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MAPUA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AT LAGUNA

Academic Year 2014 - 2015

PRODUCTION OF PHENOL-ACETONE FROM PROPYLENE AND BENZENE


THROUGH CUMENE PROCESS

Arban L. LEGASPI
Edrian A. MAALONG
Myke Vivienne F. SALVACION

Engr. Marlon O. Martinez

Submitted to the Faculty of Malayan Colleges Laguna


In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the degree of

Bachelor of Science in Chemical Engineering

The plant design attached hereto, entitled PRODUCTION OF PHENOL-ACETONE


FROM PROPYLENE AND BENZENE THROUGH CUMENE PROCESS,
prepared and submitted by Arban L. Legaspi, Edrian A. Maalong, and Myke Vivienne
F. Salvacion in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science
in Chemical Engineering is hereby accepted.

ii

Copyright

The author and the adviser authorize consultation and partial reproduction of this thesis
for personal use. Any other reproduction or use is subject to copyright protection. Citation
should clearly mention the reference of this work.

Malayan Colleges Laguna, November 2014

The Adviser

The Authors:

Engr. Marlon O. Martinez

Arban L. Legaspi

Edrian A. Maalong

Myke Vivienne F. Salvacion

Biographical Sketch

ARBAN L. LEGASPI was born September 23, 1993 in Calamba, Laguna, Philippines. He
graduated from St. Peter Academy and is currently taking up Bachelor of Science in
Chemical Engineering at the Mapua Institute of Technology at Malayan Colleges Laguna.
He is a member of the Philippine Institute of Chemical Engineers - Junior Chapter Luzon
(PICHE) and Association of Chemical Engineering Students Malayan Colleges Laguna
(ACES-MCL). He is a good team player who can absorb, understand, and consider ideas and
points of view from his colleagues.

EDRIAN A. MAALONG was born June 1, 1994 in San Pedro, Laguna, Philippines. He
graduated from Santa Rosa Science and Technology High school and is currently taking
up Bachelor of Science in Chemical Engineering at the Mapua Institute of Technology at
Malayan Colleges Laguna. He is a member of Philippine Institute of Chemical Engineers
(PICHE), Inc. Junior Chapter Luzon and Association of Chemical Engineering Students
Malayan Colleges Laguna (ACES-MCL). He was a deans lister (1st term, S.Y. 20132014). He also competed in a chemical engineering quiz show held at the University of the
Philippines Diliman where his team won third place. He firmly believes that success comes
to those who work hard for it.

ii

MYKE VIVIENNE F. SALVACION was born November 14, 1993 in San Leonardo,
Nueva Ecija, Philippines. She graduated from Holy Rosary College of Santa Rosa, Laguna
and is currently taking up Bachelor of Science in Chemical Engineering at the Mapua
Institute of Technology at Malayan Colleges Laguna. She is a member of the Philippine
Institute of Chemical Engineers - Junior Chapter Luzon (PICHE) and Association of
Chemical Engineering Students Malayan Colleges Laguna (ACES-MCL). She attended
several leadership training programs and seminars that developed her character and
improved her level of competency. She prioritizes God above all before herself.

Acknowledgement

This Plant design proposal would not be possible without the able guidance,
generous assistance and supervision of several individuals who had given their time and
effort to assist us, voiced out their concerns and guided us towards the fruitful and timely
completion of this work. They served as our mentors during the entire course of this project.
We would like to express our deepest appreciation to our adviser, Engr. Marlon
O. Martinez, who has the attitude and the substance of a genius: he continually and
patiently provided us with the necessary information required for the success of our design.
Without his help and support, the completion of this proposal design would not have been
possible. We would also like to extend our sincere gratitude to Engr. Rommel Santos for
sharing his experiences and opinions with regard to the technical side of our proposal.
The following individuals and groups also contributed to our success in completing
this work.
Engr. Jesunino Aquino
Engr. Rommel Santos
Engr. Marlon Martinez
Dr. Liza Patacsil
Our supportive parents
Fellow ChE batchmates

iii

Abstract

The aim of this work is the intensification of an industrial-scale production process of


phenol and acetone from propylene and benzene through the cheapest and most reliable
technology, the cumene process, to obtain higher profitability and reduce the energy
requirements of the process. In the first step, the demand and supply of the products and
raw materials of the process was analyzed and the capital requirements of the plant were
obtained using the class 5 estimate. The next step comprised of the simulation of the main
process and utilities using ASPEN HYSYS version 8.0. Parametric optimization was
carried out to adjust the process parameters and obtain an efficient and economically
feasible process. Consecutively, ISBL and OSBL equipment were sized and their costs
were determined using the methods presented in Towler. The final step comprised of a
class 3 estimation of the economic feasibility of the project. The capital investment of the
project remained almost intact at around 4.5 billion PHP. The IRR was 27% and the return
of investment was expected at year 7 starting from the construction period. Overall, the
designers find the project feasible and they recommend continuing the project to its
procurement, commissioning, and operational phase.

iv

Executive Summary

Finding a configuration and operational conditions of a process in which a chemical


is manufactured in a reliable and economical manner, considering several factors such as
low energy consumption, low initial capital investment, low or negligible environmental
impact, and high product yield is the main goal of designing this plant which can produce
phenol and acetone from propylene and benzene through cumene process. Optimization of
the process involved was conducted when the flow sheet of the base case and detailed heat
and material balances of the process were available. Furthermore, the economic aspects of
the plant, including the sizing of all the equipment (ISBL and OSBL), capital investment,
and utility requirements, should be considered and evaluated thoroughly. In this paper, the
optimization of the process that involves the alkylation of propylene with benzene to
produce phenol and acetone through the renowned cumene process was carried out to make
the process more effective, reliable, and thus more profitable.
As compared to other processes available, cumene process has the lowest cost of
production (Tyman, 1996). Currently, the cumene process is universally favored in the
United Kingdom (UK) and United States of America (US) because of its lower cost and
higher product yield, thus this process will be adapted in this project. The huge majority of
cumene manufactured worldwide is utilized in the production of phenol and acetone
(Schmidt, 2005). Reactions occur in the presence of various catalyst.

In this project, the catalyst used were zeolites for the alkylation of benzene with
propylene (Norouzi, Hasani, Haddadi-Sisakht, & Mostoufi, 2014), copper oxide (CuO)
nanoparticles for the oxidation of cumene to produce cumene hydroperoxide (CHP)
(Zhang, Wang, Hongbing, Wu, & Zeng, 2007), and sulfonic acid resins for the cleaving of
hydroperoxide to produce phenol and acetone (Huang, Han, Wang, & Jin, 2002). The
following equations describe the reactions involved in the process:

(1)

+ ( )
+

(2)

+ ( )
( ) + ( )

(3)

+ ()
( ) +

(4)

The first license for cumene production belongs to a corporation called UOP. Their
process involves reactions that occur in gas phase with the presence of SPA catalyst
(Stefanidakis & Gwyn, 1977). Another license belongs to Monsanto and Kellogg, which
uses a mixture of AlCl3 and HCl as the catalyst in a homogeneous liquid-phase reaction of
benzene and propylene. The transalkylation of PIPB is also possible in this process. Thus,
this process has a high yield. However, corrosion of pipes and equipment are still a problem
(Canfield, Cox, & McCarthy, 1986). Liquid-phase and zeolite-based catalytic processes

were already developed by CDTech, Mobil-Badger, and UOP to produce cumene


(Norouzi, Hasani, Haddadi-Sisakht, & Mostoufi, 2014).
Cumene can be further processed to produce more valuable products like phenol
and acetone through the cumene/hock process. This process deals with the oxidation of
cumene hydroperoxide (CHP), and is considered to be the key reaction of industrial phenolproduction process. Since the 1970s, many investments were made for cumene oxidation.
For all these catalyst systems, copper compounds were excellent catalysts not only with
regard to the reaction activity but also with regard to the CHP selectivity (Zhang, Wang,
Hongbing, Wu, & Zeng, 2007).
At present, about 94.5% of phenol in the chemical market is manufactured by
cumene decomposition, which was developed in the 1950s. There are six types of catalysts
that can be used for CHP decomposition; these are FreidelCrafts catalysts such as AlCl3,
inorganic and organic acids, silicates, metallic oxides such as Al2O3 and TiO2,
phosphorous compounds such as PCl3, PCl5 and POCl3, and sulfonated phenol
formaldehyde resins and sulfonated styrene resins. The solid acid catalysts have some
important advantages including adequate catalytic activity, less byproducts, no erosion,
easy separation of catalysts and products and easy catalyst recovery and recycling. CHP
decomposition catalyzed by sulfonic acid resins offers conversion greater than 99% and
selectivity over 98% (Huang, Han, Wang, & Jin, 2002).
In the present work, the phenol-acetone production plant was simulated using the
Aspen Hysys V8.0. The temperature and other relevant parameters were obtained by
optimization. The optimized value obtained can provide a lot of insight before the actual

plant commissioning is done. Furthermore, sizing and evaluating the economics of the
plant follows with a definitive class 3 estimate.

Table of Contents

Copyright

Biographical Sketch

ii

Acknowledgement

iii

Abstract

iv

Executive Summary

Table of Contents

vi

Market Study

Process Description

48

Heat and Material Balance

58

Equipment Sizing and Specification

67

Economic Analysis

140

References

197

Appendices

205

List of Tables

vii

List of Figures

viii

List of Appendices

ix

Definition of Terms

vi

Market Study

Introduction
Phenol and Acetone are one of the most important intermediates of the chemical
industry. The demand for these chemicals increases over the years and it is forecasted to
follow this trend, which, together with its wide range of applications, provides an excellent
platform for the design of a suitable and profitable process for phenol and acetone
production in the Philippines.
Production of phenol and acetone from propylene and benzene is possible through
the process of cumene. Other types of technologies exist to produce these products but the
cumene process is proven to be more cost-effective and efficient. Propylene and Benzene
are raw materials that are produced locally in the Philippines by the large petroleum
industry.
Phenol is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH
which is also known as carbolic acid. It is a white crystalline solid that is volatile having
molecule consists of a phenyl group (-C6H5) bonded to a hydroxyl group (-OH). Phenol is
mildly acidic, but requires careful handling due to its tendency to cause chemical burns.
The major uses of phenol involving its conversion to precursors to plastics,
consumes two thirds of its production. Bisphenol-A which is produced from condensation
of phenol with acetone, is a key precursor to polycarbonates and epoxide resins.
Condensation of phenol, alkylphenols, or diphenols with formaldehyde gives phenolic
resins, in which a famous example of it is the Bakelite. Partial hydrogenation of phenol
gives cyclohexanone, a precursor to nylon.

Phenol is also a versatile precursor to a large collection of drugs which is mostly


aspirin but also many herbicides and pharmaceutical drugs. It is also used as an oral
anesthetic/analgesic in products such as Chloraseptic or other brand name and generic
equivalents which is commonly used to temporarily treat pharyngitis.
On the other hand, Acetone is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO
which is a colorless, volatile, flammable liquid, and is the simplest ketone. About a third
of the world's acetone is used as a solvent, and a quarter is consumed as acetone
cyanohydrin a precursor to methyl methacrylate It is a good solvent for many plastics and
some synthetic fibers and also used for thinning polyester resin, cleaning tools used with
it, and dissolving two-part epoxies and superglue before they harden. Acetone is also used
as one of the volatile components of some paints and varnishes.

Supply and Demand Analysis


Phenol and acetone belongs to the class of commodity chemicals, which is also
known as bulk commodities/bulk chemicals, which are currently manufactured on a large
scale to satisfy the needs of the local and global market. The demand for these chemicals
is closely connected to the demand of their derivative products (end products), and is then
linked to the established business sectors.
Demand of phenol based on import. Based on the import data of phenol as shown
in Table 1, the importation of phenol from different countries around the world has
increased. This data may suggest that production of phenol in the Philippines is not enough
since the country is importing the particular product at an increased rate.

Table 1
Import data for phenols in the Philippines
Year
Trade Value
2005
$764,633
2006
$1,623,574
2007
$4,170,608
2008
$4,927,117
2009
$1,797,902
2010
$2,661,669
2011
$1,737,026
Source: UN Comtrade: International trade statistics

Weight (kg)
2,192,213
1,105,156
3,174,993
3,120,126
1,042,860
2,444,078
4,330,795

Figure 1 shows that the demand for phenol will increase for the following years as
the trend line for the graph of supply per year is sloping upwards (positive slope). This
indicates that there is a high marketability for phenols right now and for the following years
to come in the Philippines.

5,000,000

Weight (Kg)

4,000,000
3,000,000
2,000,000
1,000,000
0
2004

2005

2006

2007

2008
Year

2009

2010

2011

2012

Figure 1. Demand tend line for phenols in the Philippines based on import
data

Demand of acetone based on import. Based on the import data of acetone as


shown in Table 2, the importation of acetone from different countries around the world has
3

increased. This data may suggest that production of acetone in the Philippines is not enough
since the country is importing the particular product at an increasing rate.

Table 2
Import data for acetone in the Philippines
Year
Trade Value
2005
$3,115,608
2006
$2,900,009
2007
$3,248,726
2008
$4,382,299
2009
$2,172,884
2010
$3,401,322
2011
$3,557,146
Source: UN Comtrade: International trade statistics

Weight (kg)
3,771,988
3,261,393
3,974,290
4,990,218
3,609,613
4,993,873
4,833,998

Figure 2 shows that the demand for acetone will increase for the following years as
the trend line for the graph of supply per year is sloping upwards (positive slope). This
indicates that there is a high marketability for acetone right now and for the following years
to come in the Philippines.

6,000,000

weight (kg)

5,000,000
4,000,000
3,000,000
2,000,000
1,000,000

0
2004

2005

2006

2007

2008
Year

2009

2010

2011

2012

Figure 2. Demand trend line for Acetone in the Philippines based on Import
4

Demand of phenol based on assumed consumption. According to Pandia,


application to the manufacture of bisphenol-A (BPA) and phenolic resin have the highest
percentage. The following depicts the percentage of phenol demand in terms of application:

Alkyl Phenols 4%

Phenolic Resins 30%

Caprolactam 8%

Bisphenol-A 40%

Others 18%

In general, the industries that use phenol and/or acetone to manufacture these
intermediate chemicals are the plastic synthetic resin, paint, and adhesives industries.
Table 3 shows the value of output of industries that uses phenol in the manufacture
of their product. Phenol is included in the production of phenolic resins (a plastic synthetic
resin). Alternatively, phenol is combined with acetone to produce bisphenol-A, an
intermediate to produce epoxy resin which is used in the manufacture of paints, glues, and
adhesives. Depicted in Table 4 are the values of phenol used in phenolic resins and
bisphenol-A.

