 at a hardware store. He receives a clearance

discount of 15% then a trade discount of 10%. How much does the electrician pay for the

light fitting?

Challenge questions 3

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C H A P T E R

collection and sampling

Syllabus topic DS1 Statistics and society, data

collection and sampling

Recognise the process of statistical inquiry

Appreciate the role of statistical methods in quality control

Classify data as quantitative or categorical

Distinguish between random, stratied and systematic samples

Design an effective questionnaire

Statistical inquiry is a process of gathering statistics that

involves six steps: posing questions, collecting data,

organising data, displaying data, analysing data and writing

a report. The information gained from a statistical inquiry

is a vital part of our society. Many people believe that

information is more important than the natural resources as

a source of social and economic power.

103

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104

Collecting data

Collecting data involves deciding what to collect, locating it and collecting it. Data comes

from either primary or secondary sources.

Primary sources interviewing people, conducting questionnaires or observing a system

in operation

Secondary sources data collected or created by someone else such as information

gathered from newspapers, books and the internet.

It is important that procedures are in place to ensure the collection of data is accurate, up to

date, relevant and secure. If the data collected comes from unreliable sources or is inaccurate,

the information gained from it will be incorrect.

Organising data

Organising data is the process that arranges, represents and formats data. It is carried out after

the data is collected. The organisation of the data depends on the purpose of the statistical

inquiry. For example, to store and search a large amount of data, the data needs to be

categorised. Frequency tables are used organise ungrouped and grouped data. Organising

gives structure to the data.

Displaying data is the presentation of the data and

information. Information must be well organised,

readable, attractively presented and easy to

understand. Information is often displayed using

graphs such as dot plots, sector graphs, histograms,

line graphs, stem-and-leaf plots and box-and-whisker

plots. Data is summarised using statistics such as the

mean, median, mode and standard deviation.

Analysing data

Analysing data is the process that interprets

Statistical inquiry

data and transforms it into information.

1 Pose questions.

It involves examining the data and giving

2 Collect the data.

meaning to it. When data has been ordered

3 Organise the data.

and given meaning by people, it is called

4 Summarise and display the data.

information. The particular type of analysis

5 Analyse the data and draw conclusions.

depends on the format of the data and the

6 Write a report.

information that is required. Graphs are

used to analyse the data. They make it easy to interpret data by making instant comparisons

and revealing trends. Graphs help people to make quick and accurate decisions.

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Example 1

105

James is an accountant working for a large retail company. He has been asked to complete a

statistical inquiry to reduce the companys phone costs. James identified seven departments

that often use the phone.

James performed the following steps:

1 Collecting data James accessed the

Department

Number of calls

latest phone bill.

Automotive

3450

2 Organising data James categorised the

Gardening

2804

phone data into the seven departments.

3 Summarising and displaying data

Hardware

4320

James presented the data in the table that

Jewellery

4506

is shown opposite.

Kitchen

2567

4 Analysing data Phone costs will

have to be paid by each department.

Ladies wear

3633

James knows there will be a rise in the

Mens wear

3760

cost of calls. He wants to make some

projections of the increase to the phone budget and calculate the average amount that each

department can spend on calls. James produced the spreadsheet shown below.

The spreadsheet has formulas in cells C7:C17. The formula entered in cell C7 is

=$B$4*B7. To analyse and draw conclusions James was able to modify the cost of the

call in cell B4 and observe the changes to the cost.

Writing a report James wrote a report that included the effects of a 10% increase in the

call costs and the effect on each of the seven departments.

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106

Exercise 4A

1

a Statistical

is a process of gathering statistics that involves posing

questions, collecting, organising, displaying, analysing and writing a report.

b Data comes from either

or secondary sources.

c

data is the process that arranges, represents and formats data.

d Information must be well organised,

, attractively presented and easy to

understand.

e Data that has been ordered and given some meaning by people is called

.

f

help people to make quick and accurate decisions.

True or false?

a Interviewing people is a secondary source of information.

b Data collected from unreliable sources results in incorrect information.

c Information is often displayed using graphs.

d Data is summarised using statistics such as dot plots, sector graphs, histograms, line

graphs, stem-and-leaf plots and box-and-whisker plots.

e Analysing data is the process that interprets data and transforms it into information.

of our society?

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107

Development

9

Privacy is the ability of an individual to control their personal data. Organisations are

collecting a huge amount of data about our personal lives and attitudes on various issues.

Every time you fill out a form, use a transaction card, or surf the Net, data is collected.

It is possible for people to access this data and combine it. This combined information

would provide a very accurate picture of you.

a Why would your personal data be of great value to retailers and advertising people?

b How would you feel if a person accessed your application to build a house and sold

it to a bricklayer?

c Are you concerned about receiving email from an unknown organisation? How

would you feel if this organisation paid to receive your email address?

d Why must you consider issues of privacy and ethics when collecting statistical data?

10

List some of the information that has been collected on you. How can you check whether

this information is accurate? What are your privacy rights? Explore the Office of the

NSW Privacy Commissioner (www.privacy.nsw.gov.au) to answer these questions.

11

The Data-matching Act permits certain agencies to check records held by different

government departments, such as the tax office and the departments responsible for

social security, employment and education. It aims to catch people who are cheating the

welfare system.

a Do you think this is an invasion of privacy? Give a reason.

b Is the Data-matching Act benefiting our society? Give a reason.

12

Why is it important to consider how the questions are asked when conducting a

questionnaire for a statistical inquiry?

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108

There are many types of data that can be collected. Data is divided into two broad

classifications called quantitative and categorical.

4.2

Quantitative data

Quantitative data is numerical data. For example, if we asked each student in the class their

height we would expect to get a variety of answers. However, each answer is a number.

Quantitative data is further classified as discrete or continuous.

Discrete data data that can only take exact numerical values.

For example, the number of sisters will give rise to the

numbers such as 0, 1 or 2. Counting a quantity often results

in discrete data.

Continuous data data that can take any numerical

value (sometimes within specified interval). For

example, a students height will give rise to numbers

such as 171.2 cm and 173.5 cm. Measuring a quantity

often results in continuous data.

Categorical data

Categorical data is data that can be divided into categories. It uses labels not numbers.

Categorical data is further classified as nominal or ordinal.

Nominal data uses a name or label that does not indicate order. For example, a students

gender could be classified as an F for females and an M for males.

Ordinal data uses a name or label that does indicate order. For example, the quality of

work could be classified as an A for excellent, B for good or C for satisfactory. It

shows a sequence A, B and C.

Categorical data has no quantity or amount associated with each category.

Classification of data

1

a Discrete data data that can only take exact numerical values

b Continuous data data that can take any numerical value.

2 Categorical data classified by the name of the category it belongs to.

a Nominal data name does not indicate order

b Ordinal data name does indicate order.

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Example 2

109

quantitative or categorical.

a The heart rate of a group of personal

trainers

b The most watched television show in

Australia

c The number of people living in

Smith Ave

d The reasons for people travelling to

work by train.

Solution

1

2

3

minute, can be measured and results

in a number.

A television show, such as the news,

does not result in a number.

The number of people living in Smith

Ave, such as 27, can be counted and

results in a number.

The reason for travelling to work by

train, such as it is cheaper, does not

result in a number.

Example 3

data.

The number of people living in

Smith Ave is quantitative data.

is categorical data.

a The number of pets in your family

b The perimeter of the school.

Solution

1

of distance and assumes a value.

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T

he number of pets is

discrete data.

T

he perimeter of the

school is continuous data.

110

Exercise 4B

1

a The favourite colour of Jennys friends

b The number of people travelling in a car

c Each student in the year is weighed in kilograms

d People rating their doctor on personal service (high, medium or low)

e The number of students in each class

f

The IQ of a group of students

g Responses to a survey question (agree or disagree)

h A persons lucky number

i

A females favourite mobile phone

j

Distance from Sydney to Wollongong

k The cost of bread at the supermarket

l

The communitys preferred leader

m The number of computers in the school.

a The price paid for a can of soft drink

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

j

k

The time between trains

The number of pages in the newspaper

The amount of water used in the past month

The number of people in your immediate family

The numbers drawn in this weeks lotto

The length of the cricket pitch

The distance measured for the long jump at the world championships

The score achieved from a quiz consisting of 10 questions

The height of the tallest person in the world.

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111

a The heights of members of a football team

b The distance to drive to the train station

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

j

k

l

m

n

o

p

The quality of food in a restaurant

The eye colour of a group of people

The number of pets in a household

The time to swim 50 metres

The number of goals scored in the first match of the season

Todays most fashionable style of dress

The number of computers in the building

Replies given to a questionnaire (Yes or No)

The perimeter of Joels block of land

The width of the Anzac Bridge

The number of people killed on the roads due to speed

The stopping distance for a car travelling at 60 km/h

The most popular type of car sold in the past twelve months.

The hospital measures the weight and length of every new baby.

a Classify the data as quantitative or categorical.

b Is this data discrete or continuous?

A coffee shop is conducting a survey on the drinking habits of its customers. One of the

questions was: How many cups of coffee do you drink each day?

a State whether the data is quantitative or categorical.

b Is this data discrete or continuous?

The government collected data on their latest policy proposal. The people surveyed

answered ten questions and were given three choices for each question: Agree, Disagree

or Not sure. What type of data has the government collected?

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Development

7

In a survey customers were asked to rate the service they received by selecting one of the

following:

outstanding, excellent, good, satisfactory or needs improvement

Describe the type of data that would result from this question.

8

A teacher marks a classs assessment task and awards a mark out of 100 for each student.

Describe the type of data that that has been collected by the teacher.

A marketing poll was conducted that asked about a persons employment status:

unemployed, receiving education, part-time job or full-time job

Describe the type of data that would result from this poll.

10

Emma is planning to build a new restaurant. She conducted a survey of the community.

One of the questions asked was How far in kilometres would you be prepared to travel

to get to a good restaurant? The options given were:

5 km, 10 km, 20 km, 50 km

Describe the type of data that would result from this question.

11

day for the past 3 months. Some of the data is shown

below.

Rainfall

23rd April

10 mm

24th April

0 mm

25th April

25 mm

12

The police department collected data on fatal crashes. One of the questions it asked was:

What was the age of the driver involved in a fatal crash?

a Describe the type of data collected by the police department.

b The question was modified to give the interviewee six choices:

1724 yrs, 2534 yrs, 3544 yrs, 4554 yrs, 5564 yrs, 65+ yrs

Describe the type of data that would result from these choices.

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113

4.3

Collecting data from every person in a population is called a census. However, a census may

be costly in terms of money and time. For this reason, samples are taken from a population

and estimates made about the population are based on the sample. A sample is only part of a

population. For example, if all the students in your school are regarded as the population then

a sample of this population is the students in your class.

A sample must be large enough to give a good representation of the population, but small

enough to be manageable. There are many different types of sampling including a random

sample, stratified sample and systematic sample.

Random sample

A random sample occurs when

members of the population

have an equal chance of

being selected. For example,

six students are selected at

random from the entire school

population. Lotto is another good

example of random sampling. A

sample of 6 numbers is chosen

from 40 numbers. Random

samples are simple and easy

to use for small populations.

However, for large populations,

it is possible to miss out on a

particular group.

Stratified sample

A stratified sample occurs when categories or strata of a population are chosen and then

members from each category are randomly selected. For example, one student is selected from

each year 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12. Each year group is a category in a stratified sample. Some

other common types of categories are age, sex, religion or marital status. A stratified sample is

useful when the categories are simple and easy to determine. However, care needs to be taken

when selecting categories to avoid any bias in the data.

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114

Systematic sample

Systematic sample occurs when the population is divided into a structured sample size. For

example, the students in the school population are put in alphabetical order and the 100th

student, 200th student, 300th student, are selected. A systematic sample is often used by a

manufacturer to ensure the machines are working correctly. Here the manufacturer might test

a machine every 30 minutes or check the 50th item on a production line. Systematic sampling

results in a gap between each selection.

Random sample

Stratified sample

Systematic sample

have an equal chance of

being selected.

Categories of a population

are chosen. Members then

are randomly selected

from each category.

structured sample size. Members

are then selected in a certain

order from this structure.

Example 4

A retirement village has 63 residents, 42 women and 21 men. Decide whether each sample of

resident would be random, stratified or systematic.

a Every seventh resident

b Six of the women and three of the men

c Nine names picked from a hat containing the names of the residents.

Solution

1

2

3

sample size 7th, 14th, 21st, 63rd

The population has been divided into categories

women and the men.

Sample is taken at random.

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S

ystematic sample

S

tratified sample

R

andom sample.

115

Exercise 4C

1

State whether a census or a sample is the most appropriate way to collect this data.

a Information on the shopping experience

of people in the city

b John collecting the height of his best

friends

c The travelling habits of the Jones family

to work

d Australians watching the grand final

e Number of people eating toast for

breakfast

f

Length of time every AAA battery lasts

g Number of people entering a gym

between 5 p.m. and 6 p.m.

h Holly collecting the amount of time

spent on the internet by her class

i

The worlds reaction to climate change

j

Shop managers reaction to a drop in sales.

a Police officer breathalysing every tenth person

b Each person is given a raffle ticket and the tickets are drawn out of a hat

c Twenty people aged under 30 and twenty people aged over 30 travelling

on a bus

d A business has 240 married and 120 unmarried employees. A sample was chosen

to include 10 of the married and 5 of the unmarried employees.

e Students were sorted into alphabetical order and each third student selected.

f

Individuals were randomly selected using their tax file number.

g Every 12th jogger selected from an alphabetical list

h Randomly selecting 10 cards from a normal deck of cards

i

Ten girls and ten boys randomly selected from a concert

j

Ten people who arrive at a shopping centre each day completed the survey.

Michael uses a random sample to survey 10% of the local community. In the local

community there are 810 males and 920 females. How many people does Michael

need to survey?

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116

survey the netball players in the local

association. There are 2850 players in the

local association and she plans to survey

171 players. What percentage of the

population is her sample?

of her school population. At the school there

are 80 teachers and 1160 students.

a How many people should complete the

survey?

b How many teachers should complete the

survey?

c How many students should complete the survey?

Tyler uses a stratified sample to survey 25% of his swimming club. He uses their sex as a

category and selects a random group of female and male swimmers. There are 88 female

swimmers and 112 male swimmers.

a How many swimmers are in the entire population?

b How many female swimmers are in the sample?

c How many male swimmers are in the sample?

Osman uses a stratified sample to survey 7.5% of his chat room friends. He uses marital

status as a category and selects a random group of married and unmarried friends. There

are 200 married and 240 unmarried friends.

a How many friends are in the entire population?

b How many married friends are in the sample?

c How many unmarried friends are in the sample?

Taylia uses a stratified sample to survey 20% of the senior students from her school.

There are 205 year 11 students and 180 year 12 students. How many students should

Taylia choose from year 12?

Ming uses a stratified sample to survey 12 1 % of the junior students from his school.

2

There are 88 year 7, 120 year 8, 104 year 9 and 128 year 10 students.

a How many students are in the entire population?

b How many students should Ming choose in following years?

i Year 7

ii Year 8

iii Year 9

iv Year 10

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117

Development

10

monarchy or become a republic. The results are shown below.

Male

Female

Total

Republic

51

79

130

Monarchy

23

47

70

Total

74

126

200

a

b

c

How many males surveyed did not prefer Australia to change to a republic?

What percentage of people is in favour of changing to a republic?

This survey is not a good random sample of all Australians. Why?

11

students from kindergarten to year 6. The sampling is designed so that the same

proportion of each year of the sample matches the population. There are 4 students from

year 1 in the sample. How many year 1 students are there in the school population?

12

A store has 400 employees of which 208 are females and 192 are males. The store

intends to survey 25 of their employees. A stratified survey is to be conducted.

a How many females should be surveyed?

b How many males should be surveyed?

13

Identify any possible issues with each of the following survey questions.

a Do you like the governments new policy? Yes/No

b Alan is a lazy boss who should be forced to pay his diligent workers more money.

Agree or disagree?

14

15 people at the Tamworth

country music festival on their

music preferences. She used this

data to make judgements for the

entire population of NSW.

a Do you think her judgements

will be accurate? Give a

reason.

b What would be a more

appropriate method of

sampling music preferences?

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118

A questionnaire or survey is a series of questions to gather specific information. The

interviewee may be given time to complete the questionnaire or it could be carried out faceto-face or online. Questionnaire may contain open ended and closed questions. Questionnaires

allow data to be collected from a large number of people quickly and with little expense.

There are a number of principles for effective questionnaire design such as:

simple language questions are easily read and understood by the interviewee

unambiguous questions questions can only be interpreted one way

respect for privacy privacy is the ability of an individual to control their personal data

freedom from bias biased data is unfairly skewed. For example, Have you stopped

cheating in exams? Yes/No assumes the interviewee is a cheat.

Designing a questionnaire

1

2

3

4

Make the questions unambiguous.

Respect the privacy of the interviewee.

Ensure the questionnaire is free from bias.

Data must be carefully interpreted to ensure that the resulting information is valid. For

example, can the results of a questionnaire be generalised to a larger group of people? The

reliability of the data is also an issue. If a similar research were conducted at another time

and place would the results be the same? It is important that the information gained from

the questionnaire be accurate. After the data is collected and checked for accuracy it must be

carefully analysed. Entering the data into a table is a good way to examine the data. It enables

totals to be easily calculated and comparisons between different results to be made.

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119

Exercise 4D

1

Questionnaire Carters Place

Please take a minute to complete the survey and put it on the

counter.

Never before

14 times

59 times

More than 10 times

Excellent

Good

Average

Disappointing

Excellent

Good

Average

Disappointing

Excellent

Good

Average

Disappointing

Yes

No

to Carters Place?

Menu

Wine list

Service

Price

Open late

Atmosphere

Excellent

Good

Average

Disappointing

Thank you for completing this survey.

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

What type of data would be collected from the questionnaire?

How many are closed questions?

How many are open ended questions?

Design an additional question focused on the decorations.

Design an additional question focused on the location.

Design an additional question focused on improving the menu.

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120

Development

2

A pizza shop is having problems meeting its costs. It needs to decide whether it should

increase or decrease its prices.

a Estimate or visit a local pizza shop to obtain a list of current price structures and

types of pizzas.

Create a questionnaire that could be used to estimate the effects of different prices on

revenue and the types of pizzas offered.

c Survey students on their pizza preferences and use this information to make a

recommendation to the owner of the pizza shop.

3 A fitness centre needs to attract more members. It would like to encourage people to live

a healthier lifestyle.

a Estimate or visit a local fitness centre to obtain a list of the services that are offered

and the current price structures.

b Create a questionnaire that could be used to estimate the effects of different services

and price structures.

c Survey students on their fitness needs and use this information to make a

recommendation to the manager of the fitness centre.

b

Harley is unhappy with her mobile phone plan. She is wondering whether other people

have similar issues.

a Investigate a range of mobile phone planes that are currently available. Gather data

on the rates and charges being offered.

b Use the above data to create a survey on peoples opinion of their mobile phone

plane and their current rates and charges.

c Take a sample of students in your school and conduct the above survey.

Why do you like your local member of parliament?

Is this a good question? Justify your answer.

5

13.4

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Statistical inquiry

1

2

3

4

5

6

Classification of data

Pose questions.

Collect the data.

Organise the data.

Summarise and display the data.

Analyse the data.

Write a report.

Quantitative

(Numbers)

Discrete

Continuous

Sample types

Study guide 4

numerical values such as 0 or 1.

Data that can take any numerical

value such as 71.25.

Categorical

(Category)

Random sample

being selected.

Stratified sample

female. The members are randomly selected from

each category.

Systematic sample

The members are orderly selected in a certain order

from this structure, such as each third person in

alphabetical order.

Designing a

questionnaire

2

3

4

Nominal

Ordinal

Name does indicate order.

Make questions unambiguous.

Respect the privacy of the interviewee.

Ensure the questionnaire is free from bias.

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Review

and sampling

121

Review

122

1

A Analysing B Collecting

C Displaying D Organising

A step in a statistical inquiry that interprets and transforms data into information.

A Analysing B Collecting

C Displaying D Organising

A Primary

B Observing

C Secondary D Survey

A Constant

B Continuous C Discrete

D Number

The number of rooms in your house. What is the classification for this data?

A Categorical B Continuous C Discrete

D Text

A Categorical B Continuous C Discrete

D Text

Which of the following is an example of collecting data from a school using a census?

A Class opinion

B All the students opinion

C School captains opinion

D Year 11 opinion

A First ten shoppers in the store

B Ten shoppers who used EFT

C Ten shoppers drawn from a box

D Ten shoppers who spent the most

Sorting each person in alphabetical order and selecting every fifth person. How would you

describe this type of sample?

A Quantitative

B Random

C Stratified

D Systematic

10

Sample designed to include four boys and four girls from a surf club. How would you

describe this type of sample?

A Quantitative

B Random

C Stratified

D Systematic

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123

True or false?

a Data comes from either primary, secondary or tertiary sources.

b Analysing data is the process that arranges, represents and formats data.

c Information that has been ordered and given some meaning by people is called data.

d Data collected from reliable sources results in correct information.

a Most popular student in the class

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

3

The call cost on a mobile phone

Blakes school high jump record

The amount of annual leave

The hair colour of the students in your class

The number of websites accessed in the past 24 hours

The digital download time for a 4 MB file

The average age of the people living in NSW.

a The number of televisions in a house

b The height of the tree in the local park

c The quantity of petrol used on a trip from Bega to Kiama

d The number of party pies in a 500 gram pack

e The score (0, 1 or 2) on the latest computer game

f The shirt size of the boys in year 11

g The amount of water Tran drank during the day

h The number of students in your class.

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Review

Review

124

Chapter

summary

Earning

4 A marketing

poll was

conductedMoney

on a persons sleeping patterns:

Good, Satisfactory, Unsatisfactory

Describe the type of data that would result from this poll.

a Manufacturer selects every 40th product on the assembly line

b An equal number of city and country people are randomly chosen for a survey

c Random number generator is used to select 5 people in the class

d Selecting every 100th supporter at a football match

e Drawing the names of people from a hat

f Dividing the participants into people with tertiary qualifications and those with no

qualifications. Randomly selecting 20 people from each group

g Choosing 5 raffle tickets, each with a persons name from a container

h Sorting the names in alphabetical order and selecting every second name

i Grouping people according to the car they own and selecting an equal number of people

from each group.

Sharif uses a stratified sample to survey 10% of employees. He uses their age as a category.

There are 330 employees over 40 years of age and 670 employees under 40.

a How many employees should complete the survey?

b How many employees over 40 years of age should complete the survey?

c How many employees under 40 years of age should complete the survey?

A school has 600 students of which 315 are boys and 285 are girls. The school intends to

survey 40 of their students. A stratified survey is to be conducted.

a How many boys should be surveyed?

b How many girls should be surveyed?

A cinema session had 84 patrons: 48 women and 36 men. Decide whether a sample of

patrons would be random, stratified or systematic.

a Four of the women and three of the men

b Every sixth patron

c Twelve names picked from a hat containing the names of the patrons.

The school canteen would like to know the preferred brand of juice to stock. Describe a

suitable sample to conduct a survey.

10

like the swimming centre? Is this a good question? Justify your answer.

Challenge questions 4

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C H A P T E R

Syllabus topic AM2 Interpreting linear relationships

Graphing linear functions from everyday situations

Calculating the gradient and vertical intercept

Using and interpreting graphs of the form y = mx + b

Solving simultaneous linear equations from a graph

Using linear functions to model and interpret practical situations

A linear function makes a straight line when graphed on a number plane. There are many

everyday situations that result in a linear function such as the distance travelled as a function

of the time (d = 50t). The graph of d = 50t is shown below.

5.1

Distance

travelled

Distance (km)

200

150

100

50

2

3

Time (h)

125

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126

The linear function d = 50t has two variables d (distance) and t (time). Time (t) is the

independent variable, as any number can be substituted for this variable such as t = 1.

Conversely, the distance (d) is the dependent variable is it depends on the number substituted

for the independent variable. That is, when time is 1 (t = 1) then the distance is d = 50 1

or 50.

Graphing a linear function

1

2

3

Construct a table of values with the independent variable as the first row and

the dependent variable as the second row.

Draw a number plane with the independent variable on the horizontal axis

and the dependent variable as the vertical axis. Plot the points.

Join the points to make a straight line.

Example 1

The table below shows the cost of postage (c) as a function of the weight of the parcel (w).

Weight (w)

Cost (c)

a

b

1.2

2.4

3.6

4.8

6.0

Draw a graph of cost (c), against the weight of the parcel (w).

Use the graph to determine the cost of a parcel if the weight is 2.5 kg.

Solution

2

3

4

(w) as the horizontal axis and the cost of postage

(c) as the vertical axis.

Plot the points (1, 1.2), (2, 2.4), (3, 3.6), (4, 4.8)

and (5, 6.0).

Join the points to make a straight line.

Find 2.5 kg on the horizontal axis and draw a

vertical line. Where this line intersects the graph,

draw a horizontal line to the vertical axis.

Write the answer in words.

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c Cost of postage

Cost of postage in $

6

5

4

3

2

1

w

1 2 3 4 5

Weight of parcel in kg

127

Example 2

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

Let x = -2, -1, 0, 1 and 2. Find y using

the linear function y = 2x - 1.

-2

-1

-5

-3

-1

horizontal axis and y as the vertical axis.

Plot the points (-2, -5), (-1, -3), (0, -1),

(1, 1) and (2, 3).

Join the points to make a straight line.

y

3

2

1

3 2 1 0

1

2

3

4

5

Example 3

Solution

Enter the formula y = 2x - 1 by typing 2X1 at Y1.

The graph of Y1 = 2X1 is the same as y = 2x - 1.

Edit the axes to an appropriate scale. Select SHIFT

F3 for the V-Window.

Enter the Xmin = 3, Xmax = 3 , Ymin = 5,

Ymax = 3.

Press EXE to exit V-Window.

1

2

3

4

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128

Exercise 5A

1

Chocolates are sold for $12 per kg. The table below shows weight against cost.

Weight (w)

Cost (c)

12

24

36

48

60

Draw a graph of weight against cost.

a

c

Time (t)

Cost (c)

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

Draw a graph of time against cost.

b

d

Mass (m)

12

15

Time (t)

2.2

3.7

5.2

6.7

8.2

y=x+1

-1

y

b = 3a + 4

y = 2x

x

-2

-1

b

5

Use the graph to find t if c is 0.90.

Mobile phone call costs are charged at a rate of 20 cents per minute.

Use the graph to find c if w is 1.5.

q = -p + 1

p

-2

Use the table of values from the above question to graph these linear functions.

a

y=x+1

b

y = 2x

c

b = 3a + 4

d

q = -p + 1

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129

Development

6

The cost (c) of apples is $2.50 per kilogram and is determined by the formula c = 2.5w

where (w) is the weight of the apples.

a Construct a table of values for the weight against cost. Use 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 for w.

b Draw the graph of the weight (w) against the cost (c).

c How many kilograms of apples can be purchased for $15?

The age of a computer (t) in years to its current value (v) in $100 is v = -5t + 30.

a

b

c

d

e

Draw the graph of the age (t) against current value (v).

What is the initial cost of the computer?

What will be the current value of the computer after two years?

When will the computer be half its initial cost?

8

The cost of hiring a taxi is $3 flag fall and $2 per kilometre travelled.

a Construct a table of values using 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 as values for kilometres

travelled (d) and calculating cost of the taxi (C).

b Draw the graph of the kilometres travelled (d) against cost of taxi (C).

a Construct a table of values using 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 as values for Emilys age (E) and

calculating Jacks age (J).

b Draw the graph of Emilys age (E) against Jacks age (J).

10

One Australian dollar (AUD) was converted to 1.20 New Zealand dollars (NZD).

a Construct a table of values using 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 as values for AUD and

calculate the NZD using the above conversion.

b Draw the graph of the AUD against NZD.

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130

Gradient

5.2

The gradient of a line is the slope or steepness of the line. It is calculated by dividing the

vertical rise by the horizontal run. The larger the gradient, the steeper the slope. The letter m is

often used to indicate gradient.

Vertical

rise

Horizontal run

Gradient (or m) =

Vertical

r

rtical

rise

Horizontal run

Positive gradients are lines that go up to the right or are increasing. Conversely, negative

gradients are lines that go down to the right or are decreasing.

Positive

gradient

Example 4

Negative

gradient

Find the gradient of a line through the points (1, 1) and (3, 4).

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

horizontal axis and y as the vertical axis.

Plot the points (1, 1) and (3, 4).

Draw a line between the two points.

Construct a right-angled triangle by

drawing a vertical and a horizontal line.

The line is positive as it slopes towards

the right.

Determine the vertical rise (4 1 = 3).

Determine the horizontal run (3 1 = 2).

Substitute 3 for the vertical rise and 2

for the horizontal run into the formula.

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(3, 4)

4

3

Vertical

rise

2

1

0

(1, 1)

Horizontal run

1

Vertical

r

rtical

rise

Horizontal run

3

=+

2

Gradient or m =

131

Intercept

The intercept of a line is where the line cuts the axes. The intercept on the vertical axis is

called the y-intercept and is denoted by the letter b. The intercept on the horizontal axis is

called the x-intercept and is denoted by the letter a.

Gradient

Intercept

Gradient of a line is the slope of the line. The intercept of a line is where the line cuts the

axes. Vertical intercept is often denoted by b.

Vertical

r

rtical

rise

Gradient (or m) =

Horizontal run

Example 5

Find the gradient and vertical intercept for the line y = -2x + 1.

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

Let x = 1, 0 and 1. Find y using the linear

function y = -2x + 1.

Draw a number plane with x as the

horizontal axis and y as the vertical axis.

Plot the points (1, 3), (0, 1) and (1, 1).

Draw a line between these points.

Construct a right-angled triangle by

drawing a vertical and a horizontal line.

The line is negative as it slopes towards the

left.

Determine the vertical rise (3 1 = 2).

Determine the horizontal run (0 1 = 1).

Substitute 2 for the vertical rise and 1 for

the horizontal run into the formula.

Evaluate.

The line cuts the vertical axis at 1.

-1

-1

y

3

Vertical

rise

1

Horizontal

run

0

2

1

Vertical

intercept

Vertical rise

Horizontal run

2

=

1

= 2

Gradient or m =

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132

Exercise 5B

1

y

2 1 0

1

1

0

16

12

1

2 1 0

4

8

4

a

(0, 1) and (2, 5)

b

(1, 3) and (2, 2)

c

(2, 1) and (4, 2)

What is the intercept on the vertical axis for the following lines?

y

4

3

2

1

3 2 1 0

1

2

4

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133

Development

4

Plot the following points on a number plane and join them to form a straight line.

Determine the gradient and y-intercept for each line.

a

10

-1

-2

-1

-1

-3

-5

12

Draw a graph of these linear functions and find the gradient and y-intercept.

a

d

y=x+3

2

y= x3

3

y = -x + 1

y + 3 = 4x

1

x +1

2

2x - y = 0

y=

kilometres is calculated using the

formula d = 150t where (t) is the time

taken in hours.

a

Construct a table of values using

0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 as values for t.

Calculate the distance (d).

b

Draw the graph of the distance

(d) against the time (t).

c

What is the gradient of the graph?

d

What is the intercept on the

vertical axis?

a

Construct a table of values using 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 as values for the number of

kilograms (n). Calculate the cost (c) of the meat.

b

Draw the graph of the cost (c) against the number of kilograms (n).

c

What is the gradient of the graph?

d

What is the intercept on the vertical axis?

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134

5.3

written in the form y = mx + b it is called the

gradientintercept formula. The gradient is m,

the coefficient of x, and the y-intercept is b,

the constant term. The independent variable in the

formula is x and the dependent variable in the

formula is y.

The gradientintercept formula is useful in

modelling relationships in many practical

situations. However, the variables are often changed

to reect the situation. For example, the formula

c = 25n + 100 has c as the cost of the event ($)

and n as the number of guests. These letters are the

dependent and independent variables.

Gradientintercept formula

Linear equation y = mx + b.

m Slope or gradient of the line (vertical rise over the horizontal run).

b y-intercept. Where the line cuts the y-axis or vertical axis.

Example 6

Write down the gradient and y-intercept from each of the following equations.

a

y = 2 + 5x

b

y=8x

c

y = 6x

d

y 3x = 4

Solution

1

2

3

1

2

3

Gradient is the coefficient of x.

y-intercept is the constant term.

y = 2 + 5x

y = 5x 2

Gradient is 5, y-intercept is 2

Gradient is the coefficient of x.

y-intercept is the constant term.

y=8x

y = 1x + 8

Gradient is 1, y-intercept is 8

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1

2

3

1

2

3

intercept form.

Gradient is the coefficient of x.

y-intercept is the constant term.

y = 6x

y = 6x + 0

Gradient is 6, y-intercept is 0

intercept form.

Gradient is the coefficient of x.

y-intercept is the constant term.

y 3x = 4

y = 3x + 4

Gradient is 3, y-intercept is 4

135

Sketching a straight-line graph requires at least two points. When an equation is written in

gradientintercept form, one point on the graph is immediately available: the y-intercept. A

second point can be quickly calculated using the gradient or by substituting a suitable value

of x into the equation.

Example 7

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Gradient is the coefficient of x or 3.

y-intercept is the constant term or 1.

Mark the y-intercept on the y-axis at (0, 1).

Gradient of 3 (or 3 ) indicates a vertical rise

1

of 3 and a horizontal run of 1.

Start at the y-intercept (0, 1) and draw a

horizontal line, 1 unit in length. Then draw a

vertical line, 3 units in length.

The resulting point (1, 4) is a point on the

required line.

Join the points (0, 1) and (1, 4) to make the

straight line.

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y = 3x + 1

Gradient is 3, y-intercept is 1

y

(1, 4)

4

3

Rise = 3

2

(0, 1)

2

1

0

1

Run = 1

1

136

Exercise 5C

1

Write down the gradient and y-intercept from each of the following equations.

a

y = 4x + 2

b

y = 3x - 7

c

y = 5x + 0.4

d

y = 1.5x - 2

1

e

y= x+3

f

y = 5 - 3x

2

g

y=x

h

y = 2 + 5x

a

gradient = 3 and y-intercept = 2

c

gradient = 4 and y-intercept = 1

y

1

2 1 0

1

2 1 0

1

12

1

2 1 0

1

2

3

gradient = 0.5 and y-intercept = 1

8

4

1

a

What are the gradient and the y-intercept?

b

Sketch the straight line on a number plane using the gradient and y-intercept.

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137

Development

5

a

Write a linear equation in the form y = mx to describe this situation.

b

Draw the graph of y against x.

number of hours (h) she works. For an 8-hour

day she receives $168.

a

Write a linear equation in the form

p = mh to describe this situation.

b

Draw the graph of p against h.

a

Write a linear equation in the form d = mt to describe this situation.

b

Draw the graph of d against t.

Sketch the graphs of the following equations on the same number plane.

a

y = 2x

b

y = 2x + 1

c

y = 2x + 2

d

y = -x

e

y = -x - 1

f

y = -x - 2

g

What do you notice about these graphs?

Sketch the graphs of the following equations on the same number plane.

1

a

y=x+1

b

y = 3x + 1

c

y = x +1

2

d

y = -x - 2

e

y = -2x - 2

f

y = -3x - 2

g

What do you notice about these graphs?

10

Sketch the graphs of the following equations using the gradientintercept formula.

2

1

a

y= x+2

b

y = 0.25x - 3

c

y=2 x

3

3

d

y = - 0.5x - 3

e

y+x=5

f

4x + y = 8

g

2x + y + 6 = 0

x + 4y = 0

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3x - y = -3

138

5.4

Two straight lines will always intersect unless they are parallel. The point at which two straight

lines intersect can be found by sketching the two graphs on the one set of axes and reading off

the coordinates at the point of intersection. When the point of intersection is found it is said to

be solving the equations simultaneously.

Solving two linear equations simultaneously from a graph

1

2

3

Graph both linear equations on the number plane.

Read the point of intersection of the two straight lines.

Example 8

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

6

to determine the gradient and

y-intercept for each line.

Gradient is the coefficient of x.

y-intercept is the constant term.

Draw a number plane.

Sketch y = 2x + 3 using the y-intercept

of 3 and gradient of 2.

Sketch y = -x using the y-intercept of

0 and gradient of 1.

Find the point of intersection of the two

lines (1, 1).

y = 2x + 3

Gradient is 2, y-intercept is 3

y = -x

Gradient is 1, y-intercept is 0

y

3 y = 2x + 3

2

1

3 2 1 0

1

intersection.

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2

3

y = x

Simultaneous solution is x = -1

and y = 1

139

Exercise 5D

1

What is the point of intersection for each of these pairs of straight lines?

y

3 y=x+3

1 0

1

3 2 1 0

1

y = 0.5x + 1

3

2

y

y = 2x + 1

3 2 1 0

1

y

3

2 y = x 2

y = 2x

y = x + 2

y = 1x 2

x

3

1 0

1

2

y = 4x + 1 3

to form two straight lines. What is the point of

intersection of these straight lines?

x

y

8

7

6

5

4

2

1

1

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form two straight lines. What is the point of intersection

of these straight lines?

x

-2

-1

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-2

-1

-3

-6

of sweets and the income received from their sale.

a Use the graph to determine the number of boxes

which need to be sold to break even.

b How much profit or loss is made when 4 boxes

are sold?

c How much profit or loss is made when 1 box is

sold?

d What are the initial costs?

y

6

5

4

3

2

1

3 2 1 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

1 2 3

y

Income

50

Dollars ($)

140

40

Costs

30

20

10

1

3 4

Boxes

batteries and the income received from their sale.

a Use the graph to determine the number of packs that

need to be sold to break even.

b How much profit or loss is made when 5 packs are

sold?

c How much profit or loss is made when 20 packs are

sold?

d What are the initial costs?

400

Income

350

Dollars ($)

300

250

Costs

200

150

100

50

x

5 10 15 20

Packs

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141

Development

6

Draw the graphs of the following pairs of equations and find their simultaneous solution.

a y = x + 1 and y = -2x

b y = 3x - 3 and y = x + 1

c y = 5x + 1 and y = 3x - 7

d y = x and y = 4x + 3

Zaina buys and sells books. Income received by selling n books is calculated using the

formula I = 16n. Costs associated in selling n books are calculated using the formula

C = 8n + 24.

a Draw the graph of I = 16n

and C = 8n + 24 on same

number plane.

b What are the initial costs?

c Use the graph to determine

the number of books needed

to be sold to break even.

d How much profit or loss is

made when 6 books are sold?

8

Amy and Nghi work for the same company and their wages are a and b respectively.

a Amy earns $100 more than Nghi. Write an equation to describe this information.

b The total of Amys and Nghis wages is $1500. Write an equation to describe this

information.

c Draw a graph of the above two equations on the same number plane. Use a as the

horizontal axis and b as the vertical axis.

d Use the intersection of the two graphs to find Amys and Nghis wage.

A factory produces items whose costs are $200 plus $40 for every item. The factory

receives $45 for every item sold.

a Write an equation to describe the relationship between the:

i

costs (C) and number of items (n)

ii income (I) and number of items (n)

b Draw a graph to represent the costs and income for producing the item.

c How many items need to be sold to break even?

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142

Linear modelling occurs when a practical situation is described mathematically using a linear

function. For example, the gradientintercept form of a straight-line graph can sometimes be

used to model catering costs. A catering company charges a base amount of $100 plus a rate

of $25 per guest. Using this information, we can write down a linear equation to model the

cost of the event. Let c be the cost of the event ($) and n be the number of guests, we can write

c = 25n + 100. Note: The number of guests (n)

must be greater than zero and a whole number.

Catering cost

c

The graph of this linear model has been drawn

1500

opposite. There are two important features of

1000

this linear model:

500

1

Gradient is the rate per guest or $25.

n

2

The c-intercept is the base amount or $100.

5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

Example 9

to euros. Use the graph to convert:

a

50 Australian dollars to euros

b

15 euros to Australian dollars

EUR

Australian dollars

to euros

30

25

20

15

10

5

10 20 30 40 50

Solution

1

2

(when AUD = 50, EUR = 30).

Read from the graph

(when EUR = 15, AUD = 25).

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30 EUR

25 AUD

AUD

Example 10

143

the volume of water V (in litres) after t minutes.

a

How much water is in the tank at the start?

b

How much water is in the tank after 10 minutes?

c

The tank holds 1600 L. How long does it take to fill?

d

Find the equation of the straight line in terms of

V and t.

e

Use the equation to calculate the volume of water in

the tank after 7 minutes.

f

How many litres are pumped into the tank each minute?

Volume of water

1600

1400

1200

1000

800

600

400

200

2 4 6 8 10 12

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

Read from the graph (when t = 10, V = 1400).

Read from the graph (when V = 1600, t = 12).

Find the gradient by choosing two suitable points

such as (0, 400) and (12, 1600).

Calculate the gradient (m) between these points

using the gradient formula.

Determine the vertical intercept (400).

Substitute the gradient and y-intercept into the

gradientintercept form y = mx + b.

Use the appropriate variables (V for y, t for x).

Substitute t = 7 into the equation.

Evaluate.

Check the answer using the graph.

V = 100t + 400

= 100 7 + 400

= 1100 L

the gradient of the graph. (m =100)

100 L/min

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400 L

1400 L

12 minutes

m=

Rise

b = 400

Run

1600 400

=

12 0

= 100

y = mx + b

V = 100t + 400

144

Exercise 5E

1

Water is pumped into a partially full tank. The graph gives the volume of water V (in

litres) after t minutes.

a

How much water is in the tank at the start?

v Volume of water

b

How much water is in the tank after 5 minutes?

3000

c

How much water is in the tank after 8 minutes?

2500

d

The tank holds 2500 L. How long does it take to fill?

2000

e

Use the graph to calculate the volume of water in the

1500

tank after 7 minutes.

1000

500

2

Australian dollars to Chinese yuan. Use the graph to

convert:

a

80 Australian dollars to yuan

b

50 Australian dollars to yuan

c

100 yuan to Australian dollars

d

350 yuan to Australian dollars

e

What is the gradient of the conversion graph?

CNY

8 10

Australian dollars

to Chinese yuan

500

400

300

200

100

20 40 60 80 100

parcel. Use the step graph to determine the postal

charges for the following parcels.

a

50 g

b

900 g

c

200 g

d

800 g

Postal charges

4

Cost ($)

AUD

3

2

1

200 400 600 800 1000

Weight (g)

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145

Development

A new piece of equipment is purchased by a business for $120000. Its value is

depreciated each month using the graph opposite.

a What was the value of the equipment after

Value of equipment

v

32 months?

b What was the value of the equipment after one

120

year?

100

c When does the line predict the equipment will

80

have no value?

60

d Find the equation of the straight line in terms

40

of v and t.

20

e Use the equation to predict the value of the

equipment after 2 months.

8 16 24 32 40 48

f

By how much does the equipment depreciate

Months

in value each month?

$ 1000

ATMs has increased with the number of ATMs

available. The graph below shows this increase.

a What was the amount of money transacted

through ATMs when there were 500000

machines?

b How many ATM machines resulted in an

amount of 75 billion?

c Find the equation of the line in terms of

amount of money transacted, A, and the

number of ATMs, N.

d Use the equation to predict the amount

of money transacted when there were

A

350000 machines.

125

e Use the equation to predict how much

money will be transacted through ATM

100

machines when there are 1000000

machines.

75

Amount (billions of $)

Amount of transactions

through ATMs

50

25

Number of machines (thousands)

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146

A phone company charges a monthly service fee, plus the cost of calls. The graph

below gives the total monthly charge, C dollars, for making n calls. This includes the

service fee.

a How much is the monthly service fee?

Total monthly

b How much does the company charge if you make

charge

C

20calls a month?

70

c How many calls are made if the total monthly charge

60

is $30?

50

d Find the equation of the line in terms of total monthly

40

charge (C) and the number of calls (n).

30

20

10

20 40 60 80 100

14.7

7

A company charges the following parking fees: $10 per hour for up to 3 hours, $15 up to

6 hours and $20 for over 6 hours.

a Draw a step graph to illustrate the

parking fees, with the Time (h)

on the horizontal axis and Cost ($)

on the vertical axis.

b What is the cost to park for

4 hours? Use the step graph.

c Liam arrived in the parking area at

10.30 a.m. and left at 1.00 p.m.

How much did he pay for parking?

d Ruby arrived in the parking area at

5.15 p.m. and left at 11.15 p.m.

How much did she pay for parking?

a Draw a conversion graph with Australian dollars on the horizontal axis and British

pounds on the vertical axis.

b How many British pounds is 40 Australian dollars? Use the conversion graph.

c How many Australian dollars is 10 British pounds? Use the conversion graph.

d Find the gradient and vertical intercept for the conversion graph.

e Write an equation that relates Australian dollars (AUD) to British pounds (GBP).

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as the first row and the dependent variable as the second

row.

Draw a number plane with the independent variable on

the horizontal axis and the dependent variable as the

vertical axis. Plot the points.

Join the points to make a straight line.

Gradient (or m) =

m Slope or gradient of the line.

b y-intercept.

Sketching a straight line requires at least two points.