Table 3
Value of output of industries that uses phenol
Value of Output (in thousand pesos)
Industry description
2009
2010
Manufacture of plastic synthetic resins
12,205,785
18,523,236
Manufacture of Paints
31,538,346
32,642,161
Manufacture of Glues and Adhesive
3,148,124
4,062,129
Source: National Statistics Office
5

Table 4
Assumed phenol consumption in 2009 and 2010
Phenol in Phenolic
Phenol in BisphenolYear
Resin, kg
A, kg
2009
8,360,126.71
8,801,615.41
2010
12,687,147.95
9,715,960.54

Total Phenol
Consumption, kg
17,161,742.12
22,403,108.48

In assuming the phenol consumption in phenolic resin, the following are


considered:
1. Around 20% of the manufactured synthetic resin is phenolic resin,
which is based from the main 5 sub-category of the specified industry
(2009 Philippine Standard Industrial Classification manual), namely:
a. Polymers
b. Phenolic Resins
c. Polyamides
d. Silicones
e. Polyamides
It is assumed that the percentage of the industry is equally distributed to
these 5 main sub-category of the industry. This designates around 20%
of the industry to the manufacture of phenolic resin.
2. Phenolic resin is composed of phenol formaldehyde polymer (85%),
phenol (15%), formaldehyde (<1%) (Ergon Amor, MSDS, 2012).
3. Price of phenolic resin is around 43.8 pesos per unit kilogram, which is
the landed cost of the product through export (Export Data and Price of
phenolic resin, 2014).
In assuming the phenol consumption in phenolic resin, the following are
considered:
1. Bisphenol-A is an intermediate synthetic compound and monomer of epoxy
resins. Bisphenol-A epoxy resins are widely used in the manufacture of
paint (for metals) because of its binding properties, and adhesives.

Bisphenol-A contains 2 moles of phenol and 1 mole of acetone. Mass


percent would be: 76.42% phenol and 23.58% acetone, which is based on
their molecular masses. There is an existing huge industry of paint and
adhesives in the Philippines, as depicted by the huge output of the
manufacturing industry of paint and adhesives.
2. Paint products can be divided according to its applications. Generally, there
are five types of paints being manufactured: for wood, plastic, metals,
concrete, and others. Paints that contain epoxy resin are used in metals, and
so it is assumed that around 20% of the manufactured paints contain it
(assuming that the production is equally distributed).
3. Adhesives/glue that contain epoxy resin are widely used in the repair of
broken items in the household and industry. It is assumed that most adhesive
products contain epoxy resin (around 90%), and the content is around 70%
epoxy resin (E-BOND EPOXIES, INC., 2015).
4. Price of paint is 1026 pesos (Boysen Epoxy Enamel, 4L, 4.56 kg).
5. Price of adhesive is 3000 pesos (Bostik Clear Epoxy, 4.7 kg).
6. Around 30% of paint is epoxy resin, to which acts as a binder (Edwards &
Lawless, 2003).
Figure 3 is based on a 2 year forecast from 2009 and 2010. To make it more
accurate, growth rate of the divisions of the manufacturing industry was considered in the
forecast. The manufacture of plastic synthetic resins, paint, glues and adhesives falls under
the division of Chemicals and Chemical product, based on the 2009 Philippine Standard
Industrial Classification manual. The growth of this division is 39% per annum on average,

based on a 3 year annual average growth rate (2010-2013) analysis conducted by NSCB.
This percentage is usually the benchmark used in the analysis of growth rate of various
chemical industries. Actually, there are a total of 506 establishments under the Chemicals
and Chemical Products Division and around 98 establishments of those are the industry
considered in this study. This will give an average of 20% of the total division, which is
considerably high and therefore can be used to approximate the increase of the industries
considered under this division. Table 5 depicts the increase in the amount of phenol
consumption.

140,000,000.00
120,000,000.00

Phenol in Kg

100,000,000.00
80,000,000.00
60,000,000.00
40,000,000.00
20,000,000.00
-

2005

2010

2015

2020
Year

2025

2030

2035

Figure 3. Two (2) year forecast of assumed phenol consumpt ion in the
Philippines (Note that this is based only from bisphenol-A and phenolic resin
applicat ions of phenol)
9

Table 5
Percent increase in phenol consumption based on 39% per annum growth rate
Year
Phenol consumption, kg
Growth Rate (%)
2009
17,161,742.12
Actual data
2010
22,403,108.48
Actual data
2011
31,140,320.79
39
2012
43,285,045.9
39
2013
60,166,213.8
39

The values in Table 5 are forecasted up to year 2033, as shown in Figure 4.


Comparing the demand from Figure 3 to Figure 4, the growth rate makes the forecast line
steeper thus giving greater values for the demand of phenol in the Philippines. For a more
conservative analysis of the demand of phenol in the Philippines, demand of phenol based
on a 2 year data forecast will be considered in the study.

300,000,000.00
250,000,000.00

Phenol in Kg

5 year data point forecast

200,000,000.00
150,000,000.00
100,000,000.00
2 year data point forecast

50,000,000.00

2005

2010

2015

2020
Year

2025

2030

2035

Figure 4. Forecast of assumed phenol consumpt ion in the Philippines (5 vs. 2


year data point fo recast)

10

Demand of acetone based on assumed consumption. According to Pandia


(2009), application to the manufacture of solvents and bisphenol-A have the highest
percentage of demand. The following depicts the percentage of phenol demand in terms of
application:

Solvent 46%

Bisphenol-A 25%

Methyl Methacrylate 21%

MIBK 8%

In general, the industries that use phenol and/or acetone to manufacture these
intermediate chemicals are the thinners/paint removers, paint, and adhesives industry.
Table 6 shows the value of output of industries that includes acetone in their
product. Acetone is included in the manufacture of thinners or paint removers, paints, glues
and adhesives. Depicted in Table 7 are the values of amount of acetone used in solvent and
bisphenol-A.

Table 6
Value of output of industries that uses acetone
Value of Output (in thousand pesos)
Industry description
2009
2010
Manufacture of Thinners / Paint
505,851
567,136
Removers
Manufacture of Paints
31,538,346
32,642,161
Manufacture of Glues and Adhesive
3,148,124
4,062,129
Source: National Statistics Office

11

Table 7
Assumed acetone consumption in 2009 and 2010
Acetone in
Year
Acetone in Solvent, kg
Bisphenol-A, kg
2009
2,564,664.57
2,797,217.17
2010
3,317,745.60
2,997,937.05

Total Acetone Consumption,


kg
5,361,881.74
6,315,682.65

In assuming the phenol consumption in phenolic resin, the following are


considered:
1. Acetone is widely used as a raw material for paint manufacturing, according to
Dmitrievsky Chemical Plant (DMITRIEVSKY Chemical Plant, 2015),. It has
good solvent properties. Generally, acetone are included in thinners or paint
removers. There is a good market of acetone here in the Philippines and to prove
that, there is an existing provider of this chemical here in the Philippines,
namely TOPLINECHEM MARKETING CORPORATION (Toplinechem
Marketing Corporation, 2015).They are engaging with importing then
supplying chemical products such as acetone for more than a decade now to
various industries such as paint and adhesives. Boysen Paint Company is
currently producing thinners and their products do contain acetone, by looking
at the MSDS (Boysen Lacquer Thinner B50, MSDS). This is an enough
evidence that the company is using acetone.
2. Paint thinners are assumed to contain 13% acetone (W.M. Barr, MSDS, 2009)
3. Price of thinner is around 20 pesos per bottle (0.78kg)
Note that the assumption in acetone consumption in BPA is the same with phenol
consumption in BPA, since they have the same end industry such as the paints and

12

adhesives industry. Acetone is also an important raw material for the production of
bisphenol-A.
Figure 5 is based on a 2 year forecast from 2009 and 2010. To make it more
accurate, growth rate of the manufacturing industry was considered in the forecast. The
manufacture of thinners (paint removers), paint, glues and adhesives falls under the
Chemicals and Chemical products subsector. The growth of this subsector is 39% per
annum based on a 3 year annual average growth rate (2010-2013) analysis conducted by
NSCB. Table 8 depicts the increase in the amount of phenol consumption.

30,000,000.00

25,000,000.00

Acetone in Kg

20,000,000.00

15,000,000.00

10,000,000.00

5,000,000.00

2005

2010

2015

2020
Year

2025

2030

2035

Figure 5. Two (2) year forecast of assumed acetone consumpt ion in the
Philippines (Note that this is based only from Bisphenol-A and solvent
applicat ions of acetone)
13

Table 8
Increase in acetone consumption based on 39% per annum growth rate
Year
Acetone consumption, kg
Growth Rate (%)
2009
5,361,881.74
N/A
2010
6,315,682.65
N/A
2011
8,778,798.89
39
2012
12,202,530.45
39
2013
16,961,517.33
39

The values in Table 8 are forecasted up to year 2033, as shown in Figure 6.


Comparing the demand from Figure 5 to Figure 6, the growth rate makes the forecast line
steeper thus giving greater values for the demand of acetone in the Philippines. For a more
conservative analysis of the demand of acetone in the Philippines, demand of acetone based
on a 2 year data forecast will be considered in the study.

80,000,000.00
70,000,000.00
5 year data point forecast

Acetone in Kg

60,000,000.00
50,000,000.00
40,000,000.00

30,000,000.00
20,000,000.00
2 year data point forecast

10,000,000.00
2005

2010

2015

2020
Year

2025

2030

2035

Figure 6. Forecast of assumed acetone consumpt ion in the Philippines (5 vs. 2


year data point forecast)
14

Business and the Environment


Department of Environment and Natural Resources policies. The Department
of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), through its Environmental Management
Bureau (EMB), has created a compilation and inventory of chemicals and chemical
substances that can be used throughout the country, as regards to the implementation of the
Republic Act No. 6969 known as Toxic Substances and Hazardous and Nuclear Wastes
Control Act of 1990. The national inventory is known as the Philippine Inventory of
Chemicals and Chemical Substances (PICCS).
Manufacturers, importers, distributors, and users of chemicals or chemical
substances that are included in the PICCS need no longer to secure clearance from the
DENR, provided that their chemicals or chemical substances are not listed in the Philippine
Priority Chemicals (PCL) and not subject to Chemical Control Order (CCO). The
chemicals or chemical substances that are not included in the PICCS cannot be
manufactured, imported, distributed, or used unless they have undergone the PreManufacture and Pre-Importation Notification (PMPIN) process.
PICCS have an online directory (EMB Philippines, 2015). Just providing the CAS
Registry Number. or the name of the chemical on the search bar will generate results.
Phenol and acetone can be searched and found on the PICCS, therefore these chemicals
can be manufactured and distributed throughout the country. PICCS is updated every five
years and the latest edition was released last 2011, containing around 44,000 chemical
substances.
The chemicals subject to CCO are: Cyanide, PCBs, Asbestos, Mercury, Lead, and
Ozone Depleting Chemicals. Phenol and acetone are not included in the list and therefore,

15

are exempt to the CCO rules. On the other hand, the Philippine Priority Chemical list does
not include acetone and phenol, which means it is exempted from the PCL rules.
Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency policies. The Philippine Drug
Enforcement Agency has a list of dangerous drugs which are controlled under RA 9165.
Acetone is included in the list under table II chemicals (Philippine Drug Enforcement
Agency (PDEA), 2015), and is therefore controlled by the PDEA. Certificate of exemption
should be secured prior to the preparation of this chemical.
Environmental Management Bureau. The proposed plant will have oxidation
towers, to which air comes in contact with cumene and phenol. In the process simulation
using Aspen Hysys software, the vapor product of the oxidation do contain these chemicals,
to which may impose harmful effects to environment. To be able to comply with the
Republic Act 8749, also known as the Clean Air Act proposed by the Environmental
Management Bureau, the designers planned to have a scrubber to capture the chemicals.
Based on this act, the maximum allowed release of phenol in the atmosphere is
100g/NCM or 0.03 ppm. On the other hand, there are no data for the maximum allowed
level for cumene release on the said republic act. To avoid any harmful effects, it is
advisable to put up a flaring system to eliminate these chemicals in the release. Other air
cleaning system such as baghouse filters or cyclone might be in need if according to EIA,
there will be a considerable amount of particulates to be released in the atmosphere.
Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004 (R.A. 9275). In order for the proposed plant
to comply with the Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004, a design of waste water treatment
facility must be included in the overall design of the plant. Shown in Figure 7 is the initial
block flow diagram for the proposed plant. Possible waste waters to be produced are:

16

Cleaning water, Kitchen waste water, Greywater or sullage (generated from toilets, shower
baths, wash hand basins, etc.).

Figure 7. Init ial Block Flow Diagram for Waste Water Treatment Facilit y

One of the obstacles in the acceptability of SBR process has traditionally been the
need for precise, automated and reliable control of various stages of the process. The SBR
process is an activated sludge process in which the sewage is introduced into the SBR tank,
one batch at a time. Wastewater treatment is achieved by a timed sequence of operations
which occur in the same SBR Tank, consisting of filling, aeration, settling, decanting,
idling, and sludge wasting. The various stages in the sequence are the following:

17

Filling. During this stage the SBR (Sequencing Batch Reactor) Tank is filled with
the influent wastewater coming from the process area and other facilities in the plant. The
wastewater should be fed into the tank in a rapid, controlled manner.
Aeration. This stage involves the utilization of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)
and ammonia nitrogen, where applicable, by microorganisms. The length of the aeration
period and the sludge mass determines the degree of treatment. The length of the aeration
period depends on the strength of the wastewater and the degree of nitrification provided
for in the treatment.
Settling. During this stage, aeration is stopped and the sludge settles leaving clear,
treated effluent above the sludge blanket. Time for settling varies from 45 to 60 minutes
depending on the number of cycles per day.
Decanting. At this stage of the process effluent is removed from the tank through
the decanter.
Idling. The SBR Tank waits idle until it is time to commence a new cycle with the
filling stage.
Sludge Wasting. Excess activated sludge is removed periodically during the SBR
operation. As with any activated sludge treatment process, sludge wasting is the main
control of the effluent quality and microorganism population size.
Solid Waste Management Act : Republic Act No. 9003. Usual solid waste that
can be generated from the future manufacturing plant of phenol and acetone are paper
works, kitchen/cafeteria wastes, and packaging wastes. The company has decided to have
a Material Recovery Facility (MRF) so that solid wastes can be segregated and the
company may earn money from the recycle of solid wastes.

18

Competition in the Market


Even though there are no operating plants that manufacture phenol and acetone in
the Philippines, other plants outside the country are producing the said chemicals at various
large capacities and these companies are considered to be competitors of the proposed
project. Table 9 shows the companies outside the country that produces phenol and acetone
at a large scale.

Table 9
Recent phenol capacities/expansions and active phenol projects
Company
Capacity
Logo
Product
Name
(per year)
680 kte
Phenol and
Acetone

INEOS Phenol

650 kte
540 kte
400 kte

The Dow
Chemical
Company

Location
Antwerp,
Belgium
Gladbeck,
Germany
Mobile AL,
USA
Nanjing,
China

Acetone

410 MM lb

U.S.

Phenol

662 MM lb

U.S.