When an equation is written in gradientintercept form,

one point on the graph is immediately available: the

y-intercept. A second point can be quickly calculated

using the gradient.

Gradientintercept formula

Simultaneous equations

1

2

3

Study guide 5

Vertical rise

Horizontal run

Graph both linear equations on the number plane.

Read the point of intersection of the two straight lines.

described mathematically using a linear function.

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Review

147

Review

148

1

An equation that compares the age of a fax machine (t) in years to its current value (v) is

v = 40t + 150. What is the value of the fax machine after two years?

A 70

B 108

C 150

D 230

2

3

A

B

3

4

4

3

C

D

3

2

A 2

B 1

C 1

D 2

y

4

2

2

A 3

B 1

C 1

D 3

described by the linear equation d = mt. What is the value of m?

A 0.05

B 3

C 20

D 60

A (0, 0)

B (0, 1)

C (1, 0)

D (1, 1)

A c=n

B c = n + 30

C c = 30n

D c = 8n + 240

A 24

B 36

C 240

D 360

Monthly

charge

c

240

180

120

60

2

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149

Review

1

Data (d)

Cost (c)

16

24

32

40

48

a

b

c

d

Which is the independent variable?

Draw a graph of data against cost.

Use the graph to find d if c is 20.

0.90 Japanese yen (JPY).

a Construct a table of values using 0, 10, 20, 30

and 40 as values for AUD and calculate the

JPY using the above conversion.

b Draw the graph of the AUD against JPY.

a (1, 5) and (3, 7)

b (2, 1) and (0, 4)

c (3, 1) and (2, 11)

Draw a graph of these linear functions and find the gradient and y-intercept.

a y = x + 1

b y = -2x + 5

c y = 3x - 2

a

y

2 1 0

1

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4 2 0

2

Chapter

summary

Earning

Money

6 The graph

opposite shows

the cost

of growing a rose and the income received from the sale

80

Dollars ($)

of the roses.

a Use the graph to determine the number of roses which

need to be sold to break even.

b How much profit or loss is made when 1 rose is sold?

c How much profit or loss is made when 4 roses are sold?

d What are the initial costs?

Income

60

Costs

40

20

1

value is then depreciated each month using the graph opposite.

a What was the value of the motor vehicle after

24months?

b What was the value of the motor vehicle after one year?

c Find the equation of the straight line in terms of v and t.

d Use the equation to predict the value of the motor

vehicle after 6 months.

e When does the line predict that the motor vehicle will

have no value?

f By how much does the motor vehicle depreciate in

value each month?

Dollars ($ 1000)

Review

150

2

3

Roses

Motor vehicle

30

24

18

12

6

t

12 24 36 48

Time (months)

The table below shows the speed v (in km/s) of a rocket at time t seconds.

Time (t)

Speed (v)

1.5

4.5

7.5

a

b

c

Draw a number plane with time (t) on the horizontal axis and speed (v) on the

vertical axis.

Plot the points from the table and draw a straight line through these points.

Extend the straight line to predict the rockets speed when t = 6 seconds.

Challenge questions 5

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C H A P T E R

61

Investing

Earning money

money

Area of study

Syllabus

topic

FM1

FM2 Earning

Investing

money

money

Calculate simple

payments

interest

from a salary

Calculate

Draw

and wages

describe

using

simple

hourly

andrate,

compound

overtime

interest

rates graphs

and allowances

Calculate the

annual

future

leave

value,

loading

compound

and bonuses

interest and present value

Calculate

Use

prepared

earnings

tablesbased

to calculate

on commission,

final amount

piecework

and interest

and royalties

Determineaccounts

Compare

deductions

from

and

different

calculate

financial

net pay

institutions

A

Compare accounts

Calculate

the appreciated

from different

value onfinancial

investments

institutions

Calculate the dividend and dividend yield on shares

6.1

Interest is the amount paid for borrowing money or the amount earned for lending money.

There are different ways of calculating interest. Simple interest (or flat interest) is a fixed

percentage of the amount invested or borrowed and is calculated on the original amount. For

example, if we invest $100 in a bank account that pays interest at the rate of 5% per annum

(per year) we would receive $5 each year. That is,

5

Interest = $100

= $5

100

This amount of interest would be paid each year. Simple interest is always calculated on the

initial amount, or the principal.

Simple interest

I = Prn

I Interest (simple or flat) earned for the use of money

P Principal is the initial amount of money borrowed

r Rate of simple interest per period expressed as a decimal

n Number of time periods

151

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152

Example 1

investment of $12 000 at 10% simple interest per annum

for 3 years.

Solution

1

2

3

4

Substitute P = 12 000, r = 0.10 and n = 3 into

the formula.

Evaluate.

Write the answer in words.

I=P

Prn

= 12 000 0.10 3

= $3600

Simple interest is $3600.

The interest is added to the principal to determine the amount owed on a loan or the future

value of an investment.

Amount owed or future value

A=P+I

A Amount or final balance

I Interest (simple or flat) earned

P Principal is the initial quantity of money

Example 2

Find the amount owed on a loan of $50 000 at 7% per annum simple interest at the end of two

years and six months.

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Substitute P = 50 000, r = 0.07 and n = 2.5 into

the formula.

Evaluate.

Write the amount owed formula.

Substitute P = 50 000 and I = 8750 into the

formula.

Evaluate.

Write the answer in words.

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I = Prn

= 50 000 0.07 2.5

= $8750

A=P+I

= 50 000 + 8750

= $58 750

Amount owed is $58 750.

Cambridge University Press

Example 3

153

Joel plans to make an investment of $200 000 at 7 12 % p.a. simple interest for 2 years. Answer

the following questions by using a graphics calculator.

a

How much simple interest will Joel earn?

b

What is the total value of his investment at the end of 2 years?

Solution

1

2

Select Simple Interest (F1).

interest period is calculated in days).

Enter the interest rate I% = 7.5.

Enter the principal or present value PV = -200 000.

In the TVM mode all money we pay out is negative

and money we receive is positive. In this example

$200 000 is deposited or paid out.

To calculate the simple interest, select SI.

(Simple Final Value).

Write the answer in words.

3

4

5

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b

154

Exercise 6A

1

a

Principal = $15 000, Interest rate = 13% p.a., Time period = 3 years

b

Principal = $40 000, Interest rate = 7.25% p.a., Time period = 5 14 years

a

Principal = $500, Simple interest rate = 5% p.a., Time period = 4 years

b

Principal = $900, Simple interest rate = 3% p.a., Time period = 7 years

c

Principal = $6900, Simple interest rate = 10% p.a., Time period = 4 12 years

Principal = $10 000, Simple interest rate = 6.75% p.a., Time period = 2 14 years

a

What is the interest rate per quarter?

b

What is the interest rate per month?

d

What is the interest rate per six months?

e

What is the interest rate per nine months?

a

Principal = $800, Interest rate = 12% p.a., Time period = 1 month.

b

Principal = $1600, Interest rate = 18% p.a., Time period = 6 months.

c

Principal = $60 000, Interest rate = 9.6% p.a., Time period = 3 months.

d

Principal = $20 000, Interest rate = 6% p.a., Time period = 9 months.

Andrew takes a loan of $30 000 for a period of 6 years, at a simple interest rate of

14% per annum. Find the amount owing at the end of 6 years.

A loan of $1800 is taken out at a simple interest rate of 15.5% per annum. How much

interest is owing after 3 months?

A sum of $100 000 was invested in a fixed-term account for 4 years. Calculate:

a

the simple interest earned if the rate of interest is 5.5% per annum

b

the future value of the investment at the end of 4 years

Joshua invested $1200 at 8% per annum. What is the simple interest earned between

30 September and 1 January?

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155

Development

9

Sophie decides to buy a car for $28 000. She has saved $7000 for the deposit and takes

out a loan over two years for the balance. The flat rate of interest charged is 12% per

annum. What is the total amount of interest to be paid?

10

Domenico has borrowed $24 000 to buy furniture. He wishes to repay the loan over four

years.

Calculate the simple interest on the following rates of interest.

a

8% per annum for the entire period

b

9% per annum after a 6-month interest-free period

c

10% per annum after a 12-month interest-free period

11

6A

a

b

Cell D5 has a formula that calculates the simple interest. Enter this formula.

The formula for cell E5 is =A5 + D5. Fill down the contents of E6 to E12 using

this formula.

12

Isabelle buys a TV for $1400. She pays it off monthly over 2 years at an interest rate of

11.5% per annum flat. How much per month will she pay?

13

Riley wants to earn $4000 a year in interest. How much must he invest if the simple

interest rate is 10% p.a.?

14

Samira invests $16 000 for 2 12 years. What is the minimum rate of simple interest

needed for her to earn $3000?

Gurrumul pays back $20 000 on a $15 000 loan at a flat interest rate of 10%. What is the

term of the loan?

15

16

Harry borrowed $300 000 at a flat rate of interest of 8.5% per annum. This rate was fixed

for 2 years on the principal. He pays back the interest only over this period.

a

How much interest is to be paid over the 2 years?

b

After paying the fixed rate of interest for the first year, Harry finds the bank will

decrease the flat interest rate to 7.5% if he pays a charge of $1000. How much will

he save by changing to the lower interest rate for the last year?

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156

When graphing simple interest make the horizontal axis the time period and the vertical axis

the interest earned. Simple interest will increase by a constant amount each time period. This

will result in a straight-line graph.

Simple interest graphs

1

2

3

Construct a table of values for I and n using the simple interest formula.

Draw a number plane with n the horizontal axis and I the vertical axis. Plot

the points.

Join the points to make a straight line.

Example 4

Draw a graph showing the amount of simple interest earned over a period of 4 years if $1000

is invested at 6% p.a. Use the graph to estimate the interest earned after 8 years.

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

7

8

9

formula.

Substitute P = 1000, r = 0.06

and n into the formula.

Draw a table of values for

I and n.

Let n = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4. Find

the interest (I) using I = 60n.

Draw a number plane with n

as the horizontal axis and I

as the vertical axis.

Plot the points (0, 0), (1, 60),

(2, 120), (3, 180) and

(4, 240).

Extend the line to estimate

the value of I when n = 8.

Read the graph to estimate I.

(I = 480 when n = 8).

Write the answer in words.

I=P

Prn

= 1000 0.06 n

= 60n

n

60

120

180

240

Simple interest on

$1000 at 6% p.a.

I

500

400

300

200

100

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

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Example 5

157

showing the amount of simple interest earned

for 5 years if $9000 is invested at:

a

8% p.a.

b

5% p.a.

Solution

1

2

3

Substitute P = 9000, r = 0.08 and n into the

formula.

Select the Graph menu.

at Y1. The graph of Y1 = 720X is the same

as I = 720n.

SHIFT F3 for the V-Window.

Enter the Xmin = 0, Xmax = 5, Ymin = 0,

Ymax = 3500, scale = 500.

Press EXE to exit V-Window.

Substitute P = 9000, r = 0.05 and n into the

formula.

2

3

I= P

Prn

= 9000 0.08 n

= 720 n

a

I=P

Prn

= 9000 0.05 n

= 450n

at Y2. The graph of Y2 = 720X is the same

as I = 450n.

Select F6 to draw the two graphs.

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158

Exercise 6B

1

a

Simplify the simple interest formula (I = Prn) by substituting values for the principal

and the interest rate.

b

Use this formula to complete the following table of values.

n

I

c

d

e

Find the time when the interest is $210.

Draw a number plane with n as the horizontal axis and I as the vertical axis.

Plot the points from the table of values. Join the points to make a straight line.

a

Simplify the simple interest formula (I = Prn) by substituting values for the principal

and the interest rate.

b

Use this formula to complete the following table of values.

n

I

c

d

e

f

g

Draw a number plane with n as the horizontal axis and I as the vertical axis.

Plot the points from the table of values. Join the points to make a straight line.

Use the graph to find the interest after 3 12 years.

Extend the graph to find the interest after 6 years.

Find the time when the interest is $360.

a

Draw the graph from question 1.

b

Use the TRACE feature to confirm the answers to parts e, f and g of question 2.

c

Draw the graph from question 2.

d

Use the TRACE feature to confirm the answers to parts e, f and g to question 2.

Draw a graph showing the amount of simple interest earned over a period of 4 years if

$1000 is invested at 4% p.a. Use the graph to estimate the interest earned after 6 years.

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159

Development

5

a

Draw a graph to represent the interest earned over 5 years on:

i $5000 invested at 5% per annum simple interest

ii $5000 invested at 7% per annum simple interest

iii $5000 invested at 9% per annum simple interest

b

Find the time for each investment to earn $1000 in interest.

a

Draw a graph to represent the interest earned for 6 months on:

i $100 000 invested at 6% p.a. simple interest

ii $100 000 invested at 9% p.a. simple interest

iii $100 000 invested at 12% p.a. simple interest

b

How much does each investment earn after 1 month?

c

How much does each investment earn after 6 months?

d

Find the time for each investment to earn $2000 in interest.

Time period

14.5

6.5%

3 to 6 months

7.0%

6 to 12 months

7.5%

12 to 24 months

8.1%

24 to 48 months

8.3%

Chris has $50 000 to invest in a fixed-term deposit. Draw a separate graph to represent the

interest earned after 12 months given these investments.

a

Fixed-term deposit for 3 months

b

Fixed-term deposit for 6 months

c

Fixed-term deposit for 12 months

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160

6.3

Compound interest is calculated from the initial amount borrowed or principal plus any

interest that has been earned. It calculates interest on the interest. For example, if $100 is

invested at a compound interest rate of 10% per annum.

First year

Interest = $100 0.10 1 = $10

Amount owed = $100 + $10 = $110

Second year

Interest = $110 0.10 1 = $11

Amount owed = $110 + $11 = $121

Third year

Interest = $121 0.10 1 = $12.10

Amount owed = $121 + $12.10 = $133.10

These calculations show the interest earned increased each year. In the first year it was $10,

the second year $11 and the third year $12.10.

Compound interest

A = P(1 + r)n or FV = PV(1 + r)n

A Amount (final balance) or future value of the loan

P Principal is the initial quantity of money or present value of the loan

r Rate of interest per compounding time period expressed as a decimal

n Number of compounding time periods

The compound interest is calculated by subtracting the principal from the amount borrowed or

invested. Alternatively, finance companies provide an investment calculator as an estimate to

the value of an investment.

I = A - P

A Amount or final balance

I Interest (compound) earned

P Principal is the initial quantity of money

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Example 6

161

Paige invests $5000 over 5 years at a compound interest rate of 6.5% p.a. Calculate:

a

the amount of the investment after 5 years, correct to the nearest cent

b

the interest earned after 5 years, correct to the nearest cent.

Solution

Substitute P = 5000, r = 0.065 and n = 5 into

the formula.

Evaluate.

A = P(1 + r )n

= 5000(1 + 0.065)5

= 6850.433317

= $6850.4433

Amount is $6850.43.

Substitute P = 5000 and I = 6850.43 into the

formula.

Evaluate.

Write in words.

I = A P

= 6850.43 5000

= $1850.43

1

2

6

7

8

Example 7

James borrowed $50 000 for 4 years at 11% p.a. interest compounding monthly. What is the

amount owed after the 4 years?

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Select Compound Interest (F2).

compounding time periods).

Enter the interest rate I% = 11.

Enter compounding periods per year P/Y = 12.

Enter the principal or present value PV = 50 000.

In the TVM mode, all money we pay out is

negative and money we receive is positive.

To calculate the amount or future value, select FV.

Write answer using appropriate accuracy and in

words.

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162

Exercise 6C

1

Calculate the amount owed, to the nearest cent, for each of the following.

a

Principal = $800, Compound interest rate = 4% p.a., Time period = 3 years

b

Principal = $12 000, Compound interest rate = 11% p.a., Time period = 2 12 years

Principal = $22 000, Compound interest rate = 5.5% p.a., Time period = 4 14 years

Calculate the amount of compound interest to the nearest cent for each of the following.

a

Principal = $25 000, Interest rate = 7% p.a., Time period = 5 years

b

Principal = $80 000, Interest rate = 8.25% p.a., Time period = 3 14 years

What sum of money will she receive

if she invested for 4 years at 8% p.a.

compound interest? Answer to the

nearest cent.

Use the formula A = P(1 + r)n to calculate the value of an investment of $10 000, over a

period of 2 years with an interest rate of 0.8% compounding monthly. Answer to the

nearest cent.

Ryan invested $20 000 for 5 years at 12% p.a. interest compounding monthly. What is the

amount of interest earned in the first year? Answer to the nearest cent.

Find the amount of money in a bank account after 6 years if an initial amount of $4000

earns 8% p.a. compound interest, paid quarterly. Answer to the nearest cent.

Christopher invested $13 500 over 7 years at 6.2% p.a. interest compounding quarterly.

Calculate the:

a

value of the investment after 7 years to the nearest cent.

b

compound interest earned to the nearest cent.

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163

Development

8

What sum of money would Bailey need to invest to accumulate a total of $50000 at the

end of 4 years at 6% p.a. compound interest? Answer to the nearest cent.

Calculate the amount that must be invested at 9.3% p.a. interest compounding annually to

have $70000 at the end of 3 years. Answer to the nearest cent.

10

at 7.25% p.a. compound interest? Answer to the nearest cent.

11

6C

a

b

Cell D5 has a formula that calculates the compound interest. Enter this formula.

The formula for cell E5 is = D5 - A5. Fill down the contents of E6 to E12 using

this formula.

12

How much more interest is earned on a $40000 investment if the interest at 6% p.a. is

compounded annually over 6 years, compared with the simple interest at 6% p.a. earned

over the same time?

13

Hassan has $50000 to invest for two years. Which is the better investment? Why?

Investment 1

Simple

Interest rate

4% p.a.

Investment 2

Compound

Interest rate

4% p.a.

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164

When graphing compound interest, make the horizontal axis the number of time periods and

the vertical axis the amount (final balance). Compound interest will increase by a different

amount each time period. This will result in an exponential curve.

Compound interest graphs

1

2

3

Construct a table of values for A and n using the compound interest formula.

Draw a number plane with n the horizontal axis and A the vertical axis. Plot the points.

Join the points to make an exponential curve.

Example 8

Draw a graph showing the amount of the loan over a period of 8 years if $1000 is invested at

a compound interest rate of 6% p.a. Use the graph to estimate the amount of the loan after 7

years.

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

7

8

Substitute P = 1000, r = 0.06

and n into the formula.

Draw a table of values for A

and n.

Let n = 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8. Find the

amount earned.

Draw a number plane with n as

the horizontal axis and A as the

vertical axis.

Plot the points (0, 1000),

(2, 1124), (4, 1262), (6, 1419)

and (8, 1594).

Draw an exponential curve (not a

straight line) between the points.

Read the graph to estimate I

when n = 7 years (A = 1500

when n = 7).

Write the answer in words.

A = P(1 + r )n

= 1000 (1.06 )n

n

1000

1124

1262

1419

1594

Compound interest

at 6% p.a.

A

1600

1500

1400

1300

1200

1100

1000

1

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Example 9

165

showing the amount earned for 5 years if

$9000 is invested at:

a

8% p.a. compounding annually

b

5% p.a. compounding annually.

Solution

1

2

3

Substitute P = 9000, r = 0.08 and n into the

formula.

Select the Graph menu.

typing 90001.08^X at Y1. The graph of

Y1=90001.08^X is the same as

A = 9000 (1.08)n.

SHIFT F3 for the V-Window.

Enter the Xmin = 0, Xmax = 5, Ymin = 9000,

Ymax = 13500, scale = 500.

Substitute P = 9000, r = 0.05 and n into the

formula.

Enter the formula A = 9000 (1.05)n by

typing 90001.05^X at Y1. The graph of

Y1=90001.05^X is the same as

A = 9000 (1.05)n.

Select F6 to draw the two graphs.

2

3

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A = P(1

P(1 + r )n

= 9000 (1.08)n

a

A = P(1 + r )n

= 9000 (1.05)n

166

Exercise 6D

1

Ava invested $2000 at 4% per annum interest compounding annually for 4 years.

a

Simplify the compound interest formula A = P(1 + r)n by substituting values for the

principal and the interest rate.

b

Use this formula to complete the following table of values. Answer to nearest dollar.

n

A

c

d

e

Find the time when the amount is approximately $2120.

Draw a number plane with n as the horizontal axis and A as the vertical axis.

Plot the points from the table of values. Join the points to make a curve.

Dylan invested $800 at 7% p.a. compound interest, paid annually, for 5 years.

a

Simplify the compound interest formula A = P(1 + r)n by substituting values for the

principal and the interest rate.

b

Use this formula to complete the following table of values.

n

A

c

d

Draw a number plane with n as the horizontal axis and A as the vertical axis.

Plot the points from the table of values. Join the points to make a curve.

Find the time when the amount is approximately $1025.

a

Draw the graph in question 1.

b

Use the TRACE feature to confirm the answers to parts e, f and g in question 1.

c

Draw the graph in question 2.

d

Use the TRACE feature to confirm the answers to parts e, f and g in question 2.

Draw a graph showing the amount of the loan over a period of 3 years if $1000 is

invested at a compound interest rate of 7% p.a. Use the graph to estimate the amount of

the loan after 6 years.

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167

Development

5

a

Draw a graph to represent the future value over 10 years on:

i

$1000 invested at 4% per annum interest compounding biannually

ii

$1000 invested at 6% per annum interest compounding biannually

iii $1000 invested at 8% per annum interest compounding biannually

b

Find the approximate time for each investment to earn $500 in interest.

14.6

a

Draw a graph to represent the amount earned over 4 years on:

i

$100 000 invested at 6% p.a. interest compounding monthly

ii

$100 000 invested at 9% p.a. interest compounding monthly

iii $100 000 invested at 12% p.a. interest compounding monthly

b

What is the approximate value of each investment after 6 months?

c

What is the approximate value of each investment after 4 years?

d

Find the time for each investment to earn $20 000 in interest.

The table below gives details for an investment product. The compound interest earned is

paid quarterly.

Investment

4% p.a.

6% p.a.

8% p.a.

10% p.a.

a

Draw a graph to represent the future value of these investments after 3 years.

b

What is the approximate value of investment B after 2 years?

c

What is the approximate value of investment C after 18 months?

d

Find the time for investment D to earn $5000 in interest.

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168

6.5

Investment problems are made easier by using tables. The table below shows the future value

or final balance when $1 is invested at the given interest rate for the given number of periods.

The interest is compounded per period. For example, the value of $1 after 4 periods at an

interest rate of 6% per period is 1.2625.

Period

3%

4%

5%

6%

1.0300

1.0400

1.0500

1.0600

1.0609

1.0816

1.1025

1.1236

1.0927

1.1249

1.1576

1.1910

1.1255

1.1699

1.2155

1.2625

1

2

3

Find the intersection of the time period and rate of interest in the table.

Multiply the number in the intersection with the money invested.

Example 10

a

$20 000 invested for 3 years at 6% p.a. compounded annually

b

$130 000 invested for 2 years at 6% p.a. compounded six-monthly.

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

Find the intersection value from the table.

(1.1910)

Multiply intersection value by the money

invested.

Evaluate.

Answer the question in words.

Period is 4 (n = 2 2), interest rate is

6

3% r = 2 % .

Find the intersection value from the table.

(1.1255)

Multiply intersection value by the money

invested.

Evaluate and answer the question in words.

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FV = 1.1910 20000

= $23820

Future value is $23 820.

FV = 1.1255 130000

= $146 315

Future value is $146 315.

169

Exercise 6E

1

The table below shows the future value when $1 is invested at the given simple interest

rate for the given number of periods.

Period

2%

4%

6%

8%

10%

12%

1.02

1.04

1.06

1.08

1.10

1.12

1.04

1.08

1.12

1.16

1.20

1.24

1.06

1.12

1.18

1.24

1.30

1.36

1.08

1.16

1.24

1.32

1.40

1.48

a

$1000 invested for 2 years at a simple interest rate of 10% p.a.

b

$36 000 invested for 4 years at a simple interest rate of 2% p.a.

c

$48 000 invested for 3 years at a simple interest rate of 8% p.a.

d

$6000 invested for 1 year at a simple interest rate of 12% p.a.

e

$20 000 invested for 3 years at a simple interest rate of 4% p.a.

2

The table below shows the future value when $1 is invested at the given interest rate for

the given number of periods. The interest is compounded per period.

Period

1%

4%

8%

12%

16%

20%

1.0100

1.0400

1.0800

1.1200

1.1600

1.2000

1.0201

1.0816

1.1664

1.2544

1.3456

1.4400

1.0303

1.1249

1.2597

1.4049

1.5609

1.7280

1.0406

1.1699

1.3605

1.5735

1.8106

2.0736

1.0510

1.2167

1.4693

1.7623

2.1003

2.4883

1.0615

1.2653

1.5869

1.9738

2.4364

2.9860

Use the above table to calculate the future value of the following (answer correct to

nearest dollar).

a

$10 000 invested for 5 years at 1% p.a. compounded annually

b

$50 000 invested for 3 years at 20% p.a. compounded annually

c

$2000 invested for 2 years at 8% p.a. compounded annually

d

$500 000 invested for 1 year at 16% p.a. compounded annually

e

$78 000 invested for 6 years at 12% p.a. compounded annually

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170

The table below shows the future value when $1 is invested at the given interest rate for

the given number of periods. The interest is compounded per period.

Period

5%

10%

15%

20%

25%

1.05

1.10

1.15

1.20

1.25

1.10

1.21

1.32

1.44

1.56

1.16

1.33

1.52

1.73

1.95

1.22

1.46

1.75

2.07

2.44

Use the table to calculate the future value of the following (answer correct to nearest

dollar).

a $1000 invested for 3 years compounding annually at an interest rate of 10% p.a.

b $2000 invested for 2 years compounding annually at an interest rate of 25% p.a.

c $500 invested for 4 years compounding annually at an interest rate of 5% p.a.

d $400 invested for 3 years compounding annually at an interest rate of 20% p.a.

e $5000 invested for 1 year compounding annually at an interest rate of 15% p.a.

f

$7000 invested for 2 years compounding annually at an interest rate of 20% p.a.

4

Period

1%

2%

3%

4%

5%

1.010

1.020

1.030

1.040

1.050

1.020

1.040

1.061

1.082

1.103

1.030

1.061

1.093

1.125

1.158

1.041

1.082

1.126

1.170

1.216

1.051

1.104

1.159

1.217

1.276

Use the table to find the amount received on the following investments. Answer correct

to the nearest dollar.

a Principal = $5000, Interest rate = 1%, Time period = 4 years

b Principal = $15000, Interest rate = 3%, Time period = 1 years

c Principal = $65000, Interest rate = 2%, Time period = 5 years

d Principal = $200000, Interest rate = 5%, Time period = 2 years

e Principal = $60000, Interest rate = 4%, Time period = 3 years

f

Principal = $100000, Interest rate = 1%, Time period = 5 years

g Principal = $90000, Interest rate = 3%, Time period = 4 years

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171

Development

5

The table below shows the future value when $1 is invested at the given interest rate for

the given number of periods. The interest is compounded per period.

Period

1.0%

1.5%

2.0%

2.5%

3.0%

3.5%

4.0%

1.010

1.015

1.020

1.025

1.030

1.035

1.040

1.020

1.030

1.040

1.051

1.061

1.071

1.082

1.030

1.046

1.061

1.077

1.093

1.109

1.125

1.041

1.061

1.082

1.104

1.126

1.148

1.170

1.051

1.077

1.104

1.131

1.159

1.188

1.217

1.062

1.093

1.126

1.160

1.194

1.229

1.265

1.072

1.110

1.149

1.189

1.230

1.272

1.316

1.083

1.126

1.172

1.218

1.267

1.317

1.369

Use the table to calculate the future value of the following (answer correct to nearest

dollar).

a $170000 invested for 1 month at 30% p.a. compounded monthly

b $89000 invested for 7 months at 42% p.a. compounded monthly

c $240000 invested for 3 months at 6% p.a. compounded quarterly

d $75000 invested for 2 years at 4% p.a. compounded quarterly

e $5800 invested for 3 years at 3% p.a. compounded six-monthly

f

$380000 invested for 2 years at 2% p.a. compounded six-monthly

6

the given number of periods. The interest is compounded per period.

Period

5%

10%

15%

20%

25%

1.1576

1.3310

1.5209

1.7280

1.9531

1.2155

1.4641

1.7490

2.0736

2.4414

Use the table to find the amount of money which could be invested to give the following

(answer correct to the nearest dollar).

a $20000 at the end of 4 years, at 10% p.a. interest compounded annually

b $80000 at the end of 3 years, at 20% p.a. interest compounded annually

c $1000000 at the end of 4 years, at 15% p.a. interest compounded annually

d $650000 at the end of 3 years, at 5% p.a. interest compounded annually

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172

Banks and financial institutions charge their customers for maintaining accounts. It is called

an account servicing fee and is charged per month. Some accounts charge a transaction fee for

using ATM, telephone, internet or branch services. However, some accounts have unlimited

transactions or a set number of free transactions. Most banks will also charge a fee for using

another institutions ATM.

In addition to the above charges institutions have a range of penalty fees including:

Periodic payment dishonour direct debt but insufficient funds in the account

Overdrawn account fee payment made but insufficient funds in the account

Late payment fee minimum payment not received on the due date

Many financial institutions provide

information to their customers on

how to reduce bank fees. It involves

managing your transactions, knowing

your account balance, not using

other banks ATM and using internet

banking.

Example 11

Evgenias bank charges an account servicing fee of $12 per month, ATM transaction fee of

$0.40 and branch enquiry fee of $0.50. What are Evgenias banking costs for the past three

months if she made 15 ATM withdrawals and 4 branch enquiries?

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

found.

Multiply the account servicing fee

by 3.

Multiply the number of ATM

transactions by $0.40.

Multiply the number branch

enquiries by $0.50.

Write the answer in words.

= $44

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173

Exercise 6F

1

Maxims bank charges an account servicing fee of $15 per month, ATM transaction fee

of $0.45 and telephone enquiry fee of $0.25. What is Maxims banking costs for the past

two months if he made 13 ATM withdrawals and 6 telephone enquiries?

The graph below shows the fees collected from banks in the last 5 years. The deposit fee

income and the credit card fee income are shown in the first two columns. The third

column shows the total fee income.

4500

4000

3500

Millions ($)

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0

3

Years

Deposit fee

income

Credit card fee

income

Total fee income

a

b

c

d

e

f

What was the credit card fee income in year 5?

What was the deposit fee income in year 4?

How much has the deposit fee income increased from year 1 to year 5?

How much has the credit card fee income increased from year 1 to year 5?

Calculate the percentage increase in total fee income from year 1 to year 5.

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174

Development

3

Activity

Charge

$0.50

Branch withdrawal

$0.60

$5.00

Telephone enquiry

$0.20

a Ten ATM withdrawals and six cheque dishonour fees

b Three branch withdrawals and five telephone enquiries

c Seven telephone enquiries and two dishonoured cheques

d Two ATM withdrawals, five telephone enquiries and six branch withdrawals

e Eleven ATM withdrawals, ten telephone enquiries and one branch withdrawal

f

Thirty ATM withdrawals, twenty telephone enquiries and ten branch withdrawals

4

The table below shows the banking charges for four banks.

Periodic Overdrawn

Bank payment

account

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

j

Cheque

dishonour

Late

payment

$35

$35

$35

$35

$35

$30

$45

$25

$45

$38

$30

$35

$40

$40

$35

$35

What is the cost of a cheque dishonour fee at bank D?

Which bank has the lowest late payment fee?

Which bank has the highest overdrawn account fee?

Calculate the difference in the periodic payment fee between banks C and D.

Calculate the difference in the cheque dishonour fee between banks B and C.

What is the average overdrawn account fee for these banks?

What is the average periodic payment for these banks?

Which bank has the lowest overall bank fees?

Which bank has the highest overall bank fees?

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175

Appreciation

6.7

gold or land. This increase in value is often expressed as the

rate of appreciation. Calculating the appreciation is similar

to calculating the compound interest. For example, a painting

worth $100 000 that has an annual rate of appreciation of 10%

will be worth $110 000 after one year (an increase of $10 000).

In the second year its value will increase by $11 000. The

amount of appreciation has increased.

Appreciation

A = P(1 + r)n or FV = PV(1 + r)n

A Amount (final balance) or future value

P Principal is the initial quantity of money or present value

r Rate of appreciation per compounding time period expressed as a decimal

n Number of compounding time periods

Example 12

9% p.a., what is its value after 7 years? Answer to the nearest dollar.

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

Substitute P = 290 000, r = 0.09 and n = 7 into

the formula.

Evaluate.

Write answer to the correct degree of accuracy.

Answer the question in words.

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A = P(1 + r )n

= 290 000(1 + 0.09)7

= 530 131.345

= $530 131

Unit is valued at $530 131.

176

Inflation

Inflation is a rise in the price of goods and

services or Consumer Price Index (CPI). It is

measured by comparing the prices of a fixed

basket of goods and services. If inflation rises

then a persons spending power decreases. The

inflation rate is the annual percentage change in

the CPI. In Australia, the Reserve Bank aims to

keep the inflation rate in a 2% to 3% band.

Inflation

Inflation rate is the annual percentage change in the CPI.

Use the formula A = P(1 + r)n to calculate the future value of an item following inflation.

Example 13

a

after one year following inflation? (Inflation

rate is 2.6% p.a.)

What is the price of a $400 clothes dryer

after three years following inflation?

(Inflation rate is 3.2% p.a.)

Solution

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

Substitute P = 650, r = 0.026 and n = 1

into the formula.

Evaluate correct to 2 decimal places.

Write the answer in words.

Write the formula for inflation.

Substitute P = 400, r = 0.032 and n = 3

into the formula.

Evaluate correct to 2 decimal places.

Write the answer in words.

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A = P(1

P(1 + r )n

= 650(1

650(1 + 0.026)1

= $666.90

b

A = P(1

P(1 + r )n

= 400(1

400(1 + 0.032)3

= $439.64

Clothes dryer will cost $439.64.

177

Exercise 6G

1

A vintage car was bought for $70 000 and appreciated at the rate of 6% p.a. What will be

the value of the car after 4 years? Answer correct to the nearest cent.

The price of a house has increased by 4.5% for each of the last two years. It was bought

for $490 000 two years ago. What is the new current value?

a

Tall boy valued at $4450. Each year its value

appreciated by 5%. Calculate the value of the

tall boy after 3 years. Answer correct to the

nearest cent.

b

Table valued at $6200. Each year its value

appreciated by 4%. Calculate the value of the

table after 5 years. Answer correct to the

nearest cent.

c

Chair valued at $1250. Each year its value

appreciated by 9%. Calculate the value of the

chair after 4 years. Answer correct to the

nearest cent.

The collection of dolls was valued at $1500 four years ago. If it appreciated at 12% p.a.,

find its current value. Answer correct to the nearest cent.

The price of a diamond ring has increased from $3400 to $5300 during the past five

years due to inflation. What is the rise in the price of the ring?

The average inflation for the next five years is predicted to be 3%. Calculate the price of

the following goods in five years time. Answer correct to the nearest cent.

a

3 L of milk for $3.57

b

Loaf of bread for $3.30

c

250 g honey for $4.50

d

800 g of eggs for $5.20

If the inflation rate is 5% p.a., what would you expect to pay to the nearest dollar in four

years time for a house that costs:

a

$280 000?

b

$760 000?

c

$324 000?

d

$580 000?

e

$1 260 000?

f

$956 000?

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178

Development

8

The graph below shows the value of cricket memorabilia for the past 6 years.

a What was the value of the memorabilia after 4 years?

b What was the initial value?

c How much did the memorabilia appreciate each year?

d Find the equation of the straight-line graph in terms of V and n.

Cricket

memorabilia

V ($)

300

200

100

1

The following blocks of land have increased in value this year. What is the rate of

appreciation? Answer correct to two decimal places.

a $328000 to $352000

b $256000 to $278000

10

memorabilia. It appreciated over

7 years at 8.2% p.a. interest

compounding annually.

a What is the value of the

investment after 7 years? Answer

correct to the nearest cent.

b Calculate the amount of

appreciation.

11

invest $20000.

a What will be the investments value after 5 years? Answer correct to the nearest cent.

b How much does the investment increase during the first 5 years?

c When will the investment at least double in value? Answer to the nearest year.

12

The cost of a certain car has increased during the past two years from $45200 to $49833

following inflation. What was the annual inflation rate?

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179

Shares

A share or stock is a part ownership in a

company. Shares are bought and sold on the

stock market or stock exchange, such as the ASX

(Australian Securities Exchange). The ASX

provides current information about share prices,

market data, tools and resources for investment.

When a company is first listed on the ASX the

initial price is called the face value. The price of

a share will change according to the performance

of the company. The current price of a share is

called the market price. The amount paid when a

share is bought is called the cost price or issued

price. The amount paid when a share is sold is

called the selling price.

Shares are bought and sold using a broker.

A broker receives a brokerage fee when

shares are traded or a percentage value of

the transaction. There are many different

types of brokers, such as CommSec. Goods

and Services Tax (GST) of 10% is charged

for buying and selling shares.

Example 14

Lucy bought 500 shares at a market value of $6.80 each. Brokerage costs incurred were $33

including GST. What is the total cost of purchasing the shares?

Solution

1

2

3

4

Cost = (500 6.80

8 0) + $ 3 3

Multiply 500 by $6.80 and add the brokerage of $33.

= $3433

Evaluate.

Cost of the shares is $3433.

Write answer using correct units and in words.

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180

Dividends

The owners of a share are entitled to

share in the companys profits. Profits

are given to shareholders as a dividend.

Dividend is a payment given as an

amount per share or as a percentage

of the issued price. Dividends are

issued twice per year: interim and final

dividend. The dividend yield is the

annual rate of return. It is calculated

by dividing the annual dividend by the

shares market price.

Dividend History

Type

Cents

per

share

Frank

%

Ex

Dividend

Date

Interim

62.00

100

8/5/2010

1/7/2010

Final

74.00

100

8/11/2009

21/12/2009

Interim

62.00

100

14/5/2009

2/7/2009

Final

69.00

100

9/11/2008

15/12/2008

Interim

56.00

100

15/5/2008

3/7/2008

Dividend

Pay Date

Dividends

Dividend is a payment given as an amount per share or a percentage of the issued price.

Dividend yield =

Example 15

Annual dividend

100% Dividend = Dividend yield Market Price

Market price

a

The predicted dividend yield is 3.5%.

What would be the dividend?

b

The company decides to pay a dividend of

$1.12. What is the dividend yield?

Last

Trade

28.420

Todays %

Change

Volume

-0.280

-0.976

51645

Trades

63

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

Express the dividend yield as a

decimal and multiply it by the

share price.

Evaluate correct to two decimal

places.

Write the formula to calculate

the dividend yield.

Substitute the annual dividend

of 1.12 and the market price of

28.42 into the formula.

Evaluate correct to two decimal

places.

= 0.035 $28.42

= $0.99

Dividend is $0.99

Annual dividend

100%

Market pricee

1.112

=

100%

28.42

= 3.94

94%

Dividend yield =

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181

Exercise 6H

1

A broker charges a fee of $33 to trade shares. What is the total cost for these shares?

a

150 shares, market price of $19.70

b

340 shares, market price of $2.41

c

60 shares, market price of $92.35

d

2000 shares, market price of $1.68

e

208 shares, market price of $49.61

f

3900 shares, market price of $56.23

price of $6.20. She pays a brokerage

fee of $22.50. How much does she pay

altogether?

decimal places) on the following

shares.

a

Market price of $33.70 and a

dividend of $0.84 per share

b

Market price of $22.08 and a

dividend of $1.63 per share

c

Market price of $20.58 and a dividend of $1.00 per share

d

Market price of $37.72 and a dividend of $2.11 per share

e

Market price of $45.43 and a dividend of $2.86 per share

f

Market price of $4.00 and a dividend of 10 cents per share

A company with a share price of $8.40 declares a dividend of 56 cents. What is the

dividend yield correct to two decimal places?

Calculate the dividend received on the following shares. (Answer correct to two decimal

places.)

a

500 shares with a market price of $4.80 and a dividend yield of 5.2%

b

80 shares with a market price of $88.10 and a dividend yield of 4.4%

c

2200 shares with a market price of $9.56 and a dividend yield of 6.1%

d

890 shares with a market price of $22.30 and a dividend yield of 1.9%

e

3400 shares with a market price of $56.30 and a dividend yield of 4.6%

f

780 shares with a market price of $12.58 and a dividend yield of 8.1%

A company with a market price of $1.30 has a dividend yield of 9.2%. What is the

dividend correct to two decimal places?

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182

Development

7

Tipeni bought 100 shares in a bank for $35.60 each. He sold them two years later for

$48.90 each and paid a brokerage fee of $32.95.

a What is the profit made on these shares?

b What is the profit as a percentage of the cost of the shares?

a Cooper is charged a brokerage fee of 6.2 cents per share. What is the total cost of

purchasing the shares?

b Two months later a dividend of 36 cents per share was paid. What was the total

dividend Cooper received?

c Cooper sold the shares after receiving the dividend for $5.75 each. He was charged a

brokerage fee of 6.2 cents per share. What was the profit on these shares?

The dividend yield on a company was 5%. How much is the dividend if you owned

500 shares with a market value of $4.80?

10

8.5

8.0

7.5

7.0

6.5

May

a

b

c

Jun

Jul

How much has the share price decreased during the 3 months?

Express the decrease in the share price as a percentage of the face value.

11

A company has an after tax profit of $128 million. There are 200 million shares in the

company. What dividend per share will the company declare if all the profits are

distributed to shareholders?

12

Lauren owns 400 $3 ordinary shares and 300 $2 preference shares. The current prices of

the ordinary shares and preference shares are $4.20 and $3.60 respectively. The dividend

on the ordinary shares is 55c and on the preference shares is 3%. Calculate Laurens total

dividend.

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Study guide 6

Simple interest

I = Prn

A=P+I

I Interest (simple or flat) earned for the use of money

P Principal is the initial amount of money borrowed

r Rate of simple interest per period expressed as a decimal

n Number of time periods

A Amount or final balance

1

2

3

Draw a number plane n horizontal axis, I the vertical axis.

Plot the points and join them to make a straight line.

Compound interest

I=A-P

A Amount (final balance) or future value of the loan

P Principal is the initial quantity of money

r Rate of interest per compounding time period (decimal)

n Number of compounding time periods

A Amount or final balance

I Interest (compound) earned

Compound interest

graphs

2

3

1

2

3

Financial institutions

Appreciation and

inflation

Shares and dividends

Draw a number plane n horizontal axis, A the vertical axis

Plot and join the points and to make an exponential curve.

Determine the time period and rate of interest.

Find the intersection of the time period and rate of interest in

the table.

Multiply the number in step 2 with the money invested.

Charges account servicing charge, transaction fees

Penalties overdrawn fee, cheque dishonour fee, late payment fee

Inflation rate is the annual percentage change in the CPI.

Dividend is a payment given as an amount per share or a percentage

of the issued price.

Dividend yield =

Annual dividend

1100%

00%

Market price

Dividend = Divi

Dividend

Di

vide

dend

nd yiel

yield

yi

eldd M

Marke

ar t price

arke

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Review

183

Review

184

1

A $40

B $160

C $660

$1600

What is the simple interest rate when $8000 increases to $8600 over 3 years?

A 2.5% p.a.

B 3% p.a.

C 6% p.a.

D 7.5% p.a.

Simple interest

at 4% p.a.

I

240

200

160

120

80

40

n

1

A

$120

6

B

$140

$160

$240

What was the amount of the investment shown in the graph in question 3?

A $40

B $100

C $240

D $1000

James borrows $3000 at 10% p.a. interest compounding annually. What is the amount

owed after 2 years? (Answer to the nearest dollar.)

A $3030

B $3060

C $3600

D $3630

What is the interest earned for 3 years on $6000 at 9% p.a. interest compounding monthly?

(Answer to the nearest dollar.)

A $1770

B $1852

C $7770

D $7852

A painting was bought for $460 000 and appreciated at the rate of 7% p.a. What will be the

value of the painting after 4 years? (Answer to the nearest dollar.)

A $473 016

B $492 200

C $588 800

D $602 966

Chloe bought 800 shares at a market value of $10.20 each. Brokerage costs incurred were

$38 including GST. What is the total cost of purchasing the shares?

A $48.20

B $8160

C $8198

D $30 400

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185

What is the simple interest on $1250 at a flat rate of 8% p.a. over 3 years?

Susan wants to earn $9000 a year in interest. How much must she invest if the simple

interest rate is 14% p.a.? Answer to the nearest dollar.

Matthew takes out a simple interest loan of $14 000 over 3 years at 7% p.a.

a How much interest does he pay each year?

b How much interest does Matthew pay altogether for the loan?

a Simplify the simple interest formula (I = Prn) by substituting values for the principal

and the interest rate.

b Use this formula to complete the following table of values.

n

I

c

d

e

Draw a number plane with n as the horizontal axis and I as the vertical axis.

Plot the points from the table of values. Join the points to make a straight line.

What is the interest earned after 5 12 years?

Riley invested $120 000 with a superannuation fund. What sum of money will he receive,

to the nearest dollar, if invested for 4 years at:

a 3% p.a. compound interest?

b 6% p.a. compound interest?

Calculate the amount that must be invested at 5.8% p.a. interest compounding annually to

have $50 000 at the end of 4 years. Answer to the nearest dollar.

Farid invested $24 000 over 8 years at 9.8% p.a. interest compounding quarterly. What is

the value of the investment after 8 years? Answer to the nearest dollar.

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Review

Review

186

Chapter

summary

Earning

Money

8 The table

below shows

the future

value when $1 is invested at the given interest rate for the

given number of periods. The interest is compounded per period.

Period

3%

6%

9%

12%

15%

1.061

1.124

1.188

1.254

1.323

1.126

1.262

1.412

1.574

1.749

1.194

1.419

1.677

1.974

2.313

1.267

1.594

1.993

2.476

3.059

Use the table to calculate the future value of the following, correct to nearest dollar.

a $40000 invested for 8 years at 15% p.a. compounded annually

b $350000 invested for 6 years at 9% p.a. compounded annually

c $400000 invested for 4 years at 12% p.a. compounded six-monthly

d $64000 invested for 2 years at 12% p.a. compounded quarterly

account.

a What is the charge for 7 ATM withdrawals and

5cheque dishonour fees?

b What is the charge for 10 branch withdrawals and

12 telephone enquiries?

Activity

Charge

$0.45

Branch withdrawal

$0.50

$7.00

Telephone enquiry

$0.30

10

value each year. Ruby decides to invest $480000.

a What will be the investments value after ten years? Answer to the nearest dollar.

b How much does the investment increase during the first ten years?

11

The average inflation for the next five years is predicted to be 2.5%. Calculate the price of

the following goods in three years time. Answer to the nearest cent.

a 2 L of soft drink for $2.80

b Apple pie for $4.60

12

Mia bought 50 shares in a bank for $82.64 each. She sold them two years later for $68.90.

The brokerage fee paid was $35.95 each time. What was the loss on these shares?

13

A company with a share price of $2.42 declares a dividend of 12 cents. What is the

dividend yield, correct to two decimal places?

14

Ebony purchases 1000 shares at $16.90 per share. Her broker charges $20 plus 1.5% of the

purchase price. Calculate the brokerage for this purchase.

Challenge questions 6

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Section I

Attempt Questions 115 (15 marks)

Allow about 20 minutes for this section

1

(A) 4

(B) 4x

(C) 4x4

(D) 4x8

What is the new running cost of a vehicle if $60 is increased by 20% then decreased

by 20%?

(A) $38.40

(B) $57.60

(C) $60.00

(D) $86.40

Elizabeth works for $19.20 per hour for eight hours each day on Thursday and Friday.

On Saturday she works for six hours at time-and-a-half.

How much does Elizabeth earn in total for Thursday, Friday and Saturday?

(A) $268.80

(B) $307.20

(C) $480.00

(D) $691.20

187

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188

(A)

y = 3x 3

(B)

y=

(C)

y = 3 x 3

(D)

y=

x

3

3

x

3

3

3

1

33 22 11 0

1

2

3

(A) 4x - 2

(B) 4x + 6

(C) 7 - 8x

(D) 10 - 8x

(A) $1442.22 per week

(B) $2884.68 per fortnight

(C) $6247.50 per month

(D) $75 000 per annum

Arrange the numbers 4.8 10-2, 4.0 10-1 and 5.6 10-2 in ascending order.

(A) 4.8 10-2, 5.6 10-2, 4.0 10-1

(B) 4.0 10-1, 4.8 10-2, 5.6 10-2

(C) 5.6 10-2, 4.8 10-2, 4.0 10-1

(D) 4.0 10-1, 5.6 10-2, 4.8 10-2

A survey required mobile phone users to write down their age last birthday. Which of the

following terms best describes this data?

(A) Categorical

(B) Continuous

(C) Discrete

(D) Stratified

k

Find the value of m, correct to one decimal place, given k = 24 and the formula m =

.

5

(A) 1.0

(B) 2.2

(C) 2.4

(D) 4.8

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189

10

A four-litre tin of paint is made using a mixture of blue, white and green paint in the

ratio 3:5:2. How much blue paint is needed per tin?

(A) 300 mL

(B) 900 mL

(C) 1200 mL

(D) 2000 mL

11

A country has 30% of the population between the ages of 20 and 30. How many people

aged between 20 and 30 should be included in a sample of 250 people?

(A) 30

(B) 45

(C) 60

(D) 75

12

described by the linear equation d = mt. What is the value of m?

(A) 0.05

(B) 3

(C) 20

(D) 60

13

(A) 3

(B) 7

(C) 14

(D) 28

14

Police checked the blood alcohol content of every fifth driver passing an intersection.

What is this method of sampling?

(A) Census

(B) Random

(C) Stratified

(D) Systematic

15

(A) (0, 0)

(B) (0, 1)

(C) (1, 0)

(D) (1, 1)

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190

Section II

Attempt Questions 1618 (45 marks)

Allow about 70 minutes for this section

All necessary working should be shown in every question.

Question

16

(a)

(b)

Marks

(15 marks)

he is given a 10% reduction on the discounted price if he pays cash. Nathan bought

$480 worth of electrical equipment and was given both discounts.

(i)

How much does Nathan pay for the electrical equipment?

(ii)

How much money is saved using the discounts?

(iii)

Express the overall savings as a percentage of the retail price.

1

1

1

(i)

x-y

(ii)

xy

(iii)

x2 - 5y2

1

1

1

(c)

A truck has a load of six boxes of equal weight. The total weight of the boxes is

4.68tonnes. What is the weight of each box in kilograms?

(d)

Chloe agreed to a car loan for $3500 at 6.5% p.a. compounding annually for 4 years.

(i)

How much does Chloe have to repay?

(ii)

How much interest did Chloe pay during the 4 years?

1

2

Simplify:

(i)

12x - 2(x + 1)

(ii)

48x6y3 6xy3

1

1

(e)

(f)

Alexiss parents want to give her $10000 for her wedding in five years time. They

have found an account that will earn 8% p.a. simple interest. What is the amount of

money they need to invest in this account to total $10000 interest in 5 years time?

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(a)

191

Marks

y

3

2

1

3 2 1 0

1

2

3

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(b)

(i)

11 = x - 4

(ii)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

1

1

1

What is the y-intercept of this straight line?

What is the equation of this straight line?

8x 2

= 4x

3

Riley received a gross fortnightly salary of $2858. His pay deductions were

$745.20 for tax, $305.13 for superannuation and $21.20 for union fees.

(i)

What was his fortnightly net pay?

(ii)

What percentage of his gross income was deducted for tax?

(Answer correct to 1 decimal place.)

(iii)

Riley is paid an annual leave loading of 17.5% of 4 weeks gross pay.

Calculate his annual leave loading.

1

1

1

Sarah conducted a survey of students opinions about the school uniform. She

selected the first five people who were not in school uniform for the survey. Why

might the results of this survey be biased?

Light travels at a speed of 2.9979 108 metres per second. How many kilometres

does light travel in one hour? Answer in scientific notation correct to three

significant figures.

Grace earned $369.60 in a week when she worked 27 hours at the normal rate and

4hours at time-and-a-half. What is Graces pay rate per hour?

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192

(a)

Marks

The graph below shows the cost of making dresses and the income received from

their sale.

Dollars ($)

100

80

Costs

60

40

Income

20

0

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

3

Dress

How much profit or loss is made when 5 dresses are sold?

Use the graph to determine the number of dresses that need to be sold to

break even.

1

1

1

Oscar invests $100000 for 8 months in a term deposit. This investment offers a flat

rate of 6% per annum interest. What is the interest earned from this investment?

3

(i)

Write the formula with r as the subject.

(ii)

What is the radius in metres of a spherical balloon with a volume of 2 m3?

Answer correct to two decimal places.

Hannah bought 1000 shares for $6.40 each. She received a dividend of 5.5% on her

purchase price. Hannah sold these shares for $7.20 each after 3 months. Calculate

Hannahs profit from the dividend and the sale of these shares.

Logan records the details of each CD in his music collection.

State the type of data that would be recorded for each of the following.

(i)

Title of the CD.

(ii)

Number of tracks on the CD.

(iii)

Playing time for each track.

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1

1

1

Cambridge University Press

C H A P T E R

single data sets

Syllabus topic DS2 Displaying and interpreting

single data sets

Create frequency tables to organise ungrouped and grouped data

Calculation and interpretation of range and interquartile range

Create frequency and cumulative frequency graphs

Draw radar charts to display data

Create a box-and-whisker plot from a ve-number summary

Create sector graphs and divided bar graphs for categorical data

A frequency table is a listing of the outcomes and how often (frequency) each outcome occurs.

The outcomes are often listed under a heading called score. The tally of the frequency and the

final count are listed in separate columns. A frequency table is also called a frequency distribution.

7.1

Score

Lowest score

Highest score

Tally

Frequency

17

18

|||| |

19

||||

20

|||| ||

21

|||

Lowest frequency

Highest frequency

Frequency table

1

2

3

Tally column records the number of times the score occurred (groups of 5s).

Frequency column is the total count of each outcome.

193

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194

Example 1

test out of 20.

a

How many students scored 15 in the test?

b

What was the score that occurred the most times?

c

How many students completed the test?

Score

Solution

1

2

3

Find the largest number in the

frequency column.

Add the frequency column to find the

total number of students.

Example 2

a

b

c

Tally

Frequency

14

|||

15

||||

16

|||| ||

17

|||| |||| |

11

18

|||

Score of 17 occurred the most.

Total = 3 + 5 + 7 + 11 + 3

= 29

The temperatures for 39 days are shown below. Construct a frequency table.

19

20

18

23

27

25

26

27

28

27

25

24

24

19

25

22

21

28

26

26

22

20

25

20

22

24

24

22

21

24

25

26

25

27

21

23

23

22

25

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

them score, tally and frequency.

List the temperatures in the score column

from the lowest (18) to the highest (28).

Record a mark in the tally column for

each temperature.

Count the tally marks and write the total

in the frequency column.

Add the frequency column to find the

total number of scores. This should match

the total number of temperatures (39).

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Score

Tally

Frequency

18

19

||

20

|||

21

|||

22

||||

23

|||

24

||||

25

|||| ||

26

||||

27

||||

28

||

Total

39

195

Exercise 7A

1

in a frequency table.

a

Copy and complete the table.

b

What was the most common age?

c

How many players are in the team?

Score

Tally

20

|||

21

|||| ||

22

23

||||

24

2

given day was recorded in a frequency table.

a

Copy and complete the table.

b

What was the most common number of calls?

c

How many days was the fire engine called out

four times?

d

How many days was the fire engine called out

fewer than three times?

Number

of calls

Tally

0

|||| |||| ||

1

2

||||

2

recorded below. Construct a frequency table for this data.

2

below. Construct a frequency table.

11

9

Freq.

7

Freq.

7

9

8

8

10

12

10

10

8

9

7

8

8

7

11

8

below. Construct a frequency table for this data.

96

97

97

95

92

94

97

98

91

97

95

91

96

97

94

92

92

98

94

93

93

94

95

93

92

91

98

96

92

91

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196

Development

6

1

1 6 5 2 4 6 2 4 2 2 3

6

4

2

Construct a frequency table using a tally column.

How many times was the die rolled?

How many results are higher than 2?

What was the most common number rolled?

Do you think the die is biased? Give a reason for your answer.

4

a

b

c

d

e

32

34

37

35

35

37

34

33

38

34

36

33

34

37

37

37

38

33

33

36

35

34

34

38

32

36

32

38

38

34

36

36

34

38

32

34

38

37

35

36

38

35

32

35

35

33

38

36

35

36

32

a

b

c

d

e

8

tally column.

How many times were recorded?

How many times were below

35 seconds?

What was the most common time for

the 50 m freestyle?

What percentage of times are

37 seconds or more?

A frequency table is a listing of the outcomes and how often (frequency) each outcome

occurs. The outcomes are often listed under a heading called score. The tally of the

frequency and the final count are listed in separate columns. Frequency tables are also

called a frequency distribution.

a Create a frequency table for the length of words used in the above paragraph.

b Using the frequency table, what is the most frequent word length in the English

language?

c Comment on the fairness of the conclusion made in part b.

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197

7.2

Data with a large range of values are often grouped into a small number of convenient

intervals, called class intervals. When choosing class intervals ensure:

Every data value is in an interval.

Intervals do not overlap.

No gaps exist between the intervals.

The choice of intervals can vary, but generally a division of 5 to 15 groups is preferred. It is

usual to choose an interval that is easy to read such as 5 units, 10 units, etc.

Grouped frequency table

1

2

3

Tally column shows the number of times a score occurs in a class (groups of 5s).

Frequency column is total count of scores in each class.

Example 3

Twenty-six people were asked to record how many cups of coffee they drank in a particular

week. The results are listed below.

0

33

14

32

25

10

23

34

17

23

32

Solution

1

4

5

columns and label them

class, class centre, tally and

frequency.

The data ranges from 0 to

34. A class interval width of

5 results in 7 classes.

Record a mark in the tally

column for each data value

in the class interval.

Count the tally marks in the

frequency column.

Add the frequency column

to find the total number of

scores.

Class

Class

centre

Tally

Freq.

04

|||| |||| ||

12

59

||||

1014

12

||

1519

17

2024

22

||

2529

27

3034

32

||||

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Total

26

198

Exercise 7B

1

was recorded.

a

Copy and complete the table opposite.

b

How many people are younger than 20?

c

Which class occurred the most number of times?

d

How many people are living in this road?

a

Copy and complete the grouped

frequency table.

b

How many class intervals have been

used?

c

Which class occurred the least?

d

What is the total number of scores?

Class

Class

Centre

Class

Freq.

519

10

2034

3549

5064

Class

Centre

37

10

Total

28

Tally

Frequency

||||

|||| |

1317

15

1822

20

|||| ||

25

2832

3337

3

35

|||| |||

40

||||

recorded below. Construct a grouped frequency table

using class intervals (170174, 175179, 180184,

185189, ).

174

184

183

179

180

181

189

188

194

189

184

182

183

189

193

194

185

178

173

183

188

183

182

184

189

194

188

192

190

180

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199

Development

4

A drink vending machine records the number of bottles sold each day.

13

22

26

34

21

33

32

31

33

26

30

33

37

27

36

28

35

24

31

35

39

26

13

34

21

29

36

24

33

25

39

19

29

36

38

29

38

38

37

38

31

37

37

28

40

34

29

18

35

22

20

35

25

31

39

39

18

36

38

35

29

35

20

34

30

37

33

27

32

32

36

16

39

30

14

29

20

22

12

24

17

21

18

17

38

28

25

a

b

c

The players scores after the second round of a golf tournament are recorded below.

162

163

175

161

166

163

167

151

150

176

159

173

162

155

149

171

181

163

154

165

145

177

184

171

154

166

168

158

136

156

161

162

169

162

160

150

174

176

146

137

a

b

c

6

Calculate the class centres for these

classes.

Construct a grouped frequency table

using these class intervals.

Calculate the class centres for these classes.

Construct a grouped frequency table using these class intervals.

Jordan surveyed his friends to check the number of emails they saved on their computers.

The numbers he found were 22, 9, 51, 6, 30, 18, 30, 4, 10, 5, 19, 23, 37, 17, 18, 12, 10,

24, 28, 25, 60, 45, 19, 17, 11, 8, 16, 1, 24 and 3.

a Decide on appropriate classes for a frequency table.

b Calculate the class centres for these classes.

c Construct a grouped frequency table using these class intervals.

d What percentage of friends had fewer than 20 emails saved on their computer?

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200

7.3

score plus the frequency of all the scores less than

that score. A cumulative frequency column is

often inserted next to the frequency column in a

frequency table.

Score

Frequency

Cumulative

Frequency

18

19

20

21

16

Cumulative frequency

The frequency of the score plus the frequency of all the scores less than that

score.

Example 4

for 17 days. Complete the cumulative frequency

column.

Solution

1

2

of 1. Cumulative frequency of 18 is 1.

Add the frequency of the score to the

cumulative frequency of the previous score.

Cumulative frequency of 19 = 2 + 1 = 3.

Repeat this process.

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Score

Frequency

18

19

20

21

22

23

Cumulative

Frequency

Score

Freq.

Cml. Freq.

18

19

2+1=3

20

3+3=6

21

6+3=9

22

9 + 5 = 14

23

14 + 3 = 17

Example 5

Score

Frequency

a

b

c

d

201

Cumulative

Frequency

What is the total number of scores?

How many scores are less than or equal to 2?

How many scores are greater than 3?

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Enter the scores into List 1.

Enter the frequencies into List 2.

Highlight the words List 3 using the arrow keys.

Press OPTN and select LIST.

Press F6 twice and select Cum1.

Press F6 and select List. Type the number 2.

appear in List 3.

number of scores is the last number in this

column.

Cumulative frequency of 2 is 14 (List 3). This is

the total number of scores less than or equal to 2.

The only score greater than 3 is 4. The frequency

of 4 is found in the List 2 column.

10

11

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is 24.

than or equal to 2 is 14.

There are 6 scores greater

than 3.

202

Exercise 7C

1

a

Copy and complete the table.

b

How many students scored 8?

c

How many students scored more than 5?

d

How many students scored less than 6?

e

How many students completed the test?

each day is recorded in a frequency table.

a

Copy and complete the table.

b

How many days was the ambulance called out

21 times?

c

How many days was the ambulance called out

less than 25?

d

How many days was the ambulance called out

more than 23?

Score

Freq.

10

Number

of calls

Freq.

20

21

22

10

23

12

24

25

Cml. Freq.

Cml. Freq.

a

b

c

d

e

13

11

11

10

10

10

10

11

10

12

11

13

10

12

11

13

10

11

10

10

10

13

10

How many people completed the survey?

How many people scored 10 in the

survey?

What is the difference between the

highest and lowest scores?

Which score had the highest frequency?

Score

Tally

Freq.

Cml. Freq.

8

9

10

11

12

13

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203

Development

4

9

10

10

10

10

10

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

j

k

l

m

Add a cumulative frequency column.

How many children are there altogether?

How many children are 8 years old?

How many children are 6 years old?

How many children are older than 5?

How many children are younger than 9?

What is the most common age?

What is the least popular age?

What fraction are 7 years old?

What fraction are 4 years old?

What percentage are older than 5?

What percentage are younger than 6?

Use a graphics calculator to calculate the cumulative frequency for the data in question 3.

Check that the results are the same as question 3.

Blake measured his time (in seconds) to run 400 metres hurdles throughout the year.

61

62

62

63

64

62

66

64

63

63

62

61

62

62

63

64

63

65

63

63

62

61

62

63

62

61

61

64

64

64

63

63

64

65

64

63

63

62

61

62

62

63

64

63

62

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

including a tally column.

Add a cumulative frequency column to the

frequency table.

How many times were recorded?

How many times did Blake run the 400 metres in

61 seconds?

How many times are less than or equal to 63?

What fraction of his 400 metre times is 62?

What percentage of his 400 metre times is 65? Answer correct to two decimal places.

What percentage of his times are less than or equal to 64? Answer correct to two

decimal places.

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204

A measure of the spread is calculated to determine whether most of the values are clustered

together or stretched out. The range and interquartile range are measures of spread.

7.4

Range

The range is the difference between the highest and lowest scores. It is a simple way of

measuring the spread of the data.

Range

Range = Highest score Lowest score

Example 6

The assessment results for two different tasks are shown below.

Task A

Task B

10

13

14

14

17

22

24

24

27

27

28

33

38

40

40

41

43

44

45

45

46

50

52

52

55

55

58

95

10

15

19

20

24

27

31

31

35

38

40

49

51

51

54

55

58

62

62

68

68

71

72

76

78

79

79

86

88

90

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

6

For Task A, substitute the highest score (95)

and the lowest score (3).

Evaluate.

Write the formula for range.

For Task B, substitute the highest score (90)

and the lowest score (10).

Evaluate.

Task A

Range = Highest Lowest

= 95 3

= 92

Task B

Range = Highest Lowest

= 90 10

= 80

In the above example, the range for Task A has been inuenced by an outlier (95). The range

for Task A is not a good indicator of the spread.

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205

Interquartile range

The interquartile range does not rely on the extreme values like the range. The data is arranged

in increasing order and divided into 4 equal parts or quartiles. The interquartile range (IQR) is

the difference between the first quartile and third quartile. The first quartile cuts off the lowest

3

25% 14 and the third quartile cuts off the lowest 75% 4 .

()

()

Interquartile range

IQR = Third quartile First quartile

= Q3 Q1

1

Arrange the data in increasing order.

2

Divide the data into two equal-sized groups. If n is odd, omit the median.

3

Find Q1 the median of the first group.

4

Find Q3 the median of the second group.

5

Calculate the interquartile range (IQR) by subtracting Q1 from Q3.

Example 7

The assessment results for two different tasks are shown below.

Task A

Task B

10 13 14 14 17 22 24 24

27

27

28

33

38

40 40 41 43 44 45 45 46 50 52

52

55

55

58

95

10 15 19 20 24 27 31 31 35 38

40

49

51

51

54

55 58 62 62 68 68 71 72 76 78

79

79

86

88

90

Find the interquartile ranges for Task A and Task B. What is shown by these results?

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

6

Divide the data into two equal-sized groups.

There are 30 scores in total, hence 15 scores

in each group.

Write the formula for interquartile range.

For Task A, the median of the first group is

22 (or Q1) and the median of the second

group is 46 (or Q3).

Substitute into the formula and evaluate.

For Task B, the median of the first group is

31 (or Q1) and the median of the second

group is 72 (or Q3).

Substitute into the formula and evaluate.

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Task A

IQR = Q3 Q1

= 46 22

= 24

Task B

IQR = Q3 Q1

= 72 31

= 41

Task B (lower IQR).

206

Example 8

Use a graphics calculator to calculate the range and interquartile range for Task A.

Task A

10 13 14 14 17 22 24 24

27

27

28

33

38

40 40 41 43 44 45 45 46 50 52

52

55

55

58

95

Solution

1

2

Enter the data into List1. Press EXE to

enter each number.

Select 1VAR to view the summary

statistics.

minX lowest score

Q1 = First quartile

Q3 = Third quartile

maxX = Highest score

Substitute into the formula for range and

evaluate.

Substitute into the formula for IQR and

evaluate.

= 95 3

= 92

IQR = Q3 Q1

= 46 22

= 24

Deciles, quartiles and percentiles are different ways of dividing data. The data must be sorted

in order (ascending or descending) before it can be divided.

Decile

Percentiles

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207

Exercise 7D

1

a 13, 6, 0, 9, 6, 5, 6, 17, 1

c 9, 15, 9, 3, 6, 9, 13, 10, 7, 9

e 8, 12, 5, 5, 9, 10, 13, 3, 7

g 13, 6, 9, 9, 3, 9, 15, 7, 9, 10

Find the range of each data set.

a 23, 32, 43, 23, 34, 22, 35, 28

c 8, 35, 8, 1, 5, 8, 33, 13, 3, 8

e 3, 22, 5, 5, 8, 13, 31, 3, 3

b

d

f

h

b

d

f

1, 1, 7, 9, 5, 9, 10

3, 0, 1, 2, 11, 9, 7, 7, 5

10, 18, 7, 2, 14, 9, 10

3, 3, 3, 8, 5, 8, 13

4, 3, 3, 2, 13, 8, 3, 3, 5

a What is the first quartile?

b What is the third quartile?

c What is the second decile?

d What is the seventh decile?

Find the interquartile range for each data set (odd number of scores).

a 2, 7, 9, 10, 12, 14, 18

b 12, 16, 18, 23, 29

c 2, 2, 2, 3, 7, 13, 14, 14, 18, 24, 55

d 3, 5, 8, 9, 11, 13, 13, 13, 19

e 42, 45, 49, 50, 52, 54, 68, 68, 72

f 0, 1, 4, 6, 6, 6, 10, 13, 19

Find the interquartile range for each data set (even data set).

a 21, 21, 21, 28, 31, 44

b 3, 5, 5, 7, 8, 9, 12, 13

c 4, 6, 8, 9, 9, 9, 9, 11, 13, 15

d 39, 39, 41, 44, 47, 49, 67, 68, 68, 69

e 3, 6, 8, 11, 12, 14, 22, 23

f 56, 58, 58, 61, 66, 67, 69, 70

Find the range and interquartile range for each data set.

a 14, 18, 20, 25, 31

b 0, 2, 2, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10

a What is the 1st percentile?

b What is the 10th percentile?

c What is the 20th percentile?

d What is the 100th percentile?

e What is the 50th percentile?

f What is the 49th percentile?

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208

Development

8

a 18, 16, 19, 18, 16, 13, 12, 15

c 32, 29, 24, 26, 25, 28, 29, 24, 30, 22

e 43, 57, 57, 61, 31, 34, 38, 39, 41

g 27, 8, 11, 17, 13, 19, 28, 16

b

c

d

What is the first quartile?

What is the third quartile?

What is the interquartile range?

100

193

170

138

106

120

109

159

190

144

105

125

180

210

124

148

161

203

192

131

a

c

e

11

d 29, 37, 39, 57, 58, 34, 58, 59, 29, 31

f 40, 50, 46, 41, 46, 53, 59, 44, 46

h 64, 65, 53, 56, 61, 62, 51, 53

made by an air-conditioning technician

is recorded below:

9, 2, 7, 9, 12, 5, 10, 12,

11, 9, 8, 11, 9, 5, 6, 7, 10

a

10

What is the range?

What is the third quartile?

d What is the first quartile?

f What is the interquartile range?

The maximum temperatures for the past 30 days are listed below.

26

33

32

24

36

32

34

29

30

33

37

27

28

29

31

32

33

36

33

34

25

22

23

31

30

34

25

28

27

29

a First quartile

c Interquartile range

e 5th decile

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Third quartile

d Range

f 100th percentile

209

Frequency histogram and polygon

Frequency Polygon

graph of a frequency table.

frequency table.

Frequency

Frequency Histogram

Frequency

7.5

A frequency histogram is a graph of a frequency table in which equal intervals of the scores (or

classes) are marked on the horizontal axis and the frequencies associated with these intervals are

indicated by vertical rectangles. A frequency polygon is a line graph of the frequency table and

can be constructed by joining the midpoints at the tops of the rectangles of a frequency histogram.

3

2

1

3

2

1

1

Score

Example 9

3 4

Score

23

22

18

17

13

15

23

18

17

22

18

12

15

13

15

12

14

13

14

17

15

25

19

18

20

16

14

Solution

1

2

Enter the data into List1. Press EXE to enter each

number.

Choose Graph Type : Hist and XList1 : List1.

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210

Example 10

The weight of 25 students was recorded and displayed in a grouped frequency table. Construct

a grouped frequency histogram and polygon.

Class

Class Centre

Frequency

3039

34.5

4049

44.5

5059

54.5

6069

64.5

7079

74.5

8089

84.5

class (or class centre) the same

distance apart.

Draw a vertical axis using a scale

that will cater for the lowest to

highest frequency.

Label the horizontal and vertical

axis.

Frequency histogram

4

the matching frequency. The class

is in the centre of the rectangle.

Frequency polygon

5

8

6

4

2

3039 4049 5059 6069 7079 8089

Weight (kg)

Number of students

Number of students

Solution

6

4

2

matching frequency.

Weight (kg)

A cumulative frequency histogram is constructed using equal intervals of the scores (or

classes) on the horizontal axis and the cumulative frequencies associated with these intervals

indicated by vertical rectangles. A cumulative frequency polygon or ogive is a line graph

constructed by joining the top right-hand corner of the rectangles in a cumulative frequency

histogram.

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Example 11

a

b

211

histogram and polygon or ogive.

Estimate the median using the ogive.

Class

Class

Centre

Frequency

Cumulative

Frequency

3039

34.5

4049

44.5

5059

54.5

12

6069

64.5

21

7079

74.5

25

8089

84.5

25

Solution

class (or class centre) the same

distance apart.

Draw a vertical axis using a scale

that will cater for the lowest to

highest frequency.

Number of students

25

20

15

10

5

34.5 44.5 54.5 64.5 74.5 84.5

Weight (kg)

the matching cumulative

frequency. The class is in the

centre of the rectangle.

Draw a line for each class to the

top right-hand corner of the

rectangle.

Number of students

25

20

15

10

5

34.5 44.5 54.5 64.5 74.5 84.5

Weight (kg)

5

6

student is 12.5.

Draw a horizontal line from 12.5

until it intersects the ogive. Draw a

vertical line from this point to the

horizontal axis.

Number of students

25

20

15

10

5

34.5 44.5 54.5 64.5 74.5 84.5

Weight (kg)

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212

Exercise 7E

1

mathematics quiz. Use this data to construct a:

a

Frequency histogram

b

Frequency polygon

Freq.

|||

||||

|||| ||

|||| ||||

10

|||

Use the frequency table to construct a frequency histogram.

Use the frequency table to construct a frequency polygon.

b

c

month by 20 different people was:

6, 5, 8, 4, 4, 5, 4, 7, 5, 6, 7, 4, 5,

5, 4, 7, 6, 5, 4, 4

Construct a frequency table for the data.

Use the frequency table to construct a

frequency histogram.

Use the frequency table to construct a

frequency polygon.

a

b

c

Tally

The numbers of brothers and sisters reported by each of the 30 students is as follows.

Score

The maximum temperatures for several capital cities around the world are as follows.

a

b

c

22

23

23

24

18

18

19

19

19

20

21

20

21

20

21

17

24

23

17

22

24

24

17

17

Construct a frequency histogram for this data.

Construct a frequency polygon for this data.

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Jade owns five clothing stores that sell jackets. She recorded the total number of jackets

sold each day for the month of April. This data is shown below.

61

66

67

67

60

63

67

63

65

61

63

63

67

67

60

64

62

65

65

67

66

61

62

66

64

67

62

65

65

67

a

b

c

d

e

Construct a cumulative frequency histogram for this data.

Construct a cumulative frequency polygon for this data.

On how many days were fewer than or equal to 63 jackets sold?

On how many days were fewer than or equal to 66 jackets sold?

The marks for a university exam are shown in the cumulative frequency polygon.

Cumulative frequency

213

500

400

300

200

100

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Mark

a

c

e

g

i

k

l

b What was the frequency of 20?

What was the frequency of 30?

d What was the frequency of 40?

What was the frequency of 50?

f

What was the frequency of 60?

What was the frequency of 70?

h What was the frequency of 80?

What was the frequency of 90?

j

What was the frequency of 100?

How many students completed this university exam?

Construct a frequency table from the cumulative frequency polygon.

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214

Development

7

The numbers of words in each of the first 30 sentences of a book were recorded.

22

20

22

23

23

24

24

25

25

21

21

20

20

22

26

22

20

24

26

20

21

21

23

22

23

22

20

20

21

21

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

8

Use the frequency table to construct a frequency histogram.

Use the frequency table to construct a frequency polygon.

Construct a cumulative frequency histogram and polygon for this data.

Use the cumulative frequency graphs to estimate the median.

Use the cumulative frequency graphs to estimate the first and third quartile.

Use the cumulative frequency graph to estimate the interquartile range.

The percentage of female births, correct to the nearest whole number, is shown below.

These birth percentages have been taken from 30 different hospitals.

38

56

57

59

58

60

43

52

49

61

47

38

41

50

51

55

45

50

49

53

54

48

51

43

55

53

42

42

44

46

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

Construct a grouped frequency table using these class intervals.

Add a cumulative frequency column.

Construct a frequency histogram for this data.

Construct a frequency polygon for this data.

Construct a cumulative frequency histogram and polygon for this data.

Use the cumulative frequency graphs to estimate the median.

Use the cumulative frequency graphs to estimate the upper and lower quartile.

Use the cumulative frequency graph to estimate the interquartile range.

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215

7.6

A box-and-whisker plot or boxplot is a graph that uses five important statistics lower

extreme (or lowest value), lower quartile (or first quartile), median, upper quartile (or third

quartile) and the higher extreme (or highest value). These statistics are referred to as a five

number summary. A box-and-whisker plot is constructed from a scale of data values. The box

is between the two quartiles with a dividing line for the median and the whiskers are drawn to

the two extremes.

Box-and-whisker

plotthe

uses

the five-number

Box-and-whisker

plot uses

five-number

summary. summary.

Lower extreme

Higher extreme

Example 12

Upper quartile

Median

Lower quartile

88

67

92

50

73

75

51

76

74

76

65

83

83

90

73

60

81

95

89

76

82

61

57

64

58

78

Minimum = 50, Q1 = 64, Median 75.5, Q3 = 83 and Maximum = 95

Solution

1

2

3

4

that covers the full range of values.

Draw a box starting at Q1 = 64 and

ending at Q3 = 83.

Mark the median value with a vertical

line at 75.5.

Draw in the whiskers, the lines joining

the midpoint of the ends of the box to

the minimum and maximum values.

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Survey

50

60

70

80

90

100

216

Box-and-whisker plots are useful for comparing two or more sets of data collected on the

same variable, such as the assessment results for two different groups of students. Two

box-and-whisker plots are drawn on the same axis. This allows the median and the spread

to be easily identified and compared.

Example 13

weeks 1 and 2 of his holidays. This data is

shown in the box-and-whisker plot below.

a

What is the lower extreme for week 1?

b

What is the upper quartile for week 2?

c

What is the median for week 1?

d

What was the lower quartile for week 2?

e

Compare and contrast the two sets of data.

Week 1

Week 2

10

12

14

16

18

20

Distance (km)

22

24

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

Read the value from the graph.

Read the value from the graph.

Read the value from the graph.

Spread of the data for Week 1 is

larger than the spread for Week 2

(box widths and extreme values are

larger)

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a

b

c

d

e

Upper quartile for week 2 is 20 km

Median for week 1 is 14 km

Lower quartile for week 2 is 16 km

Robert was more consistent and

generally improved his running in

Week 2.

217

Example 14

fantasy fiction book are listed below.

a

Enter this data into a graphics

calculator using a list.

b

Display the data as a boxplot using the

graphics calculator.

c

What is the median of this data?

d

What is the lower extreme?

e

What is the upper quartile?

23

22

18

17

13

15

23

18

17

22

18

12

15

13

15

12

14

13

14

17

15

25

19

18

20

16

14

Solution

1

2

Enter the data into List1. Press EXE to enter each

number.

and SET. Choose Graph Type : MedBox and

XList1 : List1.

EXE.

then 1VAR and scroll down through the data.

the lower extreme and Q3 to obtain the upper

quartile.

d

e

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Median is 17

Lower extreme 12

Upper quartile 19

218

Exercise 7F

1

a

Lower extreme

b

Higher extreme

c

Lower quartile

d

Upper quartile

50

100

150

200

a

Min = 1, Q1 = 4, Median 7, Q3 = 22 and Max = 25

b

Min = 5, Q1 = 6, Median 14, Q3 = 26 and Max = 30

c

Min = 1, Q1 = 2, Median 6, Q3 = 10 and Max = 12

Given that the five-number summary for a set of data is 6, 17, 27, 39, 48, find the:

a

Median

b

Range

c

Interquartile range

measured the heights of the trees in

metres. In East Park there were 30 trees

and in West Park there were 36 trees.

The data sets were displayed in two

box-and-whisker plots shown below.

East Park

West Park

0

a

b

c

d

10

15

Height (m)

20

What is the median height of the trees in West Park?

What was the height of the tallest tree? Where is it located?

Which park has the largest interquartile range? What is its value?

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219

Development

5

156 149 180 154 159 157 143 154 143 123 150 145 132 140

140 168 167 135 154 133 167 123 176 157 163 157 160 165

a

c

e

g

6

Holly

80

85

94

35

77

75

40

92

45

54

66

30

Grace

60

65

70

62

75

80

75

72

78

85

69

77

a

c

e

g

b What is the upper extreme?

What is the median?

d What is the lower quartile?

What is the upper quartile?

f Construct a box-and-whisker plot.

Describe the data in terms of shape, centre and spread.

b What is Hollys higher extreme?

What is Graces median?

d What is Graces lower quartile?

What is Graces upper quartile?

f Construct a box-and-whisker plot.

Describe the data in terms of shape, centre and spread.

Lachlan

74

70

76

76

72

74

70

75

77

68

73

75

Andrew

75

76

75

69

70

78

79

81

63

72

72

73

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

What is Lachlans median?

What is Lachlans higher extreme?

What is Andrews median?

What is Lachlans lower quartile?

What is Andrews upper quartile?

Construct a box-and-whisker plot for

both sets of data.

Who is the better golfer? Give a reason

for your answer.

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220

Sector graph

7.7

A sector graph or pie chart presents data as sectors of a circle (slices of a pie). A sector

graph shows the relationship or proportions of parts to a whole. Sector graphs appeal to

people because they are easy to read and attractive.

Sector graph

A sector graph presents data as sectors of a circle. The steps to construct a

sector graph are:

1

Draw a circle and mark the centre.

2

Multiply the proportion of the whole by 360 to determine the sector angle.

3

Use a protractor to draw the angle with the vertex at the centre of the circle.

4

Repeat steps 1 and 2 until all the sectors or parts have been drawn.

5

Label all sectors.

Example 15

Connor earns $600 and spends $240 on rent, $180 on food, $120 on petrol and saves $60.

Construct a sector graph to represent this data.

Solution

1

2

Calculate the angles for each sector.

Rent =

240

360 = 144

600

Food =

180

360 = 108

600

Petrol =

120

360 = 72

600

Rent

Food

Petrol

Save

60

360 = 36

600

Place the centre of the protractor on the centre

of the circle and mark angles 144, 108, 72

and 36.

Label each sector or create a legend.

Save =

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221

A divided bar graph is an alternative to the sector graph.

It shows the relationship or proportions of parts to a

whole. The bars or rectangles are drawn to scale. The

total length of the divided bar graph matches the whole.

A scale is selected that allows easy calculations. For

example, if the whole is 500 kg, a suitable scale is 1 cm

to 100 kg. Then the total length of the divided bar graph

with this scale is 5 cm.

100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

A divided bar graph presents data as bars or rectangles. Steps to construct a

divided bar graph are:

1

Draw a rectangle using an appropriate scale.

2

Multiply the proportion of the whole by the total bar length.

3

Use a ruler and draw the bar.

4

Repeat steps 1 and 2 until all the bars or parts have been drawn.

5

Label all bars or create a legend.

Example 16

Connor earns $600 and spends $240 on rent, $180 on food, $120 on petrol and saves $60.

Construct a divided bar graph to represent this data.

Solution

1

scale. Connors total earnings are

$600 so appropriate length is 6 cm.

Calculate the size for each bar.

Rent =

and 1 cm in width.

240

6 cm = 2.4 cm

600

Food =

180

6 cm = 1.8 cm

600

Petrol =

120

6 cm = 1.2 cm

600

Rent

Food

Petrol Save

60

6 cm = 0.6 cm

600

Use a ruler and draw the bar.

Label each bar or create a legend.

Save =

3

4

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222

Exercise 7G

1

On a sector graph, how many degrees would represent each of these numbers if the total

is 180?

a

90

b

120

c

30

d

45

a

40%

b

75%

c

15%

d

90%

Alyssa is drawing a sector graph. It will show how 200 students in year 11 selected the

school captain. Forty of the year 11 students selected Bailey. What angle should Alyssa

use for the sector that represents the students who selected Bailey as the school captain?

Examine the spreadsheet below. What is the angle used for the following sectors?

a

Food

b

Glass

c

Metals

d

Paper

e

Plastic

A survey was conducted on pet ownership. The results of the survey were 40% owned

dogs, 25% cats, 20% had no pets and 15% another type of pet (other). Construct a

sector graph.

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223

Development

6

Motor vehicle thefts have been recorded for each day of the week and expressed as a

percentage: Monday 13%, Tuesday 13%, Wednesday 12%, Thursday 14%,

Friday 17%, Saturday 16% and Sunday 15%.

a Construct a sector graph to represent this data.

b Calculate the number of motor vehicles stolen on Saturday if the total number of

vehicles stolen for the week was 300.

c If there were 60 motor vehicles stolen on Wednesday, how many motor vehicles were

stolen on Sunday?

7

The type of drink and the number sold in the school canteen was recorded: Juice 60,

Milk 40, Soft drink 120 and Water 20.

a Construct a sector graph to represent this data.

b Construct a divided bar graph to represent this data.

The projected sales in different regions are

shown below. The numbers shown represent

thousands of games.

Pacific

a

b

c

Europe

USA

Asia

South America

Canada

16

48

64

36

24

Construct a sector graph to represent this data.

What is the percentage of sales in Asia?

What is the total percentage of sales outside the USA?

12

a

b

c

Tennis

Netball

Football

Swimming

Golf

Cricket

10

15

20

25

15

15

How many students preferred swimming?

How many students preferred tennis?

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224

A radar chart (or spider chart) is used to compare the performance of one or more entities.

Data on temperature, rainfall, humidity and sales are commonly presented using radar charts.

For example, the radar chart below compares the temperature at Sydney to the temperature at

Perth. Radar charts may also have multiple axes along which data can be plotted. For example,

you could use a one radar chart to analyse the temperature and the rainfall of a particular city.

Drawing a radar chart

1

2

3

4

Choose an appropriate scale for the data. Draw the scale beginning at the centre.

Draw line segments for each scale to create the spider web.

Plot the points and join them with a straight line. Create a legend if necessary.

Example 17

Sydney

and Perth

are shown

below.

a

What is the average monthly

temperature for Perth in December?

Nov

b

What is the difference in the average

monthly temperatures for July

between Sydney and Perth?

Oct

c

Which month is the average monthly

temperature of Sydney and Perth the

same?

Dec

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Sep

Aug

Jun

Jul

Solution

1

2

3

in

December.

Read the temperature values for Sydney

and

Perth

in July. Subtract the values.

Read when Sydney and Perth have the same

temperature.

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Difference = 25 15

= 10

February

Exercise 7H

1

25

measured for 10 days and recorded in the

radar chart.

a

Find the wind speed on these days.

i

Day 1

ii Day 3

iii Day 5

iv Day 7

b

Which day had the lowest wind speed?

c

What days had the highest wind speed?

d

What was the greatest wind speed?

e

What was the least wind speed?

f

What is the difference between the wind

speed on day 8 and day 10?

The temperature in

Newcastle was

measured every four

hours. The results are

shown opposite.

a

b

c

d

e

10

225

1

2

20

15

10

5

0

7

6

3 a.m.

7 a.m.

11 a.m.

3 p.m.

7 p.m.

11 p.m.

15

20

25

25

20

18

Plot each of the data points onto

the radar chart.

Join the points with a straight line

to create the radar chart.

Make another copy of the blank

radar chart.

The temperatures on the following

day were 5 degrees warmer. Plot

these data points onto the radar

chart.

Join the points with a straight line

to create the radar chart.

25

3 am

20

11 pm

15

10

7 am

5

0

7 pm

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11 am

3 pm

226

Development

3

4

monthly temperatures for Liverpool

and Cronulla.

a What is the average monthly

temperature for Liverpool in:

i January ii May

iii June

iv August

b In which months did Liverpool and

Cronulla have the same average

monthly temperature?

c What was the average monthly

temperature for Cronulla in August

and July?

d Which month had the largest

difference in temperature between

Liverpool and Cronulla?

Dec

Jan

Feb

20

15

10

5

0

Nov

Oct

Mar

Apr

Sep

May

Aug

Jun

Jul

Liverpool

Cronulla

The daily rainfall (mm) for two towns is shown in the following table.

Day

12

10

10

12

Determine the number of sectors and an appropriate scale for a radar chart.

Show the above information on the radar chart.

Create a legend for the radar chart.

a

b

c

30

25

The average monthly sales (in millions) of a company over a 12-month period are shown

in the table.

Jan

1

a

b

c

d

Feb Mar

2

2.5

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

3.5

4.5

Choose an appropriate scale and create the spider web.

Plot each of the data points onto the radar chart and join the points.

Briefly comment on any trends that can be seen.

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227

Dot plots

7.9

The simplest display of numerical data is a dot plot. A dot plot consists of a number line with

each data point marked by a dot. When several data points have the same value, the points are

stacked on top of each other. Dot plots are a great way for displaying fairly small data sets

where the data takes a limited number of values.

Dot plot

A number line with each data point marked by a dot. When several data points

have the same value, the points are stacked on top of each other.

Example 18

The number of hours Philip spent watching television on the weekend is shown below.

Construct a dot plot.

3

Solution

1

2

3

4

values. Label the line with the variable being

displayed.

The vertical axis indicates the frequency of data

value. It may be omitted.

Plot each data value by marking in a dot above

the corresponding value on the number line.

Count the number of dots and check that it

matches the number of data values.

6

5

4

3

2

1

1

4 5

Hours

Stem-and-leaf plots

A stem-and-leaf plot or stem plot is used to present a small (less than 50 values) numerical

data set. The tens digit of the data values becomes the stem and is written in numerical order

down the page. The units digit becomes the leaves and is written in numerical order across

the page.

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228

Stem-and-leaf plot

Leaf

0 57

1 22557

2 125679

Stem

Example 19

Leaf

9 0

8532 1

98442 2

Stem

0

12559

4578

Leaf

24

19

19

15

18

27

28

11

19

29

30

25

25

26

10

10

28

29

14

Solution

1

stems 0, 1, 2 and 3. Write these down from smallest

to largest, followed by a vertical line.