Formosa
Chemical and
Fibre
Corporation

Phenol and
Acetone

200,000
TPA

Taiwan

LG Expansion

Phenol and
Acetone

150,000
TPA

Korea

Kumho
Expansion

Phenol and
Acetone

150,000
TPA

Korea

PTT Phenol

Phenol and
Acetone

200,000
TPA

Thailand

FCFC

Phenol and
Acetone

220,000
TPA

Mailiao,
Taiwan

19

Esfahan

Phenol and
Acetone

135,000
TPA

Iran

Pars Phenol

Phenol and
Acetone

270,000
TPA

Iran

Saudi Kayan

Phenol and
Acetone

300,000
TPA

Saudi Arabia

Sinopec
Tianjin

Phenol and
Acetone

320,000
TPA

China

Ertisa

Phenol and
Acetone

200,000
TPA

China

Sinopec
Gaoqiao
Petchem

Phenol and
Acetone

80,000 TPA

China

Shell

Phenol and
Acetone

330,000
TPA

Singapore

FCFC

Phenol and
Acetone

200,000
TPA

Ningbo,
China

20

Target Market
Adhesives. Acetone is utilized in a multiplicity of adhesive applications, such as
spray adhesives that can be bought from any DIY store, and glues used to adhere the shoe
parts in the footwear industry.
Agro chemicals. Acetone and phenol are both used as a raw material for the
manufacturing

of

pesticides

and

herbicides,

such

as

2,4

(2,4 ) and Monoisopropylamine (MIPA), products


which are meant to protect crops and improve yields.
Automotive. Acetone and phenol are both used in the manufacture of
polycarbonate, a thoroughly used product in the automotive industry. Phenol is also used
in the manufacture of nylon, while acetone is the precursor for methyl methacrylate
(MMA)/Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA).
Chemicals. Phenol and acetone are used throughout in the chemical industry as
solvents, drying agents, chain terminators, and intermediates in a variety of chemical
processes.
Coatings. Polycarbonate, a product widely used as a coating, is produced from
phenol and acetone. On the other hand, Methyl methacrylate (MMA)/Polymethyl
methacrylate (PMMA), produced from acetone, are used universally as coat vehicle
exteriors.
Cosmetics. Phenol and acetone are known to be included in a variety of hair and
skin products to kill and prevent microorganisms, cleanse the skin, and reduce body odor.
Phenol is used for skin peel products and is included in most sunscreen and lip balm
formulations. In nail polishes, acetone is mostly used as nail polish remover.

21

Food. Phenol is used as the main ingredient for synthetic vanilla. In the industry,
phenol and acetone are used as intermediated or solvents in the manufacture of vitamins as
well as supplements, packaging for food, and medications.
Cleaning. Acetone and acetone are one of the most used solvent in the world.
Home and electrical. Most of the electrical devices are made from phenol and
acetone. The by-product of the process, alphamethylstyrene (AMS), is also used in highheat electronics such as coffee machines and toasters.
Medical and pharma. Phenol is synthesized aspirin production.
Paint and ink. Acetone is used as a solvent and its main derivative, methyl
methacrylate (MMA), is the basis for acrylic paint. On the other hand, phenol derivatives
are used in laser and ink jet printers as a coating for the ink.
Pipes. Most pipes have phenolic coatings to prevent corrosion.
Rubber and Tyres. Phenol is the precursor for the nylon intermediates such as
caprolactam and adipic acid. Both are used in the manufacture of tyre cord in the whole
world.
Textiles. Carpolactam and adipic acid, which can be made from phenol, are used
to make synthetic yarn for clothing and other textile applications.

22

Target Companies
The following companies presented in the following tables are the potential buyers of
phenol and acetone. Most of these companies are located in Manila, Batangas, Cavite,
Bulacan, and Laguna, which are all near to the plant site.

Table 10
Paint Manufacturers in the Philippines
Company Name
NIPPON PAINT PHILIPPINES
INC.
GOLDEN SUN PAINT
MANUFACTURING
Mega Paint & Coating Corp
Triple E Paint Trade
Mega Paint & Coatings Corp
Tanville Paint Manufacturing
Inc
ULTRACOTE PAINT &
COATINGS CORPORATION
Paint Plas Corporation
PACIFIC PAINT (BOYSEN)
PHILIPPINES, INC.
SUPER GLOBE, INC.
Pacific Paint & Oil
Manufacturing, Inc.
MAGNAFLO, INC. ( 97 03203
)
FH Colors & Coating Corp
Techno Development &
Chemicals Corp

Address
#4 HOLOGRAM ST. LISP BRGY.
DIEZMO
Cabuyao , Laguna
195 MOLINO HEIGHTS MOLINO III
Bacoor, Cavite
198 Manila East Road Binangonan
, Rizal
JP Laurel Lipa City
, Batangas
Traders Arcade
Mandaue City , Cebu
8001 Singer Compound Sitio Simona
San Isidro Taytay Rizal
,
E. RODRIGUEZ AVE.,
PASIG , METRO MANILA
San Antonio 722 Magsaysay Road
, Laguna
292 D. Tuazon St. Quezon City, NCR Second District 1115
,
C. RAYMUNDO AVE.,
PASIG , METRO MANILA
D. Tuazon
Quezon City, Metro Manila
1707 E ANTEL GLOBAL
CORPORATE CENTER JULIA
VARGAS AVE. ORTIGAS
PASIG , METRO MANILA
34 S Reyes SPL, Laguna
AC Cortes Ave
Mandaue City , Cebu

23

Tel no
(049)543-0763 /
845-1176
(02)3616930
8815819
652-0565
(043) 312-5214
(032) 3441195

6713410
(049)868-6416
364-3505; 3650561 to 64
6439840
02 364 3505

(049) 869-7562
(032) 3440268

Maincoat Inc
Do It Marketing Co Phils Inc
MARDUKE INDUSTRIAL
SALES
Davies Paints Philippines, Inc
SSCP Mla. Inc.
Crystal Resins Incorporated
UNI-JJET INDUSTRIAL

eccs enterprises

HVG Arcade
Mandaue City , Cebu
7946 C Padilla
Cebu City , Cebu
5 Mindanao St. Filipinas Village
Malanday
CITY OF MARIKINA, NCR
1387-A Mercedes Avenue San Miguel
CITY OF PASIG, NCR
_ Lot 1 Blk 9 Phase 1
PEZA, Rosario, Cavite
141 Cabrera Road, Sitio Burol San Juan
TAYTAY, RIZAL
The Rose Condominium,Meralco Ave.,
San Antonio
CITY OF PASIG, NCR
Door 6 Omnor bldg. phase 2 diho subdv.
diversion rd. buhangin Buhangin
DAVAO CITY, DAVAO DEL SUR

Table 11
Plastic product manufacturer in the Philippines
Company Name
Address
2 Sta Sabina, Villa Sabina
Subd. Talipapa
NICO PLASTIC PRODUCTS
Novaliches Quezon City,
Metro Manila
Cadena De Amor San
JR Plastic Manufacturing
Pedro Laguna
Corporation
, Laguna
Hon. Circle St., Sterling
J MCBEN PLASTIC
Industrial Park,
MANUFACTURING
Meycuayan , Bulacan
No. 24 Madison St.
PLASTIC CONTAINER
Mandaluyong City, NCR PACKAGING CORPORATION
Second District
146 SAN MIGUEL COMP.
9TH & 10TH AVE SAN
MIGUEL COMPD., 9TH
INNOVA PLASTIC
ST. BET. 9TH & 10TH
MANUFACTURING CORP
AVE., 101 CALOOCAN
CITY
, METRO MANILA
24

(032) 3468058
(032) 2625662
02 941 9549
02 641 7101
046 437-1053 /
0558 / 0358
22863011
02 2127419

082 241 2237

Tel no
(632) 9394931

(049) 868-8235
(044) 299-61-91/4071568
631-8331 to 34; 6320895

2422252/2430121

Altair Plastic Manufacturing,


Corporation
BROTHERHOOD PLASTIC
ENTERPRISES
H. Ramos Plastic Manufacturing
Corporation
N.C.K. Plastic Manufacturing
NEW IDEAL PLASTIC
CORPORATION
MANLY PLASTIC INC.
T.N.C. PLASTIC
MANUFACTURING
Pan-Asia Plastic Mould

JAY-GEE PLASTIC PRODUCTS


MEYCAUAYAN PLASTIC
INDUSTRIAL CORP.
CONSISTENT MARK PLASTIC
MANUFACTURING
SUSAN MFTR OF PLASTIC
BAGS
TYCSH PLASTIC INC
OTTO PLASTIC CO
ORELEE PLASTIC
CORPORATION

PERFORMANCE PLASTIC CORP.

15 A. Marcelo St.
Valenzuela, Metro Manila
4987 VALENZUELA ST,
BGY 600, ZONE 059
SAMPALOC, MANILA
Oliveros St.
Valenzuela, Metro Manila
56 Centro St.
Valenzuela, Metro Manila
C.M. RECTO STREET
MARIKINA, METRO
MANILA
ENERGY ST. LISP I
DIEZMO
Cabuyao , Laguna
146 9TH ST., 10TH AVE.
101 CALOOCAN CITY
, METRO MANILA
13 Humilidad St., Marulas
CITY OF VALENZUELA,
Metro Manila
1325 FM GUERRERO ST,
BGY 245, ZONE 022
TONDO, MANILA
95 Marble House,
Meycuayan , Bulacan
# 1544 Woodridge Drive,
MIS I,
Meycuayan , Bulacan
3267 1ST STA V MAPA,
SAMPALOC, MANILA
2720 NEW PANADEROS
ST, BGY 888, ZONE 098
STA ANA, MANILA
329 PUREZA ST INT 3,
SAMPALOC, MANILA
750 EDSA COR. WOOD
ST., Brgy. 144
PASAY, METRO
MANILA
MERIDIAN INDUSTRIAL
COMPLEX,
MACABLING
Santa Rosa, Laguna

25

292-4240

293-6598
432-0413
948-5298

(049)531-6158

3623835

(63) 02 514 8759

0929-1999071

JENDICK PLASTIC PRODUCTS


ERTESS PLASTIC INDUSTRIES
INC.
TE MFTR OF PLASTIC
PRODUCTS
PROLINE PLASTIC CO.

546 ILANG ILANG ST,


BGY 281, ZONE 026 SAN
NICOLAS, MANILA
#297 Provincial Rd.,
Meycuayan , Bulacan
3312 1ST ST V MAPA,
BGY 395, ZONE 041
SAMPALOC, MANILA
Lot1 Blk3 FVI Compound,
Meycuayan , Bulacan

(044) 668-9503

044-432-0766

VILLA JOSEPH YU MFG


PLASTIC & RUBBER
PRODS/CONTR

397 DAYAO ST, TONDO,


MANILA

GIPICOM PLASTIC INDUSTRIES

80044-Florida St., MIS II,


Meycuayan , Bulacan

80044-Florida St.,
MIS II,
Meycuayan , Bulacan

2472 MALAYA ST
BALUT, TONDO,
MANILA
2211 MALAYA ST, BGY
124, ZONE 010 TONDO,
MANILA
#261 N. San Rafael
Montalban, Rizal
675 JENNY'S AVE. EXT.
FORMERLY IN
MERCEDES AVE.,
PASIG , METRO
MANILA
San Vicente 1425 San
Vicente St., Dulo
, Laguna
Landayan 106 Cadena de
Amor St., Cataquiz 3
Subdivision
, Laguna
726 RIZAL AVE. EXT.,
TANONG
MALABON, METRO
MANILA
ILAYA ST. NIOG III
Bacoor, Cavite
65 SIMON ST., ACACIA
MALABON, METRO
MANILA

(049)808-4630/09207794607

GLORIA PLASTIC PRODUCT

KIAM LUA PLASTIC MFTR


Eternity Plastic Manufacturing

CRK PLASTIC PRODUCTS


CORPORATION

Big Apple Plastic Packaging

South Star Plastic Industries


Corporation

INFINITY PLASTIC PACKAGING


CONCEPTS INC.
INTERWORLD PLASTIC
MANUFACTURING CORP.
PANAMA PLASTIC PRODUCTS
INC.

26

(049)847-5611

(046) 870-0456
09178322688

ISLAND MULTI-POLYMER
PLASTIC CORPORATION

San Pedro Plastic Center


EARL METAL & PLASTIC
PARTS FABRICATORS INC.
168 Plastic Corporation
FILIPINAS PLASTIC
CORPORATION

Medical Plastic Corporation

UNIBLESS PLASTIC MFG.


CORPORATION

SIN HING PLASTIC MFG. CORP

ALATONE PLASTIC INC.,

ELEVEN PLASTIC PRODUCT,


INC.
GREIF PHILS., INC.

25- INDUSTRIAL AVE.,


Blk.A-4 CMPD.,
POTRERO
MALABON, METRO
MANILA
Poblacion Unit-A Mabini
St.
, Laguna
L3 C3 Don Mariano Santos
Avenue
ANGONO, RIZAL
Nueva National Highway
, Laguna
15 LIWAYWAY ST.,
ACACIA
MALABON, METRO
MANILA
San Vicente San Vicente
Road
, Laguna
15 REPARO ST.,
POTRERO
MALABON, METRO
MANILA
TINAJEROS
MALABON, METRO
MANILA
7 INDUSTRY ST.,
POTRERO
MALABON, METRO
MANILA
JENNY'S AVE.,
PASIG , METRO
MANILA
Brgy. Malaya, Pililla, Rizal
Rizal Region 4

27

3661653

288-41-30

(049)869-4045

725 28 82

6741375/1424/1439/1444

Table 12
Resins Manufacturer in the Philippines
Company Name
Address
141 Cabrera Road, Sitio Burol San
Crystal Resins Incorporated
Juan
TAYTAY, RIZAL
7/F Padilla Bldg., Emerald Ave.
PACIFIC RESINS, INC.
Ortigas Center, Pasig City
Pasig, Metro Manila
PUROK MALIGAYA,
GREAT EASTERN RESINS
MAMBUGAN, ANTIPOLO CITY
(PHILS) INDL CO INC
, Rizal
11 Joe Borris St., Bo. Bagong Ilog
POLYMER PRODUCTS
Pasig City, NCR - Second District
(PHILS.), INC.
1600
No. 12 Calle Obrero Bagumbayan
ALCOS GLOBAL
Libis Quezon City, NCR - Second
CORPORATION
District 1110
E. Rodriguez, Jr. Ave., Brgy.
RI Chemical Coporation
Bagong Ilog Pasig City, 1600
CHEMREZ TECHNOLOGIES,
65 Industria St.,
INC.
BagumbayanQuezon City 1110
141 McArthur Highway, Marulas,
MARULAS INDUSTRIAL
Valenzuela City
CORP.
Valenzuela Metro Manila
LG 05 Royal Mansion, Wackwack
AKZO NOBEL / CASCO
Rd., Mandaluyong City, M.M.
ADHESIVES
Mandaluyong Metro Manila

Tel no
22863011
(632) 638-5601 to
03

671-9837 to 39

635-0631
671-9842 to 53
635-0680
(02) 291-8105 - 07

831-0870

Availability of Raw Materials


As shown on Table 13, Philippines imports large quantities of propylene and small
quantities of benzene from other countries. This doesnt mean that the supply of propylene
and benzene in the country is not enough because the Philippines is also exporting these
products at a higher amount. The data shows that from 2010 to 2011, the production of
propylene and benzene in the local scene have increased dramatically, which means that
local petrochemical companies have started to produce these commodities at a larger scale.

28

The demand for propylene and benzene will surely increase in the future because they are
cheap and they are used in manufacturing a lot of chemicals such as phenol and acetone. It
can be settled that the local supply for benzene and propylene is enough, and that
importation of these chemicals is not needed for the proposed plant. Table 14 shows the
list of suppliers of the raw materials needed by the proposed plant.