Attach the leaves. The first data value is 24. It has a

stem of 2 and a leaf of 4. Opposite the 2 in the

stem, write the number 4. Complete all the values.

Rewrite the leaves so that they are in increasing order.

Example 20

566679

001458999

455678899

0

0

1

2

3

Girls

28

24

24

31

34

26

27

12

18

13

15

29

30

22

Boys

19

27

21

25

35

28

29

13

11

30

31

32

25

16

Solution

1

2

3

4

Girls

The data set has values from 6 to 35. This requires

6

stems 0, 1, 2 and 3. Write these down from

8532

smallest to largest, followed by two vertical lines.

Attach the leaves for the girls. The first data value 9 8 7 6 4 4 2

410

is 28. It has a stem of 2 and a leaf of 8.

Attach the leaves for the boys. The first data value

is 19. It has a stem of 1 and a leaf of 9.

Rewrite the leaves so that they are in increasing

order.

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0

1

2

3

Boys

9

1369

155789

0125

229

Exercise 7I

1

Customers each hour

6

5

4

3

2

1

9

b

c

d

A group of 26 people were asked how many times in the last week they had shopped at a

particular supermarket. Their responses were as follows:

1

How many people were at the supermarket four times last week?

What is the difference between the highest and lowest visits to the supermarket?

a

b

c

16

What is the most common number of customers per hour?

What is the least common number of customers?

Calculate the total number of customers?

10 11 12 13 14 15

Number of customers

a

b

c

How many matches resulted in

3 goals?

How many matches scored 4 or

5 goals?

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230

Development

4

The following table shows the number of nights spent away from home in the past year

by a group of 15 Australian tourists and by a group of 15 New Zealand tourists.

AUS

21

17

15

14

11

11

NZ

19

23

32

17

29

23

22

12

28

26

22

14

14

a

b

The ages of patients admitted to a particular hospital during one week are given below.

Male

72

56

57

77

63

71

57

54

63

72

59

56

57

67

75

Female

61

55

58

78

65

68

71

78

79

72

73

64

68

66

69

a

b

Compare the number of nights spent away by Australian and New Zealand tourists in

terms of shape, centre and spread.

Compare the ages at admission to the hospital for male and female patients in terms

of shape, centre and spread.

0

1

2

3

a

b

c

d

e

Which score occurred the most number of times?

What is the range for this data?

How many students completed the test?

What is the five-number summary for this data set?

An investigator recorded the amounts of time for which 24 similar batteries lasted in a

toy. Her results (in hours) were:

a

13.2

6

2358

2446789

014

b

c

41

25

37

46

17

33

31

28

34

19

26

40

24

31

27

30

22

33

20

21

27

30

26

How many of the batteries lasted for more than 25 hours?

What is the five-number summary for this data set?

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grouped data

2

3

Study guide 7

Tally column records the number of times the score

occurred (groups of 5s).

Frequency column is a count of each outcome or class.

Cumulative frequency

The frequency of the score plus the frequency of all the scores

less than that score.

frequency histogram

frequency polygon

IQR = Third quartile First quartile = Q3 Q1

Frequency histogram is a column graph that uses the score

or class as the horizontal axis and frequency as the vertical

axis.

Cumulative frequency histogram is a column graph that

uses the score or class as the horizontal axis and cumulative

frequency as the vertical axis.

Frequency polygon is a line graph of a frequency table.

It can be constructed by joining the midpoints of the

histogram.

Cumulative frequency polygon or ogive is a line graph

constructed by joining the top right-hand corner of the

rectangles in a cumulative frequency histogram.

Box-and-whisker plot

quartile, median, upper quartile and the higher extreme.

It shows the relationship or proportions of parts to a whole.

A divided bar graph presents data as bars or rectangles.

Radar chart

of one or more entities.

Stem-and-leaf plot

set. The tens digit of the data values becomes the stem and

is written in numerical order down the page. The units digit

becomes the leaves and is written in numerical order across

the page.

Dot plot

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Review

data sets

231

1

Score

Frequency

Cumulative

Frequency

21

22

13

23

24

23

8

13

22

A 7

B 13

C 16

D 20

A 4.5

B 5

C 5.5

D 7

Cumulative

frequency

Review

232

200

150

100

50

10 20 30 40 50

Mark

50

100

150

200

A

6

10

40

100

85

90

50

A

50

60

70

80

B

65

90

A 50

B 65

C 85

D 90

A radar chart is constructed with 10 sectors. What is the size of the angle in each sector?

A 10

B 18

C 30

D 36

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233

Review

1

The time (in hours) spent completing an assessment task is listed below.

Class

48

913

1418

1923

4

Total

a

b

2

How many students spent greater than 13 hours?

Alyssa recorded the following times (in minutes) running a cross country course.

51

53

57

55

58

57

53

55

54

53

56

55

53

57

51

57

54

58

55

56

51

53

53

54

52

56

52

54

54

53

56

56

53

54

52

53

54

57

58

56

54

55

52

55

55

58

54

56

55

56

52

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

23

column.

How many times were recorded?

How many times were below 55 minutes?

Add a cumulative frequency column.

Construct a frequency histogram.

Construct a cumulative frequency histogram

and a cumulative frequency polygon.

Use the cumulative frequency polygon to

estimate the median.

Use the cumulative frequency polygon to estimate the first and third quartile.

189

193

196

238

206

174

209

159

190

244

199

225

196

209

224

168

161

203

192

231

a

c

What is the twenty-fifth percentile?

d What is the seventy-fifth percentile?

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Review

234

Samuel

42

46

51

43

70

72

67

47

55

41

66

57

Nikolas

49

61

72

52

74

80

67

71

68

55

60

77

a

b

c

d

e

f

What is Samuels upper extreme?

What is Nikolass median?

What is Nikolass lower quartile?

What is Samuels upper quartile?

Construct a box-and-whisker plot.

Sienna earns $1800 and spends $600 on rent, $300 on food, $150 on petrol and saves $750.

Construct a sector graph to represent this data.

A company made the following profits (in millions) during the past 6 months.

a

b

c

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

20

40

35

30

25

45

How many sectors are required for a radar chart? What is the size of each sector?

Choose an appropriate scale and create the spider web.

Plot the data and complete the radar chart.

results achieved by students in a test.

a What is the range of these results?

b What is the first quartile?

c What is the third quartile?

d What is the five-number summary for this data set?

a What is the range of scores?

b What is the first quartile?

c What is the third quartile?

0

1

2

3

9

1249

135788

0235

5

4

3

2

1

18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

Challenge questions 7

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C H A P T E R

Applications of perimeter,

area and volume

Syllabus topic MM2 Applications of perimeter,

area and volume

Find unknown sides using Pythagoras theorem

Calculate the perimeter of simple gures

Calculate the area of composite shapes

Calculate the area from a eld diagram

Calculate the volume of prisms and cylinders

Relate capacity to volume

Pythagoras theorem links the sides of a right-angled triangle. In

a right-angled triangle the side opposite the right angle is called

the hypotenuse. The hypotenuse is always the longest side.

Hypotenuse

(longest side)

8.1

Pythagoras theorem

Pythagoras theorem states that the

square of the hypotenuse is equal to

the sum of the squares of the other two

sides.

(Hypotenuse)2

(side)2

+ (other

side)2

h2

a2

+ b2

235

The Powers Family Trust 2013

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236

Pythagoras theorem is used to find a missing side of a right-angled triangle if two of the sides

are given. It can also be used to prove that a triangle is right angled.

Example 1

h cm

5 cm

9 cm

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

Substitute the length of the sides.

Calculate the value of h2.

Take the square root to find h.

Express answer correct to two decimal

places.

Example 2

h2 = a2 + b2

= 92 + 52

2

2

h = 9 +5

= 10.30 cm

12 mm. What is the length of the rectangle, correct to one

decimal place?

12 mm

5 mm

Solution

1

2

Mark the unknown length as x.

x mm

12 mm

3

4

5

6

7

8

Substitute the length of the sides.

Make x2 the subject.

Take the square root to find x.

Express answer to correct one decimal place.

Write the answer in words.

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5 mm

h2 = a2 + b2

122 = x2 + 52

x2 = 122 52

2

2

x = 12 5

= 10.9 mm

The length of the rectangle

is 10.9 mm.

237

Exercise 8A

1

a

6 cm

5 cm

h cm

24 mm

12 cm

h mm

h cm

8 cm

10 mm

d

h cm

2.5 cm

h mm

54 cm

20 mm

63.2 cm

4.2 cm

h cm

10 mm

a

15 cm

15 cm

x cm

12 cm

x mm

21 cm

x cm

13 mm

6 mm

d

2.3 cm

x cm

x cm

24 mm

32 mm

4.8 cm

14.1 cm

9.5 cm

x mm

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238

Development

3

Calculate the length of the side marked with the pronumeral. (Answer to the nearest

millimetre.)

a

b

c

y mm

16 mm

30 mm

42 mm

35 mm

63 mm

x mm

28 mm

a mm

d

10 mm

d mm

27 mm

33 mm

52 mm

m mm

8 mm

12 mm

b mm

diagonal of a rectangle with dimensions 7.5 metres

by 5.0 metres.

5.0 m

7.5 m

5

a

b

90 cm

7 cm

72 cm

4 cm

x cm

6

a

b

7 cm

6 cm

x cm

x cm

4 cm

y cm

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6 cm

25 cm

18 cm

x cm

14 cm

239

8.2 Perimeter

Perimeter is the total length of the outside edges of a shape. It is the distance of the boundary.

8.2

Perimeter formulas

Name

Shape

a

Triangle

Quadrilateral

Perimeter

b

P=a+b+c

c

b

P=a+b+c+d

P = 4s

Square

Rectangle

P = 2(l + b)

Circle

Example 3

Circumference

C = 2r

C = d

3m

8m

Solution

1

2

3

4

formula P = 2(l + b).

Substitute the values for l and b (l = 8

and b = 3).

Evaluate.

Write the answer in words.

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P = 2(l + b)

= 2 (8 + 3)

= 22 m

Perimeter of the rectangle is 22 m.

240

Example 4

Answer correct to one decimal place.

3.7 cm

4.2 cm

Solution

1

h2 = 4.22 + 3.72

Substitute the length of the sides.

Evaluate the value of h.

Add the lengths of sides to find the

perimeter.

Express answer correct to 1 decimal place.

Write the answer in words.

3

4

5

6

7

Example 5

= 13.5 cm

Perimeter of the triangle is 13.5 cm.

Answer correct to two decimal places.

9 mm

Solution

1

2

3

4

C = 2 r.

Substitute the value for r (r = 9).

Evaluate.

Write the answer in words.

Example 6

C = 2 r

= 2 9

= 56.55 mm

Perimeter of the circle is 56.55 mm.

Answer correct to two decimal places.

4m

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

6

formula C = d 2.

Substitute the value for d (d = 4) to find

the curved distance.

Evaluate.

Add the curved distance to the diameter.

Evaluate.

Write the answer in words.

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d

2

4

=

2

C=

= 6.28 m

P = 6.28 + 4

= 10.28 m

Perimeter is 10.28 m.

Cambridge University Press

241

A composite shape is made up of two or more plane shapes. The perimeter of a composite

shape is calculated by adding the distances that make up the boundary of the shape.

Perimeter of a composite shape

1

2

3

4

5

Unknown side lengths of some sides are determined by using the given

lengths of the other sides.

Pythagoras theorem is used to nd unknown side lengths involving a right

triangle.

Distances that are part of a circle are found using C = 2 r.

Add the distances that make up the boundary of the shape to calculate the

perimeter.

Example 7

a

2 cm

5m

6 cm

5 cm

5m

8 cm

Solution

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

5

6

measurements given in the question.

Add the lengths of all the edges to find

the perimeter.

Evaluate.

Write the answer in words.

curved distance.

Substitute the value for r (r = 5).

Evaluate.

Add the curved distance to other edges.

Evaluate.

Write the answer in words.

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2 cm

6 + 5 = 11 cm

6 cm

8 2 = 6 cm

5 cm

8 cm

P = 2 + 6 + 6 + 5 + 8 + 11 = 38 cm

Perimeter is 38 cm.

C=

2 r 2 5

=

= 7.85 m

4

4

P = 7.85 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5

= 27.85 m

Perimeter is 27.85 m.

242

Exercise 8B

1

Find the perimeter of each quadrilateral. Answer correct to one decimal place.

a

7.2 m

20 m

13.4 m

5.4 cm

Find the perimeter of a square with a side length of 12.3 m. Answer correct to

one decimal place.

Find the perimeter of each right triangle. Answer correct to one decimal place.

a

15 m

8m

7 mm

5 cm

2 cm

9.5 m

8.5 mm

Find the perimeter of a right triangle with a base of 10.25 cm and a height of 15.15 cm.

Answer correct to two decimal places.

Find the perimeter of each circle. Answer correct to one decimal place.

a

3m

2 cm

14 mm

What is the circumference of each circle? Answer correct to one decimal place.

a

Radius of 4 cm

b

Radius of 19 m

c

Radius of 34 mm

d

Diameter of 50 mm

e

Diameter of 22 m

f

Diameter of 6 cm

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243

Development

7

Find the perimeter of each semicircle. Answer correct to one decimal place.

a

b

c

2.1 m

5m

16 m

8

Find the perimeter of each shape. Answer correct to two decimal places.

a

b

c

3 mm

5 cm

7m

9

Find the perimeter of each composite shape. Answer to the nearest whole number.

a

b

c

8 cm

6m

2m

4m

8m

1m

4m

2m

2m

10 m

d

1m

10 cm

4m

4m

6m

4m

3m

5m

6m

10

11

Find the perimeter of an annulus if the inner diameter is 3 cm

and the outer diameter is 6 cm. Answer correct to the nearest

centimetre.

A rectangle ABCD has length AB = 12 cm and a width of

BC = 6 cm.

a Find the value of x.

b Calculate the perimeter of quadrilateral AECF.

(Answer correct to two decimal places).

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6 cm

3 cm

x cm

D

244

8.3 Area

8.3

enclosed by the boundaries of the shape. It is

measured by counting the number of squares that

fit inside the shape. When calculating area, the

answer will be in square units.

100 mm2 = 1 cm2

10 000 m2 = 1 ha

1 ha = 10 000 m2

10 000 cm2 = 1 m2

1 000 000 m2 = 1 km2

we use a formula. These formulas are listed below.

Area formulas

Name

Shape

Area

Triangle

A = 12 bbh

A = s2

Square

Rectangle

A = lb

l

h

Parallelogram

A = bh

b

a

A = 12 ( a + b ) h

Trapezium

b

Rhombus

Circle

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A = 12 xxy

A = r2

Example 8

5.5 m

8.1 m

Solution

1

2

3

4

Substitute the values for b and h (b = 8.1 and h = 5.5).

Evaluate.

Write the answer using the correct units.

Example 9

245

1

bbh

2

1

= 8.1 5.5

2

= 22.275 m 2

A=

2.9 cm

3 cm

Solution

1

2

3

4

5.1 cm

1

A = (a + b)h .

2

Substitute the values for a, b and h.

Evaluate.

Write the answer using the correct units.

Example 10

1

(a + b)h

2

1

= ( 2.9 + 5.1)3

2

= 12 cm 2

The area of the shape is 12 cm2.

A=

4 mm

Solution

1

2

3

4

A = bh.

Substitute the values for b and h (b = 6.5 and

h = 4).

Evaluate.

Write the answer using the correct units.

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6.5 mm

A = bbh

= 6.5 4

= 26 mm 2

The area of the shape is

26 mm2.

246

Example 11

your answer correct to one decimal place.

5m

Solution

1

A = r2.

Evaluate correct to one decimal place.

Write the answer using the correct units.

3

4

A = r2

= 52

= 78.5 m 2

The area of the circle is 78.5 m2.

A composite shape is made up of two or more plane shapes. The area of a composite shape is

calculated by adding or subtracting the areas of simple shapes.

Area of composite shapes

Area of composite shapes can be found by adding or subtracting the

areas of simple shapes.

Example 12

one decimal place.

12 cm

10 cm

Solution

1

2

3

4

semicircle.

Use the formula A = lb for the rectangle.

Substitute and evaluate.

1

Use the formula A = r 2 for the semicircle.

2

Evaluate.

Write the answer using the correct units.

7

8

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A = lb

= 12 10

= 120 cm 2

1

A = r2

2

1

= 52

2

39.3 cm 2

A = 120 + 39.3

= 159.3 cm2

The area of the shape is 159.3 cm2.

Cambridge University Press

247

Exercise 8C

1

Find the area of each triangle. Answer correct to one decimal place.

a

23 m

6 mm

13 m

4 cm

6.5 mm

2 cm

13 mm

7.6 m

15.5 mm

9.5 m

8.5 m

19 m

Find the area of each shape. Answer correct to one decimal place.

a

9m

6.4 m

11.2 m

6.1 cm

d

7 mm

4m

7m

22 m

f

3.8 cm

4 cm

10 mm

6.7 cm

Find the area of a triangle with a base of 8.25 cm and a height of 10.15 cm. Answer

correct to the nearest square centimetre.

Find the area of a square with a side length of 105.1 m. Answer correct to the nearest

square metre.

Find the area of a circle with a radius of 7 cm. Answer correct to the nearest square

centimetre.

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248

Development

6

Find the area of each shape. Answer correct to one decimal place.

a

9.1 cm

2.3 km

5 km

5.7 cm

4.8 cm

Diagonals are

4.4 mm and 6.8 mm

9.1 cm

6 mm

8 mm

17 m

8m

4.1 cm

12.5 mm

15 m

9.8 cm

Jasmine is planning to build a circular pond. The radius of the pond is 1.5 m. What is the

area of the pond, correct to the nearest square metre?

shallow end to 2.6 m at the deep end. Calculate the area of

the side wall of the pool. Answer correct to the nearest

square metre.

25 m

1.3 m

2.6 m

Philip wants to tile a rectangular area measuring 2.2 m by 3 m in his backyard. The tiles

he wishes to use are 50 cm by 50 cm. How many tiles will he need? Give your answer as

a whole number.

10

a

4 cm

6 cm

30 cm

32 cm

3 cm

8 cm

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15 cm

4 cm

20 cm

11

12

13

centre. Find the area of an annulus if the inner

diameter is 6 cm and the outer diameter is

10 cm. Answer correct to the nearest square

centimetre.

6 cm

249

10 cm

removed from its shape. The two squares have a side

length of 2 cm. Find the shaded area. Answer correct

to the nearest square centimetre.

5 cm

7 cm

10 cm

a What is the amount of lawn required?

b Find the cost of the new lawn if the required turf

costs $20 per square metre.

13 m

19 m

20 m

25 m

14

a What is the radius of the semicircle?

b What is the height of the triangle?

c Calculate the area of the region. Answer

correct to one decimal place.

16 cm

10 cm

15

two decimal places.

16

triangle. The square has a side length of 8 metres and

the triangle is isosceles.

a Use Pythagoras theorem to find the value of x.

b Calculate the area of the shaded region.

17

14 cm

xm

8m

xm

8m

A metal worker cut circles with a diameter of 2 cm from a rectangular sheet of tin 4 cm

by 8 cm.

a What is the area of the rectangular sheet?

b How many circles can be cut from the rectangular sheet?

c What is the area of the remaining metal after the circles have been removed from the

rectangular sheet? Answer correct to two decimal places.

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250

Field diagrams are used to calculate the area of irregularly shaped blocks of land. Measuring

and recording the data in a field diagram is called surveying. One type of survey is called the

traverse or offset survey.

This type of survey involves measuring distances along a suitable diagonal or traverse. The

perpendicular distances from the traverse to the vertices of the shape are called the offsets.

When conducting a traverse survey, measurements are taken of the traverse and the offsets.

These measurements are recorded in a field book entry.

Offset

Offset

Traverse

The field book entry records the distances along the traverse between two vertical lines. The

distances along the offsets are recorded on either side of these measurements.

Field Book Entry

Field Diagram

D

163

C 65 110

75 28 B

0

A

65

53

35

28

75

A

The measurements along the traverse are the distances starting from the bottom. For example,

the distance 110 to the offset at point C is the distance from point A. This results in a distance

of 35 between offset B and C.

Conducting a traverse survey

1

2

3

4

Place a tape measure along the traverse.

Starting from the bottom, measure the offsets using a taut string.

Record the measurements in a field book entry.

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Example 13

opposite. Measurements are in metres.

a

Find the area of the quadrilateral ABCD. Answer

correct to one decimal place.

b

Find the distance AB. Answer correct to two decimal

places.

251

D

65

53

35

28

75

A

Solution

1

ADB and ADC.

formula A = 12 bbh.

Evaluate.

Express answer correct to one decimal place

and with the correct units.

4

5

the length of the sides.

Take the square root to find AB.

Evaluate.

Express answer correct to two decimal

places.

8

9

10

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For ADB, b = 163 and h = 28

1

bbh

2

1

= 163 28

2

= 2282 m 2

A=

1

bbh

2

1

= 163 65

2

= 5297.5 m 2

Total area = 2282 + 5297.5

= 7579.5 m2

A=

Distance AB

AB 2 = 752 + 282

AB = 752 + 282

= 80.056 230 24

= 80.06 m

Distance AB is 80.06 m.

252

Exercise 8D

1

Find the area of the following fields using each field diagram. Units are in metres.

a

35

28

60

80

20

30

60

80

50

50

50

18

C

60

50

40

C

45

60

48

50

20

110

45

25

26

12 32

24

A

Find the area of the following fields using each field book entry. Units are in metres.

a

B

60

C 50 25

0

A

D

75

50 20 B

C 15 40

0

A

D

150

C 70 110

75 30 B

0

A

E

140

100 32 D

C 55 90

30 32 B

0

A

E

90

C 36 80

75 10 D

B 36 20

0

A

E

40

30 10 D

C 40 20

10 10 B

0

A

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Development

3

253

has been surveyed. All measurements are in metres.

a Find the area of the quadrilateral ABCD. Answer

correct to one decimal place.

b What is the length of AB? Answer correct to the

nearest metre.

35

25

C

32

14

13

A

block of land that has been

surveyed. All measurements are

in metres.

E

C

11

44 G

54

67

46

F

15

A

a

b

c

d

e

f

5

Find the area of the triangle ABF. Answer correct to one decimal place.

Find the area of the triangle ACE. Answer correct to one decimal place.

Find the area of the triangle DGE. Answer correct to one decimal place.

Find the area of the trapezium BFGD. Answer correct to one decimal place.

What is the total area of the block of land? Answer correct to one decimal place.

Find the distance AB. Answer correct to two decimal places.

The field book entry below shows a block of land that has been surveyed. All

measurements are in metres.

E

71

58 43 D

C 23 34

25 14 B

0

A

a

b

What is the length of AC? Answer correct to the nearest metre.

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254

Volume is the amount of space occupied by a three-dimensional object. It is measured by

counting the number of cubes that fit inside the solid. When calculating volume, the answer

will be in cubic units.

8.5

1 000 000 cm3 = 1 m3

1 000 000 000 m3 = 1 km3

To calculate the volume of the most common solids, we use a formula. Some of these formulas

are listed below. The volume of a prism is found by using its cross-sectional area. Prisms are

three-dimensional objects that have a uniform cross-section along their entire length.

Volume formulas

Name

Solid

Cube

V = Ah

= (s2) s

= s3

s

s

Rectangular prism

Volume

b

h

V = Ah

= lb h

= lbh

Triangular prism

A=

1

2

bh

V=A

Ah

1

= bh h

2

Cylinder

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V = Ah

= (r2) h

= r2h

255

Example 14

of 2 cm and a height of 4 cm. Find the volume of

this rectangular prism. Answer in cubic centimetres.

2 cm

4 cm

8 cm

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

Determine the shape of the base and the formula

to calculate the area of the base A = lb.

Substitute the values into the formula.

Evaluate.

Give the answer to the correct units.

Example 15

V = Ah

= lbh

=824

= 64 cm3

the volume of the cylinder. Answer correct to two decimal

places in cubic millimetres.

12 mm

8 mm

Solution

1

2

3

4

V = r2h

= 82 12

Substitute the r = 8 and h = 12 into the formula.

= 2412.743 158 mm3

Evaluate.

Write the answer correct to two decimal places and

2412.74 mm3

with the correct units.

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256

Exercise 8E

1

Find the volume of the following prisms where A is the area of the base.

a

A = 8 m2

40 m

12 m

16 m

A = 110 m2

A = 7 m2

What is the volume of a rectangular prism with a base area of 15 mm2 and a height of

11 mm?

Find the volume of a triangular prism with a height of 15 m and a base area of 50 m2.

Find the volume of the following solids. Answer to the nearest whole number.

a

18 cm

10 mm

3m

18 cm

4m

9m

10 mm

6 mm

18 cm

8 mm

14 mm

7 mm

6 mm

6m

15 m

10 m

20 mm

10.5 cm? Answer correct to one decimal place.

A closed cylindrical plastic container is 20 cm high and its circular end surfaces each

have a radius of 5 cm. What is its volume correct to two decimal places?

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257

Development

7

radius of 10 m and height of 8 m.

a What is the area of the top circular face of the water

tank? Answer correct to one decimal place.

b Determine the volume of the water tank. Answer

correct to one decimal place.

10 m

8m

2m

6m

6m

10 m

10 m

a

b

c

9

What is the area of the shaded base?

What is volume of the hollow container?

a What is the area of the shaded base?

b Determine the volume of the step.

5m

12 m

2m

1m

10 m

10

What is the volume, correct to one decimal place, of a cylindrical paint tin with a height

of 30 cm and a diameter of 25 cm?

11

Find the volume of an equilateral triangular prism with side lengths 3 cm and a depth of

10 cm. Answer correct to three decimal places.

12

A vase with a volume of 200 cm3 is packed into the cardboard box shown below. The

space around the vase is filled with foam to protect from breaking. The parcel is sealed

and posted.

6 cm

10 cm

a

b

8 cm

What is the area of cardboard on the surface of the box?

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258

8.6 Capacity

The capacity of a container is the amount of liquid

it can hold. Some solids have both a volume and a

capacity. For example, a can of soft drink is a cylinder

that has a volume (V = r2h) and a capacity (360 mL).

The base unit for capacity is a litre (L). Three

commonly used units for capacity are a megalitre,

(ML), kilolitre (kL) and millilitre (mL).

Capacity

1 ML = 1000 kL

1 ML = 1 000 000 L

1 kL = 1000 L

1 L = 1000 mL

Example 16

1 cm3 = 1 mL

1 cm3 = 0.001 L

1000 cm3 = 1 L

1 m3 = 1 000 000 mL

1 m3 = 1000 L

1 m3 = 1 kL

a

Find the volume of the container in cubic centimetres.

b

Find the capacity of the container in litres.

30 cm

40 cm

70 cm

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

V = Ah.

Determine the shape of the base and the

formula to calculate the area of the base A = lb.

Substitute the values into the formula.

Evaluate.

Give answer to the correct units.

(1 cm3 = 0.001 L)

Alternative method is to convert to mL.

(1 cm3 = 1 mL)

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V = Ah

= lbh

= 70 40 30

= 84 000 cm3

Capacity = 84 000 0.001 L

= 84 L

Capacity = 84 000 1 mL

= 84 000 mL

= 84 L

259

Exercise 8F

1

A can of soft drink has a capacity of 375 mL. How many cans of soft drink would it take

to fill a 1.2 L bottle? How much would remain?

a

What is the capacity in millilitres?

b

How many tablespoons (15 mL) does

the bottle contain?

c

How many teaspoons (5 mL) does the

bottle contain?

d

The correct dosage is 10 mL, 3 times a

day. How many doses does the bottle

contain?

a

4 cm 3 = mL

c

70 cm 3 =

900 cm 3 =

43 m 3 =

103 m 3 =

5 m3 =

mL

mL

kL

kL

kL

2000 cm 3 =

34 000 cm 3 =

500 cm 3 =

30 m 3 =

L

L

L

7 m3 =

8 m3 =

mL

What is the capacity of a rectangular prism whose base area is 20 cm2 and height is

10 cm? Answer correct to the nearest millilitre.

Find the capacity of a triangular prism with a height of 18 m and a base area of 40 m2.

Answer in litres, correct to two significant figures.

Find the capacity of a rectangular pyramid whose base area is 12 cm2 and height is

15 cm. Answer correct to the nearest millilitre.

Find the capacity of a cylindrical plastic container 16 cm high and with circular end

surfaces of radius 8 cm. Answer correct to the nearest litre.

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260

Development

8

Find the capacity of the following solids in millilitres, correct to two decimal places.

a

6 mm

4m

5 mm

3m

8m

18 mm

10 mm

3 mm

4 mm

10 cm

7m

9m

10 m

6 cm

3m

Find the capacity of a cube whose side length is 75 mm. Answer in millilitres, correct to

two decimal places.

10

A water tank is the shape of a cylinder with a radius of 2 m and height of 2.5 m.

a What is the area of the top circular face of the

2m

water tank? Answer correct to one decimal

place.

b Determine the volume of the water tank in

cubic metres. Answer correct to one decimal

place.

c What is the capacity of the tank, to the nearest kilolitre?

11

14.4

A = 21 m2

prism as shown opposite. The swimming pool is

filled 25 cm from the top.

a What is the volume of water in cubic metres?

b How much water does the swimming pool

contain, to the nearest kilolitre?

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2.5 m

1.7 m

15 m

10 m

Pythagoras theorem

Study guide 8

the sum of the squares of the other two sides.

h2 = a 2 + b 2

Perimeter

distance of the boundary.

Rectangle

P = 2(l + b)

Circle

C = 2 r or C = d

Area

Triangle

A = 12 bbh

Square

A = s2

Rectangle

A = lb

Parallelogram

A = bh

Trapezium

A = 12 ( a + b ) h

Rhombus

A = 12 xxy

Circle

A = r 2

Area of composite shapes can be found by adding or subtracting

the areas of simple shapes.

Field diagrams

blocks of land. A traverse survey measures distances along a suitable

diagonal or traverse.

Cube

Rectangular prism

V = Ah = (s2) s = s3

V = Ah = lb h = lbh

Triangular prism

V = Ah

Ah =

Cylinder

V = Ah = (r2) h = r2h

cylinders

Capacity

( bbhh) h

1

2

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Review

261

Review

262

1

A 400 cm

B 20 cm

C 28 cm

D 7.46 cm

16 cm

12 cm

A 3.9 mm

B 7.9 mm

C 13.9 mm

What is the perimeter of the composite shape?

A 25 m

B 29 m

C 30 m

D 32 m

17.9 mm

9m

4m

7m

5m

A 25 m2

B 51 m2

C 63 m2

D 75 m2

A 13 m2

B 20 m2

C 40 m2

D 80 m2

A 42 cm2

B 63 cm2

C 96 cm2

D 126 cm2

6 cm

8 cm

7 cm

12 cm

A 40

B 450

C 600

D 1200

D

C 10

40

30

10

0 20 B

A

A 75 cm3

B 113 cm3

C 302 cm3

D 452 cm3

A cubic water tank has a side length of 6 m. What is the capacity of the tank?

A 36 kL

B 216 kL

C 360 kL

D 216000 kL

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263

a

b

x mm

xm

27 cm

21 m

28 m

47 cm

21 mm

14 mm

x cm

2

18 mm

6 mm

x

10 mm

3

Find the perimeter of each shape. Answer correct to one decimal place.

a

b

c

5 cm

10 cm

12 m

11 cm

6.7 cm

7m

6 mm

9m

4m

11 m

Find the area of each shape. Answer correct to one decimal place.

a

3.5 m

6m

9m

10 m

11.2 cm

5.6 cm

2m

4 mm

3m

8.4 cm

7 mm

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Review

Review

264

Chapter

summary

Earning

Money area measuring 3.6 m by 3.2 m in his backyard.

5 Mahendra

is planning

to tile a rectangular

The tiles he wishes to use are 40 cm by 40 cm.

a What is the area of the rectangle?

b What is the area (in m2) of the tiles?

c How many tiles will he need?

6

The diagram on the right shows a block of land that has been

surveyed. All measurements are in metres.

a Find the area of the quadrilateral PQRS. Answer correct to

one decimal place.

b What is the length of PQ? Answer correct to the nearest metre.

S

40

R

58

52

46

18

P

7

a

11 mm

4 mm

11 mm

5 mm

10 m

3 mm

4 mm

11 mm

4.5 m

3.2 m

8

end surfaces have a radius of 8 mm.

a What is the area of the circular ends? Answer

correct to the nearest square millimetre.

b What is the volume of the container? Answer

correct to the nearest cubic millimetre.

16 mm

8 mm

Find the capacity of a triangular prism with a height of 50 cm and a base area of 120 cm2.

Answer in litres.

Challenge questions 8

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C H A P T E R

probability

Syllabus topic PB1 Relative frequency and probability

Calculate and use relative frequencies to estimate probabilities

Understand the denition of probability

Calculate probabilities using fractions, decimals and percentages

Demonstrate the range of possible probabilities

Identify and use the complement of an event

9.1

event is the number of times the event occurred in the experiment. Relative frequency is

the frequency of the event divided by the total number of frequencies. It is also known as

experimental probability as it estimates the chances of something happening or the probability

of an event. Relative frequency is expressed using fractions, decimals and percentages.

Relative frequency

Relative frequency is an estimate for the probability of an event.

Relative frequency =

Frequency of an event

Total number of frequencies

265

The Powers Family Trust 2013

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266

Example 1

An experiment of tossing two coins was completed and the number of heads recorded in the

frequency table shown below.

Number

of heads Frequency

0

100

192

108

Relative

frequency

a

0

b

1

c

2

Solution

1

the total number of frequencies.

Substitute the frequency and total

number of frequencies into the formula.

Simplify the fraction if possible or

express as a decimal.

Write answer in words.

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

= 400

Freq of Event

Total Freq

100

=

400

1

= or 0.25 or 25%

4

Relative frequency of 0 heads is 0.25.

Rel. Freq. =

Substitute the frequency and total

number of frequencies into the formula.

Simplify the fraction if possible or

express as a decimal.

Write answer in words.

Substitute the frequency and total

number of frequencies into the formula.

Simplify the fraction if possible or

express as a decimal.

Write answer in words.

Freq of Event

Total Freq

192

=

400

12

=

or 0.48 or 48%

25

Rel. Freq. =

Freq of Event

Total Freq

108

=

400

27

=

or 0.27 or 27%

100

Rel. Freq. =

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Example 2

267

dice. Use the simulation to complete 100 trials and

present these results in a histogram.

Solution

1

2

3

4

Enter the function Int (6Ran# + 1).

by NUM.

followed by PROB.

Select SET to specify the range and simulate the

100 trials.

Select TABL to view the results of the 100 trials.

Note: a new simulation is performed each time you

move between the function and the table.

5

Select OPTN and LMEM to copy the results in X

and Y1 to LIST1 and LIST2.

6

SET. Choose Graph Type : Hist and XList1 : List2.

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268

Exercise 9A

1

of an experiment. What is the relative

frequency for the following outcomes?

Express as a fraction in simplest form.

a

A

b

B

c

C

d

D

of an experiment. What is the relative

frequency for the following outcomes?

Answer correct to three decimal places.

a

HH

b

HT

c

TH

d

TT

of an experiment. What is the relative

frequency for the following outcomes?

Answer as a percentage correct to one

decimal place.

a

Black

b

Yellow

c

Red

d

Blue

e

Green

f

White

of an experiment. What is the relative

frequency for the following outcomes?

Answer as a percentage, correct to the

nearest whole number.

a

30

b

31

c

32

d

33

e

34

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Letter

Frequency

12

15

Outcome Frequency

HH

HT

20

TH

28

TT

12

Colour

Frequency

Black

105

Yellow

210

Red

145

Blue

170

Green

215

White

155

Score

Frequency

30

31

32

33

34

Relative freq.

Relative freq.

Relative freq.

Relative freq.

269

Calculate the relative frequency for each of these numbers if the total frequency is 48.

Write your answer as a fraction in simplest terms.

a 16

b 40

c 24

d 6

Calculate the relative frequency for each of these numbers if the total frequency is 40.

Write your answer as a percentage.

a 4

b 30

c 15

d 32

A retail store sold 512 televisions last year. There were 32 faulty televisions returned last

year. What is the relative frequency of a faulty television last year? Answer as a

percentage, correct to two decimal places.

A pistol shooter at the Olympic Games hits the target 24 out of 25 attempts. What is the

relative frequency of him hitting the target? Give answer as a decimal, correct to two

decimal places.

The birth statistics in a local community were 142 girls and 126 boys. What is the

relative frequency for a girl? Answer as a fraction in lowest terms.

10

9A

a

b

c

Cell B10 has a formula that adds cells B5 to B10. Enter this formula.

The formula for cell C5 is =B5/$B$10. It is the formula for relative frequency. Fill

down the contents of C6 to C9 using this formula.

Cells D5 to D9 have the same formulas as cells C5 to C9. Enter these formulas and

format the cells to a percentage.

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270

Development

11

a

b

c

Score

Frequency

Relative freq.

0.20

0.30

0.25

What is the value of y?

What is the total number of scores?

12

a Use a frequency table to record the results of the experiment.

b Calculate the relative frequency of each outcome.

c What result would you have predicted for each outcome?

d Compare your results to those of the other students in your class.

13

pin 100 times. Record whether it landed point up

or point down.

a Use a frequency table to record the results of

the experiment.

b Calculate the relative frequency of each

outcome.

c What result would you have predicted for

each outcome?

d Compare your results to those of the other students in your class.

14

a Use a frequency table to record the results of the experiment.

b Calculate the relative frequency of each outcome.

c What result would you have predicted for each outcome?

d Compare your results to those of the other students in your class.

15

choosing one card from four cards labelled 1, 2, 3 or 4. Use the simulation to complete

100 trials and present the results in a histogram.

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271

Multistage event consists of two or more events. For example, tossing a coin and throwing a

die or selecting 3 cards from a pack of cards. The fundamental counting principle is used to

determine the total number of outcomes for a multistage event.

9.2

The fundamental counting principle states that if we have p outcomes for first event and q

outcomes for the second event, then the total number of outcomes for both events is p q.

It simply involves multiplying the number of outcomes for each event together. Consider

the multistage event of having two babies and the sex of each baby. The first baby has two

outcomes (boy or girl) and the second baby has two outcomes (boy or girl). The total number

of outcomes for both events is 2 2 = 4 (BB, BG, GB or GG).

Fundamental counting principle

Number of outcomes (two events) = p q

p Number of outcomes of the first event.

q Number of outcomes of the second event.

Example 3

selection to a committee.

a

How many different arrangements are possible?

b

List all the possible outcomes.

Solution

1

row. There are 3 possible outcomes (D,

E or F).

The second event is the second person

in the row. There are 2 possible

outcomes.

The third event is the third person in

the row. There is only 1 possible

outcome.

Multiply the number of outcomes for

each event to determine the number of

arrangements.

a

b

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Number of arrangements = 3 2 1

=6

Possible outcomes = {DEF, DFE,

EDF, EFD, FDE, FED}

272

Exercise 9B

1

Jasmine places three different types of apples in a row on the counter. The types of

apples are red delicious, golden delicious and granny smith.

a

How many different arrangements are possible?

b

List all the possible arrangements.

Four cards each with a different suit (diamond, heart, spade or club) are placed in a row

on the table.

a

How many different arrangements are possible?

b

List all the possible arrangements.

a

How many different arrangements are possible?

b

How many different arrangements are possible if the letters FORD are removed.

c

How many different arrangements are possible if the letters KINGS are removed.

How many ways can Aaron, Bailey, Connor, Daniel and Eddie stand in a queue?

a

How many different ways can the horses finish?

b

How many ways can first, second and third place be filled?

Two dice are rolled. How many different outcomes are possible?

a

How many different outcomes are possible?

b

List all the possible outcomes.

c

If the coin is tossed again, how many different outcomes are now possible?

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273

Development

8

Lucy, Madison and Nikki are nominated for school captain and vice captain. What are all

the possible combinations?

Adam goes to a shop that sells blue, red, pink and green pens. He decides to buy two

pens, each one a different colour.

a How many different arrangements are possible?

b List all the possible arrangements.

10

a

b

The restaurant adds another dessert. How many combinations of meals are now

possible?

11

a A disc is chosen and removed from the box at random. A second disc is then chosen

and removed from the box. How many different choices are possible?

b A third disc is then chosen and removed from the box. How many different choices

for the three discs are possible?

12

A golf team has 4 players to be selected from a squad of 7 players. How many different

teams are possible?

13

The letters from the word CARLTON are being used to form other words.

a How many two-letter arrangements are possible?

b How many three-letter arrangements are possible?

14

a How many different combinations are possible?

b Jade buys two more shirts. How many different combinations are now possible?

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274

A systematic list is essential for finding the sample space for a multistage event. It is an

orderly method of determining all the possible outcomes. Tables are used to generate a

systematic list.

9.3

Tables

A table is an arrangement of information in rows and columns. The table below shows all the

possible outcomes for a tossing two coins. There are two events tossing the first coin and

tossing the second coin. The outcomes of the first event are listed down the first column (Head

or Tail). The outcomes of the second event are listed across the top row (Head or Tail). Each

cell in the table is an outcome. There are 4 possible outcomes.

Head

Tail

Head

HH

HT

Tail

TH

TT

Fundamental counting principle verifies the result from the table. There are two events each

with two outcomes (head or tail). Number of outcomes = 2 2 = 4.

Example 4

Two red cards (R1, R2) and one black card (B1) are placed in a box. Two cards are selected at

random with replacement. Use a table to list the sample space.

Solution

1

(first card) down the first column.

There are 3 outcomes: R1, R2 and B1.

List the outcomes of the second event

(second card) across the top row.

There are 3 outcomes: R1, R2 and B1.

Write the outcome in each cell using

the intersection of the row and

column.

List the sample space.

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R1

R2

B1

R1

R1 R1 R1 R2 R1 B1

R2

R2 R1 R2 R2 R2 B1

B1

B1 R1 B1 R2 B1 B1

R2R1, R2R2, R2B1,

B1R1, B1R2, B1B1}

275

Tree diagrams

A tree diagram shows each event as a branch of the tree. The tree diagram below shows all the

possible outcomes for a tossing two coins. The outcomes of the first event are listed (H or T)

with two branches. The outcomes of the second event are listed (H or T) with two branches on

each of the outcomes from the first event. The sample space is HH, HT, TH and TT.

1st

2nd

H

HH

HT

TH

TT

Tree diagrams

Draw a tree diagram with each event as a new branch of the tree.

Always draw large clear tree diagrams and list the sample space on the right-hand side.

Example 5

a

Construct a tree diagram of these two events.

b

List the sample space.

Solution

1

2

3

4

a coin.

Tossing a coin has two outcomes (head or tail) so

there are two branches.

Draw the second branch for the second event

rolling a die.

Rolling a die has six outcomes (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6)

so there are six branches. Draw six branches for

each of the two outcomes from the first event.

Use the branches of the tree to list the sample

space. Write the outcomes down the right-hand

side (sample space).

Coin

Die

1

H1

H2

H3

H4

H5

H6

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

6 T6

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276

Exercise 9C

1

a

Use a table to list the number of elements in the

sample space. Consider the sex of each child as an

event.

b

Verify the total number of outcomes using the

fundamental counting principle.

Boy

Girl

Boy

Girl

a

Use a table to list the all the possible outcomes.

+

1

2

3

4

5

6

b

3

Verify the total number of outcomes using the fundamental counting principle.

A menu has three entrees (E1, E2 and E3) and four mains (M1, M2, M3 and M4).

a

Use a table to list the all the possible outcomes.

M1 M2 M3 M4

E1

E2

E3

b

Verify the total number of outcomes using the fundamental counting principle.

Three people (A, B and C) applied for the managers position and two people (D and E)

applied for the assistant managers position.

a

Use a table to list the all the possible outcomes.

b

Verify the total number of outcomes using the fundamental counting principle.

One bag contains two discs labelled X and Y. A second bag contains four discs

labelled D, E, F and G. A disc is chosen from each bag at random. Use a table to

determine the number of elements in the sample space.

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card (G1) are placed in a box. Two cards are

selected at random with replacement.

a Use a table to list the number of elements in

the sample space.

b Verify the total number of outcomes using

the fundamental counting principle.

face down on a table. One card is selected at

random and the result recorded. This card is

returned to the table. A second card is then

selected at random.

a Use a table to list the number of elements

in the sample space.

b Verify the total number of outcomes

using the fundamental counting principle.

a List the sample space using a tree diagram.

b How many possible outcomes?

c Use the fundamental counting principle to confirm

your answer to part b.

No. Construct a tree diagram to list the sample space.

10

1st

2nd

Y1

Y2

Y3

277

G1

Y1

Y2

Y3

G1

1st

2nd

3rd

a

b

c

How many possible outcomes are there?

Use the fundamental counting principle to confirm your answer to part b.

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278

Development

11

A two-digit number is formed using the digits 1, 2 and 3. The same number cannot be

used twice. The first digit chosen is the tens digit and the second digit chosen is the

units digit.

a List the sample space from the tree diagram.

Tens

1

3

b

c

Units

2

3

1

3

1

2

Use the fundamental counting principle to confirm your answer to part b.

12

A spinner has equal amounts of red and green sections. This spinner is spun twice.

a Use a tree diagram to list the total possible outcomes.

b Verify the total number of outcomes using the fundamental counting principle.

13

Ebony tosses a coin and spins a spinner, which has red, amber and green sections.

a Use a tree diagram to list the sample space.

b Verify the total number of outcomes using the fundamental counting principle.

14

Four cards (ace, king, queen and jack) are placed face down on a table. One card is

selected at random and the result recorded. This card is not returned to the table. A

second card is then selected at random.

a Use a tree diagram to list the total possible outcomes.

b Verify the total number of outcomes using the fundamental counting principle.

15

There are four candidates for the leader and deputy leader. The four candidates are

Angus, Bridget, Connor and Danielle.

a Construct a tree diagram with the leader as the first event and the deputy leader as

the second event. Use a tree diagram to list the sample space.

b Verify the total number of outcomes using the fundamental counting principle.

16

A two-digit number is formed using the digits 3, 5 and 7. The same number can be used

twice. The first digit chosen is the tens digit and the second digit chosen is the units

digit. Use a tree diagram to list the sample space.

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279

9.4

more formal definition is used. When a random experiment is performed the outcome or result

is called the event. For example, tossing a coin is an experiment and a head is the event. The

event is denoted by the letter E and P(E ) refers to the probability of event E. The probability

of the event is calculated by dividing the number of favourable outcomes by the total number

of outcomes. It is expressed using fractions, decimals and percentages.

Probability

Number of favourable outtccomes

Total number of outcomes

n( E )

P( E ) =

n( S )

Probability (Event) =

Example 6

A coin is chosen at random from 7 one dollar coins and 3 two dollar coins. Calculate the

probability that the coin is a:

a one dollar coin.

b two dollar coin.

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

Number of favourable outcomes (or $1 coins)

is 7. The total number of outcomes or coins

is 10.

Substitute into the formula.

Simplify the fraction if possible.

Express as a decimal or percentage if

required.

Write the formula for probability.

Number of favourable outcomes (or $2 coins)

is 3. The total number of outcomes or coins

is 10.

Substitute into the formula.

Simplify the fraction if possible.

Express as a decimal or percentage if

required.

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n($1)

n( s )

7

=

10

P($1) =

= 0.7 or

= 70%

n($2 )

n( s )

3

=

10

P($2 ) =

= 0.3 or

= 30%

280

Equally likely outcomes occur when there is no obvious reason for one outcome to occur more

often than any other, for example, selecting a ball at random from a bag containing red, blue

and white ball. Each of the balls is equally likely to be chosen.

Winning a bike race is an example of an event where the outcomes are not equally likely.

Some riders have more talent and some riders are better prepared. If one person is a better

rider, their chance of winning the race is greater.

A normal deck of playing cards has 52 cards. There are

four suits called clubs, spades, hearts and diamonds. In

each suit there are 13 cards from ace to king. There are

3 picture cards in each suit (jack, queen and king).

Example 7

What is the probability of choosing the following cards from a normal pack of cards?

a

Red four

b

Diamond

c

Picture card

Solution

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

n( Red 4 )

n( s )

2

=

52

1

=

26

Number of favourable outcomes (or red 4s)

is 2. The total number of outcomes is 52.

Substitute into the formula and simplify the

fraction.

Simplify the fraction.

P( Red 4 ) =

Number of favourable outcomes (or

diamonds) is 13. The total number of

outcomes is 52.

Substitute into the formula.

Simplify the fraction.

P( Diamond ) =

Number of favourable outcomes (or picture

cards) is 12. The total number of outcomes

is 52.

Substitute into the formula.

Simplify the fraction.

P( Picture ) =

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n( Diamond )

n( s )

13

=

52

1

=

4

n( Picture )

n( s )

12

=

52

3

=

13

281

Exercise 9D

1

a

A card dealt from a normal deck of cards is a diamond

b

A day selected at random from the week is a weekend

c

A head results when a coin is tossed

d

A letter from the alphabet is a vowel

e

A two results when a die is rolled

f

A six is chosen from {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}.

A bag contains 5 blue and 3 red balls. Find the probability of selecting at random:

a

a blue ball.

b

a red ball.

c

not a red ball.

Aaron chooses one ball at random from his golf bag. The table below shows the type and

quantity of golf balls in his bag.

Type of golf ball Quantity

B51 Impact

Maxfli

Pinnacle

13

a

a Maxfli

c

a B51 Impact

b

d

a Pinnacle

not a Maxfli

An unbiased coin is tossed three times. On the first two tosses the result is tails. What is

the probability that the result of the third toss will be a tail?

In Amber Ave there are 3 high school students, 4 primary school students and

5 preschool students. One student from Amber Ave is chosen at random.

What is the probability that a primary school student is chosen?

A box contains 3 blue, 4 green and 2 white counters. Find the chance of drawing at

random one counter which is:

a

blue

b

green

c

white

d

not blue

A card is chosen at random from a standard deck of 52 playing cards. Find the

probability of choosing:

a

the seven of clubs

b

a spade

c

a red card

d

a red picture card

e

a nine

f

the six of hearts

g

an even number

h

a picture card

i

a black ace

The weather on a particular day is described as either wet or dry. Therefore there is an

even chance of a wet day. Do you agree with this statement? Give a reason.

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282

Development

9

A die with 16 faces marked 1 to 16 is rolled. Find the probability that the number is:

a an odd number

b neither a 1 nor a 2

c a multiple of 3

d greater than 12

e less than or equal to 15

f a square number

10

A wheel contains 8 evenly spaced numbers labelled 1 to 8. The wheel is spun until it

stops at a number. It is given that the wheel is equally likely to stop at any number. Find

the probability that the wheel stops at:

a a 7

b a number greater than 5

c an odd number

d a 1 or 2

e a number less than 10

f a number divisible by 3

11

cards. Lucy is dealt four cards

from a normal deck: two aces

and two kings. What is the

probability that the next card is:

a another ace?

b another king?

c not an ace?

d not a king?

12

Two cards are drawn at random from a normal deck of cards. What is the probability that

the second card is:

a a two if the first card was a two?

b an ace if the first card was an ace?

c the six of clubs if first card was a ten?

d a two if the first card was a king?

e a diamond if the first card was a diamond?

f

a picture card if the first card was a picture card?

13

A four-digit number is formed from the digits 2, 3, 4 and 5 without replacement. What is

the probability that the number:

a starts with the digit 4?

b is greater than 3000?

c ends with a 2 or a 3?

d is 2345?

14

Six students enter a swimming race. The chance of a particular student winning is

Is this statement true or false? Give reasons to support your opinion.

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1

6

283

9.5

probability of an event that is certain is 1. Probability is

always within this range or from 0 to 1. It is not possible

to have the probability of an event as 2. The range of

probability is expressed as 0 P(E) 1 or P(E) 0 and

P(E) 1. It is also important to realise that the probability

of every event in an experiment will sum to 1.

Certain

0.75

0.5

Even chance

0.25

0

Impossible

Range of probability

Probability of an event is between 0 and 1 or 0 P(E) 1.

P(A) + P(B) + = 1

A, B, are all the possible outcomes or events.

Example 8

The probability of selecting a red card is

3

5

is

1

10

blue card?

Solution

1

2

Substitute into the formula the probabilities of

3

4

5

3

5

and P(Y ) = 10 .

subject of the equation.

Simplify the fraction if possible.

Write the answer in words.

P( R) + P(Y ) + P( B) = 1

3 1

+ + P( B) = 1

5 10

3 1

P( B) = 1

5 10

3

=

10

Probability of a blue card is

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3

.

10

284

Exercise 9E

1

3

7

and the probability of selecting ticket B is 15

.

10

a

What is the value of P(A)?

b

What is the value of P(B)?

c

What is the probability of selecting a ticket with the letter D?

d

What is the probability of selecting tickets A, B or C?

e

What is the probability of selecting ticket C?

A bag contains black, yellow and white cards. The probability of drawing a black card is

57% and the probability of drawing a yellow card is 8%. What is the value of the

following expressed as a fraction in simplest form:

a

P(Black)?

b

P(Yellow)?

c

P(White)?

In a particular event the probability of Blake winning a gold medal is 83 and a silver

medal is 1 . There is no bronze medal.

4

a

b

What are Blakes chances of not winning any medals?

Some picture cards from a deck of cards are placed face down on the table. The

probability of drawing a king is 0.25 and a queen is 0.60. What is the value of the

following expressed as a decimal:

a

P(king)?

b

P(jack)?

c

P(jack) + P(king)?

d

P(king) + P(queen) + P(jack)?

There are four outcomes of an experiment. Three of the outcomes have probabilities of

20%, 25% and 40% respectively. What is the probability of the fourth outcome?

A biased die is rolled. The probability of obtaining an even number is 0.4 and the

probability of a 1 or a 3 is 0.3. Find the value of the following probabilities.

a

P(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)

b

P(2, 4, 5, 6)

c

P(Odd)

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285

Development

7

A disc is chosen at random from a bag containing five different colours: black, green,

1

2

pink, red and white. If P( B) = 5 , P(G ) = 13

, P( P ) = 29 and P( R) = 61 , find the

probability of the following outcomes.

a

Black or green disc

b Pink or red disc

c

Black or red disc

d Black, green or pink disc

e

Black, green or red disc

f

Black, green, pink or red disc

A card is chosen at random from some playing cards. The probability of a spade is 0.24,

the probability of a club is 0.27 and the probability of a heart is 0.23. Find the probability

of the following outcomes.

a

Black card

b Red card

c

Club or a heart

d Spade or a heart

e

Diamond

f

Diamond or a club

Julia and Natasha are playing a game where a standard six-sided die is rolled. Julia wins

if an even number is rolled. Natasha wins if a number greater than three is rolled. What

is the probability that the number rolled is neither even nor greater than three?

10

A bag contains white, green and red marbles. The probability of selecting a white marble

is

2

7

1

8

11

The numbers 1 to 20 are written on separate cards. One card is chosen at random. What

is the probability that the card chosen is a prime number or is divisible by 3?

12

One letter is selected at random from a word containing the letters TAMPR. It is given

1

.

that P(T ) = 1 , P( A) = 2 , P( M ) = 1 and P( P ) = 10

5

5

10

i

Letters T or A

ii Letters T or P

iii Letters M or P

iv Letters A, M or P

v Letter T, A, M or P

vi Letter R

The word contains 10 letters. From the letters TAMPR how many of the following

letters are in the word?

i

T

ii A

iii M

iv P

v R

What is the word? (Hint: Australian place)

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286

9.6

The complement of an event E is the event not including E. For example, when throwing a die

the complement of 2 are the events 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6. The complement of an event E is denoted

by E . An event and its complement represent all the possible outcomes and are certain to

occur. Hence the probability of an event and its complement will sum to be 1.

Complementary events

P( E ) + P( E ) = 1 or P( E ) = 1 P( E )

E Event or outcome.

E Complement of event E or the outcomes not including event E.

Example 9

pack. Find the probability of obtaining the

following outcomes.

a

Not a ten

b

Not a black jack

Solution

2

Substitute into the formula the probability

4

(ten)) = 52

for a ten ( or P (ten

).

Evaluate.

1

2

Substitute into the formula the probability

2

for a black jack ( or P (bl

(black

ack jack

jack)) = 52

).

Evaluate.

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P (ten ) = 1 P (ten)

4

= 1

52

48

=

52

12

=

13

2

= 1

52

50

=

52

25

=

26

287

Exercise 9F

1

a

Selecting a black card from a normal pack of cards

b

Winning first prize in Lotto

c

Throwing an even number when a die is rolled

d

Obtaining a tail when a coin is tossed

e

Drawing a spade from a normal pack of playing cards

f

Choosing a green ball from a bag containing a blue, a red and a green ball

1

P( E ) =

a

b

P(E) = 0.9

c P(E) = 62%

d

P(E) = 1 : 4

5

3

e

P( E ) =

f

P(E) = 0.45

g P(E) = 37.5%

h

P(E) = 3 : 7

11

The chances of the Sydney Swans winning the premiership are given as 29%. What are

the chances that the Sydney Swans will not win the premiership?

a

Express your answer as a decimal.

b

Express your answer as a fraction.

The probability of obtaining a three on a biased die is 0.6. What is the probability of not

obtaining a three?

day in March does not have rain?

drawing a red marble? Express your answer as a:

a

fraction

b

decimal

11

15

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5

8

c

percentage

288

Development

7

A ball is chosen at random from a bag containing four different colours: brown, orange,

2

purple and yellow. If P(O ) = 11

, P( P ) = 29 and P(Y ) = 14 , find the probability of the

following outcomes.

a

Not a yellow ball

b

Not an orange ball

c

Not a purple ball

d

Orange or a purple ball

e

Yellow or a purple ball

f

Not a brown ball

g

A brown ball

h

Not an orange or a yellow ball

Samuel selects a card at random from a normal pack. Find the probability of obtaining

the following outcomes.

a

Not a queen

b

Not a red ace

a

not be born on Saturday?

b

not be born on a weekend?

10

14.2

A 12-sided die has 12 faces marked 1 to 12. The die is biased. If P(8) = 0.1, P(2) = 0.15

and P(( 3) = 0.91 , find:

a

P(( 8 )

P(( 2 )

P(8) + P

P(( 8 )

P(3)

P(2) + P

P(( 2 )

P( 3) + P

P(( 3)

P(2) + P(8)

P(2) + P

P((8)

11

P(ace) = 8%, P(king) = 7% and P(queen) = 10%, find the probability of the following

outcomes.

a

Not an ace

b

Not a king

c

Not a queen

d

King or a queen

e

Ace or a queen

f

Not an ace, king or queen

12

P(( T) = 163 .

a

b

How many of the 32 cards were labelled with a T?

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Relative frequency

Study guide 9

Frequency of an event

Relative frequency =

Totaall number of frequencies

Multistage events

principle

p Number of outcomes of the first event.

q Number of outcomes of the second event.

Systematic lists

Fundamental counting

Definition of probability

Range of probability

Complementary events

Outcome or result of a random experiment is called an event.

Number of favourable outtccomes

Probability (Event) =

Total number of outcomes

n( E )

P( E ) =

n( S )

Probability of an event that is impossible is 0.

Probability of an event that is certain is 1.

Probability of an event is between 0 and 1 or 0 P(E) 1.

P(A) + P(B) + = 1

A, B, are all the possible outcomes or events.

Complement of an event E is the event not including E.

Probability of an event and its complement will sum to be 1.

P( E ) + P( E ) = 1 or P( E ) = 1 P( E )

E Event or outcome.

E Complement of event E or the outcomes not including event E.

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Review

289

Review

290

1

The frequency of an event is 6 and the total number of frequencies is 20. What is the

relative frequency?

A 14%

B 26%

C 30%

D 70%

A local community has 220 motorbikes and 740 cars. What is the relative frequency for a

car? Answer as a fraction in lowest terms.

11

220

37

740

A

B

C

D

48

960

48

960

How many possible outcomes are there when four coins are tossed?

A 4

B 8

C 16

D 32

How many different ways can the letters of the word FORBES be arranged in a row?

A 6

B 21

C 24

D 720

One card is selected from a normal deck of cards. What is the probability that it is a

diamond?

1

1

1

3

A

B

C

D

52

13

4

4

A three-digit number is formed from the digits 5, 7, 8 and 9. What is the probability that

the number will be odd?

A 0.25

B 0.50

C 0.75

D 0.80

One card is selected from cards labelled 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. What is the probability of an even

number and/or a number divisible by 5?

A 10%

B 50%

C 60%

D 100%

A bag contains black, white and grey balls. The probability of selecting a black ball is 0.3

and a grey ball is 0.6. What is the probability of selecting a white ball?

A 0.1

B 0.36

C 0.63

D 0.9

A letter is chosen at random from the word NEWCASTLE. What is the probability that the

letter will not be a vowel?

1

2

1

2

A

B

C

D

9

9

3

3

10

A 0.32

B 0.64

C 0.68

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1

Cambridge University Press

291

in a test. What is the relative frequency for the

following outcomes? Answer correct to two

decimal places.

a 5059

b 6069

c 7079

d 8089

Score

Frequency

5059

6069

7079

8089

Relative freq.

The local football club sold 350 raffle tickets to raise money for some equipment. Liam

sold 60 of these tickets. What is the relative frequency of Liams tickets? Answer as a

percentage correct to the nearest whole number.

Last year Oscar bought a packet of biscuits every week and found 30 of these packets

contained broken biscuits. What is the relative frequency of this event? Answer as a

decimal correct to two decimal places.

There were 23 people who applied for a particular job. Are the chances of each person

getting the job equally likely? Why?

A paper bag contains 3 green, 4 brown and 5 yellow beads. To win a game, Greg needs to

draw two green beads from the bag. How many elements are in the sample space?

List all the possible ways to answer the first three questions of a true or false test.

A poker machine has three reels, with 12 symbols on each wheel. How many arrangements

are possible when the poker machine is spun?

A PIN has four digits. How many possible PINs are there?

A raffle ticket is drawn from a box containing 50 raffle tickets numbered from 1 to 50. Find

the probability of the following outcomes.

a The number 50

b Even number

c Less than 20

d Greater than 30

e Divisible by 5

f Square number

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Review

Review

292

Chapter

Earning

Money

10 Whatsummary

is the probability

of choosing

a black card from a standard deck of cards?

11

Four kings are taken from a standard deck of cards and placed face down on a table. One

card is selected at random. What is the probability of selecting:

a the king of clubs?

b a black king?

c a picture card?

12

A house contains 4 girls, 3 boys and 2 adults. If one person is chosen at random, what is

the probability that the person:

a is a girl?

b is a boy?

c is a girl or a boy?

13

An eight-sided die has the numbers 1 to 8 on it. What is the probability of rolling the

following outcomes?

a Number 2

b Either a 3 or a 5

c Number 9

d Divisible by 3

e Odd number

f Prime number

14

There are five students in a group whose names are Adam, Sarah, Max, Hayley and David.

If one name is chosen at random, find the probability of selecting a name:

a with 5 letters.

b with the letter a.

c with exactly one

vowel.

15

A fair coin is tossed three times. The probability of throwing three tails is 0.125, two tails

is 0.375 and one tail is 0.375. What is the probability of the following outcomes?

a No tails

b Three or two tails

c At least one tail

d Not throwing a head

e Not throwing exactly two tails

f Throwing one head

16

game: win, lose or draw. If P(( Win ) = 75 and

P(( Lose) = 15 , find the probability of the

following.

a Winning or losing the match

b Drawing the match

c Not winning the match

d Not losing the match

17

Caitlin selects a card at random from a standard deck of cards. Find the probability of

obtaining the following outcomes.

a Not an ace

b Not a heart

c Not a red six

18

5

16

Challenge questions 9

The Powers Family Trust 2013

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C H A P T E R

10

Taxation

Syllabus topic FM3 Taxation

Calculate the allowable deductions from gross income

Calculate the taxable income

Calculate the Medicare levy

Determine PAYE tax payable or refund owing

Calculate the GST payable

Create graphs that describe different tax rates

Allowable deductions are deductions allowed by the

Australian Taxation Office (ATO). Details of allowable

deductions are given on the ATO website (www.ato.gov.au).

Work-related expenses costs incurred while performing your job

Self-education expenses costs of education related to your work

Travel expenses costs of travel directly connected with your work

Car expenses costs of using your car related to your work

Clothing expenses costs of work clothing and laundry

Tools cost of work tools

Gifts and donations gifts made to an eligible organisation.

293

The Powers Family Trust 2013

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294

Allowable deductions

Deductions allowed by the Australian Taxation Office include work-related,

self-education, travel, car, clothing, tools and donations.

Example 1

consultant. He is entitled to the following tax

deductions:

equipment costs of $1260

car expenses of $1060

professional learning of $985

union fees of $650

charity donations of $250

tax agent fee of $212.

What is Rileys total allowable tax deduction?

Solution

1

2

3

4

calculated.

Add all the allowable deductions.

Evaluate and write using correct units.

Write the answer in words.

Example 2

650 + 250 + 212

= $4417

Riley has an allowable tax deduction

of $4417.

Ava has used her own car for a total of 7900 km on work related travel this financial year.

Calculate her tax deduction if she is entitled to claim 70 cents per kilometre.

Solution

1

2

3

4

calculated.

Multiply the kilometres travelled by the

rate per kilometre.

Evaluate and write using correct units.

Write the answer in words.

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= $5530

of $5530.

Chapter 10 Taxation

295

Exercise 10A

1

Stephanie works as a waitress and is entitled to an allowance for the cost of her work

clothing and laundry. Her clothing expenses are listed below. Calculate the total cost for

each item of clothing and her allowable deduction for clothing.

Work clothing

Blue shirt

$55.00

Black trouser

$110.00

Belt

$45.00

Tie

$34.00

Dry-cleaning

$32.00

Zara is a child care worker who is entitled to the following tax deductions:

$420 for union fees

tax agent fee of $125

charity donations of $160

self-education fee of $840

stationery costs of $46.

What is Zaras total tax deduction?

Chris is entitled to the following tax deductions: training courses of $1460, motor vehicle

expenses of $1420, stationery costs of $760, union fees of $480, charity donations of

$310 and accountant fee of $184. What is Chriss total allowable tax deduction?

Car expenses are claimed according to the engine capacity of the motor vehicle. The rate

per kilometre for travel in a private vehicle is listed below.

Engine capacity

Allowable deduction

0 to 1600 cc

58 c/km

1600 cc to 2600 cc

69 c/km

70 c/km

Calculate the tax deduction for the following car expenses related to work.

a 3560 km in a Toyota Corolla with an engine capacity of 1.8 L (1788 cc)

b 1280 km in a Ford Falcon with an engine capacity of 4.0 L (3984 cc)

c 4580 km in a Holden Barina with an engine capacity of 1.6 L (1598 cc)

d 2340 km in a Honda Civic with an engine capacity of 1.3 L (1339 cc)

e 3105 km in a Nissan Pulsar with an engine capacity of 1.8 L (1769 cc)

f

2818 km in a Mazda CX-9 with an engine capacity of 3.7 L (3726 cc)

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296

Development

5

Harrison buys a new van costing $42560 for his business. He is entitled to claim as a tax

deduction 12% of the cost of the vehicle if the motor vehicle travels more than 5000

business kilometres in a year. What is Harrisons allowable deduction for the van if he

travelled 16230 kilometres for business?

capital equipment on the farm

worth $240000. The ATO allows a

tax deduction for the depreciation

of capital equipment based on a

percentage of the current value.

What is the tax deduction using the

following rates of depreciation?

a 10% p.a.

b 20% p.a.

c 30% p.a.

d 40% p.a.

Mitchell has an investment property that contains furnishings valued at $12600. The

furnishings are an allowable deduction with a rate of depreciation of 15% p.a. How much

can be claimed for depreciation over the year?

Xiang is a teacher who bought a $2350 laptop for school use. The laptop is an allowable

deduction with a rate of depreciation of 33% p.a. of the current value. How much can be

claimed for depreciation in each of the following years?

a First year

b Second year

c Third year

9

Dylan is the owner of a newspaper shop in a shopping centre. He pays rent of $860 per

week, has an electricity bill of $280 per quarter and a telephone bill of $110 per month.

These expenses are work related so he is entitled to a tax deduction. What is Dylans total

allowable tax deduction?

10

Chelsea has a small office in her home to run a business. The office in her home is 8%

of the area of the house. The tax office allows 8% of the household bills as a tax

deduction if it is a work-related expense. Calculate the allowable tax deduction for the

financial year on the following household bills.

a Electricity bill of $360 per quarter

b Telephone bill of $70 per month

c House insurance of $684 per year

d Rent of $440 per fortnight

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Chapter 10 Taxation

297

Each year people who earn an income are

required to complete a tax return. A tax return

is a form that states a persons income, the

amount of tax paid and any allowable tax

deductions. Most people have PAYG tax

deducted from their wage or salary throughout

the year. This PAYG tax can be greater or less

than the required amount of tax to be paid.

Tax is calculated on the taxable income. The

taxable income is the gross income minus

any allowable deductions. The gross income

is the total amount of money earned from

all sources. It includes interest, profits from

shares or any payment received throughout

the year.

Taxable income

Taxable income = Gross income allowable deductions

Example 3

salary of $93 250 per year. His accountant

completed his tax return and calculated $2890

in allowable deductions.

What is Anthonys taxable income?

Solution

1

2

3

calculated.

Subtract the deductions from the gross

income.

Evaluate and write using the correct units.

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= $90 360

298

Example 4

Emily is a journalist with a gross annual salary of $87 620. She also made $5680 from her

share portfolio and received $7320 from royalties. If Emily has tax deductions totaling $6472,

calculate her taxable income.

Solution

1

2

3

4

all income.

Write the quantity (taxable income) to

be calculated.

Subtract the deductions from the gross

income

Evaluate.

Example 5

= $100 620

= $94 148

pay of $1624. She has allowable tax deductions

of $8 per week for dry-cleaning, $60 for

work-related travel per year, $460 per year for

union fees and she made donations to charities of

$620 throughout the year.

a What is Nicoles gross yearly salary?

b What is Nicoles total allowable tax deduction?

c Calculate Nicoles taxable income.

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

calculated.

Multiply the weekly pay by 52.

Evaluate.

Salary = 1624 52

= $84 448

calculated.

Add all the allowable deductions.

Evaluate.

460 + 620

= $1556

calculated.

Subtract the deductions from the gross

income.

Evaluate.

= $82 892

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Chapter 10 Taxation

299

Exercise 10B

1

Benjamin has a gross income of $84 000. What is Benjamins taxable income given the

following allowable deductions?

a $5120

b

$9571

c

$4720

d $24 104

e

$8205

f

$17 594

g $12 520

h

$23 890

i

$34 560

Chris earns a gross salary of $67 840 per year. His tax deductions total $3462. Calculate

Chriss taxable income.

Jessica earned a gross income of $75 480 in the last financial year.

Allowable deductions

Amount

Work-related expenses

$1260

Self-education expenses

$680

Travel expenses

$940

Clothing expenses

$320

a

b

The table above is a summary of her allowable deductions. What is her total

allowable deduction?

Calculate Jessicas taxable income in the last financial year.

Eliza earned $88 784 from her employer in the last financial year. She also earned bank

interest of $380. Eliza spent $240 on books, $520 on stationery and $380 on a printer, all

of which are needed for her work.

a What is Elizas gross income?

b What are Elizas total allowable deductions?

c Calculate Elizas taxable income.

a gross income of $63 620. He claimed

a tax deduction for a utility belt ($160),

a pair of safety glasses ($390), bullet

proof vest ($1240) and handcuffs ($420).

a What is Daniels total allowable

deduction?

b Calculate Daniels taxable income.

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300

Development

6

Nicholas earns a gross weekly pay of $1120. He has tax deductions of $1460.

a What is Nicholass gross yearly salary?

b What is Nicholass taxable income?

Abbey is a real estate salesperson who earns a commission of 2% on all sales. During the

year Abbey sold real estate to the value of $3232100.

a What is Abbeys gross annual income?

b Abbey has calculated her tax deductions to be $4320. What is her taxable income?

Isabelle works for a travel agency and earns a gross fortnightly pay of $2780. She pays

PAYG tax of $602 per fortnight and has tax deductions of $7 per week for dry-cleaning,

$80 for work-related travel per year and $380 per year for union fees.

a

b

c

d

9

How much tax is deducted each week?

What is Isabelles total allowable tax deduction?

Calculate Isabelles taxable income.

Oscar is a tradesman who receives a yearly gross salary of $92200. He also works

part-time at TAFE for a wage of $135 per week. Oscar received $360 in share dividends.

a What is Oscars gross annual income?

b Oscar is entitled to tax deduction for travelling between his two places of

employment. Oscar has calculated that he travelled 340 km and the allowable

deduction is 69 c/km. What is Oscars travel expense?

c In addition to the above travel expenses Oscar is entitled to the following tax

deductions: $530 for union fees, tax agent fee of $180, charity donations of $280 and

equipment costs of $750. Calculate Oscars total allowable deduction.

d What is Oscars taxable income?

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Chapter 10 Taxation

301

The Medicare levy is an additional charge to support Australias universal health care system.

It ensures that all Australians have access to free or low-cost medical and hospital care. The

Medicare levy is calculated at a rate of 1.5% of taxable income.

Medicare levy

Additional charge for health services. It is calculated at 1.5% of the taxable income.

Example 6

The Medical levy is 1.5% of the taxable income. What is the Medicare levy if the taxable

income is $90 600?

Solution

1

2

3

4

income.

Express 1.5% as a decimal 0.015.

Evaluate using correct units.

Write the answer in words.

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= 0.015 90 600

= $1359

Medicare levy payable is $1359.

302

Exercise 10C

1

The Medicare levy is 1.5% of the taxable income. What is the Medicare levy on the

following taxable incomes? Answer correct to the nearest dollar.

a $23 000

b

$88 541

c

$40 600

d $46 906

e

$67 800

f

$200 592

g $170 300

h

$15 790

i

$90 640

Liam has a taxable income of $56 400. He is required to pay $11 520 in tax plus a

Medicare levy of 1.5% of his taxable income.

a How much is Liams Medicare levy?

b Calculate the total amount of tax due including the Medicare levy.

Mia works for a superannuation fund and received a taxable income of $124 800. She is

required to pay $36 520 in income tax.

a Medicare levy is 1.5% of the taxable income. How much is Mias Medicare levy?

b Calculate the total amount of tax due including the Medicare levy.

The government is planning to change the rate of Australias Medicare levy. Calculate the

Medicare levy payable on $120 000 for the following rates.

a 0.50%

b

0.75%

c

1.00%

d 1.25%

e

1.50%

f

1.75%

g 2.00%

h

2.25%

i

2.50%

Sami has a taxable income of $88 900. He is required to pay $22 160 in tax plus a

Medicare levy of 2.0% of his taxable income.

a How much is Samis Medicare levy?

b Calculate the total amount of tax due including the Medicare levy.

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Chapter 10 Taxation

303

Development

6

The rate of the Medicare levy is 1.5% of the taxable income. What is the taxable income

given the following Medicare levies?

a $300.00

b $675.00

c $2250.00

d $1689.30

e $888.09

f

$543.21

g $2105.52

h $1131.18

i

$367.74

7

Create the spreadsheet below. Formulas have been entered in cells B5 to B10.

10C

a

b

c

d

Cell B5 has a formula (=A5*0.015) that calculates the Medicare levy. The rate of the

Medicare levy is 1.5% of the taxable income. Enter this formula.

The formulas in cells B6 to B10 are similar to the formula in B5. Fill down the

contents of B6 to B9 using the formula in cell B5.

Use the spreadsheet to calculate the Medicare levy payable on a taxable income of:

i $10000

ii $210000

iii

$49740

The Australian Government has decided to decrease the Medicare levy from 1.5% to

1.25% of the taxable income. Modify the spreadsheet.

Medicare levy of $1193.40. What was

Oscars taxable income if the rate of the

Medicare levy is 1.5% of the taxable

income? Answer correct to the nearest

dollar.

Laura paid a Medicare levy of $1303.40. What was Lauras taxable income if the rate of

the Medicare levy is 2.5% of the taxable income?

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304

The amount of taxation varies according to the amount of

money you earn. A tax return must be lodged with the ATO

each year. It is a statement of the income earned and

the tax paid during the financial year from 1 July to

30 June. The ATO publishes a TaxPack to assist

people in completing their tax return. The

TaxPack provides information about the

current income tax rates.

10.4

The personal income tax rates are regularly changed to take into account government

policy and inflation. The tax rates are listed in the table below. (Note: these are not the current

tax rates.)

Taxable income

Tax payable

0$6000

Nil

$6001$30000

$30001$80000

$80001$180000

The tax payable is dependent on the taxable income. If the taxable income is $6000 or less

then there is no tax payable. The tax rates then increase progressively. It starts out at 15 cents

for every $1, for amounts between $6001 and $30000.The highest tax rate is 45 cents for

every $1 over $180000. Most people have PAYG tax deducted from their wage or salary

throughout the year. This PAYG tax can be greater or less than the required amount of tax

to be paid. If a person pays more throughout the year than they are required to pay they will

receive a tax refund. On the other hand, if a person pays less than the required amount of tax

throughout the year they will have tax owing.

Tax refund

Tax owing

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Chapter 10 Taxation

Example 7

305

Manjula has a taxable income of $25 000. How much tax will she have to pay? Manjula has

paid $4050 in PAYG tax. What is her refund?

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

table on page 304.

Taxable income of $25 000 is

between $6001 and $30 000 (row 2).

Read the information in the tax

payable column for this range (row 2).

Write an expression for tax payable.

The word over implies more than.

Evaluate using correct units.

Write in words.

Find the tax refund by subtracting

the tax payable from the tax paid.

Evaluate.

Write in words.

Example 8

= $2850

Tax refund = $4050 $2850

= $1200

Manjulas refund is $1200.

Joel has a taxable income of $200 000 and has paid $72 000 in tax instalments. How much

does the tax department owe Joel at the end of the financial year?

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

Tax payable = 58 600 + (200 000 180 000) 0.45

table on page 304.

= $67 600

Taxable income of $200 000 is

between $180 000 and over.

Write an expression for tax

payable.

Evaluate.

Find the tax refund by

Tax refund = 72 000 67 600

subtracting the tax payable

= $4400

from the tax paid.

Evaluate.

Tax department owes Joel $4400.

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306

Exercise 10D

1

Taxable income

Tax payable

Tax bracket

0$6000

Nil

$6001$30 000

Which tax bracket (A, B, C, D or E) from the table applies to these taxable incomes?

a $16 000

b

$2500

c

$75 000

d $122 500

e

$230 000

f

$80 000

g $30 001

h

$180 000

i

$4500

2

Calculate the tax payable on the following taxable incomes by completing the tax payable

expression.

a $16 000

Tax payable = Nil + (16 000 6000) 0.15 =

b

$32 500

$75 000

$122 600

$230 000

$80 000

Avas taxable income was $28 000. The first $6000 was tax-free and the balance was

taxed at a marginal rate of 15%. Calculate the amount of tax payable.

Tylers taxable income was $111 000. The tax payable on the first $80 000 is $18 600 and

the balance was taxed at a marginal rate of 40%. Calculate the amount of tax payable.

Use the tax table on page 304 to calculate the tax payable on the following taxable

incomes.

a $6001

b

$30 001

c

$80 001

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Chapter 10 Taxation

307

Development

Use the tax table on page 304 to answer questions 6 to 11.

6

a $10890

b $73966

c $37814

d $115900

e $196430

f

$53410

a Taxable income of $34850 with tax instalments paid of $4678.

b Taxable income of $129864 with tax instalments paid of $31272.

a What is Ebonys taxable income?

b Calculate the amount of tax due.

c Ebony has paid $95 per week in tax. How much refund should she receive for the

year?

a What is Charlies taxable income?

b Calculate the amount of tax due.

c Charlie has paid $160 per week in tax. How much tax has been paid for the year?

d Will Charlie receive a refund or will he have to pay more tax? Justify your answer.

10

income of $145684.

a Find the tax payable on this

amount.

b What percentage of her income

is paid as tax? Answer correct to

one decimal place.

11

Nathan has a taxable income of $106770. He has paid $980 per fortnight in tax.

a How much tax has Nathan paid for the year?

b Calculate the amount of tax payable by Nathan.

c Will Nathan receive a refund or will he have to pay more tax? Justify your answer.

d What percentage of his income is paid as tax? Correct to one decimal place.

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308

12

10D

a

b

14.3

Formulas have been entered into cells C13, C14, C15, C16, E14, E16 and E18. These

formulas are shown above. Enter all the formulas.

Change the taxable income (cell B4) to the following amounts and observe the

results.

i $50000

ii $10000

iii $200000

13

Emma received an income of $75420 from her main job for the last financial year and

paid $18680 in tax instalments. In addition, Emma earned an income of $6890 from a

part-time job and paid tax of $2980.

a How much tax has Emma paid for the year?

b Calculate the amount of tax payable by Emma.

c Will Emma receive a refund or will she have to pay more tax? Justify your answer.

d What percentage of her income is paid as tax? Answer correct to one decimal place.

14

Alexander earns an income of $42000. He also has $15000 in a bank account which

earns interest at a rate of 8.5% p.a. Alexander has to pay tax on his total income.

a How much interest does Alexander earn from his bank account this year?

b Calculate the tax payable.

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Chapter 10 Taxation

309

GST

10.5

The Australian Government collects a tax when people purchase goods and services. The tax

is called the GST (Goods and Services Tax) and is 10% of the purchase price of the item.

There are exceptions for basic food items and some medical expenses.

GST

To calculate the total cost of an item, add the GST to the pre-tax price. Alternatively,

find 110% of the pre-tax price.

To calculate the pre-tax price given the total cost of an item, divide the total cost

by 110%.

Example 9

at the Sydney Olympic Stadium. He was also

required to pay a 10% GST.

a How much GST is payable?

b What was the total cost of his ticket

including the GST?

c What is the pre-tax price of a ticket if the

final price of the ticket was $149.60?

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Multiply 0.10 by 142.

Evaluate and write using correct units.

= 0.10 142

= $14.20

calculated.

Add the GST to the cost of the ticket.

Evaluate and write using correct units.

= $156.20

calculated.

Divide the final price by 1.10.

Evaluate and write using correct units.

= $149.60 1.10

= $136

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310

VAT

In some countries the GST is called the VAT (Value Added Tax). The rate of the VAT ranges

from 2% to 25%. The calculations for the VAT are similar to the calculations for the GST

except the rate of taxation is different.

VAT

To calculate the VAT, find the VAT rate of the pre-tax price.

To calculate the total cost of an item, add the VAT to the pre-tax price. Alternatively,

find 100% + VAT rate of the pre-tax price.

To calculate the pre-tax price given the total cost of an item, divide the total cost by

100% + VAT rate.

Example 10

Singapore has a Value Added Tax (VAT) levied at 5%. Olivia bought a microwave in

Singapore for $275 plus a VAT of 5%.

a

b

c

What was the total cost of her microwave including the VAT?

What is the pre-tax price of the microwave if the final price of the microwave was $672?

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Multiply 0.05 by 275.

Evaluate and write using correct units.

VAT = 5% of $275

= 0.05 275

= $13.75

Add the VAT to the cost of the ticket.

Evaluate and write using correct units.

= $288.75

calculated.

Divide the final price by 1.05.

Evaluate and write using correct units.

= $672 1.05

= $640

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Chapter 10 Taxation

311

Exercise 10E

1

Calculate the GST payable on each of the following items. The GST rate is 10%.

a Football at $36

b

Shoes at $140

c

Dinner at $170

d Bucket at $3.20

e

Dress at $490

f

Book at $42

g Belt at $42.90

h

Ring at $2600

i

Camera at $370

Blake received a $620 bill for electrical work and was required to pay a 10% GST.

a How much GST is payable?

b What was the total cost of the electrical work including the GST?

Isabelle received an invoice for her gym membership of $780. In addition she was

required to pay a 10% GST.

a How much GST is payable?

b What was the total cost of her gym membership including the GST?

Great Britain has a Value Added Tax (VAT) similar to the GST. The VAT is 17 12 % on

clothing. How much VAT is payable on the following items?

a

c

5

Football shorts worth 20

b

d

Football socks worth 8

What is the VAT payable in the following countries on a car worth 42 000? Answer

correct to the nearest dollar.

a Argentina 21% VAT

b

Canada 7% VAT

c China 17% VAT

d

India 12.5% VAT

e Russia 18% VAT

f

Singapore 5% VAT

g South Africa 14% VAT

h

Switzerland 6.5% VAT

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312

Development

6

The cost of the following items includes a 10% GST. What was the pre-GST charge?

a Pen at $17.60

b Calculator at $24.20

c Chair at $99

d DVD at $38.50

e Plant at $15.40

f

Watch at $198

(VAT) levied at 12.5%.

a Ata bought a jacket in New Zealand

for $480 plus the VAT. What price

did she pay for the jacket?

b A jacket costs $390 including the

VAT. What was the price of the

jacket before VAT is added? Answer

correct to the nearest dollar.

8

10E

a

b

Cell C5 has a formula that calculates a 10% GST. Enter this formula.

The formula in cell D5 adds the cost price and the GST. Enter this formula. Fill

down the contents of B6 to B10 using this formula.

After the 10% GST was added, the price of a mobile phone was $362. What was the

price without GST? Answer correct to the nearest cent.

10

What was the original cost of a notebook computer with a GST-included price of $1850?

The rate of GST is 10%. Answer correct to the nearest cent.

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Chapter 10 Taxation

313

The personal income tax rates and a graph of these rates are shown below. (Note: these are

not the current tax rates.) The taxable income is the horizontal axis and the tax payable is the

vertical axis. Each change in the rate of tax results in a different line segment.

Taxable income

Tax payable

0$6000

Nil

$6001$30000

$30001$80000

$80001$180000

70

(180, 58.6)

60

50

40

30

20

(80, 18.6)

10

(6, 0)

(30, 3.6)

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

Taxable income (thousands of dollars)

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160

180

200

314

The personal income tax table on the previous page can be used to determine five points to

be graphed. The points are (0, 0), (6, 0), (30, 3.6), (80, 18.6) and (180, 58.6). These values

are in thousands of dollars: the first number is the taxable income and the second number

is the tax payable. The point (180, 58.6) represents a taxable income of $180 000 and a tax

payable of $58 600.

The gradient of each line segment represents the rate of tax. For example, the gradient of the

line between (80, 18.6) and (180, 58.6) is calculated below.

Gradient =

Vertical

r

rtical

rise

Horizontal run

58.6 18.6

180 80

40

100

= 0.440

The gradient of 0.40 corresponds to the rate of tax of 40 cents for each $1.

Graphing tax rates

1

2

3

Draw a number plane with the taxable income as the horizontal axis and the

tax payable as the vertical axis.

Use information in the tax rate table to determine the points. Plot the points.

Join the points to make a straight line segment for each rate of tax.

Example 11

Amy pays $10 000 in tax. Use the graph on the previous page to determine her taxable

income.

Solution

1

2

3

4

payable amount of $10 000.

Use a ruler read a horizontal line from 10 until it

reaches the line graph. Place a marker.

Read vertically from the marker to the horizontal

axis. Place a marker (about 50).

Read and then approximate the value of the marker.

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Taxable income is

approximately $50 000.

Chapter 10 Taxation

315

Exercise 10F

The line graph below shows taxable income against tax payable.

30

25

20

15

10

5

20

40

60

80

Taxable income (thousands of dollars)

100

Use the line graph to approximate the tax payable on the following taxable incomes.

a $5000

b

$90 000

c $15 000

d

$70 000

e $50 000

f

$80 000

2

Use the line graph in question 1 to approximate the taxable income on the following tax

payable.

a $12 000

b

$30 000

c $6000

d

$9000

e $25 000

f

$15 000

Max paid $21 000 in tax. Use the line graph in question 1 to determine his taxable

income.

Use the line graph in question 1 to determine the tax rate (or gradient) for the following

amounts.

a Taxable income between $0 and $10 000

b Taxable income between $10 000 and $30 000

c Taxable income between $30 000 and $60 000

d Taxable income between $60 000 and $100 000

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316

Development

5

The straight line on the graph represents a flat tax rate of 20%. The other line graph

shows the current tax structure.

60

50

40

30

20

10

20

a

b

c

d

6

40

60

80

100

120

140

Taxable income (thousands of dollars)

160

180

Calculate the tax payable on the flat tax rate for a taxable income of $40000.

What range of incomes would the flat rate of tax be a better system? Answer to the

nearest ten thousand.

What is the difference in tax payable between the two systems on a taxable income of

$180000?

What is the difference in tax payable between the two systems on a taxable income of

$80000?

Draw a line graph of the tax rates shown in the table below. Use taxable income as the

horizontal axis and tax payable as the vertical axis.

Taxable income

Tax payable

0$10000

Nil

$10001$50000

$50001$100000

$100001$200000

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Chapter 10 Taxation

Study guide 10

Allowable deductions

work-related, self-education, travel, car, clothing, tools and

donations.

Taxable income

Gross income is the total amount of money earned.

Taxable income = Gross income Allowable deductions.

Medicare levy

Medicare is calculated at 1.5% of the taxable income.

Calculating tax

To calculate the GST find 10% (or VAT rate) of the pre-tax

price.

To calculate the total cost of an item, add the GST (or VAT)

to the pre-tax price.

To calculate the pre-tax price given the total cost of an item,

divide the total cost by 110% (or 100% + VAT rate).

horizontal axis and the tax payable as the vertical axis.

2 Use information in the tax rate table to determine the points.

Plot the points.

3 Join the points to make a straight line segment for each rate

of tax.

Tax payable (thousands of dollars)

Tax refund = Tax paid Tax payable

Tax owing = Tax payable Tax paid

70

(180, 58.6)

60

50

40

30

20

10

(80, 18.6)

(6, 0) (30, 3.6)

20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

Taxable income (thousands of dollars)

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Review

317

Review

318

1

Alexei is a landscape gardener and entitled to the following tax deductions: union fees

of $484, donations of $720, equipment cost of $860, and car expenses of $1455. What is

Alexeis total allowable tax deduction?