Table 13
Import and Export Data of Propylene and Benzene
Propylene
`Benzene
Year
Import (kg)
Export (kg)
Import (kg)
Export (kg)
2007
83,751,966
2,373,930
2008
53,258,477
2009
60,528,698
7,292,410
2010
46,477,418
98,106,469
663
19,453,901
2011
42,067,745
73,036,129
60
24,209,049
Source: UN Commodity Trade Statistics Database `

Table 14
List of Suppliers of raw materials in the Philippines
Company
Location
Propylene
Petron PRU (Propylene
Bataan PH

Recovery Unit)

Benzene
-

Petron Aromatics Facility

Bataan PH

JG Summit - JGSOC

Batanggas
PH

Sources:
[1] Petron, 2005
[2] Hanmin & Suratman, 2011
[3] JG SUMMIT HOLDINGS, INC. - Annual Report, 2013

29

Capacity
140000
mtpy[1]
150000
mtpy[2]
190000
mtpy[3]

SWOT Analysis
Table 15 shows the matrix for the SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats)
analysis of the proposed project.
Table 15
SWOT/TOWS Matrix

SWOT
MATRIX

1.

2.

3.

4.

Opportunities
Growing end product
demand of phenol and
acetone
High
profitability
because of high value of
phenol and acetone in
the market
Project may improve
local
economy,
employment,
and
communities
Raw Mat Availability: 2
large producers of
propylene and benzene
are JG Summit and
Petron, located here in
the Philippines

Strengths
1. Technology:
Cost
Effective
manufacturing process
of phenol and acetone
through
Cumene
Process
2. Location:
Only
manufacturer of phenol
and acetone in the
Philippines
3. Inexpensive
raw
materials as compared
to global chemical
prices
4. Low
environmental
risks
because
of
employed
environmental
measures.
S-O Strategies
1-1 Selling of products at a
high acceptable price to
increase profitability.
1-3 Generation of more jobs
with more incentives for
employees
1-4
Possible
project
partnership
with
JG
Summit and Petron
2-1 Flexibility in product
prices that will favor
profitability; Meet local
product
demand
expectations
2-4 Project expansion after
10-15 years of success

30

Weaknesses
1. Lack of company name
equity
2. Inertly high startup
cost:
Will
require
investment and loan per
capital

W-O Strategies
1-1 Capture hearts of
investors; Deliver excellent
product quality; Genius
marketing campaigns for
B2B approach; Versatility
in product pricing
1-3 Gain government and
local community support
for the development of the
project
1-4 Establish partnership
with raw mat suppliers to
have a production stability
2-1
Demand
and
profitability of the product
will
prove
project

3-1 More product yield that


will yield optimal profit
3-4 Continuous production
for maximum productivity
4-1 Safe and sound
production processes that
will cause no harm to
employees
and
environment
Threats
1. Competition from large,
multinational
manufacturers
of
phenol and acetone

S-T Strategies
1-1
Cost
effective
production of high quality
phenol and acetone to attain
better product prices (cost
driven sales)
2-1 Local manufacturers
that needs the products will
prefer local suppliers (B2B
support)
3-1 Support from JG
Summit and Petron will
yield success in lower cost
of production, excellent
product quality, and better
competitive prices
4-1 Local market and
government will favor
production of products
because of environmentally
friendly
engineered
processes.

feasibility, will easily gain


loan support from banks.
2-2 High profit will
compensate for the inertly
high startup cost, with an
expected
return
of
investment within 5 years.
2-4 Availability of the raw
materials in the local scene
will somehow reduce costs.
W-T Strategies
1-1 Establishment of R&D
department
to
further
improve quality of products
and
decrease
manufacturing processes
costs.
2-1 Improvement
and
redesign of manufacturing
processes if needed to favor
profitability

Determining the plant capacity. Based on the SWOT analysis and the strategies
that were made on Table 15, the company is confident to get the 40% of the market share.
To determine the capacity of the plant, the phenol demand based from consumption will
be multiplied by 40%, as shown in Table 16. Note that market share may change after the
completion of the economic evaluation analysis.

31

Table 16
Projected phenol and acetone capacity of the proposed plant
Year
Acetone, Kg
Total, Kg
Phenol, Kg
2017
20,983,104.88
54,983,104.88
34,000,000.00
2022
27,154,606.31
71,154,606.31
44,000,000.00
2027
33,326,108.00
87,326,108.00
54,000,000.00
2033
40,731,909.47
106,731,909.47
66,000,000.00

Figure 8 shows the projected phenol and acetone capacity of plant, which is 40%
of the projected demand based on consumption. Through careful analysis of the SWOT
and current state of Philippine economy, the company has decided to design a 54,000,000
kg (54,000 MT per year of phenol) manufacturing plant, in which 62% is 34,000 MT
(minimum and starting capacity of plant). This was purposely made to avoid big loss
through the normal wear and tear of equipment / facilities. If the management decides to
expand the production after 2027, addition of equipment and utilities will compensate.
Possible additional investments are reboiler, reactor, distillation column, storage tanks, and
condenser.

32

120,000,000.00

100,000,000.00

Capacity, Kg

80,000,000.00

Phenol

60,000,000.00

Acetone
TOTAL

40,000,000.00

20,000,000.00

2015

2020

2025
Year

2030

2035

Figure 8. Projected phenol and acetone capacit y of plant


Preliminary Economic Evaluation (Class 5 Estimate)

The ISBL (Inside Battery Limit) cost can be estimated using the following
correlation (Towler, 2013):
2
2 = 1 ( )
1
2 = ISBL capital cost of the plant with capacity 2
1 = ISBL capital cost of the plant with capacity 1
= typically 0.6 for chemical industry

33

(5)

For various processes involving commodity chemicals, the empirical equation


below can also be used:
2 = 2

(6)

and are correlation constants (Towler, 2013).

Table 17 shows the process cost correlation constants of a cumene plant and phenol
from cumene plant. These constants will be used in equations 5 and 6 to obtain an estimate
of the capital cost.

Table 17
Process cost correlation constants for the plant
Capacity
PROCESS
Licensor
S lower
Units
UOP
tpy
150,000
Cumene by Q-Max
Phenol from Cumene UOP/ABB MMlb /
200
Lummus
year
(Zeolite Catalyst)
Source: Towler and Sinnott, 2008

S
a
upper
450,000 0.012
600

6.192

n
0.6
0.6

The first step towards getting the cost of the plant is to get the cost at S lower
because the desired capacity is out of range, lower than the given range. Table 18 shows
the cost of the two processes at lower capacity.

Table 18
Cost of the two processes at lower capacity
Process
1
2

34

S lower
150,000
200

C2 (MM USD)
15
149

Table 19 shows amount of the raw materials needed to produce the intermediate
(cumene),

at

the

design

capacity

of

the

plant

(Phenol:

54,000

and

Acetone: 33,326). The following table shows the capital cost of the plant.

Table 19
Capacity of plant obtained through stoichiometric ratio and proportion method
CAPACITY
Chemical
Molar mass
kmol
Kg
Ton
Propylene
42.08
573,797
24,145,362
24,145
Benzene
78.11
573,797
44,819,254
44,819
Cumene
120.19
573,797
68,964,616
68,965
Phenol
94.11
573,797
54,000,000
54,000
Acetone
58.08
573,797
33,326,108
33,326

Table 20 shows the cost of the actual plant at year 2006. In order to obtain the cost
at year 2017 when the plant is expected to fully operate, the CE index was used which is
given in Table 21.

Table 20
Cost of the actual plant at year 2006
Process

S2

1
2
Total

68965
108

Table 21
CE cost index up to year 2017 through extrapolation
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
CE
INDEX 444.2
468.2
499.6
525.4
575.4
521.9
Source: KLM Technology Group

35

C2 (MM
USD)
9
97
106

2010
555.3

2017
635.607

The OSBL (Outside Battery Limit) cost can vary from 10% to 100% of the ISBL
cost depending on the complexity of the process and required support facilities (Towler,
2013). For this project, it was assumed that the OSBL cost is approximately 50% of ISBL
cost considering that we need to install a steam generator, waste water treatment facility,
and cooling water system. Table 22 shows the price of raw materials and products needed
in economic analysis of the plant.

Table 22
ICIS Indicative price of raw materials and products
RAW
MAT

Price
(USD/MT)

Price
(Peso/MT)

PRODUC
T

1014.1252
43607.3836
Propylene
1039.81
44711.82681
Benzene
Source: ICIS, 2015

Acetone
Phenol

Price
(USD/MT
)
1807.7884
1984.158

Price
(Peso/MT)
77734.9012
85318.794

Table 23 shows the preliminary total capital expenditures of the plant. It is expected
to have a return of investment at the 3rd year.

Table 23
Preliminary Total Capital Expenditures of the Plant
C(2017), MM USD
Location factor
ISBL CAPEX
OSBL OPEX
Contingency
TOTAL CAPEX
ANNUAL OPEX
ANNUAL REVENUE
ANNUAL EXPECTED NET INCOME
PAYBACK PERIOD (years) @ 100% capacity

36

134
1.12
6,765,790,879.94
3,382,895,439.97
1,014,868,631.99
11,163,554,951.90
3,056,866,780.17
7,197,816,569.04
4,140,949,788.86
2.70

To estimate the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) for this project, it was anticipated
that the plant will be installed within two years. Hence, capital expenditure was assumed
to be equally distributed in two consecutive years. Referring to the projected capacity
based on SWOT analysis on Table 15, the expected rate of return of the project is shown
on Table 24. Considering the turndown capacity of the plant, the payback period is
expected to be less than 5 years.

Table 24
Preliminary Project Cash Flow and IRR

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

Year

Annual Revenue

Annual Opex

CASH FLOW

2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033

0
0
598,908,284.52
3,598,908,284.52
5,398,362,426.78
7,197,816,569.04
7,197,816,569.04
7,197,816,569.04
7,197,816,569.04
7,197,816,569.04
7,197,816,569.04
7,197,816,569.04
7,197,816,569.04
7,197,816,569.04
7,197,816,569.04
7,197,816,569.04
7,197,816,569.04
7,197,816,569.04
7,197,816,569.04
IRR

0
0
1,528,433,390.09
1,528,433,390.09
2,292,650,085.13
3,056,866,780.17
3,056,866,780.17
3,056,866,780.17
3,056,866,780.17
3,056,866,780.17
3,056,866,780.17
3,056,866,780.17
3,056,866,780.17
3,056,866,780.17
3,056,866,780.17
3,056,866,780.17
3,056,866,780.17
3,056,866,780.17
3,056,866,780.17

(5,581,777,475.95)
(5,581,777,475.95)
2,070,474,894.43
2,070,474,894.43
3,105,712,341.65
4,140,949,788.86
4,140,949,788.86
4,140,949,788.86
4,140,949,788.86
4,140,949,788.86
4,140,949,788.86
4,140,949,788.86
4,140,949,788.86
4,140,949,788.86
4,140,949,788.86
4,140,949,788.86
4,140,949,788.86
4,140,949,788.86
4,140,949,788.86
25%

TURNDOWN
CAPACITY
(%)
50%
50%
75%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%

Rationale of the project feasibility. Based on the preliminary economic


evaluation, it is highly recommended to pursue the Front-End Engineering Design (FEED)
of this plant. Once, the FEED phase is complete, it is recommended to perform a more
37

detailed economic analysis to evaluate if the project shall be continued to Detail


Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) phase.

Company Profile
The name of the company is PhAce Philippines Corporation. At PhAce co., safety,
operational excellence and customer satisfaction are at the heart of all we do because our
customers matter to us. We have a wealth of professional and technical expertise at our
disposal which enables us to provide our customers with the prompt and efficient service
and high quality products they have come to expect from our business. Our customers have
high expectations: uniform product quality, on-time delivery and reliable supply at
competitive prices. They also demand high safety and environmental standards from their
business partners. Our customers trust PhAce co., to meet their expectations, through
operational excellence.

Mission of the Company


Mission for the employees. Fostering an entrepreneurial culture that encourages
teamwork, innovation, and excellence for the employees.
Mission for the Environment. To address national and global environmental
issues by applying environmental biotechnology and to fill the knowledge gap that exists
on the biology of engineered systems, resulting in better translation of academic knowledge
into industry applications.
Mission for the Community. To let people enjoy a sustainable life without
compromising their freedom and quality of life

38

Mission for the Costumers. To continue to efficiently facilitate diverse methods


of empowerment and professionally disseminate performance based deliverables to meet
our customers needs.
Mission for the Stake Holders. Nurture a winning network of customers and
suppliers, together we create mutual, enduring value.

Vision of the Company


To be the leading provider of quality phenol and acetone in the Philippines, with an
established and viable global presence by the end of 2027. The following are the key values
of the company:

Excellence in safety, health and environmental performance

Focus on customer satisfaction, total quality and reliability

Fanatical support in all we do

Empowerment of employees to create real value for our customers and


ourselves

Create remarkable experiences

Teamwork because we are a Team!

Company Logo
Shown in Figure 9 is the logo of the company. The letters P and H symbolizes the
name Philippines, which is the mother country of the company. Ace part of the company
name means it will be the number one provider of phenol and acetone product, analogous
to the ace card which is the highest playing card in a deck. The globe sign symbolizes the

39

global competitiveness of the company, through its latest and innovative technology of
producing quality products. In general, the logo of the company represents clearly who
Phace Philippines Corporation is, and what will it contribute to the country and world in
the future.

Figure 9. Company Logo of Phace Philippines Corporation

Organizational Chart of the Company


Shown in Figure 10 is the organizational chart of Phace Philippines Corporation. It
is composed of three board of directors and a president that will run the company. There
are seven departments where seven vice presidents are assigned.

40

BOARD OF
DIRECTOR 1

BOARD OF
DIRECTOR 2

PRESIDENT

VP FOR
TECHNICAL

VP FOR
MARKETING
AND SALES

HR
DEPARTMENT

Quality
Control
Director

Distribution

Training

R&D Director

Sales

Remuneration

Production
Director

Hiring

Maintenance
and
Engineering

Medical
Services

VP FOR
ADMIN

Quality
Management
Representativ
e (QMR)

Document
Controller

Ground &
Building
Maintenance

BOARD OF
DIRECTOR 3

EXECUTIVE
ASSISTANT / OIC

VP FOR
SUPPLY
CHAIN

VP FOR
FINANCE

VP FOR
CORPORATE
ACCOUNTS

Warehouse
Manager

Accounting

CSR

Logistics and
Transport

Investment

Corporate
Communicati
ons Officer

Purchaser

Procurement

Figure 10. Organizat ional chart of PhAce Philippines Corporation

Plant Location
The parameters considered by the designers in choosing the location are the site
location, site quality, topography, soil conditions, climate conditions, and flood risk.
Through a serious deliberation of the plant designers, the chosen site location is Hermosa
Ecozone Industrial Park, Bataan. Hermosa is a first class municipality in the province
of Bataan. It is one of the Eleven (11) municipalities of Bataan. It has a total land area of
15,730.00 hectares in lieu of 11.40% of the entire provincial area and it is composed of 23
barangays with a population of 52,484 people in 8,988 households. The municipality of
Hermosa is predominantly agricultural. A large portion of the agricultural area, mostly in
41

the lowland, is planted with palay or the rice. Table 25 shows the general information that
describes the municipality of Hermosa, Bataan.