A $484

B $860

C $1455

D $3519

Stephanie has an allowable deduction of $4690. What is her taxable income if her gross

annual salary is $43720?

A $39030

B $43720

C $48410

D $90620

William has a taxable income of $53684. What is his Medicare levy? (Assume the

Medicare levy is calculated at a rate of 1.5% of the taxable income.)

A $80.53

B $805.26

C $8052.60

D $80526

The rate of the Medicare levy is 1.5% of the taxable income. What is the taxable income if

the Medicare levy was $1208.85? Answer correct to the nearest dollar.

A $18

B $1813

C $80590

D $139018

Charlotte is a librarian who has a taxable income of $69410. The tax payable on the first

$30000 is $3600 and the balance was taxed at a marginal rate of 30%.

How much does Charlotte have to pay in tax?

A $3600

B $15423

C $30000

D $24423

A house owner receives an electricity bill for $598, before a GST of 10% is added. How

much is the GST?

A $5.98

B $59.80

C $592.02

D $538.20

After the 16% VAT was added, the price of a DVD player was $278. What was the price

without VAT? Answer to the nearest cent.

A $44.48

B $239.66

C $239.67

D $322.48

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Chapter 10 Taxation

319

Sienna owns a clothing store and is entitled to the following tax deductions: $570 for union

fees, tax agent fee of $375, charity donations of $390, information technology costs of

$3910 and printing costs of $528. What is Siennas total tax deduction?

What is the taxable income if the gross salary is $82390 and the allowable tax deduction is

$4870?

Ryan is a small business owner who bought a $3850 computer for business use. The

computer is an allowable deduction with a rate of depreciation of 33% p.a.

a How much can he claim for depreciation in the first year?

b What is the depreciated value of the computer after the first year?

James works for a modelling agency and earns a gross fortnightly pay of $3720. He pays

PAYG tax of $986 per fortnight and has tax deductions of $15 per week for dry-cleaning,

$1450 for work-related travel and $1000 per year for charities.

a What is Jamess gross yearly salary?

b How much tax is deducted each week?

c What is Jamess total allowable tax deduction?

d Calculate Jamess taxable income.

Jessica has a gross weekly pay of $1024. She received $490 in interest from a term deposit

account. Jessica has an allowable deduction of $1380.

a What is Jessicas gross annual income?

b Calculate Jessicas taxable income.

c The Medicare levy is 1.5% of the taxable income. How much will Jessica pay for the

Medicare levy?

d Each week $262.50 PAYG tax was deducted from Jessicas pay. How much did Jessica

pay in PAYG tax for the year?

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Review

Chapter

Earning

Money Calculate the tax payable on this amount. Use the

6 Rubysummary

has a taxableincome

of $134830.

personal income tax rates on page 304.

7

Cooper is a retail store manager. After he received a $2300 annual pay rise, his salary

became $73450. How much of the $2300 pay rise was he required to pay in tax? Use the

personal income tax rates on page 304.

Thomas received a bill for internet access of $286. In addition he was required to pay

10% GST.

a How much GST is payable?

b What was the total cost of internet access including the GST?

The straight line graph shows taxable income against tax payable.

60

50

Tax payable (thousands of dollars)

Review

320

40

30

20

10

20

a

b

c

40

60

80

100

Taxable income (thousands of dallars)

120

140

Use the graph to estimate the tax payable on a taxable income of $30000.

Use the graph to estimate the taxable income on a tax payable of $20000.

What is the rate of tax between a taxable income of $10000 and $30000?

Challenge questions 10

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C H A P T E R

11

Summary statistics

Syllabus topic DS3 Summary statistics

Calculate the median

Calculate the mean, mode and median

Determine the mean from grouped data

Calculate the standard deviation

Compare a summary of statistics from various samples

A statistic is any number that can be calculated from data. Summary statistics are special statistics

that indicate certain features of the data. They are generally measures of the centre or the spread.

Median

11.1

The median is the middle score or value. To find the median, list all the scores in increasing

order and select the middle one. For example, the median of 7, 5, 2, 4 and 9 is found by

sorting the five scores and finding the middle score, or 5.

2

When there is an even number of scores, the median is the average of the two middle scores.

For example, the median of 1, 7, 5, 2, 4 and 9 is found by sorting the six scores and finding

the average of 4 and 5, or 4.5.

1

321

The Powers Family Trust 2013

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322

Median

2

Count the total number of scores. This is represented by the letter n.

the n + 1 score.

n+1

2

score.

n

2

and

Example 1

rainy days for the first six months.

a

b

c

12

15

13

10

Calculate the median.

Calculate the median using a graphics

calculator.

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

6

Count the total number of scores (n = 6).

There is an even number of scores so the

median is the average of the 3rd (score 10) and

the 4th scores (score 12).

The average of 10 and 12 is 11.

Enter the data into List1. Press EXE to enter

each number.

n=6,

2 2

=3

n +1= 6 +1

2

2

=4

10 + 12

Median =

2

= 11

The median is MED.

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323

Exercise 11A

1

a

3, 9, 10

b

3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 15

c

23, 28, 29, 30, 34, 45, 46, 49, 50

d

1002, 1010, 1100, 1120, 1160

e

2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 9, 9

f

14, 15, 100, 101, 102

g

0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 7, 8, 8, 8, 8

h

2, 7, 9, 10, 10, 14, 18

a

2, 5, 6, 8, 8, 9

b

12, 14, 18, 22

c

20, 20, 20, 21, 22, 24

d

3, 4, 5, 9, 10, 14, 16, 18, 18, 18

e

100, 110, 130, 140

f

1, 1, 1, 1, 3, 3, 3, 5, 5, 5, 6, 6

g

10, 20, 22, 40, 60, 61, 70, 80

h

3, 5, 8, 10, 11, 14, 18, 19

restaurant in the past 9 hours was 18, 17,

16, 17, 19, 13, 10, 16 and 15.

a

What is the smallest value?

b

What is the largest value?

c

What is the median?

a

13, 6, 0, 9, 6, 5, 6, 17, 1

b

22, 31, 28, 22, 43, 22

c

9, 15, 9, 3, 6, 9, 13, 10, 7, 9

d

1, 1, 7, 9, 5, 9, 10

e

8, 12, 5, 5, 9, 10, 13, 3, 7

f

3, 0, 1, 2, 11, 9, 7, 7, 5

g

13, 6, 9, 9, 3, 9, 15, 7, 9, 10, 4, 5

h

10, 18, 7, 2, 14, 9, 10, 8

a

The scores 8, 9, 15, , 20, 27 and 30 have a median of 20.

b

The scores 1, 1, , 3, 5 and 8 have a median of 2.

c

The scores 9, 10, 12, 14, , 15, 17, 19 and 19 have a median of 14.

d

The scores 3, 4, 4, 4, , 7, 8 and 9 have a median of 5.

a

23, 25, 29, 23

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324

Development

7

a How many scores are there?

b What is the lowest score?

c What is the median?

d Remove 42 from the data. What is the new median?

a What is the highest score?

b What is the lowest score?

c Calculate the median.

d How many scores would need to be added to

make the median 23?

e What is the median if 26 is included in the data?

10

19 20 21 22 23 24 25

local football team.

a What is the age of the oldest player?

b What is the age of the youngest player?

c What is the range of ages?

d What is the median age?

The frequency histogram opposite shows the

number of jeans sold for each size.

a What is the maximum size?

b What is the minimum size?

c What is the range in sizes?

d Calculate the median size.

e Construct a frequency table.

Age

Frequency

13

14

15

16

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

6

polygon opposite shows the results of

a survey.

a How many people participated in

the survey?

b What is the median?

8 10 12 14 16

Size of jeans

30

Cum freq

11

78

2359

126799

017

27

4

3

2

1

Frequency

0

1

2

3

4

25

20

15

10

5

19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

Score

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325

Mean

11.2

The mean is a measure of the centre. It is calculated by summing all the scores and dividing

by the number of scores. For example, consider the scores 1, 6, 3 and 2. The mean is

1+ 6 + 3+ 2

4

= 3. The mean of a set of data is what most people call the average.

Mean

Mean =

Sum of scores

Number of scores

or

x=

x

n

or

x=

fx

f

The mean formula contains symbols or statistical notation that enables complex formulas to

be written in a compact form. The meaning of the symbols is as follows:

x A score or data value

x Mean of a set of scores

n Total number of scores

f Frequency

Example 2

attend five meetings in Sydney was 2, 5, 6, 9 and 3.

What is the mean of this data?

Solution

1

2

3

Sum all of the scores and divide by the value

of n. There are 5 scores so n = 5.

Evaluate.

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x

n

2 +5+6 + 9+ 3

=

5

=5

x=

326

Example 3

The table below shows the number of sunny days for the first six months.

a

b

15

13

12

10

to two decimal places.

Calculate the mean using a graphics

calculator. Answer correct to two

decimal places.

Solution

1

value of n. There are 6 scores so n = 6.

Evaluate.

Express answer correct to two decimal

places.

5

6

Enter the data into List1. Press EXE to

enter each number.

x

n

15 + 13 + 12 + 10 + 9 + 8

=

6

67

=

6

= 11.1666666

= 11.17

x=

statistics. The mean or x is the located at

the top.

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327

Mode

The mode is the score that occurs the

most. It is the score with the highest

frequency. The mode is useful for

categorical data which do not allow

numerical calculations. For example, the

data collected may be a colour. Modes may

occur at the beginning or end of a range

of values. Therefore, conclusions based

only on the mode may be inaccurate. It is

common for data to have several modes.

For example, if there are two modes then

data is referred to as bimodal. When data is

grouped into classes, the class that occurs

the most is called the modal class.

Mode

1

2

Mode is the score that occurs the most number of times. If two or more

scores occur the same number of times they are both regarded as the mode.

Example 4

the first six months.

a

What is the mode?

b

Find the mode using a graphics calculator.

15

13

12

10

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

Mode is each of the scores.

Enter the data into List1. Press EXE to enter

each number.

Select 1VAR to view the summary statistics.

The mode is MOD.

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13 and 15

328

Exercise 11B

1

a

6, 9, 9, 15, 9, 3, 7, 9, 13, 10

c

5, 5, 8, 12, 13, 3, 7, 9, 10

e

6, 5, 6, 17, 13, 6, 0, 9, 1

g

3, 5, 24, 19, 13, 13, 13, 9, 3, 8, 11

b

d

f

h

7, 5, 11, 3, 0, 1, 2, 9, 7

39, 35, 39, 41, 47, 49, 44

55, 24, 14, 18, 13, 3, 2, 2, 2, 7, 14

Find the mean of each data set. Answer correct to one decimal place.

a

13, 14, 15

b

5, 6, 7, 8, 9

c

5, 7, 8, 9, 13, 15

d

6, 8, 11, 13

e

6, 7, 10, 11, 13, 19

f

1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 3

g

9, 9, 10, 10, 10, 11, 11, 11, 11

h

6, 6, 9, 9, 9, 10, 10, 10, 10

heart-rate monitor. The results were 64, 68, 64,

72, 75, 67, 91, 80, 77, 73, 68, 81, 73, 72, 60, 62,

74, 68, 55 and 62.

a

What is the sum of these heart rates?

b

Find the mean heart rate. Answer correct to

two decimal places.

c

Another person with a heart rate of 63 is

included in this data. What is the new

mean? Answer correct to two decimal

places.

a

18, 7, 9, 10, 2, 14, 10

c

13, 3, 2, 2, 7, 14, 55, 24, 14, 18, 2

e

24, 19, 3, 5, 13, 8, 11, 13, 13, 9, 3

g

13, 6, 9, 9, 3, 9, 15, 7, 9, 10

b

d

f

h

6, 17, 6, 5, 9, 1, 13, 6, 0

22, 31, 22, 28, 43, 22

13, 3, 7, 9, 5, 5, 8, 12, 10

47, 49, 39, 35, 39, 41, 44

Eleven students were surveyed on the number of hours they used the internet in the past

week. Their answers were: 3, 5, 15, 13, 12, 12, 9, 12, 13, 14 and 16. Find the mode

number of hours of internet usage.

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329

Development

6

Nine students were surveyed on the number of hours they slept last night. Their answers

were 10, 8, 7, 7, 4, 7, 8, 9 and 11.

a Find the mean number of hours slept.

b Find the mode number of hours slept.

c A tenth student was then surveyed and the mean changed to 7.5. What was the

number of hours slept by the tenth student?

11B

a

b

c

d

Cell C5 has a formula that multiplies cells A5 to B5. Enter this formula.

Enter formulas into cells C6 to C11 to complete the fx column.

Enter a formula in cell B12 to sum the frequency column.

Enter a formula in cell B13 to calculate the mean.

8

at the start of the game is 1.92 m. During

the game a player who is 1.80 m tall is

injured and replaced by a player who is

1.98 m tall. What is the mean height of

the five players now? Answer correct to

two decimal places.

A score was added to the set of scores: 15, 18, 20, 22, 24 and 26. The new mean is equal

to 20. What score was added?

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330

Mean from ungrouped data

11.3

To calculate the mean from a frequency table, another column is added: the frequency

score or fx column. See the example below. The sum of the fx column (or fx) gives the sum

of all the scores and the sum of the f column (or f ) gives the number of scores.

Mean

Mean =

or x =

Sum of scores

Sum of ffxx column

=

Number of scores Sum off f column

fx

fx

Example 5

Score (x)

Frequency ( f )

18

19

20

21

Frequency Score ( fx )

Solution

1

score (x) by the frequency ( f ).

4

5

6

fx

Write the formula x = f .

Evaluate.

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fx

18

18

19

95

20

60

21

147

16

320

fx

f

320

=

16

= 20

x=

331

To calculate the mean from a grouped frequency table, the class centre is used instead of the

score (x). The frequency score (fx) column becomes the frequency class centre column.

The same formula for the mean is used. When the mean is calculated from grouped data it is

an approximation.

Example 6

shown below in the grouped frequency table.

The data represents the number of cars over

the speed limit (km/h).

Class

Frequency ( f )

15

40

610

25

1115

13

20

1620

18

10

2125

23

fx

What is the mean over the speed limit for this data?

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

6

the class centre (x) by the frequency (f ).

Sum the f column ( f = 100).

Sum the fx column ( fx = 875).

fx

Write the formula x = f .

Evaluate.

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fx

40

120

25

200

13

20

260

18

10

180

23

115

100

875

fx

f

875

=

100

= 8.75

x=

332

Exercise 11C

1

Complete the following tables and calculate the mean, correct to two decimal places.

a

Freq ( f )

Score (x)

Freq ( f )

15

16

17

18

19

Score (x)

Freq ( f )

22

fx

fx

Score (x)

Freq ( f )

23

24

25

26

fx

fx

Find the mean of the data in the following table. Answer correct to two decimal places.

a

Score (x)

Score

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

Frequency

Score

Frequency

12

10

15

12

14

15

of them how many text messages they sent from a

mobile phone within the last day. The results are

summarised in the opposite table.

a

Copy the table and insert an fx column.

b

Calculate the mean number of text messages.

Answer correct to one decimal place.

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0

Find the mean of the data in the following table. Answer correct to two decimal places.

Class

09

1019

2029

3039

4049

5059

6069

Class centre

4.5

14.5

24.5

34.5

44.5

54.5

64.5

Frequency

5

The grouped frequency table shows the number of passengers carried by an airliner.

Class

a

b

c

333

Freq. (f)

1519

20

2024

29

2529

22

3034

18

3539

32

4044

18

4549

23

fx

the class centre and fx column.

How many passengers were carried?

Find the mean of this data. Answer

correct to the nearest whole number.

weights of randomly selected packets of

sugar. All the packets were labelled as 1 kg.

Class

a

b

c

Freq. ( f )

980984

985989

16

990994

130

995999

352

10001004

353

10051009

128

10101014

19

10151019

fx

Copy and complete the table by finding the class centre and the fx column.

How many packets of sugar were selected?

Find the mean of this data. Answer correct to one decimal place.

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334

Development

7

Height range

Frequency ( f )

140149

150159

fx

6

170179

180189

a

b

c

d

e

f

8

What is the frequency for the 170179 class?

Copy and complete the table by finding the class centre and the fx column.

Find the mean of this data to the nearest whole number.

What percentage of students is in the 150159 class?

What percentage of students is in the 180189 class?

The number of breakdown calls received by the NRMA road service are shown below.

82

69

78

83

75

89

82

89

68

90

80

79

83

68

79

91

82

79

70

90

75

70

90

74

74

75

90

80

80

85

a

b

c

d

e

f

Calculate the class centres for these

classes.

Construct a grouped frequency table

using these class intervals.

How many pieces of data have been

collected?

Find the mean of this data. Answer

correct to one decimal place.

Which class had the largest number

of breakdown calls received by the

NRMA?

Which class had the smallest number

of breakdown calls received by the

NRMA?

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335

The standard deviation is a measure of the spread of data about the mean. It is an average of

the squared deviations of each score from the mean. Standard deviation is calculated from the

formula shown below.

11.4

n

The calculations involved with this formula are complex and time consuming. Fortunately, the

calculator is able to perform these calculations easily.

Standard deviation

Standard deviation measures the spread of data about the mean.

n Population standard deviation.

Example 7

Test A

a

b

59

65

70

62

71

66

Find the population standard deviation of Test A, correct to two decimal places.

Calculate the population standard deviation using the graphics calculator.

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

calculator.

Clear the contents of the memory.

Enter each score into the calculator.

Select the n key to view the result.

Enter scores for Test A into List1. Press

EXE to enter each number.

Select CALC then 1VAR to view the

statistics for Test A. The population

standard deviation is xn.

n = 4.19

n = 4.19

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336

There are slightly different methods for calculating the standard deviation. The population

standard deviation (n) is a better measure when we have all of the data or the entire

population. However, when a sample is taken from a large population the sample standard

deviation (n1) is a better measure.

Sample standard deviation

n1 Sample standard deviation.

Example 8

Hannah decorates and sells cupcakes at the local market. The frequency table below shows the

number of cakes sold during the first three hours of the day.

Score (x) Frequency ( f )

1

13

19

14

10

Find the sample standard deviation. Answer correct to two decimal places. Check the result

using the graphics calculator.

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Clear the contents of the memory.

Enter the data into the calculator by using score

frequency. Type 1 13 Data , 2 19 Data ,

Select the n1 key to view the result.

Select the STAT menu.

is n1 = 1.33

Select SET to make list2 frequencies.

Select CALC then 1VAR to view the statistics.

The sample standard deviation is xn1.

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337

Exercise 11D

1

Find the population standard deviation of each data set, correct to one decimal place.

a

4, 6, 8, 10, 12

b

23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29

c

0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24

d

3, 3, 5, 7, 9, 9

e

6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6

f

124, 135, 145, 132, 130, 145, 156

g

4.3, 5.6, 3.4, 7.8, 2.3, 9.1

h

112, 4, 0, 100, 7, 98, 1

recently conducted. The following

distances in metres were recorded in a

long-jump championship.

4.9, 3.9, 4.0, 4.3, 4.6, 4.7, 4.3, 4.4, 4.1,

4.9, 3.9, 4.7, 4.8, 5.0

a

Calculate the population standard

deviation. Answer correct to the

nearest hundredth.

b

Two athletes did not have their results

recorded. Add 3.7 and 5.1 to the data.

What is the new population standard deviation? Answer correct to the nearest

hundredth.

Find the population standard deviation in each of the following tables. Answer correct to

one decimal place.

a

Score

10

11

Frequency

Score

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

Frequency

The tables below show the average number of cloudy days per month for two cities.

Calculate the population standard deviation, correct to two decimal places.

a

Score

Frequency

16

Score

Frequency

12

17

18

19

12

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338

Development

5

The results for Andrew and Kayla in their tests this term are listed below.

Andrew

17

18

15

13

10

13

14

16

16

Kayla

16

10

15

11

15

16

19

a

b

c

What are the mean and population standard deviation for Andrews results?

What are the mean and population standard deviation for Kaylas results?

Which student had the more consistent results throughout the term? Give a reason.

Find the sample standard deviation of each data set, correct to one decimal place.

a 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13

b 20, 21, 22, 31, 28, 22, 43, 22

c 13, 10, 7, 9, 9, 15, 9, 3, 6, 9

d 100, 100, 7, 9, 5, 9, 10

e 1.0, 1.3, 3.4, 7.5, 8.9

f 11, 9, 7, 7, 5, 3, 0, 1, 2

7

was 34, 28, 29, 36, 22, 26, 30, 28 and 31. All ratings

are a percentage of the total audience.

a What is the sample standard deviation, correct to

two decimal places?

b The best and the worst ratings were not included

in this data. The best rating was 42 and the worst

was 18. What is the new sample standard

deviation? (Answer correct to two decimal

places.)

recorded below.

Age range

Frequency ( f )

019

2039

4059

6079

Use your calculator to estimate the sample standard deviation. Answer correct to one

decimal place.

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339

Mean, median or mode

11.5

The selection and use of the appropriate statistic (mean, median, or mode) depends on the

nature of the data and the relative merits of each measure. For example, if the data contains

one or two extreme scores then the value of the mean will greatly increase or decrease.

Advantages

Easy to calculate.

Easy to understand.

Depends on every score.

Varies least from sample to sample.

Disadvantages

Distorted by outliers.

Not suitable for categorical data.

Advantages

Easy to understand.

Not affected by outliers.

Mean

Median Disadvantages

May not be central.

Varies more than the mean in a sample.

Advantages

Easy to determine.

Most typical value.

Not affected by outliers.

Suitable for categorical data.

Disadvantages

May not be central.

Often varies with sample.

Mode

Selection and use of the mean, median or mode depends on the nature of the

data and the relative merits of each measure.

Outliers

An outlier is a score that is separated from the majority of the data. For example, the data 0, 0,

0, 1, 1, 2, 45 has an outlier of 45. In small sets of data, the presence of an outlier will have a

large effect on the mean, a smaller effect on the median and usually no effect on the mode.

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340

Example 9

cans recycled in each of the past nine days.

8, 3, 4, 8, 8, 8, 4, 5, 8

a

Find the mean, median and mode for this

data. Answer correct to one decimal place.

b

Which is the better measure for the centre

of this data? Explain your answer.

Solution

1

2

3

x

Write the mean formula x = n .

of n. There are 9 scores so n = 9.

Evaluate. Write correct to one decimal place.

x

n

56

=

9

= 6.2

Mean x =

Write the scores in increasing order.

Median

3, 4, 4, 5, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8

n +1 = 9 +1

2

2

=5

median is the 5th (or score 8).

Median is 8.

number of times (or score 8).

Mode is 8.

both 8 and it is not the centre of the data.

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of the data. The median and

the mode are the end score (8).

Even though the median and

mode are easy to calculate, they

are not a good measure.

341

Exercise 11E

1

test was marked out of ten and the results are listed opposite.

Find the following measures, correct to one decimal place.

a

Mean

b

Median

c

Mode

d

Which is the better measure for the centre of this data?

Explain your answer.

Score

Frequency

10

3.0 27.5 19.5 40.2 2.3 2.3 3.6 4.3 3.4 11.5 28.2 7.4

a

Find the mean, median and mode areas.

b

Which is the better measure for the centre of this data? Explain your answer.

9.0

number of people rescued from one of their

beaches. The number of people rescued in

past 13 days is recorded below.

0

a

b

Which is the better measure for the centre

of this data? Explain your answer.

0, 4, 3, 0, 1, 1 and 3.

a

Find the mean, median and mode. Answer correct to the nearest whole number.

b

Which is the best measure to use when summarising this data? Give a reason.

Consider the following set of scores: 12, 15, 16, 16, 18, 18, 19, 20, 20, 60.

a

Calculate the mean and median of the set of scores.

b

What is the effect on the mean and the median of removing the outlier?

A hospitality class has eight students. The class sat for a test and the results were: 99, 96,

92, 95, 96, 12, 96 and 95.

a

Find the mean, median and mode scores. Answer correct to the nearest

whole number.

b

Molly scored 92. She told her father that her result was above the average. Do you

agree with Mollys statement? Give a reason for your answer.

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342

Development

7

Senior students were surveyed and the results of two samples are shown below.

Sample A

Score

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Sample B

Score

Frequency

i

Median

ii

Mean

iii Mode

iv Standard deviation

i

Median

ii

Mean

iii Mode

iv Standard deviation

What are the similarities and differences between the two samples?

Frequency

11E

a

b

c

d

9

13.5

The formulas for cells D4:D11 are shown above. Enter these formulas.

Compare the mean, median and mode for this data. Which measure does not provide

an accurate measure of the centre? Explain your answer.

Modify the data so that the mean, median and mode are the same value.

Modify the data so that the mode is smaller than the mean and the median.

Real estate agents and the media use the median as a measure to compare house prices.

Why is the median a better measure than the mean or the mode?

14.9

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Median

Study guide 11

1

Arrange all the scores in increasing order.

2

Count the total number of scores (n).

3

If n is odd then the median is the n+1 score.

2

Mean

n

+ 1 score.

2

n

2

and the

Sum of scores

Number of scores

x or x = fx

x=

f

n

Mean =

Sum of.

x A score or data value.

x Mean of a set of scores.

n Total number of scores.

f Frequency.

Mode

Score with the highest frequency.

Standard deviation

n Population standard deviation.

n1 Sample standard deviation.

or mode) depends on the nature of the data and the relative

merits of each measure.

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Review

343

Review

344

1

The scores 6, 7, 8, 9, , 12, 13, 15, 15 and 16 have a median of 12. What is the missing

number?

A 9

B 10

C 11

D 12

A 4

B 11

C 12

D 13

A 45.00

B 46.35

C 46.50

D 47.00

A 46.00

B 46.50

C 47.00

D 47.50

A 5

B 7

C 10

D 14

A 32

B 32.5

C 33

Score

Frequency

44

45

46

47

48

49

33.5

The mean of five scores is 4. What is the missing score if four of the scores are 2, 5,

5 and 7?

A 1

B 2

C 4

D 5

A 3

B 4

C 5

D 7

10

fx

opposite?

A 1.49

B 1.52

C 1.58

D 1.61

Score Frequency

1

What is the population standard deviation for 6, 10, 14, 18, 22,

26 and 30?

A 6

B 8

C 10

D 12

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345

Review

1

a 18, 11, 5, 14, 11, 10, 11, 22, 6

b 37, 46, 43, 37, 58, 37

a 11, 13, 9, 9, 12, 16, 17, 7, 14

b 14, 11, 12, 13, 18, 16, 22, 20, 18

a 14, 6, 8, 16, 16, 12, 27, 22, 16, 11, 6

b 35, 27, 30, 34, 25, 29, 31, 27, 32

The number of major road accidents on the Pacific Highway in the past 12 months is:

4, 8, 7, 9, 14, 4, 6, 5, 8, 4, 9 and 10.

a What is the median?

b What is the mode?

c What is the mean?

of the following measures, correct to the one decimal place.

a Mean

b Median

c Mode

Score

Frequency

20

21

22

23

The number of teenagers who attended on each day of a young leaders conference was

4, 7, 8, 11 and 5. What is the mean of this data?

Find the population standard deviation of each data set. Answer correct to one decimal

place.

a 24, 30, 12, 18, 36

b 21, 22, 23, 18, 19, 20, 24

Find the population standard deviation in the following table. Answer correct to two

decimal places.

Score

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

Frequency

12

11

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Review

346

Find the sample standard deviation of each data set. Answer correct to one decimal place.

a 24, 18, 12, 22, 19, 16, 18, 18, 15, 18

b 10, 18, 50, 18, 50, 14, 20

10

they watched television yesterday. Their answers

were: 2, 5, 3, 0, 1, 5, 0, 0, 3 and 10.

a What is the median?

b What is the mean?

c Find the mode.

d Calculate the sample standard deviation. Answer

correct to one decimal place.

e Calculate the population standard deviation.

Answer correct to one decimal place.

f Another person was surveyed and the mean changed to 3. How many hours did this

person watch television?

11

12

of a test out of 24.

a Copy and complete the fx column.

b Calculate the class centres.

c What is the modal class?

d Find the mean of this data to the nearest

whole number.

Class

Class

centre

Freq. (f)

1012

1315

1618

1921

2224

13

A science class has 20 students. The results of the first assessment task were:

67, 88, 69, 90, 75, 78, 81, 63, 90, 79, 89, 90, 80, 77, 32, 70, 69, 85, 91 and 24.

a Find the mean, median and mode scores. Answer correct to one decimal place.

b Which is the better measure for the centre of the data? Explain your answer.

14

Sales for a new book were: 2, 5, 0, 2, 0, 11, 3, 2, 6, 0, 0, 3, 3 and 5. Which is the best

measure to summarise this data mean, median or mode? Give a reason.

fx

Challenge questions 11

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C H A P T E R

12

triangles

Syllabus topic MM3 Similarity and right-angled triangles

Find scale factors of similar gures

Solve problems involving similar gures

Dene the trigonometric ratios sine, cosine and tangent

Find unknown sides with trigonometry

Find unknown angles using trigonometry

Using trigonometry to solve a variety of problems

The pictures of the three pieces of cake are similar. Similar figures are exactly the same shape

but they are different sizes.

12.1

When we enlarge or reduce a shape by a scale factor, the original and the image are similar. Similar

shapes have corresponding angles equal and corresponding sides in same ratio or proportion.

20 mm

A

40 mm

B

5 mm

10 mm

For example, the above rectangles are similar. All the angles are 90. The corresponding

sides are in the same ratio 10 = 40 = 2 . The measurements in rectangle B are twice the

5

20

measurements in rectangle A. Rectangle B has been enlarged by a scale factor of 2.

347

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348

Similar gures

Similar figures are exactly the same shape but are a different size.

Corresponding (or matching) angles of similar figures are equal.

Corresponding (or matching) sides of similar figures are in the same ratio.

Scale factor is the amount the first shape is enlarged or reduced to get the second shape.

Example 1

12

Solution

1

with 3 and 12 matches with 4.)

Write the matching sides as a fraction

(measurement in rectangle B divided by the

matching measurement in rectangle A).

Simplify the fraction by dividing both terms by

the same number. This fraction is the scale

factor.

Example 2

rectangle A and is rotated.

3

4

or

9

12

1

= (or 1:3)

3

Scalee ffactor =

Rectangle B is

rectangle A.

1

3

the size of

pair of similar triangles?

48

8

10

Solution

1

2

3

4

with 48 as it is opposite the same angle.)

Write the matching sides as a fraction (second

shape to the first shape). This fraction is the scale

factor.

Match the corresponding side for x (side marked

with a 10 as it is opposite the same angle).

Calculate x by multiplying 10 by 6 the scale factor

(or 6).

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48

8

= 6 (or

(or 6:1

6 :1 )

Scalee ffactor =

x = 10 6

= 60

349

Exercise 12A

1

124

56

A

56

124

135

71

68

E

99

54

D

56

56

101

G

H

67

101

3

8

101

67

54

99

3

56

68

101

124

3.5

1

124

71

56

56

135

56

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What is the scale factor for the following pairs of similar figures?

a

b

3

12

15

5

4

12

2

8

2 124

56

56

124

4

124

56

56

3

124

63

72

4

45

72

63

45

12

Use the scale factor to find the length of the unknown side in the following pairs of

similar figures.

a

b

3

6

2

101

10

101

d

c

67

101 10

68

67

101

15

56

68

56

56

9

56

45

4

a Why are these shapes similar?

b What is the scale factor for these similar figures?

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A

4

B

351

Development

5

a What is the ratio of the:

3

i lengths of the rectangle B to A?

1.5

ii breadths of the rectangle B to A?

2

B

b What is the scale factor?

A 1

5

2.5

computer image measuring 12 cm by

15 cm onto a screen. The scale factor used

by the data projector is 1:9. What are the

dimensions of the screen?

7

Consider these three triangles and write true or false to the following statements.

55

A

25

a

65

18 cm

m

2 cm

6 cm

a

c

Find the value of m.

15 cm

b

d

Find the value of n.

Let BC = a, AC = b, BD = x, AD = y and DC = z.

a Why is ADC similar to ABC?

b Write an expression for the three corresponding sides of

the similar triangles.

z

C

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Cambridge University Press

352

The lengths of the corresponding (or matching) sides in similar figures are in the same ratio or

proportion. This property is used to calculate the length of an unknown side.

12.2

1

2

3

4

Write an equation using two fractions formed from the matching sides a

measurement from the second shape divided by a matching measurement from the

first shape. This is the scale factor.

Solve the equation.

Check that the answer is reasonable and units are correct.

Example 3

What is the length of the unknown sides in the following pair of similar triangles?

1.5

y

1.875

20

12

Solution

triangles (x and 1.875, 12 and 1.5, 20 and y).

Write an equation using matching sides

involving x. Use x (second shape) and 1.875

(first shape) equal to 12 (second shape) and

1.5 (first shape).

Solve the equation.

x

12 Second shape

=

1.875 1.5 First shape

12

x=

1.875

1.5

= 15

involving y. Use 20 (second shape) and y

(first shape) equal to 12 (second shape) and

1.5 (first shape).

20 12 Second shape

=

y 1.5 First shape

12 y = 2200 1.5

20 1.5

y=

12

= 2.5

x = 15 and y = 2.5

1

2

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353

require the length of an object. For example,

we can calculate the height of a tree without

physically measuring the height. A similar figure

is drawn using a metre rule and the length of its

shadow is measured (see example below). This is a

very useful concept.

1

2

3

4

5

6

Draw similar figures and label the information from the question.

Use a pronumeral (x) to represent an unknown side.

Write an equation using two fractions formed from matching sides.

Solve the equation.

Check that the answer is reasonable and units are correct.

Example 4

time a one metre rule casts a shadow with a length of

80 cm. What is the height of the tree? Answer in metres

correct to two decimal places.

1m

5m

80 cm

Solution

Determine the matching sides in the similar

triangles (1 and x, 0.8 and 5).

Write an equation using matching sides

involving x. Use 1 (second shape) and x (first

shape) equal to 0.8 (second shape) and 5 (first

shape).

Solve the equation.

Write the answer correct to two decimal

places.

Write the answer in words.

80 cm = 0.8 m

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1

2

3

4

5

6

=

x

5 First shape

0.8 x = 5

5

x=

0.8

= 6.25

25 m

The height of the tree is 6.25 m.

354

Exercise 12B

1

Find the length of the pronumeral for the following pairs of similar triangles. All

measurements are in centimetres.

a

1.5

12

6

21

10

x

Find the length of the unknown sides for the following pairs of similar triangles. All

measurements are in centimetres.

a

15

16

10

24

12

9

p

12

6

7

4

10

28

20

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A tree casts a shadow 3.5 m long. At the same time a one metre ruler casts a shadow

0.5 m long. What is the height of the tree? Answer correct to

one decimal place.

1m

0.5 m

3.5 m

4

metre ruler casts a shadow 0.75 m long. What is the height

of the building? Answer correct to the nearest metre.

1m

0.75 m

9m

same time a tower throws a shadow 30 m long. How high

is the tower? Answer correct to one decimal place.

Tower

Stick

his shadow is 2.4 m long. At the same time a block of units

casts a shadow of 18 m. How tall is the block of units?

Answer correct to the nearest metre.

shadow of a flagpole was 9 m long. If Jessicas height

is 1.5 m, what is the height of the flagpole? Answer to

the nearest metre.

Flagpole

Jessica

A 5.4 m high pole casts a shadow of 3.6 m in length. At the same time,

the shadow of a building falls exactly over the pole and its shadow. The

shadow cast by the building measures 14.4 m. How high is the building?

Answer correct to one decimal place.

A fence is 1.5 m in height and has a shadow of length

2.1 m. At the same time the shadow thrown by a light

pole is 3.6 m. How high is the light pole? Answer

correct to one decimal place.

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Light pole

Fence

356

Development

10

a

12

8

x

3

6

y

7

3

9

z

11

Lucas and his younger brother Nathan are standing side by side. Nathan is 1.4 m tall and

casts a shadow 3.5 m long. How tall is Lucas if his shadow is 5 m long? Answer correct

to one decimal place.

12

length 15 m. At the same time a one-metre

beach umbrella casts a shadow whose length

is 1.25 m.

a What is the height of the lighthouse?

Answer correct to nearest metre.

b A nearby wall casts a shadow 5 m long.

Calculate the height of this wall to the

nearest metre.

13

A tree and a 1 m vertical stick cast their shadows at a particular time of the day. The

shadow of the tree is 32 m and the shadow of the vertical stick is 4 m.

a Draw two triangles to represent the above information.

b Give a reason why the two triangles are similar.

c Find the height of the tree correct to the nearest metre.

14

the top of the ladder. How far apart are the feet of the ladder?

Answer in centimetres correct to the nearest whole number.

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80 cm

357

A scale drawing is a drawing that

represents the actual object. The

scale factor of a scale drawing

12.3 is the ratio of the size of the

drawing to the actual size of the

object. For example, a map is a

scale drawing. It is not the same

size as the area it represents. The

measurements have been reduced

to make the map a convenient

size. The scale of a drawing may

be expressed with or without

units. For example, a scale of

1 cm to 1 m means 1 cm on the

scale drawing represents 1 m on

the actual object. Alternatively, a

scale of 1 : 100 means the actual

distance is 100 times the length

of 1 unit on the scale drawing.

Scale drawing

Scale of a drawing = Drawing length : Actual length

Scale is expressed in two ways:

Using units such as 1 cm to 1 m (or 1 cm = 1 m).

No units such as 1 : 100.

Example 5

Using a scale

a

Find the actual length if the drawing length is 30 mm. Answer to the nearest centimetre.

b

Find the drawing length if the actual length is 4.5 m. Answer to the nearest millimetre.

Solution

1

2

3

4

to determine the actual length.

Divide by 10 to change millimetres

to centimetres.

Divide the actual length by 50 to

determine the drawing length.

Multiply by 1000 to change metres

to millimetres.

Actual length = 30 50 mm

= 1500 mm

= 150 cm

= 0.09 m

= 90 mm

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Exercise 12C

1

A scale drawing has a scale of 1 : 100. What is the actual length of these drawing lengths?

Express your answer in metres.

a

2 cm

b

10 mm

c

3.4 cm

d

28 mm

e

8.5 cm

f

49 mm

A scale drawing has a scale of 1 : 25 000. What is the drawing length of these actual

lengths? Express your answer in millimetres.

a

2 km

b

750 m

c

4000 cm

d

3.5 km

e

50 000 mm

f

1375 m

a

1 cm to 2 cm

b

1 mm to 5 cm

c

1 cm to 3 km

The scale on a map is 1 : 1000. Calculate the actual distances if these are the distances on

the map. Express your answer in metres.

a

Road 20 cm

b

Shops 10 cm

c

Pathway 5 cm

d

Parking area 10 mm

e

Bridge 34 mm

f

Park 80 mm

What is the actual distance if the distance on

the map is:

a

2.5 cm?

b

45 cm?

Woy Woy

Palm Beach

Penrith

Parramatta

Mona

Vale

SYDNEY

Coogee

The scale on a map is 1 : 5000. Calculate the map distances if these are actual distances.

Express your answer in millimetres.

a

50 m

b

80 m

c

100 m

d

120 m

e

150 m

f

240 m

350 m, what is the map distance between these points?

a

actual length if the drawing length is 15 mm.

b

drawing length if the actual length is 3 m.

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Development

9

64 metres. The image opposite uses a photograph

of the dish.

a Determine a scale for the image.

b Estimate the height of the top of the antenna

above the ground.

10

The scale of a model is 2:150. Calculate the model lengths if these are actual lengths.

Express your answer in millimetres.

a 75 cm

b 180 cm

c 300 cm

d 45 m

e 6 m

f

36 m

11

The actual length of the space shuttle is 47 metres.

a What is the scale factor?

b Calculate the length of the wing span.

c Calculate the width of the shuttle.

d What is the length of the nose of the shuttle?

12

The total length of the Sydney Harbour Bridge is 1150 metres. A scale model is built for

a coffee table of length 1.2 metres using the picture below.

a

b

c

d

What is the maximum height of the bridge if the scale model has a height of 20 cm?

Estimate the height of the bridge pillars.

Estimate the length of the Sydney Opera House.

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Trigonometric ratios are defined using the sides of a right-angled triangle. The hypotenuse is

opposite the right angle, the opposite side is opposite the angle and the adjacent side is the

remaining side.

12.4

hypotenuse

opposite

adjacent

The opposite and adjacent sides are located in relation to the position of angle . If was in

the other angle, the sides would swap their labels. The letter is the Greek letter theta. It is

commonly used to label an angle.

Example 6

What are the values of the hypotenuse, the opposite side and the

adjacent side in the triangle shown?

Solution

1

2

3

Opposite side is opposite the angle .

Adjacent side is beside the angle , but not the

hypotenuse.

Hypotenuse is 5 (h = 5)

Opposite side is 4 (o = 5)

Adjacent side is 3 (a = 5)

The trigonometric ratios sin , cos and tan are defined using the sides of a right-angled

triangle.

sin =

opposite

hypotenuse

cos =

adjacent

hypotenuse

tan =

opposite

adjacent

sin =

o

(SOH)

h

cos =

a

(CAH)

h

tan =

o

(TOA)

a

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Trigonometric ratios

The mnemonic SOH CAH TOA is pronounced as a single word.

SOH: Sine-Opposite-Hypotenuse

CAH: Cosine-Adjacent-Hypotenuse

TOA: Tangent-Opposite-Adjacent

The order of the letters matches the ratio of the sides.

Consider the three triangles drawn below.

6

2

30

4

1

2

30

30

The three triangles drawn above show the ratio of the opposite side to the hypotenuse as 0.5

1 2

3

2 , 4 or 6 . This is called the sine ratio. All right-angled triangles with an angle of 30 have

a sine ratio of 0.5. If the angle is not 30 the ratio will be different, but any two right-angled

triangles with the same angle will have the same value for their sine ratio.

Similarly, the three triangles drawn below show the ratio of the opposite side to the adjacent

1 2

3

side as 1 , or . This is called the tangent ratio. All right-angled triangles with an angle

3

1 2

of 45 have a tangent ratio of 1.

3

2

1

45

1

45

45

2

The ratio of the opposite side to the hypotenuse (sine ratio), the ratio of the adjacent side to

the hypotenuse (cosine ratio) and the ratio of the opposite side to the adjacent side (tangent

ratio) will always be constant irrespective of the size of the right-angled triangle.

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Example 7

Find the sine, cosine and tangent ratios for angle in the

triangle shown.

15

17

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Write the sine ratio (SOH).

Substitute the values for the opposite side and

the hypotenuse.

Write the cosine ratio (CAH).

Substitute the values for the adjacent side and

the hypotenuse.

Write the tangent ratio (TOA).

Substitute the values for the adjacent side and

the opposite side.

Example 8

o

h

8

=

17

a

cos =

h

15

=

17

o

tan =

a

8

=

15

sin =

6

.

8

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

adjacent sides.

Find the hypotenuse using Pythagoras

theorem.

8

Substitute the length of the sides into

Pythagoras theorem.

Take the square root to find the hypotenuse (h). h2 = 6 2 + 82

Evaluate.

h = 6 2 + 82

= 10

o

sin =

Write the sine ratio (SOH).

h

Substitute the values for the opposite side and

6

the hypotenuse.

=

10

Simplify the ratio.

3

=

5

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Exercise 12D

1

State the values of the hypotenuse, opposite side and adjacent side in each triangle.

a

8

10

13

12

5

e

39

5

f

30

18

36

15

12

15

24

State the values of the hypotenuse, opposite side and adjacent side in each triangle.

a

e

a

Write the ratios for sin , cos and tan for each triangle in question 1.

Write the ratios for sin , cos and tan for each triangle in question 2.

26

10

24

ii

iii

10

26

24

26

10

24

12

20

16

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ii

iii

12

20

16

12

16

20

364

Development

6

Find the sine, cosine and tangent ratios in simplest form for each angle.

a

angle

ii angle

i

11

angle

ii angle

i

32

40

60

61

angle

ii angle

i

45

51

angle

ii angle

i

24

24

Find the sine and cosine ratios in simplest form for angle A and B for each triangle.

a

b

A

20

C

A

34

16

30

8

15

B

25

Draw a right-angled triangle for each of the following trigonometric ratios and

i find the length of the third side.

ii find the other two trigonometric ratios in simplest form.

a

tan =

3

4

cos =

7

25

sin =

8

10

2

60

a

b

c

60

Measure the length of the hypotenuse, adjacent and opposite sides in each triangle.

What is the value of the cosine ratio for 60 in both triangles?

What is the value of the sine ratio for 60 in both triangles?

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In trigonometry an angle is usually measured in degrees, minutes and seconds. Make sure the

calculator is set up to accept angles in degrees. It is essential in this course that the degree

mode is selected.

Degrees

Minutes

1 degree = 60 minutes

1 = 60

1 minute = 60 seconds

1 = 60

A calculator is used to find a trigonometric ratio

of a given angle. It requires the sin , cos

and tan keys. The trigonometric ratio key is

pressed followed by the angle. The degrees,

minutes and seconds ''' or DMS is then

selected to enter minutes and seconds. Some

calculators may require you to choose degrees,

minutes and seconds from an options menu.