Table 25
General Information of the Geography of Hermosa, Bataan
Country
Philippines
Region
Central Luzon (Region 3)
Province
Bataan
District
First District of Bataan
Barangays
23
Mayor
Danilo C. Malana
Area
157.00 km2 (60.62 sq mi)
Population
112,707
Density

730/km2

Time zone
ZIP code
Dialing code
Income class

PST (UTC+8)
2111
47
st
1 class

Topography. Hermosas topography is characterized as mostly flat to gently


rolling. The highest point within the municipality is located in the southwest of Barangay
Tipo and Mabiga, which is 400 meters above sea level. It lies on the northern portion of
the province of Bataan about 100 kilometers from Manila which can be reached within two
hours by land from Manila through the North Luzon Expressway and about 45 minutes
from Subic and an hour and a half from Clark. The Population as of May 1, 2010 at
Hermosa reached 56, 997. Hermosa, Bataan is 21 kilometers from the Balanga City which
is the capital of Bataan and the center of trade and commerce. It is the location of Petron
Bataan Refinery (PBR) Petrochemical Industrial Complex which will be the main source
of propylene and benzene which is the main raw material for the production of acetone and
phenol.
42

Power supply. Hermosa is 100% electrified and is being served by the Peninsula
Electric Company (PENELCO). Also, Manila Electric Company (MERALCO) provides
electricity for the town. As of 2013, one more 600 megawatts GN powerplant was being
constructed by the GN power in the same site in Mariveles aside from the existing one
which is also a 600 megawatts. The residential electricity cost of the Peninsula Electric
Cooperative (PENELCO) is 2.24 per kilowatt hour, lower than that of the Manila Electric
Company (MERALCO). Table 26 shows the charges on electricity rates in Hermosa.

Table 26
Electric charge of PENELCO
RATE CHARGE
Residential
Average Rate/KWH

PhP 8.9858

Commercial

Industrial

PhP 7.8113

PhP 6.4708

Source: Peninsula Electric Cooperative, May 2014

Commercial/Industrial ports. there are numerous industries located at around


Hermosa, Bataan such as the Petron Bataan Refinery (PBR) Petrochemical Industrial
Complex, Total Petroleum Philippines, UniOil Philippines, Philippine National Oil
Company-Petrochemical Development Corporation (PNOC-PDC), Philippine Resins
Industries, Inc (PRII), Bataan 2020 Papermills, Ammunition Plant in DND Arsena, Orica
Philippines, Inc., Herma Group of Companies, different locators at Bataan Economic Zone
in Mariveles and Bataan Techno Park in Morong, and other light to medium industries in
other municipalities. There are ten private ports/discharging and loading points in the
different parts of the province and three national ports under the jurisdiction of Philippine

43

Ports Authority (PPA) as shown in tables 27 and 28. The town has a total of 1 bank, 21
schools, 15 medical clinics/health centers, and 2 recreational facilities.

Table 27
List of Airport near Hermosa Bataan
AIRPORT NAME
Clark International Airport
Subic Bay International Airport

LOCATION
Clark Freeport Zone
Morong, Bataan

Table 28
List of Ports near Hermosa Bataan
PORT NAME
Port of Lamao
Port of Mariveles
Subic Bay Freeport

LOCATION
Lamao, Bataan
Mariveles, Bataan
Subic Bay, Bataan

Water supply. The Hermosa Water District supplies the water requirement of
Hermosa town proper while the economic zone has its own water system, the Bataan
Economic Zone Water System. There are three big watershed groups in Bataan, which are
the Subic watershed from Morong including half of Bagac, the Mt. Natib watershed from
Dinalupihan down to Balanga, and the Mariveles watershed from Mariveles to Limay,
Orion, Pilar and the other half of Bagac. The province is drained by more than 100 rivers
and small branches radiating from these watershed areas and provides a range of purposes,
such as irrigation, navigation, and water reservoir. The provinces water supply comes from
these freshwater sources and a widespread water reserve, extorted by numerous deep wells
and free flow areas in all municipalities. Shown in table 29 are the prices for water services
in Hermosa, Bataan.
44

Table 29
Prices of Balanga Water District Services
Cubic Meter

Residential/Govt

0-10
11-20

PhP 130.00
PhP 144.50
PhP275.00
21-30
PhP291.25 -PhP
437.50
31-40
PhP455.75-PhP
620.00
41-50
PhP640.50-PhP
825.00
51-100
PhP848.00-PhP
1,975
Source: Balanga Water District, June 2014

Communication.

Commercial A

Commercial B

PhP 195.00
PhP216.75 -PhP
412.50
PhP436.85-PhP
565.00
PhP683.35-PhP
929.50
PhP960.25-PhP
1,237
PhP1,271.50-PhP
2962.00

PhP 227.50
PhP252.85-PhP
481.00
PhP509.40 -PhP
765.00
Ph796.90-PhP 1,
084
PhP1,119.85-PhP
1,142.50
PhP1,482.75-PhP
2, 962.00

Telecommunication facilities are provided

by PLDT,

Telecommunication Office (BUTEL) while Digitel is the major provider of


telecommunication services in the municipality. Hermosa is 100% electrified and is being
served by the Peninsula Electric Company (PENELCO). Smart/Globe/Sun Cell Sites,
RCPI, TeleFast, DHL, JRS, Fax and Parcel, LBC and Ddel Bros-UPS are leading
communications company operating in the area which provides adequate connectivity to
other cities enabling Hermosa, Bataan available for business. Shown in table 30 are the
prices of internet and landline services.

45

Table 30
Internet / Landline Rates
PARTICULARS
Voice / Landline:
Monthly Rental (Commercial)
Monthly Rental (Residential)
Data / Internet:
Monthly Rental 1MB up to 4MB
(Commercial)
Monthly Rental up to 1MB (Residential)
Source: PLDT, 2014

COST
PhP 936.00 (21.53 USD)
PhP 617.00 (14.19USD)
PhP 4, 000.00 (92.00 USD)
PhP 999.00 (23.00 USD)

Climate and flood risks. Hermosa Creek can experience destructive earthquakes
with an average of one every 50 years, with occurrences at >7 Richter. When a strong
earthquake occurs, damage will be slight seen in specially designed structures but
considerable in ordinary substantial buildings with partial collapse, an example would be
moving of heavy furnitures but for poorly built structures, it will be demolished. There is
a medium-low occurence of periods with extreme drought but Flooding risk is extremely
high. Also, there is extremely high chance of cyclones hitting Hermosa Creek but zero
chance of having a landslide. The climate in Hermosa is classified as a tropical savanna
(winter dry season), with a tropical moist forest biozone. The soil in the area is high in
nitosols, andosols (nt), soil with deep, clay-enriched lower horizon with shiny ped surfaces.
Labor cost. One important factor in determining the annual operating expenses of
the plant is the labor cost, as shown in Table 31.

Table 31
46

DOLE labor price in Region 3


SECTOR
DAILY MINIMUM WAGE
Non-Agriculture
Establishments with total assets of P30
million or more (690,000.00 USD or
PhP 336.00 (7.728 USD)
more)
Establishments with total assets less than
PhP 329.00 (7.567 USD)
P30 million (689,999.00 USD or less)
Agriculture
Plantation
PhP 306.00 (7.038USD)
Non-Plantation
PhP 290.00 (6.67 USD)
Retail service
With 16 or more workers
PhP 325.00 (7.475 USD)
With less than 16 workers
PhP 311.00 (7.153 USD)
Source: DOLE Region 3 Effective October 11, 2012

47

Process Description

Shown in Figure 11 is the block flow diagram of the manufacturing process of


Phace Philippines Corporation in producing phenol and acetone through the advanced
cumene process. In general, the main process involved was the alkylation of benzene with
propylene to produce cumene, followed by a separation process through distillation to
recover cumene, then oxidation of cumene to produce cumene hydroperoxide (CHP),
followed by CHP cleaving to produce phenol and acetone, then finally a separation process
through distillation to recover each of the product separately. The main technology adapted
in the process was the cumene production process, which is currently considered to be the
latest and cheapest technology ever yet to consider for the production of phenol and acetone
from the main raw materials, benzene and propylene. For the process flow diagram (PFD)
of the process, please see Appendix F. For the piping and instrumentation diagram (PNID)
of the plant, see Appendix F.

48

DIPB, benzene

Benzene

Propylene

Alkylation
Reactor
(FIXED BED)
(Zeolite catalyst)

Distillation
Columns
Cumene
Cumene

Oxidation Tower
Air

(CuO nanoparticle catalyst)

Cumene
Hydroperoxide
(CHP)

Cleavage Reactor
(Sulfonic resin catalyst)

Acetone
Distillation
Columns

Phenol

OSBL: Steam generator, Power generator, Waste Water Treatment Facility,


Cooling Water System

Figure 11. Block Flow Diagram of Phenol and Acetone production through Cumene
Process

The route to cumene production. The utilization of cumene (isopropylbenzene)


in the manufacture of phenol and acetone is applied on a huge scale in the chemical
industry. It is achieved through the Friedel-Crafts alkylation of benzene with propylene.
In Freidel-Crafts reaction, Benzene is alkylated with propylene (propene) in the liquid or
gas phase, in the presence of a solid catalyst (Tyman, 1996). The reactions will occur in a
liquid phase at a particular temperature range and pressure that will result to either high or
complete conversion of propylene as well as maintain the reactants in the liquid phase,
throughout the reactor. Industrially, alkyl groups can be substituted into a benzene ring
using a variant on Freidel-Crafts alkylation. Shown in Figure 12 are the chemical structures
of the chemicals considered in the first part of the process.

49

Figure 12. Chemical Structures of Benzene plus Propylene to Cumene


To put an isopropyl group on the ring (isopropylbenzene/cumene), benzene is
reacted with propylene on a fixed bed reactor that contains an ideal catalyst. Figure 13
shows the diagram for the alkylation mechanism of benzene and propylene to form
cumene.

Figure 13. Diagram of the industrial alkylat ion of benzene to cumene

Zeolite based catalysts such as , Y, ZSM-12, and MCM-22 can be used in the
liquid phase alkylation of benzene with propylene to produce cumene (Norouzi, Hasani,

50

Haddadi-Sisakht, & Mostoufi, 2014). Shown in Table 32 is the type of catalyst used in the
first reactor of the process. During the alkylation reaction, side reactions occur which
produces PDIB ( ). This results to additional consumption of
raw materials that negatively affects the economics of the process. In order minimize the
production of the side product and increase the selectivity of the main reaction over the
PDIB reaction, an excess amount of benzene is introduced in the reactor. The Benzene to
propylene mole ratio was maintained at more than 4 in the reactor (Perego & Ingallina,
2002). The excess amount of benzene will absorb the heat generated by the exothermic
reaction in the reactor to keep the selectivity of the cumene reaction high and suppress
undesirable reactions between propylene molecules to form higher linear hydrocarbons.

Table 32
Information on catalyst used for alkylation and transalkylation reactions
Catalyst
-zeolite catalyst
Particle Diameter
3.0 mm
Porosity
0.3
Price
8.367 USD per Kg
Source: Dai, Lei, Zhang, Li, & Chen, 2013
Price: Zauba, 2015

The alkylation reactions follows the Eley-Rideal kinetic model, which means that
the adsorption of propylene on the catalyst is the rate-determining step (Corma, MartinezSoria, & Schnoeveld, 2000). As shown in Table 33, the kinetic law reduces to first order
reaction. The reactor in the system consist of a fixed bed of catalysts pellets with an inlet
temperature range of 150 to 200. The pressure in the reactor is maintained high enough
between 2.5 to 3.5 MPa to ensure that the boiling point of the solution is at least 20 higher

51

than the temperature elsewhere in the reactor (Norouzi, Hasani, Haddadi-Sisakht, &
Mostoufi, 2014).

Table 33
Kinetics of alkylation and transalkylation reactions ( is in /, rate of
react ion is in /3 , and concentration is in /3 )
TYPE
REACTION
RATE CONSTANTS
Alkylation

52564
)

55000
2 = 450 (
)

Cumene Reaction

1 = 6510 (

DIPB Reaction
Source: Dimian and Bildea, 2008; Pathak et al., 2011

The route to phenol production. The next process involved the liquid phase air
oxidation of cumene, called cumene peroxidation process, to produce cumene peroxide at
the proper reaction temperature of 358K (Zhang, Wang, Hongbing, Wu, & Zeng, 2007).
Cumene is continuously fed to the oxidation vessel (fluidized bed) until 15 to 25 percent
of the cumene is oxidized. The mixture from the oxidizer should be around 60% to 80%
by weight cumene peroxide, which will then be fed to a reactor for the cleaving of CHP to
phenol and acetone. The cleavage mechanism is an example of 1,2 shift from carbon to
oxygen (Speight, 2002). Figure 14 depicts the mechanism of cumene oxidation to form
cumene hydroperoxide.

52

Figure 14. Diagram for the mechanism of Cumene Oxidation

In cumene oxidation, cumene is oxidized in air which removes the tertiary benzylic
hydrogen from cumene and hence forms a cumene radical. Table 34 shows the type of
catalysts used in the oxidation tower.

Table 34
Catalyst for Oxidation Data
Catalyst
CuO Nanoparticle catalyst
Particle Diameter
>140 nm
Density
790 kg/m3
Source
US Research Nanomaterials, Inc.
Price
376 USD per Kg
Source: Zhang, Wang, Hongbing, Wu, & Zeng, 2007
Price: US Research Nanomaterials, Inc., 2015

53

The cumene radical then bonds with an oxygen molecule to give cumene
hydroperoxide radical. This in turn forms into cumene hydroperoxide by abstracting
benzylic hydrogen from another cumene molecule. This latter cumene converts into
cumene radical and feeds back into subsequent chain formations of cumene
hydroperoxides. Table 35 shows the kinetic reaction details for cumene oxidation.

Table 35
Cumene oxidation reaction details
Type of Reactor
Temperature (K)
Conversion (%)
Selectivity for CHP (%)
Reaction Pressure (atm)
Catalyst
Source: Zhang, Wang, Ji, Wu, & Zeng, 2007

Fluidized Bed
318
17
>99
1
CuO Nanoparticle

Figure 15 depicts the mechanism for the decomposition of cumene hydroperoxide


to phenol and acetone using a particular acidic catalyst (either solid or liquid). Cumene
hydroperoxide is then hydrolysed in an acidic medium (the Hock rearrangement) to give
phenol and acetone.

54

Figure 15. Diagram for the Mechanism of CHP decomposit ion to Phenol and
Acetone

In the first step, the terminal hydroperoxy oxygen atom is protonated. This is
followed by a step in which the phenyl group migrates from the benzyl carbon to the
adjacent oxygen and a water molecule is lost, producing a resonance stabilized tertiary
carbocation. The resulting carbocation is then attacked by water, a proton is then
transferred from the hydroxy oxygen to the ether oxygen, and finally the ion falls apart into
phenol and acetone. Table 36 shows the optimum operation conditions for the cleaving
reactor.

55

Table 36
Optimum operation conditions and Reaction kinetics of Catalytic
Decomposition Process of Cumene Hydroperoxide
Type of Reactor
Fluidized Bed Reactor
75 to 85, preferably 80
Temperature ()
1
Space Velocity (WHSV) ( )
30 to 40
Selectivity (%)
>98
Conversion (%)
>99
Solid Holdup (catalyst) (wt%)
1 to 1.5
Catalyst
Sulfonic Resin
Order of Reaction
1
36.43 103 1
Kinetic Rate Model of Decomposition
= 1939.1 exp (
)

Source: Huang, Han, Wang, & Jin, 2002

The catalyst for the cleaving reaction requires an acid catalyst. Shown in Table 37
is the type of catalyst used in the cleaving reaction.

Table 37
Catalyst for Cleaving Reaction Data
Catalyst
Particle Diameter
Density

Sulfonic Resin
0.02mm
0.00118 kg/m3
Wenzhou Foreign Trade Industrial Product
Source
Co.,Ltd. (China)
Price
2930 USD per Kg
Source: Huang, D., Han, M., Wang, J., & Jin, Y., 2002
Price: ChemPep Inc., 2015

The products are separated by distillation. Acetone is firstly removed in the first
column. The bottom is vacuumed distilled to send unreacted cumene overhead. The
product is purified through catalytic hydrogenation through careful fractionation. In the
56

latter case, bottoms from the vacuum are further distilled to separate cumene from phenol,
phenol being the overhead product.
Economic advantage of the technology. The comparative cost for the currently
existing processes for the production of phenol is shown in Table 38. Currently, the
Cumene process is universally favored in the United Kingdom (UK) and United States of
America (US) because of its lower cost and higher product yield.

Table 38
Comparison of cost of production of phenol and acetone
Process

Benzene - ChloroCumeneBenzeneToluene
Raschig
Sulphonate benzene
hydroperoxide cyclohexane Oxidation

Net
Production
81.7
cost (/ton)
Source: Tyman, 1996

78.3

57.1

57

45.7

51.5

59.5

Heat and Material Balance

In this plant design project, the software called Aspen Hysys (Version 8) was used
to simulate and generate heat and material balances for each equipment in the plant. Aspen
HYSYS is a comprehensive process modeling system that is currently utilized by leading
engineering companies worldwide. In general, this software is used to design as well as
optimize processes and operations involved in a manufacturing plant. Using the software,
material streams, compositions, and energy streams were obtained and described in depth.
The main Aspen Hysys simulation involves the modeling of the major three
processes of the plant. The first process involves the production of cumene through
alkylation reaction between benzene and propylene. The fluid package chosen in Aspen
Hysys is NRTL because it is generally used for chemical systems and HF alkylation with
highly non-ideal chemicals and it is thermodynamically consistent, which can be applied
to ternary and higher order systems. Table 33 shows the kinetic data for alkylation and
transalkylation reaction needed by Aspen Hysys for the first reactor. The second process
involves the oxidation of cumene to produce cumene hydroperoxide, and its kinetics of
reaction is described in Table 35. The last process involves the cleaving of cumene
hydroperoxide to produce phenol and acetone, and the kinetics of reaction is described in
Table 36. Table 39 shows the component list for the simulation of the main process.

58

Table 39
Data for the component list of the main process in Aspen Hysys
Component
Propene
Oxygen
14-iP-BZ
Acetone
Phenol
Propane
Nitrogen
CumHyPeroxid
Cumene
Benzene
Air
H2O

Type
Pure Component
Pure Component
Pure Component
Pure Component
Pure Component
Pure Component
Pure Component
Pure Component
Pure Component
Pure Component
Pure Component
Pure Component

The utilities required of the process are simulated as well using Aspen Hysys. The
first utility involved the generation of steam and the second involves the closed loop
circulation of cooling water for the plant. Tables 40 and 41 depicts the component list for
the simulation of the stated utilities.

Table 40
Data for the component list of the steam gen utility in Aspen Hysys
Component
Propane
Nitrogen
CO2
Oxygen
H2O

Type
Pure Component
Pure Component
Pure Component
Pure Component
Pure Component

59

Table 41
Data for the component list of the cooling water system utility in Aspen Hysys
Component

Type

H2O

Pure Component

For a more detailed simulation of the process and utilities of the plant using Aspen
Hysys, see Appendix A. Shown in Table 42 is the summarized material streams of the
process. Tables 43 and 44 shows the summarized compositions for each streams and energy
streams of the main process.

Table 42
Material Streams of the Process
STREAM

Vapour
Fraction

Unit

Temperature

Pressure

Molar
Flow

Mass
Flow

Liquid
Volume
Flow

Heat
Flow

bar_g

kgmole/h

Kg/h

m3/h

kJ/h

Benzene

25

-0.01325

80

6248.8

14.166563

7961764

Benzene_to_mixer

28.243691

34.38675

80

6248.8

14.166563

8027489

Propylene

25

10.98675

79.67

3354

6.43999

295193.9

Prop_to_mixer

27.337761

34.38675

79.67

3354

6.43999

315840.3

To Heater

72.429121

34.38675

13810.09

1071616

1222.03203

7.49E+08

To_Alkylator

170

33.766222

13810.09

1071616

1222.03203

9.6E+08

To_valve

170

33.352865

13731.05

1071616

1219.635126

9.52E+08

Cumene_Bot

159.0118

0.18675

79.12

9510.42

10.997799

-660888

Benzene_Dist

70.053451

-0.01325

13651.93

1062105

1208.637325

7.4E+08

To_pump

70.044379

-0.01325

13570.42

1055764

1201.425477

7.35E+08

To_column1

0.44099

86.599685

0.28675

13731.05

1071616

1219.635126

9.52E+08

To-Mixer

73.139927

34.38675

13570.42

1055764

1201.425477

7.41E+08

To_OxiTow_1

44.85

-0.413686

164.12

19520

22.416604

-6893388

AIR

25

380

10963.1

12.673355

To_tee

83.159439

0.62675

380

10963.1

12.673355

648168.1

To_OT_1

83.159439

0.62675

95

2740.78

3.168339

162042

VAP_1

44.85

-0.012777

76.18

2248.24

2.775003

49224.18

To_OxiTow_2

44.85

-0.012777

162.99

20012.5

22.358325

-8675304

To_OT_2

83.159439

0.62675

95

2740.78

3.168339

162042

To_OT_3

83.159439

0.62675

95

2740.78

3.168339

162042

VAP_2

44.85

-0.022341

76.16

2232.43

2.757165

48642.77

To_OxiTow_3

44.85

-0.022341

161.87

20520.8

22.317883

-1E+07

60

VAP_3

44.85

-0.031921

76.55

2230.37

2.749782

48130.51

To_OxiTow_4

44.85

-0.031921

160.94

21031.2

22.297683

-1.2E+07

To_OT_4

83.159439

0.62675

95

2740.78

3.168339

162042

To_Cleaving

44.85

-0.041213

160.13

21445.2

22.274623

-1.4E+07

VAP_4

44.85

-0.041213

79.88

2326.75

2.830657

49449.35

To_CleavageR
Decomposition
Effluent
Acetone Product

45.080979

3.293705

160.13

21445.2

22.274623

-1.4E+07

80

2.98675

235.34

21445.2

23.640879

-3.2E+07

91.975505

2.68675

75.26

4369.79

5.531312

-1.8E+07

to next Column

214.120846

2.88675

160.08

17075.4

18.109567

-8943146

Dist_Cumene

151.888966

84.95

10004.3

11.412643

-1808721

Phenol Product

236.829828

2.78675

75.13

7071.12

6.696924

-8221078

TO_FLARE
Acetone to
STORAGE
Phenol to
STORAGE
To Mixer2

44.85

-0.041213

308.77

9037.79

11.112607

195446.8

30

2.645381

75.260491

4369.79

5.531312

-1.9E+07

54.444444

2.745381

75.127467

7071.12

6.696924

-1.1E+07

151.888859

84.993763

10009.6

11.418805

-1808819

To Cooler_E-100

0.02402

151.967835

164.11617

19520

22.416604

-2469708

44.885457

164.11617

19520

22.416604

-6892120

44.851035

162.98699

20012.5

22.358325

-8675266

44.85171

161.87431

20520.8

22.317883

-1E+07

44.852313

160.93841

21031.2

22.297683

-1.2E+07

Table 43
Composition of each streams for the process

Unit
Benzene_to_mixer
Propylene
Prop_to_mixer
To Heater
To_Alkylator
To_valve
Cumene_Bot
Benzene_Dist
To_pump
To_column1
To-Mixer
To_OxiTow_1
AIR

Comp
Mole
Frac
(Propene)

Comp
Mole
Frac
(Oxygen)

Comp
Mole
Frac (14iP-BZ)

Comp
Mole Frac
(Acetone)

Comp
Mole
Frac
(Phenol)

Comp
Mole
Frac
(Propane)

0
0.990453
0.990453
0.00574
0.00574
0.000017
0
0.000017
0.000027
0.000017
0.000027
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.21

0
0
0
0
0
0.000001
0.000123
0
0
0.000001
0
0.000059
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.048226
0

0
0.009547
0.009547
0.009155
0.009155
0.009208
0
0.009261
0.009261
0.009208
0.009261
0
0

61

To_tee
To_OT_1
VAP_1
To_OxiTow_2
To_OT_2
To_OT_3
VAP_2
To_OxiTow_3
VAP_3
To_OxiTow_4
To_OT_4
To_Cleaving
VAP_4
To_CleavageR
Decomposition
Effluent
Acetone Product
to next Column
Dist_Cumene
Phenol Product
TO_FLARE
Acetone to STORAGE
Phenol to STORAGE
To Mixer2
To Cooler_E-100
1
2
3
4
Benzene

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.21
0.21
0
0
0.21
0.21
0
0
0.007414
0.000002
0.21
0.000013
0.050234
0.000013

0
0
0
0.00006
0
0
0
0.00006
0
0.00006
0
0.000061
0
0.000061

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0.000388
0.048379
0
0
0.000316
0.048563
0.000264
0.04872
0
0.048851
0.000232
0.048851

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.000009
0.000029
0
0
0
0.014833
0.000029
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.000002
0

0.000041
0
0.000061
0
0.000129
0
0
0.000129
0
0.000059
0.000059
0.00006
0.00006
0.00006
0

0.319595
0.999369
0
0
0
0
0.999369
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.352834
0
0.518718
0.093203
0.99987
0.000299
0
0.99987
0.093121
0.048226
0.048226
0.048379
0.048563
0.04872
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Table 43 Cont inued


Composition of each streams for the process
Comp
Mole Frac Comp Mole Frac
(Nitrogen) (CumHyPeroxid)
Unit
Benzene_to_mixer
Propylene
Prop_to_mixer
To Heater

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

62

Comp
Mole
Frac
(Cumene)

Comp
Mole
Frac
(Benzene)

0
0
0
0.000114

1
0
0
0.984991

To_Alkylator
To_valve
Cumene_Bot
Benzene_Dist
To_pump
To_column1
To-Mixer
To_OxiTow_1
AIR
To_tee
To_OT_1
VAP_1
To_OxiTow_2
To_OT_2
To_OT_3
VAP_2
To_OxiTow_3
VAP_3
To_OxiTow_4
To_OT_4
To_Cleaving
VAP_4
To_CleavageR
Decomposition
Effluent
Acetone Product
to next Column
Dist_Cumene
Phenol Product
TO_FLARE
Acetone to
STORAGE
Phenol to STORAGE
To Mixer2
To Cooler_E-100
1
2
3
4
Benzene

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.79
0.79
0.79
0.983624
0.000726
0.79
0.79
0.98583
0.000524
0.98067
0.000378
0.79
0.000276
0.939774
0.000276

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.000046
0
0
0
0.000006
0.122446
0
0
0.000012
0.246525
0.000018
0.368381
0
0.46976
0.000024
0.46976

0.000114
0.005869
0.999867
0.000108
0.000116
0.005869
0.000116
0.951664
0
0
0
0.015981
0.828385
0
0
0.013841
0.704323
0.011632
0.582455
0
0.481035
0.009735
0.481035

0.984991
0.984906
0.00001
0.990614
0.990597
0.984906
0.990597
0.000005
0
0
0
0.000001
0.000004
0
0
0.000001
0.000004
0.000001
0.000004
0
0.000003
0.000001
0.000003

0.000188
0.000587
0
0
0
0.972092

0.000032
0
0.000047
0.000088
0
0.000015

0.327299
0.000008
0.481174
0.906708
0.000001
0.012759

0.000002
0.000007
0
0
0
0.000001

0.000587
0
0
0
0
0.000726
0.000524
0.000378
0

0
0
0.000088
0.000046
0.000046
0.122446
0.246525
0.368381
0

0.000008
0.000001
0.90679
0.951664
0.951664
0.828385
0.704323
0.582455
0

0.000007
0
0
0.000005
0.000005
0.000004
0.000004
0.000004
1

63

Table 44
Energy streams of the process
Unit
kJ/h

kJ/h

kJ/h

Q-pump102
65724.37458
Q-Pump101

Q-pump100
20646.39492
Q-Cooler100

Q-Heater100
210583600.9
Q-Comp100

Q-PFR-100

Q-Cond-100

Q-Reb-100

7608739.103

586285321.7

372840106.2

Q-OX-1

Q-OX-2

Q-OX-3

5909563.646

4423679.953

648168.1337

1896002.254

1902174.803

1857071.734

Q-OX-4

Q-Pump103

Q-PFR-101

Q-Cond-101

Q-Reb-101

Q-Cond-102

1543792.885

9137.795762

18555061.4

2696181.269

7912592.66

22440817.75

Q-Cooler102
611621.8101

Q-Cooler103
2839892.353

Q-100

Q-101

Q-102

1267.605212

38.009834

64.529379

Q-Reb-102
kJ/h
kJ/h

21216913.9
Q-103
89.612062

Using Aspen Hysys software, a heat and material balance were simulated
for the steam generation system and cooling water system of the plant. For the utilities of
the plant, Tables 45, 46, and 47 depicts the requirement of the plant.

64

Table 45
Cooling Water Requirement of the Plant
PROPERTIES
Vapour / Phase Fraction
Temperature [C]
Pressure [kPa]
Molar Flow [kgmole/h]
Mass Flow [kg/h]
Std Ideal Liq Vol Flow [m3/h]
Molar Enthalpy [kJ/kgmole]
Molar Entropy [kJ/kgmole-C]
Heat Flow [kJ/h]
Liq Vol Flow @Std Cond [m3/h]
Act. Volume Flow [m3/h]

Inlet to Cooling Tower


0
60
2059.956445
312354.6137
5627099.751
5638.455471
-282346.6114
14.95464482
-88192266744
5633.061288
5653.898758

Outlet
0
32.11818066
1101.325
312354.6137
5627099.751
5638.455471
-284460.2213
8.383744001
-88852462549
5633.061288
5653.898758

Table 46
Steam requirement of the plant
PROPERTIES
Vapour / Phase Fraction
Temperature [C]
Pressure [kPa]
Molar Flow [kgmole/h]
Mass Flow [kg/h]
Std Ideal Liq Vol Flow [m3/h]
Molar Enthalpy [kJ/kgmole]
Molar Entropy [kJ/kgmole-C]
Heat Flow [kJ/h]
Liq Vol Flow @Std Cond [m3/h]
Act. Volume Flow [m3/h]

Inlet to Boiler
0
244.9187093
4293.377832
20015.50196
360581.279
361.3089469
-267779.0355
49.47427638
-5359731810
360.9632909
446.7531747

Steam Generated
1
253.6877563
4231.325
20015.50196
360581.279
361.3089469
-236459.9051
108.9330054
-4732863696
360.9632909
16932.16337

Table 47
Fuel requirement of the plant
PROPERTIES
Vapour / Phase Fraction
Temperature [C]
Pressure [kPa]
Act. Volume Flow [m3/h]
Type of Fuel

Values
0
30
101.3
2.71
Industrial LPG

65

Information on the conditions, availability, and price of utility services such as fuel,
steam, cooling water, process air, process water, and electricity can be obtained from the
provincial government of Hermosa, Bataan. Utility equipment are built outside the process
area to supply the requirements of several processes of the plant.