Example 9

3

a

sin 60

b

2 cos 40.5

c

d

sin 3420

tan 75

Solution

1

= 0.87

= 1.52

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3

= 0.803 847 577 3

tan 75

= 0.80

sin 3420 = 0.564 006 558 1

= 0.56

A calculator is used to find a given angle from a trigonometric ratio.

Check that the degree mode is selected. To find an angle use the sin1 ,

cos1 and tan1 keys. To select these keys press the SHIFT or a 2nd

function key. The degrees, minutes and seconds ''' or DMS is then

selected to find the angle in minutes and seconds.

Example 10

a

b

Given tan = 1.45, find the value of to the nearest minute.

Solution

1

exe .

sin = 0.6123

= 37.755 994 38

= 38

Convert the answer to minutes

by using the ''' or DMS .

tan = 1.45

= 5524 27.76

= 5524

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367

Exercise 12E

1

a

1

b

7

c

20

d

1

e

0.5

f

g

0.2

h

3

60

5

a

120 minutes

b 480 minutes

c 60 minutes

e

30 minutes

f 15 minutes

g 45 minutes

d

h

600 minutes

20 minutes

Find the value of the following trigonometric ratios, correct to two decimal places.

a

sin 20

b cos 43

c tan 65

d cos 72

e

tan 13

f sin 82

g cos 15

h tan 48

Find the value of the following trigonometric ratios, correct to two decimal places.

a

cos 6330

b sin 4010

c cos 5245

d cos 3523

e

sin 2256

f tan 5342

g tan 682

h cos 6557

Find the value of the following trigonometric ratios, correct to one decimal place.

a

4 cos 30

b 3 tan 53

c 5 sin 74

d 6 sin 82

e

11 sin 2130

f 7 cos 3240

g 4 sin 2512

h 8 tan 3924

Given the following trigonometric ratios, find the value of to the nearest degree.

a

sin = 0.5673

b

cos = 0.1623

c

tan = 0.2782

1

5

3

sin =

cos =

tan =

d

e

f

2

8

4

Given the following trigonometric ratios, find the value of to the nearest minute.

a

tan = 0.3891

b

sin = 0.6456

c

cos = 0.1432

3

1

1

sin =

d

e

f

tan = 1

cos =

5

3

4

a

x = 4 tan 27

b

x = 7 sin 1517

c

cos x = 0.5621

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Development

9

10

11

Find the value of the following trigonometric ratios, correct to two decimal places.

a

5

tan 40

4

cos 389

1

sin 63

5

tan 7236

12

cos 25

3

sin 42

6

sin 5548

7

cos 7116

Given the following trigonometric ratios, find the value of to the nearest degree.

a

sin =

3

2

tan =

4

6

tan =

cos =

5

6

cos =

3

2

sin =

Given the following trigonometric ratios, find the value of to the nearest minute.

a

cos =

sin =

3

4

tan =

5

12

sin =

7

7

tan =

2

7

cos =

11

12

Given the following trigonometric ratios, find the value of to the nearest degree.

a tan = 1:6

b sin = 2:5

c cos = 3:8

13

Given that sin = 0.4 and angle is less than 90, find the value of:

a to the nearest degree.

b cos , correct to one decimal place.

c tan , correct to two decimal places.

14

Given that tan = 2.1 and angle is less than 90, find the value of:

a to the nearest minute.

b sin, correct to three decimal places.

c cos, correct to four decimal places.

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12.6

Trigonometric ratios are used to find an unknown side in a right-angled triangle, given at least

one angle and one side. The method involves labelling the sides of the triangle and using the

mnemonic SOH CAH TOA. The resulting equation is rearranged to make x the subject and the

calculator used to find the unknown side.

Finding an unknown side in a right-angled triangle

1

2

3

4

5

Name the sides of the triangle h for hypotenuse, o for opposite and

a for adjacent.

Use the given side and unknown side x to determine the trigonometric

ratio. The mnemonic SOH CAH TOA helps with this step.

Rearrange the equation to make the unknown side x the subject.

Use the calculator to find x. Remember to check the calculator is set up

for degrees.

Write the answer to the specified level of accuracy.

Example 11

Find the length of the unknown side x in the triangle shown. Answer

correct to two decimal places.

25

34

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

6

Determine the ratio (SOH).

Substitute the known values.

Multiply both sides of the

equation by 25.

o

h

x

sin 34 =

25

25 sin 34 = x

x = 25 sin 34

= 13.979 822 59

sin =

Write the answer correct to two

decimal places.

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=13.98

370

It is possible that the unknown side (x) is the denominator

of the trigonometric ratio. For example, in the triangle

below, the unknown x is the hypotenuse of the triangle. This

2

results in the trigonometric ratio .

x

o

h

2

sin 60 =

x

sin =

x

60

sides by x. Then divide both sides by the trigonometric

expression (sin 60) to make x the subject.

Example 12

Find the length of the unknown side x in the triangle shown. Answer

correct to two decimal places.

x

40

12

Solution

triangle.

Determine the ratio (CAH).

Substitute the known values.

Multiply both sides of the equation by x.

Divide both sides by cos 40.

places.

1

2

3

4

a

h

12

cos 40 =

x

x cos 40 = 12

12

x=

cos 40

= 15.6664 887 47

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cos =

= 15.66

371

Exercise 12F

1

Find the length of the unknown side x in each triangle, correct to two decimal places.

a

15

31

35

x

x

24

23

42

9

43

76

x

55

60

x

26.7

x

20

60

34

7

48.4

x

21.1

Find the length of the unknown side x in each triangle, correct to two decimal places.

a

47

67

5845

x

31

4435

2620

389

27

29

355

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5

188

x

372

Development

3

Find the length of the unknown side x in each triangle, correct to two decimal places.

a

34

48

90

77

11

70

42

44

Find the length of the unknown side x in each triangle, correct to one decimal place.

a

87

6815

256

29

1650

47

4953

287

12

321

51

47

4

33

63

47

Find the length of the unknown side x in each triangle, correct to three decimal places.

21.7

12.5

x

80.9

39

64

42

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373

12.7

Trigonometric ratios are used to find an unknown angle in a right-angled triangle, given

at least two sides. The method involves labelling the sides of the triangle and using the

mnemonic SOH CAH TOA. The resulting equation is rearranged to make the subject and

the calculator is used to find the unknown angle.

Finding an unknown angle in a right-angled triangle

1

2

3

4

5

and a for adjacent.

Use the given sides and unknown angle to determine the

trigonometric ratio. The mnemonic SOH CAH TOA helps with

this step.

Rearrange the equation to make the unknown angle the subject.

Use the calculator to find . Remember to check the calculator is

set up for degrees.

Write the answer to the specified level of accuracy.

Example 13

nearest degree.

16

24

Solution

1

2

3

4

Determine the ratio (SOH).

Substitute the known values.

Make the subject of the equation.

o

h

16

sin =

24

sin =

16

= sin 1

24

5

or

6

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= 41.810 314 9

= 42

374

Exercise 12G

1

Find the unknown angle in each triangle. Answer correct to the nearest degree.

a

55

12

13

38

15

26

40

57

26

19

16

33

37

42

57

40

Find the unknown angle in each triangle. Answer correct to the nearest degree.

a

10.2

2.4

42.3

3.0

7.9

50.6

9.8

8.3

3.3

98.3

4.5

67.5

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375

Development

3

Find the unknown angle in each triangle. Answer correct to the nearest minute.

a

b

c

8

22

19

16

25

61

43

66

13

7

47

Find the unknown angle in each triangle. Answer correct to the nearest degree.

a

b

c

1 23

4 12

7

8

2 14

4 35

3 34

5

Find the unknown angle in each triangle. Answer correct to the nearest degree.

a

b

c

3

29

17

15

20

21

Find the angle and in each triangle. Answer correct to the nearest minute.

a

b

c

26

8

30

10

24

34

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16

10

376

12.8

Trigonometry is used to solve many practical problems. How high is that tree? What is

the height of the mountain? Calculate the width of the river. When solving a trigonometric

problem make sure you read the question carefully and draw a diagram. Label all the

information given in the question on this diagram.

Solving a trigonometric worded problem

1

2

3

4

5

Draw a diagram and label the information from the question.

Use trigonometry to calculate a solution.

Check that the answer is reasonable and units are correct.

Write the answer in words and ensure the question has been answered.

Example 14

make an angle of 44 with the level ground. Find the height of the

flagpole. Answer correct to two decimal places.

44

8.35 m

Solution

1

as x.

x

44

8.35 m

2

3

4

5

6

7

Determine the ratio (TOA).

Substitute the known values.

Multiply both sides of the equation by 8.35.

Press 8.35 tan 44 = or exe .

Write the answer correct to two decimal

places.

tan =

o

a

x

8.35

8.35 tan 44 = x

x = 8.35 tan 444

x = 8.06

tan 44 =

8

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377

Trigonometry has many applications, such as in building and construction. Any vertical parts

of a structure make a right angle with horizontal parts. Sloping lines in the structure complete

a right-angled triangle, and trigonometry can be used to calculate its other angles and side

lengths.

Example 15

The sloping roof of a shed uses sheets of Colorbond steel 4.5 m long on a

shed 4 m wide. There is no overlap of the roof past the sides of the walls.

Find the angle the roof makes with the horizontal. Answer correct to the

nearest degree.

4.5 m

4m

Solution

1

4.5 m

4m

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a

h

4

cos =

4.5

cos =

4

= cos1

4.5

= 27.266 044 45

= 27

The roof makes an angle

of 27.

378

Exercise 12H

1

is secured by a peg to the surface of a level sports field. The wind

blows so that the string forms a straight line making an angle of 37

with the ground. Find the height of the balloon above the ground.

Answer correct to one decimal place.

A pole is supported by a wire that runs from the top of the pole to a

point on the level ground 5 m from the base of the pole. The wire

makes an angle of 42 with the ground. Find the height of the pole,

correct to two decimal places.

25 m

37

42

5m

Ann noticed a tree was directly opposite her on the far bank of

Tree

the river. After she walked 50 m along the side of the river, she

found her line of sight to the tree made an angle of 39 with the

river bank. Find the width of the river, to the nearest metre.

inclined at 35 to the horizontal, find the depth of the water,

correct to one decimal place.

39

50 m

Ann

Boat

70 m

35

to the top of the pole and to a peg on the ground. The pole is

2 m in height. Find the angle the rope makes to the

horizontal. Answer correct to the nearest degree.

2m

A 3.5 m ladder has its foot 2.5 m out from the base of a wall. What

angle does the ladder make with the ground? Answer correct to the

nearest degree.

3.6 m

3.5 m

2.5 m

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379

Development

7

A plane maintains a flight path of 19 with the horizontal after it takes off. It travels for

4 km along the flight path. Find, correct to one decimal place:

a the horizontal distance of the plane from its take-off point.

b the height of the plane above ground level.

allow access to the first floor shops. The

first floor is 3 m above the ground floor.

The ramp requires an angle of 20 with

the horizontal. How long will the ramp be,

measured along its slope? Answer correct

to two decimal places.

A shooter 80 m from a target and level with it, aims 2 m above the bullseye and hits it.

What is the angle, to the nearest minute, that his rifle is inclined to the line of sight from

his eye to the target?

10

A rope needs to be fixed with one end attached to the top of a 6 m vertical pole and the

other end pegged at an angle of 65 with the level ground. Find the required length of

rope. Answer correct to one decimal place.

11

Two ladders are the same distance up the wall. The shorter

ladder is 5 m long and makes an angle of 50 with the ground.

The longer ladder is 7 m long. Find:

a the distance the ladders are up the wall, correct to two

decimal places.

b the angle the longer ladder makes with the ground, correct

to the nearest degree.

12

7m

5m

50

A pole is supported by a wire that runs from the top of the pole to a point on the level

ground 7.2 m from the base of the pole. The height of the pole is 5.6 m. Find the angle,

to the nearest degree, that the wire makes with the ground.

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380

The angle of elevation is the angle measured upwards from the horizontal.

The angle of depression is the angle measured downwards from the horizontal.

12.9

Angle of elevation

Angle of depression

Horizontal

Horizontal

Angle of

elevation

Angle of

depression

The angle of elevation is equal to the angle of depression as they form alternate angles

between two parallel lines. This information is useful to solve some problems.

Angle of

depression

Example 16

Angle of

elevation

Angle of elevation

be at an angle of elevation of 41. From her map she noted that

the volcano was 7 km away. Calculate the height of the plume of

volcanic ash. Answer correct to two decimal places.

Volcanic

plume

41

7 km

Solution

1

height as x.

x

41

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7 km

o

a

x

tan 41 =

7

7 tan 41 = x

x = 7 tan 41

tan =

6

7

8

Write the answer correct to two decimal

places.

Write the answer in words.

Example 17

381

= 6.09

The height of the volcanic

plume was 6.09 km.

Angle of depression

ship. He estimated the angle of depression to be 17.

How far was the ship from the base of the cliff? Answer

to the nearest metre.

Solution

1

distance as x.

17

85 m

17

x

Divide both sides by tan 17.

Press 85 tan 17 = or exe .

6

7

8

9

Write the answer in words.

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o

a

85

tan17 =

x

x tan17 = 85

85

x=

tan17

= 278.0224726

tan =

x = 278

The ship is 278 metres from

the base of the cliff.

382

Exercise 12I

1

Luke walked 400 m away from the base of a tall building, on level

ground. He measured the angle of elevation to the top of the building

to be 62. Find the height of the building. Answer correct to the

nearest metre.

62

400 m

dish near its base is 59. The dish is 70 m from the centre of the

towers base on flat land. Find the height of the tower. Answer

correct to one decimal place.

59

x

70 m

When Sarah looked from the top of a cliff 50 m high, she noticed a

boat at an angle of depression of 25. How far was the boat from the

base of the cliff? Answer correct to two decimal places.

angle of depression of 13. His altimeter showed that the

aeroplane was at a height of 4000 m. Find the horizontal

distance of the aeroplane from the airport. Answer correct

to the nearest metre.

25

50 m

13

4000 m

from the point on level ground directly below the top of the tree. What is

the height of the tree? Answer correct to one decimal place.

51

45 m

depression from the horizontal of 38. The mine engineer wishes to

sink a vertical shaft, x, as shown. What is the depth of the required

vertical shaft? Answer correct to the nearest metre.

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38

x

120 m

383

above the sea level observes a ferry that is 800 m from the

base of the building. Find the angle of depression. Answer

correct to the nearest degree.

130 m

800 m

8

transmitting tower 130 m tall and 300 m from the observer?

Answer correct to the nearest degree.

130 m

300 m

from the base of the tree. The tree is 40 m high. What is

the angle of elevation to the top of the tree? Answer

correct to the nearest degree.

40 m

60 m

10

11

distance of 12.011 km in a straight line to the mountain. What is the

angle of depression from the top of a mountain to the town? Answer

to the nearest degree correct to one decimal place.

12.011 km

12 km

line that rises 7 m for every 150 m along the track.

7m

150 m

12

in height. What is the angle of elevation measured from ground

level to the top of a tree? Answer correct to the nearest degree.

28 m

42 m

13

in a straight line to a ship. What is the angle of depression from

the helicopter to the ship? Answer correct to the nearest degree.

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850 m

1162 m

384

Development

14

a shadow 35 m long when

the angle of elevation of the

sun is 52. How high is the

top of the launching pad?

Answer correct to correct to

nearest metre.

15

The angle of elevation to the top of a tree from a point A on the ground is 25. The point

A is 22 m from the base of the tree. Find the height of the tree. Answer correct to nearest

metre.

16

A plane is 460 m directly above one end of a 1200 m runway. Find the angle of

depression to the far end of the runway. Answer correct to the nearest minute.

17

A communication tower is located on the top of a hill. The angle of elevation to the top

of the hill from an observer 2 km away from the base of the hill is 6. The angle of

elevation to the top of the tower from the observer is 8. Find, to the nearest metre, the

height of the:

a hill.

b hill and the tower.

c tower.

18

a man swimming out to sea at an angle of depression

of 51. Jack also sees a boat out to sea at an angle of

depression of 30. Find, to the nearest metre, the

distance:

a x of the man from the base of the cliff.

b y of the boat from the base of the cliff.

c from the man to the boat.

19

51

30

65 m

x

y

The angle of elevation from a boat out to sea to the top of a 350 m cliff is 13. After the

boat travels directly towards the cliff, the angle of elevation from the boat is 19. How far

did the boat travel towards the cliff? Answer correct to the nearest metre.

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similar figures

2

3

4

5

6

Trigonometric ratios

sin =

o

a

o

(SOH) cos = (CAH) tan = (TOA)

h

h

a

4

1

2

3

4

Applications of right-angled

triangles

2

3

4

Angle of depression

Draw similar figures and label the information from the

question.

Use a pronumeral (x) to represent an unknown side.

Write an equation using two fractions formed from

matching sides.

Solve the equation.

Check that the answer is reasonable and units are correct.

opposite

adjacent

opposite

cos =

tan =

hypotenuse

hypotenuse

adjacent

Angle of elevation

Similar figures are the same shape but are different sizes.

Corresponding (or matching) angles of similar figures are

equal.

Corresponding sides of similar figures are in the same ratio.

Scale factor is the amount of enlargement or reduction.

sin =

Study guide 12

Use the given side and unknown side x to determine the

trigonometric ratio. Use SOH CAH TOA.

Rearrange the equation to make the x the subject.

Use the calculator to find x.

Name the sides of the triangle.

Use the given sides and unknown angle to determine the

trigonometric ratio. Use SOH CAH TOA.

Rearrange the equation to make the subject.

Use the calculator to find .

Read the question and underline the key terms.

Draw a diagram and label the information.

Use trigonometry to calculate a solution.

Check that the answer is reasonable and units are correct.

Angle of

elevation

Horizontal

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Horizontal

Angle of

depression

Review

385

Review

386

1

1

A

B 3

3

C 4

D 6

2

3

A small tree 3 m high throws a shadow 1.5 m long. At the same time a large tree throws a

shadow 24 m long. What is the height of the large tree in metres?

A 12

B 25.5

C 32

D 48

9

12

A

B

15

9

12

9

C

D

15

12

A 18 cos 58

B 18 sin 58

18

18

C

D

sin 58

cos58

15

12

x

58

18

A 45 cos 34

B 45 sin 34

45

45

C

D

cos 34

sin 34

How would angle be calculated?

5

4

A tan 1

B tan 1

4

5

C

5

tan

4

34

45

4

tan

5

What is the size of angle in question 6? (Answer correct to one decimal place.)

A 38.6

B 39.0

C 51.0

D 51.3

What is the angle of elevation to the top of a tower 80 m tall and 100 m from the observer?

Answer in degrees correct to one decimal place.

A 51.3

B 51.4

C 38.6

D 38.7

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387

Review

1

Find the length of the unknown sides for the following pairs of similar triangles.

a

20

6

24

a

b

12

16

6

g

12

14

21

28

n

8

same time a one-metre ruler casts a shadow 0.90 m

long. What is the height of the building? Answer

correct to the nearest metre.

1m

0.90 m

a hypotenuse.

b opposite side.

c adjacent side.

What are these ratios in simplest form?

a sin

b cos

c tan

18

6m

30

24

24

26

10

Find the value of the following trigonometric ratios, correct to two decimal places.

a tan 68

b cos 13

c sin 23

d cos 82

Given the following trigonometric ratios, find the value of to the nearest degree.

1

c tan = 0.2

a cos = 0.4829

b sin =

3

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Review

388

a

b

x

63

47

24

x

6515

36

Find the unknown angle in each triangle. Answer correct to the nearest degree.

a

b

c

10

11

17

10

Find the unknown angle in each triangle. Answer correct to the nearest minute.

a

b

c

28

27

10

46

35

33

10

A pole casts a shadow of 5.4 m long. The suns rays make an angle of 36 with the level

ground. Find the height of the pole to the nearest metre.

Sun

36

5.4 m

11

Susan looked from the top of a cliff 62 m high and noticed a ship at an

angle of depression of 31. How far was the ship from the base of the

cliff? Answer correct to one decimal place.

31

62 m

Challenge questions 12

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C H A P T E R

13

Mathematics and

communication

Focus study FSCo Mathematics and communication

Read and interpret mobile phone plans and bills

Calculate the cost of calls using the given time and duration

Determine a suitable mobile phone plan using phone usage

Construct and interpret tables and graphs of phone usage

Use prexes to describe the size of units of storage

Convert units of le storage

Calculate the time to download a le using the download speed

Interpret statistics related to the effect of downloading les

Mobile phones that are used irresponsibly or with the wrong

choice of mobile phone plan can result in unexpectedly

large bills. Mobile phone bills are often a concern of people

who make unnecessary calls on their mobile. Mobile phones

provide immediate pleasure and can be somewhat addictive.

Text messaging is usually cheaper than voice calls; however,

premium text messaging services that use 1900 are billed

at a higher rate. Extra costs are involved when mobile phones

are used for internet access, 3D games, music, video

downloads, email and photo messaging.

389

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390

The cost of making a mobile phone call is determined by the connection fee (or flagfall),

call rate and the length of the call. The connection fee and call rate charged depends on the

mobile phone network and mobile phone plan. In general the longer the phone call the greater

the cost. There are thousands of mobile phone plans available from hundreds of providers. It

is essential to do some research and choose the most appropriate plan. There are two broad

categories: prepaid and postpaid.

Mobile phone charge

Call charge = Connection fee + Time used Call rate

Prepaid plan

A prepaid mobile phone requires the user to purchase credit in advance. This credit is used to

pay for phone calls, text messages and data downloads. If users have no available credit then

the mobile phone is blocked for use. Users are able to increase their credit at any time using

their phone or at a retail store. A prepaid plan makes it easier to control spending by limiting

debt. There are also fewer contractual arrangements. However, users often pay more for their

calls and text messages.

Postpaid plan involves a contract that varies in

length from one to two years. It involves a

range of charges such as a connection fee,

monthly access fees, call costs, disconnection

fee and data charges. To compare different

contracts you need to know your general

phone usage. Be aware that some plans

charge per second while others charge for

blocks of 30 seconds or 60 seconds. Most

contracts allow for calls up to a certain value

as part of the access fee. This is referred to as

free calls. When calls exceed that value they

are charged at the specified rate.

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Example 1

Plan A

Plan B

$19.00

$24.00

Free calls

$50.00

$20.00

$0.35

$0.25

$0.47

$0.40

SMS

$0.25

$0.25

MMS

$0.50

$0.50

Messaging

391

The table above shows two mobile phone plans. Joel uses Plan A. Paige uses Plan B.

a

What is the call charge if Joel makes a 2-minute call?

b

What is the call charge if Paige makes a 5-minute call?

c

Mia makes 100 calls in a month with each call lasting 1 minute. What is the monthly cost

on Plan B?

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

Local rate is charged for every

30 seconds. A 2-minute call is

120 seconds. Divide 120 by 30 to

determine the cost.

Evaluate.

Write the answer in words.

Add the flagfall to the local rate.

Local rate is charge for every

30 seconds. A 5-minute call is

300 seconds. Divide 300 by 30 to

determine the cost.

Evaluate.

Write the answer in words.

Multiply the calculation for each

call by 100.

Evaluate.

Subtract the free calls and add the

monthly fee to the call charge.

Write the answer in words.

= $2.23

Joel is charged $2.23.

= $4.25

Paige is charged $4.25.

= $105

Cost = 105 20 + 24

= $109

Cost of plan B is $109.

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392

Exercise 13A

1

monthly fee of $49, call connection fee of $0.37

and voice calls of $0.40 per 30-second block.

What is the cost of these calls?

a

One-minute call

b

Three-minute call

c

Five-minute call

d

Ten-minute call

e

Twenty-minute call

13A

Basic

d

e

Super

Mega

$29

$49

$79

$99

Free calls

$120

$300

$600

$800

$0.30

$0.30

$0.30

$0.30

$0.44

$0.40

$0.40

$0.35

SMS

$0.25

$0.25

$0.25

$0.25

MMS

$0.50

$0.50

$0.50

$0.50

Messaging

a

Big

i

What is his monthly access fee?

ii

What is the charge for a two-minute call?

Chelsea uses the Super plan.

i

What value of free calls does she receive?

ii

What is the charge for a three-minute call?

Adam uses the Mega plan.

i

What is the cost of an SMS message?

ii

What is the charge for a four-minute call?

Lauren used the Big plan last month for SMS messages and was charged $20.00

in addition to her monthly access fee. How many SMS messages did she send?

How many 30-second free calls are possible on the Mega plan?

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393

Telephone Bill

User Name: Bill Sample

Special Discounts

From

To

Details

Quantity

15-Apr

15-Apr

14-May

14-May

Up to 50 free SMS

50 calls

Talk Time included value

($10 Rollover to next month)

Amount

11.35CR

54.14CR

$65.49CR

Equipment

From

To

Details

Quantity

Rate

Amount

15-May

15-May

14-Jun

14-Jun

Talk Time Monthly Access

1

1

9.09

22.73

9.09

22.73

$31.82

Date

Time

Origin

Amount

15-Apr

15-Apr

15-Apr

15-Apr

15-Apr

16-Apr

17-Apr

18-Apr

19-Apr

19-Apr

10:10am

11:34am

11:45am

12:02pm

12:15pm

10:10am

11:34am

11:45pm

08:02pm

10:10pm

Sydney

Melbourne

Brisbane

Adelaide

Brisbane

Sydney

Melbourne

Brisbane

Adelaide

Sydney

Mobile

Mobile

Mobile

Mobile

Mobile

Div-Mobile

Mobile

Mobile

Mobile

Info Access

0.45

0.63

0.50

3.77

0.05

5.46

5.46

0.00

0.00

2.16

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

4

0:10:30

0:00:30

0:02:30

0:03:00

0:03:30

0:05:00

0:05:00

0:05:00

0:05:00

0:12:30

Peak

Peak

Peak

Off Peak

Peak

Peak

Peak

Talk Time

Talk Time

Special

How much was the mobile call charge on 16 April?

How many free SMS messages were available on this plan?

What is the monthly access fee?

How much was the mobile call to Adelaide on 15 April?

How many free calls are listed as having been made?

What was the time of the call to Melbourne on 15 April?

What was the length of the call to Sydney on 15 April?

A Prepaid phone has a call connection fee of $0.38 and voice calls of $0.48 per

30-second block. What is the cost of the following?

a 30-second call

b 1 minute and 30 seconds call

c 3-minute call

d 30-minute call.

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394

Development

5

Monthly access fee

Free calls

Casual

$39.00

$150

Frequent

$69.00

$300

$0.32

$0.32

$0.45

$0.38

Messaging

$0.22

$0.44

$0.20

$0.40

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

SMS

MMS

i

What is his monthly access fee?

ii What is the charge for a call lasting 160 seconds?

iii What is the charge for a call lasting 4.25 minutes?

Georgina uses the Frequent plan.

i

What is her monthly fee?

ii What is the charge for a call lasting 160 seconds?

iii What is the charge for a call lasting 4.25 minutes?

How many free 30-second calls do you receive on the Casual plan?

How many free 30-second calls do you receive on the Frequent plan?

How many more free 30-second calls do you receive on the Frequent plan compared

to the Casual plan?

How many 30-second calls are required to exceed the difference in the monthly

access fee between the Casual and Frequent plans? (Use the Casual call rate and

ignore free calls.)

How many SMS messages are required to exceed the difference in the monthly

access fee between the Casual and Frequent plans? (Use the Casual SMS rate.)

Hannah is deciding on one of the above mobile phone plans. She will be using her

mobile phone to make 300 calls (30 seconds) and 100 SMS messages each month.

What plan should she choose?

Jackson is deciding on one of the above mobile phone plans. He will be using his

mobile phone to make 200 calls (30 seconds) and 500 SMS messages each month.

What plan should he choose?

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395

A mobile phone plan has a monthly charge of $29 on a 24-month contract. The call rate

is $0.98 per 60-second block plus there is a $0.38 flagfall. The contract includes $150 of

free calls and 200 MB of data per month with excess data charged at $0.50 per MB.

a What is the minimum cost of the contract?

b What is the cost of making 200 calls in a month where the duration of each call is

less than one minute? (Include monthly charge.)

c What is the cost of a call lasting 4 minutes and 45 seconds? Assume the $150 free

calls have been used.

d The providers on the above plan decide to reduce the cost per MB to $0.125.

Assuming the monthly charge remains at $29, what is the new amount of

included data?

7

Light

Normal

Heavy

Pro

$29

$49

$79

$99

$0.98

$0.95

$0.90

Unlimited

Connection fee

$0.38

$0.35

$0.35

Unlimited

SMS messages

$0.25

$0.25

Unlimited

Unlimited

Free calls

$100

$150

$300

Unlimited

500 MB

1 GB

3 GB

5 GB

$0.50/MB

$0.30/MB

$0.25/MB

$0.25/MB

Included data

Excess data

a

b

c

What is the charge for downloading 5 GB of data in the last month excluding the

monthly access fee?

i

Light plan

ii Normal plan

iii Heavy plan

iv Pro plan

What is the total cost including monthly access fee of making 150 calls (60 seconds)

in the last month?

i

Light plan

ii Normal plan

iii Heavy plan

iv Pro plan

Noah does not use his phone to make calls. However, his data usage for the past three

months was 500 MB, 1 GB and 4 GB. Which mobile phone plan is more economical

for Noah?

Ava uses less than 200 MB of data each month. However, she made 100 calls,

150 calls and 70 calls in the past three months. Each call lasted for 1 minute.

Which mobile phone plan is the most cost-effective for Ava?

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396

A step-function or step graph consists of

horizontal line segments or intervals. These

line segments create a graph that looks like

13.2 staircase pattern. The end-points of the line

segments consist of a closed circle or an open

circle. The values on the vertical axis are read

from the closed circle (shaded) and not the

open circle. For example, in the graph below

the cost of a 1-minute call is 20 cents and not

30 cents.

A linear piecewise function is similar to the

step-function. It consists of series of line

segments which may not be horizontal. Each

line segment is drawn separately and may not

connect to the next line segment.

Reading a step-function graph

first minute and 10 cents for each additional

minute rounded up to the next minute. The

step-function graph is shown opposite.

a

What is the charge if Dylan makes a

2-minute call?

b

What is the charge if Sarah makes a

3.5-minute call?

Phone charges

50

Cost (cents)

Example 2

40

30

20

10

0

3

2

Time (min)

Solution

1

2

(when time = 2 min, cost = 30).

Read from the graph

(when time = 3.5 min, cost = 50).

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397

Exercise 13B

1

Phone charges

step-function graph opposite.

a

How much is charged in the first

75

minute?

60

b

What is the charge for each

45

additional minute?

30

c

What is the charge for a 2-minute

call?

15

d

What is the charge for a 3.2-minute

0

call?

3

1

2

Time (min)

e

What is the charge for a 20-second

call?

f

Copy the step-function graph and extend the graph to include the costs for a

5-minute call and a 6-minute call. Assume the same pattern of charges.

Cost (cents)

13B

Total monthly charge

service fee plus call costs where the

50

rate changes after 40 calls as shown in

the graph opposite.

40

a

How much is the monthly service

fee?

30

b

How much does the company

charge if you make 20 calls a

20

month?

c

How much does the company

10

charge if you make 40 calls a

month?

d

How much does the company

0

20

60

80

100

40

charge if you make 60 calls a

Monthly calls

month?

e

How many calls are made if the total monthly charge is $40?

f

How many calls are made if the total monthly charge is $25?

g

How many calls are made if the total monthly charge is $15?

h

What is the gradient of the line segment between 0 and 40 calls?

i

What is call charge for making 0 to 40 calls?

j

What is the gradient of the line segment between 40 and 100 calls?

k

What is call charge for making 40 to 100 calls?

l

Copy the linear piecewise graph and extend the graph to include the call charges of

$0.20 per call for 100 to 140 calls.

Charge ($)

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398

Development

3

The call charges for a phone company are as follows: $0.15 for the first minute or part

thereof, then $0.20 for the second minute or part thereof, then $0.25 for the third minute

or part thereof and $0.30 additional for a call lasting between 3 and 4 minutes.

a Draw a step-function graph to

illustrate the call charges, with

the Time (minutes) on the

horizontal axis and Cost ($) on

the vertical axis.

b What is the call cost for 30

seconds? Use the step graph.

c Max started a call at 11.20 a.m.

and ended the call at 11.24 a.m.

How much did he pay for call

charges?

d During the month, Hannah made 28 calls lasting 1 minute, 45 calls lasting 2 minutes

and 35 calls lasting 3 minutes. What is her total call charge for the month?

e Modify the step graph to include another line segment. The call charge is $0.20

additional for a call lasting between 4 and 5 minutes.

linear piecewise graph represents the total monthly call charge. Each line segment

has a different call rate.

a How much is the monthly service fee?

Total monthly charge

b The total monthly call charge for 30 calls

40

is $24. What is the gradient of the first

35

line segment?

30

c The total monthly call charge for 60 calls

25

is $30. What is the gradient of the second

20

line segment?

15

d The total monthly call charge for 80 calls

10

is $32. What is the gradient of the third

5

line segment?

e What is the equation of the first line

0

60

80

20

40

segment?

Monthly calls

f

What is the equation of the second line

segment?

g Copy the linear piecewise graph and extend the graph to include call charges of

$0.08 per call for 80 to 100 calls.

Charge ($)

4 The

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399

Files are used to store data in a storage device. The data can be modified and transferred to

other devices such as mobile phones. Electronic data is represented in digital form. It uses only

two digits: 0 and 1. Two digits are easily represented electronically by circuits being off or on.

Each on or off digit is called a bit (BInary digiT). A bit is the smallest unit of data stored in an

electronic device.

A byte is a group of 8 bits that represents a single unit. If the data is text then a byte would

represent a character, such as a letter, a number, a punctuation mark or a space. The prefixes

kilo, mega, giga and tera are then added and more commonly used to measure data. The

lowercase b is used to represent a bit while the uppercase B is used to represent a byte.

Unit

Symbol

Byte

Meaning

Exact value

One byte

Power of two

1

(20)

1024

(210)

Kilobyte

KB

Thousand bytes

Megabyte

MB

Million bytes

1048576

(220)

Gigabyte

GB

Billion bytes

1073741824

(230)

Terabyte

TB

Trillion bytes

1099511627776

(240)

Convert file storage units by using the exact value.

Use the calculator and the power of 2 to obtain the exact value.

Storage devices

A storage device is any device that can store data and allow it to be retrieved when required.

There are many different types of storage devices:

Hard disk has a storage capacity measured in the TB.

USB flash drive is available in range of different sizes such as 32 GB.

Mobile phones and media players will store different types of data and have different

sizes.

Memory cards are used to increase the storage capacity of these devices.

A compact disc (CD) stores up to 800 MB.

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400

Example 3

Complete:

5 KB =

1.3 TB =

MB

Solution

1

2

3

4

or 1024 bytes in one kilobyte.

To change KB to B, multiply by 210.

Find the conversion factor. There are 220

or 1 048 576 megabytes in one terabyte.

To change MB to TB multiply by 220.

5 KB = 5 210

= 5 1024

= 5120 B

1.3 TB = 1.3 220 MB

= 1.3 1 048 576

= 1 363 148.8

Example 4

Complete:

1536 KB =

MB

8 388 608 KB =

GB

Solution

1

2

3

are 210 or 1024 kilobytes in one

megabyte.

To change KB to MB, divide

by 210.

Find the conversion factor. There

are 220 or 1 048 576 kilobytes in one

megabyte.

To change KB to GB divide

by 220.

Example 5

= 1536 1024

= 1.5

= 8 388 608 1 048 576 GB

= 8 GB

How many MP3 files of average size 3.2 MB can be stored on a 2 GB MP3 player?

Solution

1

2

3

or 1024 gigabytes in one megabyte.

To change GB to MB multiply by 210 or

1024.

Divide the file size into storage size of

the MP3 player.

2 GB = 2 210 MB

= 2048 MB

= 640

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401

Exercise 13C

1

13C

a

2 KB =

4 MB =

KB

7 TB =

KB

3 TB =

MB

9 TB =

GB

6 MB =

B = 8 TB

B = 4 GB

2.5 TB =

MB

5.3 TB =

MB

2 097 152 KB =

GB

3 145 728 KB =

GB

8 388 608 KB =

MB

k

2

4.8 KB =

GB = 5 TB

a

1024 B =

6 291 456 MB =

KB

TB

GB

KB = 7168 B

Madison has received a 50 KB file in JPEG format from a friend. How many files of this

size could she store on a:

a

1 GB USB flash drive?

b

500 MB MP3 player?

c

800 KB compact disc?

d

100 GB external hard drive?

A USB flash drive has 2.5 GB of video data. What is the total file storage (in gigabytes)

in the flash drive if the following files are added to the USB? Answer correct to

one decimal place.

a

330 MB

b

1200 MB

c

4000 MB

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402

Development

6

a

3072 B =

2048 KB =

4194304 MB =

MB

3.2 GB =

MB = 2056 KB

KB

TB

TB

MB = 7168 KB

to the party and created 15 video

files with average file size 250 MB.

How much space (in MB) remains on

his hard drive if it has the following

storage capacity?

a 200 GB

b 50 TB

c 1 TB

d 10000 MB

a USB flash drive with a storage capacity of 4 GB and a compact disc with a storage

capacity of 800 MB. Give your answer to the nearest MB.

b Hard drive with a storage capacity of 2 TB and an external hard drive with a storage

capacity of 300 GB. Give your answer to the nearest GB.

a ascending order (smallest to largest)

b descending order (largest to smallest).

10

a How many days will it take for the file storage to exceed a gigabyte?

b How many days will it take for the file storage to exceed a terabyte?

11

a What is the average file size (MB) of a typical song to the nearest whole number?

b Do you think the manufacturers claims are correct? Give a reason for your answer.

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403

The speed of data transfer is measured by the number of bits per second (bps) or the bit

rate. Common units of measurement for the transmission of data are kilobits (Kbps),

megabits (Mbps), gigabits (Gbps) or terabits (Tbps). The prefix is used to convert the

units of measurement. The meaning of the prefixes are kilo (1000), mega (1 000 000), giga

(1 000 000 000) and tera (1 000 000 000 000).

Unit

Symbol

Approximate value

bps

Kbps

1 000

Mbps

1 000 000

Gbps

Tbps

1

2

3

Use the prefixes to determine the conversion factor.

An increase in the order of the prefix represents a

conversion factor of 1000.

tera

giga

mega

kilo

unit

1000

1000

1000

1000

Example 6

Complete

1000

1000

1000

1000

4 Mbps =

Kbps

= 4000 Kbps

= 2 000 000 1 000 000 Mbps

= 2 Mbps

Mbps

Solution

1

2

3

4

approximately 1000 Kbps in 1 Mbps.

To change Mbps to Kbps, multiply

by 1000.

Find the conversion factor. There are

1 000 000 bps in 1 Mbps.

To change bps to Mbps, divide

by 1 000 000.

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404

Exercise 13D

1

13D

6 Mbps =

Kbps

2 Tbps =

Kbps

3 Kbps =

bps

5 Tbps =

Gbps

9 Tbps =

Mbps

7 Mbps =

bps

Gps = 7 Tbps

bps = 2 Tbps

2.1 Kbps =

bps

4.8 Tbps =

Mbps

9000 bps =

Kbps

k

2

7.3 Tbps =

Mbps

bps = 8 Gbps

a

3000 Kbps =

Gbps

Gbps

Mbps

h

j

Tbps

Gbps

Kbps = 2400 bps

Search the internet to find an online data transfer rate converter to check your answers to

questions 1 and 2.

A file is 8 000 000 bits in size. How many seconds would it take to download the file at

the following transfer rates?

a

2 Mbps

b

4 Kbps

c

8 Tbps

d

1 bps

e

20 Mbps

f

1000 Kbps

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405

Development

6

Order 700000 bps, 700 Mbps, 0.007 Tbps and 7000 Kbps in:

a ascending order (smallest to largest) of speed

b descending order (largest to smallest) of speed.

a How many bits make up this file? Assume 1 byte is 8 bits.

b How many seconds would it take to download this file at 3 bps?

c How many seconds would it take to download this file at 6 Kbps?

d How many seconds would it take to download this file at 2 Mbps?

downloaded from the internet.

a How many bits make up this file?

Assume 1 byte is 8 bits.

b How many seconds would it take

to download this file at 2 Kbps?

c How many seconds would it take

to download this file at 8 Mbps?

a How many bits make up this file? Assume 1 byte is 8 bits.

b How many seconds would it take to download this file at 50 bps?

c How many seconds would it take to download this file at 34 Kbps?

d How many seconds would it take to download this file at 40 Mbps?

10

How many seconds would it take to upload a 2.4 MB file if the transfer rate is 4 Kbps?

Answer correct to the nearest second. Assume 1 byte is 8 bits and 1 MB is 1024 KB.

11

Luke has a connection to the internet at a speed of 40 Mbps. What is the largest possible

file size (MB) that can be downloaded in the following time?

a 1 second

b 1 minute

c 1 hour

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406

People are downloading digital media at an increasing rate. They use the internet to download

files containing text, graphics, animation, music, video and software. Faster broadband has

resulted in an increase in quantity and quality of music and video files that are downloaded

from the internet. Downloading has also raised the issue of copyright.

Digital download statistics

Use summary statistics (mean, median, mode, range and interquartile range)

to interpret the effect of downloading music and video files.

Example 7

Tim collected data on the location where people have downloaded music files. He asked each

person where they most preferred to download music. The result of his survey is shown below.

Location

People

Home

105

Work

65

School

80

Internet cafe

75

What is the mode? Which location is the most popular for downloading music?

Answer correct to two decimal places.

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

6

Location with the mode is home.

Find the total number of people surveyed

by adding the people column.

Divide the number of people downloading

in the home by the total number of

people.

Multiply by 100 to express as a

percentage.

Write the answer in words.

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a

b

Most popular location is home.

Total = 105 + 65 + 80 + 75 = 325

Home =

105

100%

325

= 32.31%

32.31% preferred to download

at home.

407

Exercise 13E

1

The time (in minutes) spent sending SMS messages to friends by five teenagers was 82,

130, 57, 107 and 82. Find the following summary statistics.

a

Mean

b

Median

c

Mode

d

Range

e

Interquartile range

f

Sample standard deviation (to 3 decimal places)

g

Population standard deviation (to 3 decimal places)

h

What is the total number of minutes spent sending SMS messages to friends by these

teenagers?

internet on 15 consecutive days. The time taken

(in seconds) to download the file was recorded:

24, 28, 25, 35, 21, 27, 29, 28, 23, 30, 28, 27, 33,

57 and 27.

a

What is the mean time (to 2 decimal places)?

b

What is the median time?

c

What is the mode?

d

Which is the better measure for the centre for

the data? Explain your answer.

13E

4

2

a

b

c

d

e

1 5 3 5 1 0 2 1 2 5 3 4 1 0

Construct a frequency table for this data.

What was the most common number of video files that have been downloaded?

Insert an fx column and calculate the mean.

Insert a cumulative frequency column and calculate the median.

What percentage of students have not downloaded any video files (to 1 decimal

place)?

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408

Development

4

The sale of CDs from a traditional music store was 262, 288, 322, 276, 290, 301, 308,

318, 292 and 307. During the same period, sales from an online music store were 178,

195, 224, 190, 201, 228, 219, 216, 210 and 228.

a What is the mean of sales from

each store (to 1 decimal place).

i Traditional

ii Online

b What is the sample standard

deviation of sales from each store

(to 1 decimal place)?

i Traditional

ii Online

c Compare and contrast the mean

and standard deviation from each

store.

The grouped frequency table shows the number of people who have downloaded a video

file. A sample of 200 people was taken in each age group.

Age range

Frequency (f)

1524

98

2534

39

3544

28

4554

23

5564

17

se your calculator to estimate the following summary statistics for the downloaders.

U

Answer correct to one decimal place.

a Mean

b Sample standard deviation

c Population standard deviation

6

The time taken to download a music file is shown in the table below.

5

10

15

20

25

30 35 40 45

8

26

39

57

71

84 102 113 131

Time (sec)

a Construct a column graph for this data. Use file size as the horizontal axis and time

as the vertical axis.

b What is the average increase in time taken to download the file when the file

increases by 5MB? Answer to the nearest second.

c Estimate the time it would take to download a 50 MB file.

d Describe the relationship between the file size and the time taken.

The Powers Family Trust 2013

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Study guide 13

fee (or flagfall), call rate and the length of the call.

Call charge = Connection fee + Time used Call rate

Postpaid plan involves a contract that varies in length from one to

two years. It involves a range of charges such as a connection fee,

monthly access fees, call costs, disconnection fee and data charges.

intervals. The end points of the line segments consist of a closed circle

or an open circle. The values on the vertical axis are read from the

closed circle (shaded) and not the open circle.

graphs

File storage

Digital download

Use the calculator and the power of 2 to obtain the exact value.