66

Equipment Sizing and Specification

This chapter includes the nature and methodology of the design process used in
generating specifications sheets for each equipment. The generated design concepts will
be further used in the detailed economic evaluation of the project. The economic evaluation
usually entails analyzing the capital and operating costs of the process to determine the
return of investment, which will be further elaborated in the next chapter.
Other equipment that already have sufficient data for economic performance
evaluation need no specifications to be generated. In general, ISBL equipment of the plant
were designed in this chapter and OSBL equipment were detailed for economic evaluation
purposes in the next chapter.

Calculation Sheets
To easily understand and check the design generated on this chapter, calculation
sheets are provided. All of the assumptions and approximations made were included in
these sheets.

Specification Sheets
The sheets consisted of the main specifications of the equipment as required in the
process of the manufacturing plant.

67

Storage Tanks Specification Sheets


See Appendix B for calculation sheets
V-101: Propylene Feed Storage Tank (Pressure Vessel)
Project No. 1

STORAGE TANK

SHEET 1 of 1
REV
DATE
BY APVD REV DATE BY APVD
1
01/11/15 EAM
ALL
MFS
2
01/22/15 EAM

Quantity
6
ITEM NUMBER
V-101
TYPE
Pressure vessel
SERVICE
Propylene
MEASUREMENT SYSTEM
Metric System
OPERATING CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
1200
Temperature (deg C)
25
DESIGN CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
1372
Temperature (deg C)
93
Minimum Pressure (kPa)
0
Minimum Metal Temperature (deg C)
15 ~ 20
METALLURGY
Material of Construction
Carbon steel
Joint Efficiency
0.85
Maximum Allowable Stress (Mpa)
88.94236908
Corrosion Allowance (mm)
3.8
SPECIFICATION FOR CONSTRUCTION
Geometry
Cylindrical
Position
Vertical
Support/Foundation
Concrete
Outage Allowance (mm)
500
Innage Allowance (mm)
500
Inside Diameter (m)
7.2
Outside Diameter (m)
7.34
Minimum Thickness (mm)
70
T/T Height (m)
21.6
Closure/Head
2:1 ellipsoidal
Minimum Thickness for Closure (mm)
66

SKETCH

7.34 m

500 mm
21.6 m

500 mm

68

V-102: Benzene Feeeed Storage Tank (Atmospheric Vessel)


Project No. 1
SHEET 1 of 1
REV

DATE

BY

01/11/15

EAM

APVD

REV

DATE

BY

ALL

STORAGE TANK

MFS
2

Quantity
6
ITEM NUMBER
V-102
TYPE
Atmospheric vessel
SERVICE
Benzene
MEASUREMENT SYSTEM
Metric System
OPERATING CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
100
Temperature (deg C)
25
DESIGN CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
445.9678571
Temperature (deg C)
93.33333333
Minimum Pressure (kPa)
0
Minimum Metal Temperature (deg C)
15 ~ 20
METALLURGY
Material of Construction
Carbon steel
Joint Efficiency
0.85
Maximum Allowable Stress (Mpa)
88.94236908
Corrosion Allowance (mm)
3.8
SPECIFICATION FOR CONSTRUCTION
Geometry
Cylindrical
Position
Vertical
Support/Foundation
Concrete
Outage Allowance (mm)
500
Innage Allowance (mm)
500
Inside Diameter (m)
7.4
Outside Diameter (m)
7.426
Minimum Thickness (m)
13
T/T Height (m)
22.2
Closure/Head
2:1 ellipsoidal
Minimum Thickness for Closure (mm)
22

01/22/15

EAM

SKETCH

7.426 m

500 mm
22.2 m

500 mm

69

APVD

V-103: Acetone Product Storage Tank A (Pressure Vessel)


Project No. 1
SHEET 1 of 1
REV

DATE

BY

01/11/15

EAM

APVD

REV

DATE

BY

ALL

STORAGE TANK

MFS
2

Quantity
3
ITEM NUMBER
V-103
TYPE
Pressure vessel
SERVICE
Acetone
MEASUREMENT SYSTEM
Metric System
OPERATING CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
365.9
Temperature (deg C)
30
DESIGN CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
538
Temperature (deg C)
93
Minimum Pressure (kPa)
0
Minimum Metal Temperature (deg C)
15 ~ 20
METALLURGY
Material of Construction
Carbon steel
Joint Efficiency
0.85
Maximum Allowable Stress (Mpa)
88.94236908
Corrosion Allowance (mm)
3.8
SPECIFICATION FOR CONSTRUCTION
Geometry
Cylindrical
Position
Vertical
Support/Foundation
Concrete
Outage Allowance (mm)
500
Innage Allowance (mm)
500
Inside Diameter (m)
5.4
Outside Diameter (m)
5.448
Minimum Thickness (m)
24
T/T Height (m)
16.2
Closure/Head
2:1 ellipsoidal
Minimum Thickness for Closure (mm)
20

01/22/15

EAM

SKETCH

5.448 m

500 mm
16.2 m

500 mm

70

APVD

V-104: Acetone Product Storage Tank B (Pressure Vessel)


Project No. 1
SHEET 1 of 1
REV

DATE

BY

01/11/15

EAM

APVD

REV

DATE

BY

ALL

STORAGE TANK

MFS
2

Quantity
3
ITEM NUMBER
V-103a
TYPE
Pressure vessel
SERVICE
Acetone
MEASUREMENT SYSTEM
Metric System
OPERATING CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
365.9
Temperature (deg C)
30
DESIGN CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
538
Temperature (deg C)
93
Minimum Pressure (kPa)
0
Minimum Metal Temperature (deg C)
15 ~ 20
METALLURGY
Material of Construction
Carbon steel
Joint Efficiency
0.85
Maximum Allowable Stress (Mpa)
88.94236908
Corrosion Allowance (mm)
3.8
SPECIFICATION FOR CONSTRUCTION
Geometry
Cylindrical
Position
Vertical
Support/Foundation
Concrete
Outage Allowance (mm)
500
Innage Allowance (mm)
500
Inside Diameter (m)
2.9
Outside Diameter (m)
2.93
Minimum Thickness (mm)
15
T/T Height (m)
8.7
Closure/Head
2:1 ellipsoidal
Minimum Thickness for Closure (mm)
11

01/22/15

EAM

SKETCH

2.93 m

500 mm
8.7 m

500 mm

71

APVD

V-105: Phenol Product Storage Tank A (Atmospheric Vessel)


Project No. 1
SHEET 1 of 1
REV

DATE

BY

01/11/15

EAM

APVD

REV

DATE

BY

ALL

STORAGE TANK

MFS

Quantity
3
ITEM NUMBER
V-104
TYPE
Atmospheric vessel
SERVICE
Phenol
MEASUREMENT SYSTEM
Metric System
OPERATING CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
375.9
Temperature (deg C)
54.44
DESIGN CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
548.2214286
Temperature (deg C)
93.33333333
Minimum Pressure (kPa)
0
Minimum Metal Temperature (deg C)
15 ~ 20
METALLURGY
Material of Construction
Carbon steel
Joint Efficiency
0.85
Maximum Allowable Stress (Mpa)
88.94236908
Corrosion Allowance (mm)
3.8
SPECIFICATION FOR CONSTRUCTION
Geometry
Cylindrical
Position
Vertical
Support/Foundation
Concrete
Outage Allowance (mm)
500
Innage Allowance (mm)
500
Inside Diameter (m)
5.8
Outside Diameter (m)
5.822
Minimum Thickness (m)
11
T/T Height (m)
17.4
Closure/Head
2:1 ellipsoidal
Minimum Thickness for Closure (mm)
22

SKETCH

5.822 m

500 mm
17.4 m

500 mm

72

APVD

V-106: Phenol Product Storage Tank B (Atmospheric Vessel)


Project No. 1
SHEET 1 of 1
REV

DATE

BY

01/11/15

EAM

APVD

REV

DATE

BY

ALL

STORAGE TANK

MFS

Quantity
3
ITEM NUMBER
V-104
TYPE
Atmospheric vessel
SERVICE
Phenol
MEASUREMENT SYSTEM
Metric System
OPERATING CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
375.9
Temperature (deg C)
54.44
DESIGN CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
548.2214286
Temperature (deg C)
93.33333333
Minimum Pressure (kPa)
0
Minimum Metal Temperature (deg C)
15 ~ 20
METALLURGY
Material of Construction
Carbon steel
Joint Efficiency
0.85
Maximum Allowable Stress (Mpa)
88.94236908
Corrosion Allowance (mm)
3.8
SPECIFICATION FOR CONSTRUCTION
Geometry
Cylindrical
Position
Vertical
Support/Foundation
Concrete
Outage Allowance (mm)
500
Innage Allowance (mm)
500
Inside Diameter (m)
3.1
Outside Diameter (m)
3.112
Minimum Thickness (m)
6
T/T Height (m)
9.3
Closure/Head
2:1 ellipsoidal
Minimum Thickness for Closure (mm)
12

SKETCH

3.112 m

500 mm
9.3 m

500 mm

73

APVD

V-107: Benzene Recycle Stream Hold-up Tank (Atmospheric Vessel)


Project No. 1
SHEET 1 of 1
REV

DATE

BY

01/11/15

EAM

APVD

REV

DATE

BY

ALL

STORAGE TANK

MFS
2

Quantity
1
ITEM NUMBER
V-105
TYPE
Atmospheric vessel
SERVICE
Benzene Recycle Stream
MEASUREMENT SYSTEM
Metric System
OPERATING CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
100
Temperature (deg C)
70.05
DESIGN CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
445.9678571
Temperature (deg C)
93.33333333
Minimum Pressure (kPa)
0
Minimum Metal Temperature (deg C)
15 ~ 20
METALLURGY
Material of Construction
Carbon steel
Joint Efficiency
0.85
Maximum Allowable Stress (Mpa)
88.94236908
Corrosion Allowance (mm)
3.8
SPECIFICATION FOR CONSTRUCTION
Geometry
Cylindrical
Position
Vertical
Support/Foundation
Concrete
Outage Allowance (mm)
500
Innage Allowance (mm)
500
Inside Diameter (m)
5.5
Outside Diameter (m)
5.518
Minimum Thickness (m)
9
T/T Height (m)
16.5
Closure/Head
2:1 ellipsoidal
Minimum Thickness for Closure (mm)
17

01/22/15

EAM

SKETCH

5.518 m

500 mm
16.5 m

500 mm

74

APVD

V-108: Reflux Drum 1 (Atmospheric Vessel)


Project No. 1
SHEET 1 of 1
REV

DATE

BY

01/11/15

EAM

APVD

REV

DATE

BY

APVD

ALL

STORAGE TANK
ITEM NUMBER
V-106
TYPE
Atmospheric vessel
SERVICE
Condensate from T-100
MEASUREMENT SYSTEM
Metric System
OPERATING CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
100
Temperature (deg C)
70.05
DESIGN CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
446
Temperature (deg C)
93
Minimum Pressure (kPa)
0
Minimum Metal Temperature (deg C)
15 ~ 20
METALLURGY
Material of Construction
Carbon steel
Joint Efficiency
0.85
Maximum Allowable Stress (Mpa)
88.94236908
Corrosion Allowance (mm)
3.8
SPECIFICATION FOR CONSTRUCTION
Geometry
Cylindrical
Position
Horizontal
Support/Foundation
Saddle
Inside Diameter (m)
5.2
Outside Diameter (m)
5.208
Minimum Thickness (mm)
4
Height of Liquid (m)
2.6
Length (m)
15.6
Closure/Head
2:1 ellipsoidal
Minimum Thickness for Closure (mm)
16

MFS

SKETCH

15.6 m

5.2 m

1.3 m

2.6 m

75

5.208 m

V-109: Reflux Drum 2 (Pressure Vessel)


Project No. 1
SHEET 1 of 1
REV

DATE

BY

01/11/15

EAM

APVD

REV

DATE

BY

APVD

ALL

STORAGE TANK
ITEM NUMBER
V-107
TYPE
Pressure vessel
SERVICE
Condensate from D-102
MEASUREMENT SYSTEM
Metric System
OPERATING CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
370
Temperature (deg C)
91.98
DESIGN CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
542
Temperature (deg C)
93
Minimum Pressure (kPa)
0
Minimum Metal Temperature (deg C)
15 ~ 20
METALLURGY
Material of Construction
Carbon steel
Joint Efficiency
0.85
Maximum Allowable Stress (Mpa)
88.94236908
Corrosion Allowance (mm)
3.8
SPECIFICATION FOR CONSTRUCTION
Geometry
Cylindrical
Position
Horizontal
Support/Foundation
Saddle
Inside Diameter (m)
0.9
Outside Diameter (m)
0.908
Minimum Thickness (mm)
4
Height of Liquid (m)
0.45
Length (m)
2.7
Closure/Head
2:1 ellipsoidal
Minimum Thickness for Closure (mm)
4

MFS

SKETCH

2.7 m

0.9 m

0.225 m

0.45 m

76

0.908 m

V-110: Reflux Drum 3 (Atmospheric Vessel)


Project No. 1
SHEET 1 of 1
REV

DATE

BY

01/11/15

EAM

APVD

REV

DATE

BY

APVD

ALL

STORAGE TANK
ITEM NUMBER
V-108
TYPE
Atmospheric vessel
SERVICE
Condensate from D-103
MEASUREMENT SYSTEM
Metric System
OPERATING CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
101.3
Temperature (deg C)
151.9
DESIGN CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
445.9678571
Temperature (deg C)
179.6777778
Minimum Pressure (kPa)
0
Minimum Metal Temperature (deg C)
15 ~ 20
METALLURGY
Material of Construction
Carbon steel
Joint Efficiency
0.85
Maximum Allowable Stress (Mpa)
88.94236908
Corrosion Allowance (mm)
3.8
SPECIFICATION FOR CONSTRUCTION
Geometry
Cylindrical
Position
Horizontal
Support/Foundation
Saddle
Inside Diameter (m)
2
Outside Diameter (m)
2.008
Minimum Thickness (mm)
4
Height of Liquid (m)
1
Length (m)
6
Closure/Head
2:1 ellipsoidal
Minimum Thickness for Closure (mm)
6

MFS

SKETCH

6m

2m

0.5 m

1m

77

2.008 m

V-111: Cumene Recycle Stream Hold-up Tank (Atmospheric Vessel)