Unit

Symbol

Byte

(20)

1024

(210)

One byte

KB

Thousand bytes

Megabyte

MB

Million bytes

1048576

(220)

Gigabyte

GB

Billion bytes

1073741824

(230)

Terabyte

TB

Trillion bytes

1099511627776

(240)

1 Learn the order of the prefixes.

2 Use the prefixes to determine the conversion factor.

3 An increase in the order of the prefix is a conversion factor of 1000.

statistics

Exact value

Kilobyte

Unit

Digital download

Meaning

Power

of two

Symbol

bps

Approximate

value

1

Kbps

1000

Mbps

1000000

Gbps

1000000000

Tbps

1000000000000

range) to interpret the effect of downloading music and video files.

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Review

409

Review

410

1

A prepaid mobile phone plan charges a call connection fee of $0.32 and voice calls of

$0.44 per 30-second block. What is the cost of making a ten-minute call?

A $4.40

B $4.72

C $8.80

D $9.12

Alice has a mobile phone contract that charges a monthly access fee of $59, free calls

$150, flagfall $0.25 and call rate of $0.45 per 30 seconds. What is the monthly charge if

Alice made 200 calls of duration less than 30 seconds?

A $59.00

B $81.50

C $96.50

D $209.00

How many kilobits per second are there in 5000 megabits per second?

A 0.005

B 5

C 5000000

D 5000000000

A file has 3000000 bits. How many seconds would it take to download

the file at 6 Mbps?

A 0.002

B 0.5

C 2

D 500

A 1024

B 6144

C 1048576

D 6291456

A 0.0029

B 3

C 3145728

D 3221225472

How many data files of average size 7.2 MB can be stored on a 4 GB USB drive?

A 568

B 4096

C 7372

D 582542

48, 56, 49, 70, 34, 58, 62, 60, 41, 37, 45 and 39. What is the median?

A 48.5

B 49

C 49.9

D 50

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411

What is the cost of a call of duration 3 minutes and 40 seconds given that there is a

connection fee of 29 cents and the call rate is 45 cents per 30-second block?

$59 plan

$99 plan

$59

$99

Included allowance

$550

$900

Connection fee

$0.35

$0.32

$0.90

$0.88

Unlimited

Unlimited

Text

What is the charge for a call lasting 3 minutes and 20 seconds on the $59 plan?

What is the charge for a call lasting 3 minutes and 20 seconds on the $99 plan?

What is the maximum number of free calls (60 seconds) on the $59 plan?

What is the maximum number of free calls (60 seconds) on the $99 plan?

Determine the monthly charge for making 400 calls (60 seconds) on the $59 plan?

Determine the monthly charge for making 400 calls (60 seconds) on the $99 plan?

Determine the monthly charge for making 900 calls (60 seconds) on the $59 plan?

Determine the monthly charge for making 900 calls (60 seconds) on the $99 plan?

Isaac is deciding on one of the mobile phone plans show in the table above. He will be

using his mobile phone to make 600 calls (60 seconds) and 500 SMS messages each

month. What plan should he choose?

Tahlia is deciding on one of the above mobile phone plans. She will be using her mobile

phone to make 300 calls (30 seconds) and 100 SMS messages each month. What plan

should she choose?

A mobile phone plan has a monthly charge of $49 on a 24-month contract. The call rate is

$0.90 per 60-second block with a $0.35 flagfall. The contract includes $450 of free calls,

text and MMS. What is the monthly charge for making 400 voice calls (60 second)?

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Review

Chapter

summary

Mathematics

and

communication

4 The phone

chargesare

described by the

step-function

graph below.

Phone charges

1

Cost (dollars)

Review

412

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

1

a

b

c

d

e

f

What is the charge for each additional minute?

What is the charge for a 3-minute call?

What is the charge for a 2-minute call?

What is the charge for a 1.5-minute call?

What is the charge for a 30-second call?

a

7 Kbps =

13 Mbps =

4000000 Mbps =

9000000 Kbps =

2 Tbps =

0.005 Tbps =

Tbps

1230000 Kbps =

Gbps

2800000000 bps =

GB = 4.5 TB

bps

Kbps

Gbps

Kbps

Mbps

Gbps

a

3

2

Time (min)

6 TB =

MB

B = 3 GB

5242880 MB =

2147483648 B =

TB

GB

0.2 TB =

6144 MB =

24576 KB =

GB

GB

MB

The time taken (in seconds) to download seven different YouTube videos was 121, 145,

168, 118, 140, 164 and 175. Calculate, correct to two decimal places, the:

a mean

b median

c interquartile range.

Challenge questions 13

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C H A P T E R

14

Mathematics

and driving

Focus study FSDr Mathematics and driving

Calculate the percentage decrease in the value of a vehicle

Determine the cost of repayments and total amount repaid on a loan

Describe the different types of motor vehicle insurance

Calculate the cost of stamp duty on a vehicle

Calculate the fuel consumption and running costs of a vehicle

Determine the straight-line and declining balance depreciation

Use the formula for distance, speed and time, and calculate stopping distance

Calculate and interpret blood alcohol content

Construct and interpret tables and graphs related to motor vehicles

The cost of a purchasing a motor vehicle depends

on many factors such as whether it is new or used,

the make, the model, whether it is manual or

14.1 automatic, the number of kilometres travelled and

the engine size. In addition, the list of installed

optional equipment such as alloy wheels or cruise

control has an effect on the purchase price.

A motor vehicle is not an investment. It decreases in value immediately. In the first year of

ownership, a new car can lose up to 20% of its value, and by the fifth year, your car will

decrease in price by over 65%. The percentage decrease is determined by dividing the price

decrease by the purchase price and multiplying the result by 100.

413

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414

Example 1

A new vehicle is bought for $25 000 and sold one year later for $19 000. Calculate the

percentage decrease in the value of the new vehicle.

Solution

1

2

($6000).

Divide the price decrease

($6000) by the purchase price

($25 000).

Express as a percentage (multiply

by 100).

$6000

100

$25 000

= 24%

Percentage decrease =

Finance

Many car dealers allow people to borrow money using the dealers finance arrangements.

The purchaser pays a deposit and then makes a large number of repayments. The total cost in

purchasing a motor vehicle using finance is greater than the sale price for cash.

Buying on nance

Total cost = Deposit + Total repayments

Total repayments = Repayment Number of repayments

Interest paid = Total cost Sale price

Example 2

A four-wheel drive is for sale at $45 000. Finance is available at $5000 deposit and monthly

repayments of $1470 for 5 years.

a

b

c

How much is the total cost using this finance package?

What is the interest paid?

Solution

1

2

3

number of repayments.

Add the deposit to the total cost of

the repayments.

Subtract the sale price from the

total cost.

a

b

c

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= $88 200

Total cost = 5000 + 88 200

= $93 200

Interest paid = 93 200 45 000

= $48 200

415

Exercise 14A

1

Calculate the percentage decrease in the price of a new vehicle after one year.

a

Purchase price is $25 500. Market value after one year is $21 420.

b

Purchase price is $36 800. Market value after one year is $27 600.

c

Purchase price is $54 250. Market value after one year is $48 825.

d

Purchase price is $23 826. Market value after one year is $20 900.

a

Sale price is $35 500. Trade-in is worth $6000.

b

Sale price is $16 850. Trade-in is worth $2980.

c

Sale price is $24 120. Trade-in is worth $9460.

d

Sale price is $64 870. Trade-in is worth $11 820.

Calculate the amount of the deposit needed to purchase the following cars.

a

Sale price is $21 400. Deposit 25%.

b

Sale price is $19 240. Deposit 15%.

c

Sale price is $45 100. Deposit 35%.

d

Sale price is $65 200. Deposit 40%.

a

Sale price is $14 800. Monthly repayments of $410 for 5 years.

b

Sale price is $19 240. Monthly repayments of $1120 for 2 years.

c

Sale price is $45 100. Weekly repayments of $360 for 3 years.

d

Sale price is $85 200. Weekly repayments of $610 for 4 years.

Charlotte has been offered terms to purchase a car. The price of the car is $24 560 or

50% deposit and repayments of $90 per week for 200 weeks.

14A

a

b

c

Find the total cost of the repayments.

What is the cost of purchasing the car on terms?

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416

Development

6

A utility vehicle is for sale at $42000. Finance is available at $7500 deposit and monthly

repayments of $1280 for 5 years.

a What is the total cost of repayments?

b How much will the car cost if you use the finance package?

c What is the interest paid?

Jacob has seen a used car he would like to buy, priced at $13400. He has saved $7000

towards the cost of the car. His parents have offered to lend him the balance to pay for it.

Jacob agrees to pay $40 each week to repay his parents.

a How much will Jacob need to borrow from his parents?

b How long will it take Jacob to repay the loan from his parents?

A used car is for sale at $27000. Finance is available at 10% deposit and monthly

repayments of $630 for 4 years.

a How much deposit is to be paid?

b What is the total cost of repayments?

c How much will the car cost if you use the finance package?

d What is the interest paid?

Package A: Deposit of $3000, $1400 per month over 5 years.

Package B: No deposit, $1540 per month over 6 years.

a Determine the total cost of package A.

b Determine the total cost of package B.

c How much will be saved by selecting the cheaper package?

10

A prestige car is for sale at $65000. Finance from the car dealer is available at a deposit

of 40% and weekly repayments of $530 for 4 years. A personal loan of $39000 is

available from the bank at 15% p.a. simple interest for 4 years.

a How much deposit is required?

b What is the interest paid using the finance from the car dealer?

c What is the interest paid using the finance from the bank?

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11

417

Registration of a motor vehicle involves the payment of a fee. These are not current fees.

Registration fees

Size of vehicle

Tare weight

Private use

Business use

up to 975 kg

$218

$321

976 kg to 1154 kg

$239

$354

1155 kg to 1504 kg

$269

$404

1505 kg to 2504 kg

$383

$583

up to 254 kg

$52

$133

255 kg to 764 kg

$143

$200

765 kg to 975 kg

$218

$321

976 kg to 1154 kg

$239

$354

1155 kg to 1504 kg

$269

$404

1505 kg to 2499 kg

$383

$583

$101

$101

Motor cycle

a

b

c

d

What is the cost of registering a car for private use whose weight is 1000 kg?

What is the cost of registering a truck for business use whose weight is 1500 kg?

What is the cost of registering a car for business use whose weight is 925 kg?

What is the cost of registering a motor cycle for private use?

12 Bailey

is buying a used car for $12000. He is required to pay a transfer fee of $26 and

stamp duty of $360. Finance from the car dealer is available at a deposit of 20% and

monthly repayments of $380 for 4 years. How much above the price is Bailey paying the

car dealer?

13 Personal

Use a personal loans calculator with a monthly gross salary of $5000 and monthly

expense details of $2000 to determine the maximum amount to be borrowed.

a Current variable rate of interest and a loan term of 4 years.

b Current variable rate of interest and a loan term of 2 years.

c Current fixed rate of interest and a loan term of 4 years.

d Current fixed rate of interest and a loan term of 2 years.

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418

14.2 Insurance

Insurance is a major cost in keeping a motor vehicle on the road. There are three main types of

insurance:

Green slip or Compulsory Third Party insurance protects vehicle owners and drivers who

are legally liable for personal injury to any other party in the event of a personal injury

claim made against them by other road users.

insurance covers you for

damage caused by your

car to property owned by a

third party in the event of

an accident.

Comprehensive insurance

covers you for damage to

your own vehicle as well as

damage your car may cause

to another persons vehicle

or property.

Insurance premium is the cost of taking out insurance cover. Many insurance companies offer

an online calculator for your vehicle insurance premium. It requires information on the make/

model of car, your age/driving history, finance, modifications/accessories and location. The

cost of insurance is also affected by:

claim is made on the policy until it reaches the maximum discount level.

Excess is paid when a claim is made on the policy. The standard excess can be varied plus

there are excesses for younger drivers.

Example 3

Elle has been quoted $960 for comprehensive car insurance. She has a no claim

bonus of 40%. How much is Elle required to pay?

Solution

1

2

3

4

payment of 60%.

Calculate 60% of $960.

Evaluate.

Write the answer in words.

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= 0.60 960

= $576

Elle is required to pay $576.

419

Exercise 14B

1

What is the cost of comprehensive car insurance for the following premiums?

a

Premium of $1080 with a no claim bonus of 60%.

b

Premium of $1690 with a no claim bonus of 30%.

c

Premium of $880 with a no claim bonus of 40%.

d

Premium of $1320 with a no claim bonus of 70%.

e

Premium of $2350 with a no claim bonus of 50%.

The graph below shows the percentage of claims for each age group.

14B

Insurance claims

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

a

b

c

d

10

20

30

40

Age in years

50

60

70

What age group made the least number of claims?

Calculate the gross percentage change in claims between the ages of 60 and 70.

How do insurance companies cater for the large number of claims made by people

20 years old?

Dan is 20 years old and has received this quote for comprehensive insurance.

a

b

Premium details

Excesses

Cost

12 month policy

$678.00

30% No claim bonus

Standard

$500

Male under 21

$1200

Female under 21

$900

What is Dans excess if he makes a claim?

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420

Development

4

Connor has been quoted an insurance premium of $980.60 from his insurance company.

The company had given him a 20% no-claim bonus as he had not made a claim in the

previous year. What would the insurance premium have been without his no-claim

bonus?

according to categories. The total insurance cost was

$1.2 billion.

a What is the insurance cost for minor injury?

b What is the insurance cost for serious injury?

c What is the insurance cost for a fatal accident?

d What is the insurance cost for property damage?

6

19.8

21.7

8.3

50.2

Fatal

Minor injury

Serious injury

Property damage

The premiums quoted below are for clients with a maximum no claim bonus. The car is

owned outright by a mature age driver and driven for private use.

Mosman

Penrith

Mosman

Brand A

$20100

$540

$605

$600

$760

Brand B

$38890

$810

$899

$770

$1500

Brand C

$24400

$615

$650

$615

$860

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

j

Premium B

Model of car

Premium A

Agreed

value

Penrith

Do expensive cars have higher premiums?

What is the best quote for the Brand B?

What is the best quote for the Brand A?

Which model has the lowest premium?

What is the average premium for the Brand B?

What is the average premium for the Brand C?

What is the average premium for Mosman?

What is the average premium for Penrith?

Premium A is being increased by 3%. What would be the new premium for a

Brand A car at Mosman?

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421

Stamp duty is the tax you pay to the government when registering or transferring a motor

vehicle. The amount of stamp duty payable is based on the price of the motor vehicle.

For example, a new passenger car purchased for $40 000 would require a duty of $3 per $100

or $1200 (0.03 40 000). That is, for every $100 you paid for the vehicle, the stamp duty is $3

or a tax of 3%.

1

2

3

Round up the cost of the vehicle to the nearest $100 (per $100), $200 (per $200) etc.

Express the stamp duty as a fraction or decimal. ($3 per $100 is 3/100 or 0.03.)

Multiply the answer obtained in step 1 by the fraction or decimal obtained in step 2.

Example 4

A used car is bought for $17 730. Calculate the stamp duty payable if the charge is $3 per

$100 or part $100.

Solution

2

Express the stamp duty as a fraction.

Evaluate.

Write the answer in words.

3

.

100

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$3 per $100 is the fraction

Stamp duty = 17 800

3

.

100

3

100

= $534

Stamp duty payable is $534.

422

Exercise 14C

1

The table below is used to calculate the stamp duty payable on a vehicle.

14C

Value of vehicle

$0$45 000

$3 per $100

or part $100

(or part $100) over $45 000

a

$32 600

b

$26 500

c

$45 000

d

$13 790

e

$35 521

f

$23 802

g

$52 700

h

$98 435

i

$120 080

2

The table below is used to calculate the stamp duty payable on a vehicle.

Value of vehicle

$0$60 000

$5 per $200

or part $200

(or part $200) over $60 000

a

$13 200

b

$29 790

c

$45 410

d

$73 800

e

$61 670

f

$88 605

g

$57 326

h

$79 190

i

$91 456

3

The table below is used to calculate the stamp duty payable on a used vehicle.

Value of vehicle Passenger

Non-passenger

All prices

$7 per $300

or part $300

$5 per $300

or part $300

vehicles.

a

Passenger car $21 300.

b

Passenger car $69 500.

c

Non-passenger car $45 880.

d

Non-passenger car $36 614.

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423

Development

4

of the value of the vehicle over $45000. Use the following graph to answer the questions

below.

3500

Stamp duty ($)

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0

a

b

c

d

e

f

5

Market Value ($)

How much stamp duty is payable on a car whose market value is $20000?

How much stamp duty is payable on a car whose market value is $60000?

How much stamp duty is payable on a car whose market value is $45000?

How much stamp duty is payable on a car whose market value is $70000?

What is the market value if the stamp duty paid was $300?

What is the market value if the stamp duty paid was $2300?

Construct a line graph to represent the following stamp duty charge. Stamp duty is

calculated at 2.5% of the market value of a vehicle up to $60000, plus 4% of the value

of the vehicle over $60000. Use your graph to answer the questions below.

a How much stamp duty is payable on a car whose market value is $30000?

b How much stamp duty is payable on a car whose market value is $60000?

c How much stamp duty is payable on a car whose market value is $80000?

d What is the market value if the

stamp duty paid was $500?

e What is the market value if the

stamp duty paid was $1000?

f

What is the market value if the

stamp duty paid was $3000?

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424

The running costs covered here are fuel costs, which depend on the price of fuel and the fuel

consumption. A motor vehicles fuel consumption is the number of litres of fuel it uses to

travel 100 kilometres. The fuel consumption is calculated by filling the motor vehicle with

fuel and recording the kilometres travelled from the odometer. When the motor vehicle is

again filled with fuel, record the reading from the odometer and how many litres of fill it takes

to refill the tank. The distance travelled is the difference between the odometer readings.

Fuel consumption

Fuel consumption =

Distance travelled (km)

The cost of fuel for a journey can be calculated from the price of fuel ($/L) multiplied by the

amount of fuel used (L). Fuel prices can be found in your local area from websites such as the

one shown below.

Example 5

What was the fuel consumption?

Solution

1

2

3

4

Substitute 60 for the amount of fuel

and 750 for the distance travelled.

Evaluate.

Write the answer in words.

Distance travelled

60 100

=

750

= 8.0 L / 100 km

Fuel Consumption =

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425

Exercise 14D

1

Calculate the fuel consumption (litres per 100 km) for each of the following:

a

Abbeys car uses 38.2 litres of petrol to travel 400 km.

b

A sports car travelled 900 km using 79.38 litres of petrol.

c

Joels sedan uses 30.36 litres of LPG to travel 600 km.

d

A small car uses 41.05 litres of petrol to travel 500 km.

e

Lucys car uses 139.8 litres of petrol to travel 1500 km.

f

Maxs motorbike uses 70 litres of LPG to travel 2000 km.

is 10 litres of petrol per 100 kilometres. She is planning

to travel around Australia. Calculate the number litres

of petrol Chelseas car will use on the following

distances:

a

A trip of 2716 km from Perth to Adelaide.

b

A trip of 732 km from Adelaide to Melbourne.

c

A trip of 658 km from Melbourne to Canberra.

d

A trip of 309 km from Canberra to Sydney.

e

A trip of 982 km from Sydney to Brisbane.

f

A trip of 3429 km from Brisbane to Darwin.

g

A trip of 4049 km from Darwin to Perth.

a

How many litres of petrol will his car use on a trip

of 155 km from Sydney to Newcastle?

b

The petrol cost is $1.60 cents per litre. How much will the petrol cost for the trip?

Sienna filled her car with petrol. The odometer read 64 080 km at that time. When she

next filled the petrol tank, the odometer read 64 605 km. The car took 42 L of petrol.

a

How far has the car travelled between fills?

b

What was the average fuel consumption in kilometres per litre?

14D

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426

Development

5

a How many kilometres does she travel to and from work in a 6-day working week?

b Stephanie drives an SUV with a fuel consumption of 8.38 L/100 km to and from

work. How many litres of petrol does Stephanie use travelling to and from work in a

week? Answer correct to one decimal place.

c What is Stephanies petrol bill for work if petrol costs are $1.35 per litre?

A family car uses LPG at a rate of 15 L/100 km and the gas tank holds 72 litres. How far

can it travel on a tank of LPG?

Grace drives a four-wheel drive whose petrol consumption is 15.2 L/100 km and the

petrol tank is 95 litres. She is planning a trip from Sydney to Bourke via Dubbo. The

distance from Sydney to Dubbo is 412 km and from Dubbo to Bourke is 360 km. Grace

filled her petrol tank at Sydney. How many times will she need to fill her tank before

arriving at Bourke? Give reasons for your answer.

The graph below shows a motor vehicles fuel consumption at various speeds.

Petrol used to travel 200 km

50

Litres

40

30

20

10

0

a

b

c

d

e

f

30

50

70

90

Speed (km/h)

110

How many litres of fuel were used at 110 km/h?

What is the fuel consumption rate at 30 km/h?

What is the fuel consumption rate at 90 km/h?

What speed used fuel the most efficiently?

How many litres of fuel were saved by travelling at 90 km/h instead of 110 km/h?

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427

Dylan owns a V8 car with a fuel consumption of 11 L/100 km in the city and 8 L/100 km

in the country. Dylan travels 8000 km per year in the city and 10000 km per year in the

country. The average cost of petrol is $1.50 per litre in the city and 10 cents higher in the

country.

a Determine the cost of petrol to drive in the city for the year.

b Determine the cost of petrol to drive in the country for the year.

c What is the total cost of petrol for Dylan in one year?

d What is the total cost of petrol for Dylan in one year if the average cost of petrol

increased to $1.80 per litre in the city?

10

Holly is planning a trip from Sydney to Brisbane using a car with a fuel consumption

of 13litres/100 km. The distance from Sydney to Brisbane via the Pacific Highway is

998 km and via the New England Highway it is 1027 km. The cost of LPG is 79.2 cents

per litre.

a How much will the trip cost via the Pacific Highway?

b How much will the trip cost via the New England Highway?

c How much money is saved by travelling via the Pacific Highway?

11

Tyler buys a new car with a fuel consumption of 11.2 litres/100 km. Oscar buys the LPG

version of Tylers new car, with a fuel consumption 15.4 litres/100 km. Both Tyler and

Oscar average 300 km in a week in the same conditions. The average price of ULP is

$1.40 cents/litre and LPG is $0.79 cents per litre.

a How many litres of fuel are used by Tyler in a week?

b How many litres of fuel are used by Oscar in a week?

c Calculate each cars yearly consumption of fuel.

d What is Tylers yearly fuel bill?

e What is Oscars yearly fuel bill?

f

Oscar paid an additional $1500 for the LPG version of the Ford Falcon. How many

years will it take for the fuel savings to reach $1500 or the break-even point? Answer

correct to the nearest whole number.

g Research the current fuel prices of ULP and LPG. How long will it take for the fuel

saving to exceed the initial costs?

12

Investigate the costs for two common cars on a family trip in your local area. Calculate

the cost for the return trip in each case. You will need to determine the distance of the

trip, fuel consumption for each car and the average price of fuel in the local area.

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428

Straight line depreciation occurs when the value of the item decreases by the same amount

each period. For example, if you buy a car for $20 000 and it depreciates by $2000 each year,

the value of the car after one year is $20 000 $2000 or $18 000. After the second year the

value of the car is $20 000 $2000 $2000 or $16 000.

Straight line depreciation

S = V0 Dn

S Salvage value or current value of an item. Also referred to as the book value.

V0 Purchase price of the item. Value of the item when n = 0.

D Depreciated amount per time period.

n Number of time periods.

Example 6

Molly pays $14 500 for a used car. It depreciates $1100 each year. How much will it be worth

after three years?

Solution

1

2

3

Substitute V0 = 14 500, D = 1100 and n = 3

into the formula.

Evaluate. Write the answer in words.

Example 7

S = V0 Dn

= 14 500 1100 3

= $11 200

The value of the car is $11 200.

A new car is purchased for $25 800. After 4 years its salvage value is $15 160. What is the

annual amount of depreciation, if the amount of depreciation is constant?

Solution

2

Substitute V0 = 25 800, S = 15 160 and n = 4

into the formula.

Evaluate.

15160 = 25800 D 4

25800 15160

D=

4

= $2660

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S = V0 Dn

429

Exercise 14E

1

Mia bought a used car for $15 200. She estimates that her car will depreciate in value by

$3040 each year.

a

What is the loss in value (depreciation) during the first year?

b

What is the value of the car at the end of the first year?

c

What is the loss in value (depreciation) during the second year?

d

What is the value of the car at the end of the second year?

e

What is the loss in value (depreciation) during the third year?

f

What is the value of the car at the end of the third year?

It depreciates $850 each year. What will

be the value of the bike after:

a

three years?

b

five years?

c

seven years?

d

nine years?

Patrick buys a car for $55 500 and it is depreciated at a rate of 10% of its purchase price

each year. What is the salvage value of the car after four years?

car over four years.

a

What is the initial value?

b

How much did the car depreciate

each year?

c

What is the value of the car after

3 years?

d

When was the car worth $8000?

e

What is the value of the car after

1

3 years?

2

f

What is the value of the car after

6 months?

16000

12000

Value ($)

14E

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8000

4000

2

Years

430

Development

5

Ryan bought a commercial van three years ago. It has a salvage value of $36000 and

depreciated $4650 each year. How much did Ryan pay for the van?

Lucy bought a used car four years ago. It has a salvage value of $16400 and depreciated

$1250 each year. How much did Lucy pay for the used car?

a When will the car be worth $5440?

b When will the car be worth $3340?

A ute is purchased for $18600. After two years it has depreciated to $14800 using the

straight line method of depreciation.

a When will the ute be worth $3400?

b When will the ute be worth $1500?

A truck is purchased new for $64000. After 3 years its market value is $44800.

a What is the annual amount of depreciation, if the amount of depreciation is constant?

b Determine the book value of the truck after 7 years.

10

Grace bought an SUV costing $38000. It is expected that the SUV will have an effective

life of 10 years and then be sold for $14000. Assume the SUV depreciated by the same

amount each year. What is the annual depreciation?

11

A utility van is purchased new for $24000. After 3 years its book value is $15000. What

is the annual amount of depreciation, if the amount of depreciation is constant?

12

A caravan is bought for $82000. It is expected to be used for 4 years and then sold for

$50000. Assume the caravan depreciates by the same amount each year.

a How much does the caravan depreciate each year?

b What is the total amount of depreciation for 4 years?

c Copy and complete the following depreciation table for the first four years.

Year

Current value

Depreciation

Depreciated value

1

2

3

4

d

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431

Declining balance depreciation occurs when the value of the item decreases by a fixed

percentage each time period. For example, if you buy a car for $20 000 and it depreciates by

10% each year then the value of the car after one year is $20 000 $2000 or $18 000. After

14.6 the second year the value of the car is $20 000 $2000 $1800 or $16 200. Notice that the

amount of depreciation has decreased in the second year.

Declining balance depreciation

S = V0(1 r)n

S Salvage value or current value of an item. Also referred to as the book value.

V0 Purchase price of the item. Value of the item when n = 0.

r Rate of interest per time period expressed as a decimal.

n Number of time periods.

Example 8

$32 000. During the first year it had depreciated

by 25% and during the second it had depreciated

20% of its value after the first year. What is the

current value of the car?

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Substitute V0 = 32 000, r = 0.25 and n = 1 into the

formula.

Evaluate.

Write the declining balance depreciation formula.

Substitute V0 = 24 000, r = 0.20 and n = 1 into the

formula.

Evaluate.

Write the answer in words.

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First year

S = V0(1 r)n

= 32 000 (1 0.25)1

= $24 000

Second year

S = V0(1 r)n

= 24 000 (1 0.20)1

= $19 200

Current value is $19 200.

432

Example 9

Angus buys a car that depreciates at the rate of 26% per annum. After ve years the car has a

salvage value of $17 420. How much did Angus pay for the car, to the nearest dollar?

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

6

formula.

Substitute S = 17 420, r = 0.26 and n = 5 into

the formula.

Make V0 the subject of the equation.

Evaluate.

Express the answer correct to the nearest

whole dollar.

Write the answer in words.

Example 10

S = V0(1 r)n

17 420 = V0 (1 0.26)5

17 420

(1 0.26 )5

= $78 503.596 21

V0 =

= $78 504

Angus paid $78 504 for the car.

ago for $27 500. Using the declining balance

method for depreciation, she estimates its

present value to be $8107. What annual

percentage rate of depreciation did she use?

Answer to the nearest whole number.

Solution

Substitute S = 8107, V0 = 27 500 and n = 4 into the

formula.

Make (1 r)4 the subject of the equation.

Evaluate.

Express the answer correct to the nearest whole

number.

Write the answer in words.

1

2

6

7

8

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S = V0(1 r)n

8107 = 27 500 (1 r)4

(1 r )4 =

1 r =

8107

27500

8107

27500

8107

27500

= 0.263 145 28

= 26%

r = 1 4

433

Exercise 14F

1

A motor vehicle is bought for $22 000. It depreciates at 16% per annum and is expected

to be used for 5 years. What is the salvage value of the motor vehicle after the following

time periods? Answer to the nearest cent.

a

one year

b

two years

c

three years

Emma purchased a used car for $6560 two years ago. Use the declining balance method

to determine the salvage value of the used car if the depreciation rate is 15% per annum.

Answer to the nearest dollar.

Bailey purchased a motor cycle for $17 500. It depreciates at 28% per year. Answer to the

nearest dollar.

a

What is the book value of the motor cycle after three years?

b

How much has the motor cycle depreciated over the three years?

A new car is bought for $52 000. It depreciates at 22% per annum and is expected to be

used for 4 years. How much has the car depreciated over the 4 years? Answer to the

nearest dollar.

Chloe purchased a car for $19 900. It depreciates at 24% per year. Answer to the nearest

dollar.

a

What is the salvage value of the car after five years?

b

How much has the car depreciated over the five years?

years is shown in the graph opposite.

a

What is the initial value of the used car?

b

How much did the used car depreciate

during the first year?

c

When is the value of the used car

$2000?

d

When is the value of the used car

$1500?

e

What is the value of the used car

after 4 years?

f

What is the value of the used car

1

after 1 years?

2

4000

3000

Value ($)

14F

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2000

1000

2

Years

434

Development

7

A hatchback vehicle was purchased for $16980 three years ago. By using the declining

balance method of depreciation, the current value of the vehicle is $9614. What is the

annual percentage rate of depreciation, correct to two decimal places?

one year using the declining balance

method, it is valued at $25500.

a Determine the annual percentage

rate of depreciation. Answer correct to

3 decimal places.

b What is the value of the new

car after three years? Answer correct

to the nearest dollar.

Philip and Amy spent $200000 on a luxury car 7 years ago. Its current value is $104350.

Using the declining balance method, find the percentage depreciation rate over this

period. Answer correct to one decimal place.

10

Jessica invested $18820 to buy a new car for her business. How many years would it take

for this car to depreciate to $4520? Assume declining balance method of depreciation

with a rate of depreciation of 30%. (Answer to the nearest year.)

11

A motor vehicle is bought for $32000. It depreciates at 16% per annum and is expected

to be used for 5 years.

a How much does the motor vehicle depreciate in the first year?

b Copy and complete the following depreciation table for the first five years.

Answer to the nearest dollar.

Year

Current value

Depreciation

Depreciated value

1

2

3

4

5

c

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435

14.7 Safety

Distance, speed and time

Speed is a rate that compares the

distance travelled to the time taken.

14.7

The speed of a car is measured in

kilometres per hour (km/h). The

speedometer in a car measures the

instantaneous speed of a car. They are

not totally accurate but have a tolerance

of 5%. GPS devices are capable of

showing speed readings based on the

distance travelled per one-Hertz

interval. Most cars also have an

odometer to indicate the distance

travelled by a vehicle.

Distance, speed and time

D

D

or T =

or D = S T

T

S

D Distance

S Speed

T Time

S=

Example 11

a

b

to remember the formulas.

Hide the required quantity to

determine the formula.

D

S

Find the distance travelled by a car whose average speed is 65 km/h if the journey lasts

5 hours. (Answer correct to the nearest kilometre.)

How long will it take a vehicle to travel 150 km at a speed of 60 km/h?

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

Substitute 65 for S and 5 for T into the formula.

Evaluate and express answer correct to the

nearest kilometre.

Write the formula.

Substitute 150 for D and 60 for S into the

formula.

Evaluate and express answer correct to the

nearest hour.

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D=ST

= 65 5

= 325 km

D

T=

S

150

=

60

= 2.5 h

436

Stopping distance

The stopping distance is the distance a vehicle travels from the time a driver sees an event

occurring to the time the vehicle is brought to a stop. It is calculated by adding the reaction

distance and the braking distance. Reaction distance (or thinking distance) is the distance

travelled by the vehicle when a driver decides to brake to when the driver first commences

braking. The reaction time averages 0.75 second for a fit and alert driver. The braking distance

is affected by the road surface (wet, slippery, uneven or unsealed), slope of the road (uphill or

downhill), weight of the vehicle and condition of the brakes.

Stopping distance

Stopping distance = Reaction distance + Braking distance

5Vt V 2

d=

+

(formula is an approximation using average conditions)

18 170

d Stopping distance in metres.

V Velocity or speed of the motor vehicle in km/h.

t Time reaction in seconds.

Example 12

and reaction time of 0.75 seconds. Calculate

the stopping distance using the formula

5Vt V 2

d=

+

.

18 170

Answer correct to the nearest whole metre.

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

formula.

Substitute V = 45 and t = 0.75 into

the formula.

Evaluate.

Express the answer correct to one

decimal place.

Write the answer in words.

5Vt V 2

+

18 170

5 45 0.75 452

=

+

18

170

= 21.28676471 21 m

d=

Stopping distance is 21 m.

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437

Exercise 14G

1

a

180 km in 2 hours

b

485 km in 5 hours

1

c

360 km in 4.5 hours

d

21 km in hour

4

1

e

240 km in 2 hours

f

16 km in 20 minutes

2

Find the distance travelled by a car whose average speed is 56 km/h if the journey lasts

(answer correct to the nearest kilometre):

a

3 hours

b

7 hours

1

c

2.6 hours

d

1 hours

4

1

3

e

3 hours

f

2 hours

2

4

How long will it take a vehicle to travel (answer correct to the nearest hour):

a

160 km at a speed of 80 km/h

b 150 km at a speed of 60 km/h

c

120 km at a speed of 48 km/h

d 225 km at a speed of 45 km/h

e

240 km at a speed of 40 km/h

f 556 km at a speed of 69.5 km/h

in length. The track record is 1 minute and

24 seconds. What is the average speed (km/h)

for the lap record? Answer correct to

two decimal places.

Caitlin lives in Wollongong and travels to Sydney daily. The car trip requires her to travel

at different speeds. Most often she travels 30 kilometres at 60 km/h and 40 kilometres at

100 km/h.

a

What is the total distance of the trip?

b

How long (in hours) does the trip take?

c

What is her average speed (in km/h) when travelling to Sydney? (Answer correct to

two decimal places.)

Thomas drives his car to work 3 days a week. The length of the trip is 48 km. The trip

took 43 minutes on Monday, 50 minutes on Tuesday and 42 minutes on Wednesday.

a

Calculate the average time taken to travel to work.

b

What is the average speed (in km/h) for the three trips?

14G

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438

shows the reaction

distance and the braking

distance.

Metres

10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85

50 km/h

Reaction

55 km/h

Braking

60 km/h

Travelling at 60 km/h:

65 km/h

a what is the reaction

70 km/h

distance?

b what is the braking

distance?

c what is the stopping distance?

a Reaction-time distance of 25 metres and braking distance of 22 metres.

b Reaction-time distance of 19 metres and braking distance of 30 metres.

Michael is driving with a reaction time of 0.75 seconds. Calculate the stopping distance

5Vt V 2

(to the nearest metre) using the formula d =

for each of the following speeds.

+

18 170

a 30 km/h

b 50 km/h

c 70 km/h

d 90 km/h

e 110 km/h

f

130 km/h

10

through a school zone (reaction time is

0.50 seconds). A school student ran

onto the road 12 metres in front of her.

a Do you think Sarah was able to

stop without running over the

child? Give a reason for your

answer.

b What would have happen if Sarah

was driving her car at 60 km/h?

Explain your answer.

11

Oliver uses the freeway to travel to work. His reaction time is 0.60 seconds. Oliver

usually drives at the speed limit of 110 km/h.

5Vt V 2

d

=

+

?

a What is the stopping distance on the freeway using the formula

18 170

b Determine a safe distance between cars on the freeway that are travelling at

110 km/h. Give a reason for your answer.

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439

Development

12

Find the average speed (in km/h) of a vehicle that travels (answer correct to the nearest

whole number):

a 500 km in 6 hours and 10 minutes

b 64 km in 1 hour and 30 seconds

c 36000 m in 45 minutes

d 320 m in 10 seconds

13

Find the distance travelled by a car whose average speed is 68 km/h if the journey lasts

(answer correct to the nearest kilometre):

a 30 minutes

b 2 minutes

c 1 hour and 20 minutes

d 4 hours 10 seconds

14

How long will it take a vehicle to travel (answer correct to the nearest minute):

a 450 km at a speed of 82 km/h

b 50 km at a speed of 60 km/h

c 250 km at a speed of 49 km/h

d 580000 m at a speed of 62 km/h

e 24000 m at a speed of 72 km/h

f 100 km at a speed of 1 km/h

15

a Express this speed in km/h.

b How far does this vehicle travel in 5 minutes?

c How far does this vehicle travel in 1 second?

d How long would it take for this vehicle to travel from Sydney to Brisbane (982 km)?

Answer to the nearest minute.

16

The Bathurst 1000 motor race has a lap record of 2 min and 12.339 seconds. The length

of the lap is 6.213 km.

a What is the average speed (to nearest km/h) for the lap record?

b How long is the race if the winning car travels the 161 laps at the average speed for

the lap record? Answer to the nearest minute.

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440

17

If you double your speed you need to double your reaction distance.

5Vt

to complete the table. Assume reaction time of 0.75 seconds.

a Use d =

18

Speed (km/h)

10

20

40

80

b

18

If you double your speed you need to quadruple your braking distance.

V2

to complete the table.

a Use d =

170

Speed (km/h)

10

20

40

80

b

19

5Vt V 2

+

with t as the subject.

a Write the formula d =

18 170

b Find the value of t when d = 10 metres. Answer correct to one decimal place.

c Find the value of t when d = 20 metres. Answer correct to one decimal place.

d Find the value of t when d = 30 metres. Answer correct to one decimal place.

20

5Vt

a Use the formula d =

to complete the table below.

18

Reaction time (sec)

0.50

1.00

1.50

b

What effect does increasing the reaction time have on the stopping distance? Use the

calculations in the above table to reach your conclusion.

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441

Blood alcohol content (BAC) is a measure of the amount of alcohol in your blood. The

measurement is the number of grams of alcohol in 100 millilitres of blood. For example, a

BAC 0.05 means 0.05 g or 50 mg of alcohol in every 100 mL of blood. BAC is inuenced by

the number of standard drinks consumed in a given amount of time and a persons mass. Other

factors that affect BAC include gender, fitness, health and liver function.

Blood alcohol content (BAC)

BACMale =

BAC

N

H

M

(10 N 7.5 H )

(10 N 7.5 H )

or BACFemale =

6.8 M

5.5 M

Number of standard drinks consumed.

Hours drinking.

Mass in kilograms.

Example 13

in the past two hours. She was stopped by police for a

random breath test. What would be Madisons BAC?

Answer correct to 3 decimal places.

Solution

1

M into the formula.

Evaluate.

Express the answer correct to 3 decimal

places.

Write the answer in words.

3

4

5

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(10 N 7.5 H )

5.5 M

(10 7 7.5 2 )

=

(5.5 822 )

= 0.121 951 219 5

0.122

BACFemale =

442

NSW has three blood alcohol limits: zero, 0.02 and 0.05. Zero or 0.02 BAC laws apply in

Australia for people under 25 who have held a licence for less than three years, including

learner and probationary drivers. This means you cannot drink at all and then drive, as you

will be over the limit and likely to lose your licence. The BAC is measured with a breathalyser

or by analysing a sample of blood.

Hours to wait before driving

BAC

0.015

BAC Blood alcohol content.

Number of hours =

Example 14

Body weight (kg)

Drinks

45

55

65

75

85

0.008

0.007

0.006

0.005

0.004

0.041

0.033

0.028

0.025

0.022

0.074

0.060

0.051

0.044

0.039

0.106

0.087

0.074

0.064

0.056

0.139

0.114

0.096

0.083

0.074

0.172

0.140

0.119

0.103

0.091

Terry weighs 65 kg and consumes four standard drinks in an hour. Calculate the number of

hours to wait before driving. (Answer to the nearest hour.)

Solution

1

2

3

4

5

Substitute the 0.074 for BAC into the

formula.

Evaluate.

Write answer correct to nearest hour.

Write the answer in words.

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BAC

0.015

0.074

=

0.015

= 4.933 33 5

Number of hours =

443

Exercise 14H

1

Calculate the BAC for the following females. Answer correct to two decimal places.

a

Sarah is 48 kg and has consumed 4 standard drinks in the past 2 hours.

b

Sienna is 59 kg and has consumed 3 standard drinks in the past hour.

c

Alyssa is 81 kg and has consumed 6 standard drinks in the past 2 hours.

d

Kayla is 65 kg and has consumed 8 standard drinks in the past 6 hours.

e

Tahlia is 71 kg and has consumed 13 standard drinks in the past 3 hours.

f

Mia is 55 kg and has consumed 9 standard drinks in the past 5 hours.

Calculate the BAC for the following males. Answer correct to two decimal places.

a

Dylan is 53 kg and has consumed 3 standard drinks in the past 3 hours.

b

Riley is 64 kg and has consumed 5 standard drinks in the past hour.

c

Thomas is 98 kg and has consumed 2 standard drinks in the past 2 hours.

d

Zachary is 47 kg and has consumed 10 standard drinks in the past 5 hours.

e

Charlie is 85 kg and has consumed 12 standard drinks in the past 4 hours.

f

Jacob is 104 kg and has consumed 7 standard drinks in the past 6 hours.

James and Olivia are twins and both weigh 73 kg. At a party they consume 6 standard

drinks in two hours.

14H

a

b

c

4

What is Olivias BAC? Answer correct to 2 decimal places.

How long does James need to wait before he drives home?

Calculate the number of hours to wait before driving. Answer to the nearest minute.

a

BAC of 0.056.

b

BAC of 0.123.

c

BAC of 0.087.

d

BAC of 0.153.

e

BAC of 0.092.

f

BAC of 0.172.

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444

Body weight (kg)

Drinks

45

55

65

75

85

95

105

115

0.008

0.007

0.006

0.005

0.004

0.004

0.004

0.003

0.041

0.033

0.028

0.025

0.022

0.019

0.018

0.016

0.074

0.060

0.051

0.044

0.039

0.035

0.032

0.029

0.106

0.087

0.074

0.064

0.056

0.050

0.046

0.042

0.139

0.114

0.096

0.083

0.074

0.066

0.060

0.054

0.172

0.140

0.119

0.103

0.091

0.081

0.074

0.067

Calculate the number of hours to wait before driving. (Answer to the nearest minute.)

a Joshua weighs 85 kg and consumes 5 standard drinks in an hour.

b Mitchell weighs 115 kg and consumes 3 standard drinks in an hour.

c Harrison weighs 45 kg and consumes 6 standard drinks in an hour.

d Cooper weighs 65 kg and consumes 2 standard drinks in an hour.

e Zachary weighs 95 kg and consumes 4 standard drinks in an hour.

f

Angus weighs 75 kg and consumes 1 standard drink in an hour.

6

Use the above table to construct three separate column graphs. Make the number of

drinks the horizontal axis and the BAC the vertical axis.

a Body weight of 45 kg.

b Body weight of 115 kg.

The formula for calculating standard drinks is S = V A 0.789 where S is the number

of standard drinks, V is the volume of drink in litres and A is the percentage of alcohol.

How many standard drinks are in each of the following drinks? Answer correct to

one decimal place.

a 345 mL bottle of full strength beer at 5.2% alcohol.

b 750 mL bottle of champagne at 13.5% alcohol.

c 150 mL glass of white wine at 12.5% alcohol.

d Mixed drink with a 30 mL of brandy at 38% alcohol.

e 360 mL can of light beer at 2.1% alcohol.

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445

Development

8

a

b

9

11

(10 N 7.5 H )

if:

6.8 M

BACMale = 0.066, M = 60 and N = 5. (Answer correct to the nearest minute.)

BACMale = 0.050, M = 79 and N = 7. (Answer correct to the nearest minute.)

a

10

BAC

if:

0.015

Number of hours to wait before driving is 5. (Answer correct to 3 decimal places.)

Number of hours to wait before driving is 3. (Answer correct to 3 decimal places.)

(10 N 7.5 H )

if:

5.5 M

The graph below relates the lifetime risk of death to the number of standard drinks

consumed per day.

10

9

Men

Women

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

a

b

4

5

6

7

Australian standard drinks per day

10

What is lifetime risk for a female and a male who consumes 7 drinks per day?

Why is the effect of alcohol greater on a female than on a male?

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446

Motor vehicle tables and graphs

A distance-time graph describes a journey involving different events. Each event is a line

segment on the distance-time graph and represents travelling at a constant speed. The steeper

14