Project No. 1
SHEET 1 of 1
REV

DATE

BY

01/11/15

EAM

APVD

REV

DATE

BY

ALL

STORAGE TANK

MFS
2

Quantity
1
ITEM NUMBER
V-109
TYPE
Atmospheric vessel
SERVICE
Cumene Recycle Stream
MEASUREMENT SYSTEM
Metric System
OPERATING CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
101.3
Temperature (deg C)
151.9
DESIGN CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
445.9678571
Temperature (deg C)
179.6777778
Minimum Pressure (kPa)
0
Minimum Metal Temperature (deg C)
15 ~ 20
METALLURGY
Material of Construction
Carbon steel
Joint Efficiency
0.85
Maximum Allowable Stress (Mpa)
88.94236908
Corrosion Allowance (mm)
3.8
SPECIFICATION FOR CONSTRUCTION
Geometry
Cylindrical
Position
Vertical
Support/Foundation
Concrete
Outage Allowance (mm)
500
Innage Allowance (mm)
500
Inside Diameter (m)
2.1
Outside Diameter (m)
2.11
Minimum Thickness (m)
5
T/T Height (m)
6.3
Closure/Head
2:1 ellipsoidal
Minimum Thickness for Closure (mm)
7

01/22/15

EAM

SKETCH

2.11 m

500 mm
6.3 m

500 mm

78

APVD

V-112: Water Storage Tank (Atmospheric Vessel)


Project No. 1
SHEET 1 of 1
REV

DATE

BY

01/11/15

EAM

APVD

REV

DATE

BY

ALL

STORAGE TANK

MFS
2

Quantity
1
ITEM NUMBER
V-105
TYPE
Atmospheric vessel
SERVICE
WATER
MEASUREMENT SYSTEM
Metric System
OPERATING CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
100
Temperature (deg C)
30
DESIGN CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
445.9678571
Temperature (deg C)
93.33333333
Minimum Pressure (kPa)
0
Minimum Metal Temperature (deg C)
15 ~ 20
METALLURGY
Material of Construction
Carbon steel
Joint Efficiency
0.85
Maximum Allowable Stress (Mpa)
88.94236908
Corrosion Allowance (mm)
3.8
SPECIFICATION FOR CONSTRUCTION
Geometry
Cylindrical
Position
Vertical
Support/Foundation
Concrete
Outage Allowance (mm)
500
Innage Allowance (mm)
500
Inside Diameter (m)
4.3
Outside Diameter (m)
4.316
Minimum Thickness (m)
8
T/T Height (m)
12.9
Closure/Head
2:1 ellipsoidal
Minimum Thickness for Closure (mm)
13

01/22/15

EAM

SKETCH

4.316 m

500 mm
12.9 m

500 mm

79

APVD

V-113: Fuel Storage (Pressure Vessel)


Project No. 1
SHEET 1 of 1
REV

DATE

BY

01/11/15

EAM

APVD

REV

DATE

BY

ALL

STORAGE TANK

MFS
2

Quantity
4
ITEM NUMBER
V-111
TYPE
Pressure vessel
SERVICE
LPG (Propane)
MEASUREMENT SYSTEM
Metric System
OPERATING CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
1080
Temperature (deg C)
30
DESIGN CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
1252
Temperature (deg C)
93
Minimum Pressure (kPa)
0
Minimum Metal Temperature (deg C)
15 ~ 20
METALLURGY
Material of Construction
Carbon steel
Joint Efficiency
0.85
Maximum Allowable Stress (Mpa)
88.94236908
Corrosion Allowance (mm)
3.8
SPECIFICATION FOR CONSTRUCTION
Geometry
Cylindrical
Position
Vertical
Support/Foundation
Concrete
Outage Allowance (mm)
500
Innage Allowance (mm)
500
Inside Diameter (m)
7.2
Outside Diameter (m)
7.33
Minimum Thickness (mm)
65
T/T Height (m)
21.6
Closure/Head
2:1 ellipsoidal
Minimum Thickness for Closure (mm)
60

01/22/15

EAM

SKETCH

7.33 m

500 mm
21.6 m

500 mm

80

APVD

Reactors Specification Sheets


See Appendix C for calculation sheets
R-101: Plug Flow Reactor 1
Project No. 1
SHEET 1 of 1
REV

DATE

BY

01/11/15

EAM

APVD

REV

ALL

REACTOR

MFS

ITEM NUMBER
R-101
TYPE
Plug Flow Reactor (Packed Bed)
MEASUREMENT SYSTEM
Metric System
OPERATING CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
3478
Temperature (deg C)
170
DESIGN CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
3816
Temperature (deg C)
198
Minimum Pressure (kPa)
0
Minimum Metal Temperature (deg C)
-14.7
SPECIFICATION OF REACTOR VESSEL
Reactor Volume (m3)
113.3
Reactor Length (m)
10
Tube Diameter (m)
0.1201
CATALYST BED CHARACTERISTIC
Void Fraction
0.7
Void Volume (m3)
79.3
Volume of Catalyst Bed (m3)
34
Particle Diameter (m)
0.003
Catalyst Name
Sulfonic Resin
Mass of Catalyst (kg)
7140
SHELL AND TUBING LAYOUT
Square Pitch Size (mm)
100
Baffle Spacing (m)
0.781764019
Material
Carbon Steel
Tube Number
1000
TUBE I.D. (in)
4.813
TUBE O.D. (in)
5.563
Nominal Pipe Size (in)
5
Schedule No.
80XS, 80S
Wall Thickness (in)
0.375
Cross Sectional Area (in2)
6.11
HEAT EXCHANGER SPECIFICATION
Heat transfer coefficient (W/m2K)
636025.5
Shell Diameter (m)
3.9
Cross Sectional Area of Shell Side (m2)
0.3
Heat Evolved in the reaction (kW)
2114.0
Delta T (Degrees Celcius)
27.3
Water circulation rate (kg/h)
66676.3

81

Sketch

DATE

BY

APVD

R-106: Plug Flow Reactor 2


Project No. 1
SHEET 1 of 1
REV

DATE

BY

01/11/15

EAM

APVD

REV

ALL

REACTOR

MFS

ITEM NUMBER
R-106
TYPE
Plug Flow Reactor
MEASUREMENT SYSTEM
Metric System
OPERATING CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
400
Temperature (deg C)
80
DESIGN CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
572.3214286
Temperature (deg C)
93.33333333
Minimum Pressure (kPa)
0
Minimum Metal Temperature (deg C)
-14.7
SPECIFICATION OF REACTOR VESSEL
Reactor Volume (m3)
25.02
Reactor Length (m)
10
Tube Diameter (m)
0.1785
CATALYST BED CHARACTERISTIC
Void Fraction
0.7
Void Volume (m3)
17.51
Volume of Catalyst Bed (m3)
7.51
Particle Diameter (m)
0.00002
Catalyst Name
Zeolite
Mass of Catalyst (g)
2.65854
SHELL AND TUBING LAYOUT
Square Pitch Size (mm)
100
Baffle Spacing (m)
0.247215489
Material
Carbon Steel
Tube Number
100
TUBE I.D. (in)
7.187
TUBE O.D. (in)
8.625
Nominal Pipe Size (in)
8
Schedule No.
120
Wall Thickness (in)
0.719
Cross Sectional Area (in2)
17.86
HEAT EXCHANGER SPECIFICATION
Heat transfer coefficient (W/m2K)
6172.20338
Shell Diameter (m)
1.236077446
Cross Sectional Area of Shell Side (m2)
0.030557749
Heat Evolved in the reaction (kW)
5154
Delta T (Degrees Celcius)
27.28
Water circulation rate (kg/h)
162558.9454

Sketch

82

DATE

BY

APVD

R-102: Oxidation Tower 1


Project No. 1
SHEET 1 of 1
REV

DATE

BY

01/11/15

EAM

APVD

REV

DATE

BY

ALL

REACTOR

MFS

ITEM NUMBER
R-102
TYPE
Oxidation Tower
VESSEL TYPE
Atmospheric Vessel
MEASUREMENT SYSTEM
Metric System
OPERATING CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
100
Temperature (deg C)
44.85
DESIGN CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
446
Temperature (deg C)
93
Minimum Pressure (kPa)
0
Minimum Metal Temperature (deg C)
15 ~ 20
METALLURGY
Material of Construction
Carbon steel
Joint Efficiency
0.85
Maximum Allowable Stress (Mpa)
88.942
Corrosion Allowance (mm)
3.8
SPECIFICATION FOR CONSTRUCTION
Geometry
Cylindrical
Position
Vertical
Support/Foundation
Concrete
Outage Allowance (mm)
500
Innage Allowance (mm)
500
Inside Diameter (m)
4
Outside Diameter (m)
4.014
Minimum Thickness (mm)
7
T/T Height (m)
12
Height of fluid (m)
9
Closure/Head
2:1 ellipsoidal
Minimum Thickness for Closure (mm)
12
CATALYST SPECIFICATIONS
Name
CuO Nanoparticle
Density (kg/m3)
790
Diameter (m)
1.40E-07
Amount (Kg)
198.55
REACTOR MAIN SPECIFICATIONS
Void Fraction of Bed
0.8
Bed Height (m)
0.1
Bed Volume (m3)
1.26
Bubble Size (cm)
2.44E-05
Type of Plate
Porous

SKETCH

COOLING SYSTEM
Type
Duty (kW)
Cooling water (kg/h)

83

Cooling Coil
526.7
16350

APVD

R-103: Oxidation Tower 2


Project No. 1
SHEET 1 of 1
REV

DATE

BY

01/11/15

EAM

APVD

REV

DATE

BY

ALL

REACTOR

MFS

ITEM NUMBER
R-103
TYPE
Oxidation Tower
VESSEL TYPE
Atmospheric Vessel
MEASUREMENT SYSTEM
Metric System
OPERATING CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
99
Temperature (deg C)
45
DESIGN CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
445.97
Temperature (deg C)
93.33
Minimum Pressure (kPa)
0
Minimum Metal Temperature (deg C)
15 ~ 20
METALLURGY
Material of Construction
Carbon steel
Joint Efficiency
0.85
Maximum Allowable Stress (Mpa)
88.94
Corrosion Allowance (mm)
3.8
SPECIFICATION FOR CONSTRUCTION
Geometry
Cylindrical
Position
Vertical
Support/Foundation
Concrete
Outage Allowance (mm)
500
Innage Allowance (mm)
500
Inside Diameter (m)
4
Outside Diameter (m)
4.014
Minimum Thickness (mm)
7
T/T Height (m)
12
Height of fluid (m)
8
Closure/Head
2:1 ellipsoidal
Minimum Thickness for Closure (mm)
12
CATALYST SPECIFICATIONS
Name
CuO Nanoparticle
Density (kg/m3)
790
Diameter (m)
1.40E-07
Amount (Kg)
198.55
REACTOR MAIN SPECIFICATIONS
Void Fraction of Bed
0.8
Bed Height (m)
0.1
Bed Volume (m3)
1.26
Bubble Size (cm)
2.42E-05
Type of Plate
Porous

SKETCH

COOLING SYSTEM
Type
Duty (kW)
Cooling water (kg/h)

84

Cooling Coil
528.4
16400

APVD

R-104: Oxidation Tower 3


Project No. 1
SHEET 1 of 1
REV

DATE

BY

01/11/15

EAM

APVD

REV

DATE

BY

ALL

REACTOR

MFS

ITEM NUMBER
R-104
TYPE
Oxidation Tower
VESSEL TYPE
Atmospheric Vessel
MEASUREMENT SYSTEM
Metric System
OPERATING CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
98
Temperature (deg C)
45
DESIGN CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
445.9678571
Temperature (deg C)
93.33333333
Minimum Pressure (kPa)
0
Minimum Metal Temperature (deg C)
15 ~ 20
METALLURGY
Material of Construction
Carbon steel
Joint Efficiency
0.85
Maximum Allowable Stress (Mpa)
88.94
Corrosion Allowance (mm)
3.8
SPECIFICATION FOR CONSTRUCTION
Geometry
Cylindrical
Position
Vertical
Support/Foundation
Concrete
Outage Allowance (mm)
500
Innage Allowance (mm)
500
Inside Diameter (m)
4
Outside Diameter (m)
4.014
Minimum Thickness (mm)
7
T/T Height (m)
12
Height of fluid (m)
7
Closure/Head
2:1 ellipsoidal
Minimum Thickness for Closure (mm)
12
CATALYST SPECIFICATIONS
Name
CuO Nanoparticle
Density (kg/m3)
790
Diameter (m)
1.40E-07
Amount (Kg)
198.55
REACTOR MAIN SPECIFICATIONS
Void Fraction of Bed
0.8
Bed Height (m)
0.1
Bed Volume (m3)
1.26
Bubble Size (cm)
2.30E-05
Type of Plate
Porous

SKETCH

COOLING SYSTEM
Type
Duty (kW)
Cooling water (kg/h)

85

Cooling Coil
515.9
16011.28

APVD

R-105: Oxidation Tower 4


Project No. 1
SHEET 1 of 1
REV

DATE

BY

01/11/15

EAM

APVD

REV

DATE

BY

ALL

REACTOR

MFS

ITEM NUMBER
R-105
TYPE
Oxidation Tower
VESSEL TYPE
Atmospheric Vessel
MEASUREMENT SYSTEM
Metric System
OPERATING CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
97.2
Temperature (deg C)
44.85
DESIGN CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
445.9678571
Temperature (deg C)
93.33333333
Minimum Pressure (kPa)
0
Minimum Metal Temperature (deg C)
15 ~ 20
METALLURGY
Material of Construction
Carbon steel
Joint Efficiency
0.85
Maximum Allowable Stress (Mpa)
88.94236908
Corrosion Allowance (mm)
3.8
SPECIFICATION FOR CONSTRUCTION
Geometry
Cylindrical
Position
Vertical
Support/Foundation
Concrete
Outage Allowance (mm)
500
Innage Allowance (mm)
500
Inside Diameter (m)
4
Outside Diameter (m)
4.014
Minimum Thickness (mm)
7
T/T Height (m)
12
Height of fluid (m)
7
Closure/Head
2:1 ellipsoidal
Minimum Thickness for Closure (mm)
12
CATALYST SPECIFICATIONS
Name
CuO Nanoparticle
Density (kg/m3)
790
Diameter (m)
1.40E-07
Amount (Kg)
198.5486557
REACTOR MAIN SPECIFICATIONS
Void Fraction of Bed
0.8
Bed Height (m)
0.1
Bed Volume (m3)
1.256637061
Bubble Size (cm)
2.27E-05
Type of Plate
Porous

SKETCH

COOLING SYSTEM
Type
Duty (kW)
Cooling water (kg/h)

86

Cooling Coil
428.8
13310.26

APVD

Distillation Columns Specification Sheets


See Appendix D for calculation sheets
D-101: Distillation Tower 1
Project No. 1
SHEET 1 of 1
REV

DATE

BY

01/11/15

EAM

APVD

REV

DATE

BY

ALL

DISTILLATION COLUMN

MFS
2

ITEM NUMBER
D-101
TYPE
Pressure Vessel
MEASUREMENT SYSTEM
Metric System
SECTION
Rectifying
Stripping
OPERATING CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
106
109.7
Temperature (deg C)
80.17
155.4
DESIGN CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
446
446
Temperature (deg C)
121
183
Minimum Pressure (kPa)
0
0
Minimum Metal Temperature (deg C)
15 to 20
15 to 20
MAIN SPECIFICATIONS
No. of Trays
11
16
Internal Diameter (m)
12
10
Height (m)
9.9
14.4
Tray Spacing (m)
0.9
0.9
Tray Type
Sieve
Construction type
Cartridge-type
Packing type
Structured
Feed tray number
11
Side Stream Plate #
N/A
SPECIFICATION FOR CONSTRUCTION
Material
Carbon Steel
Support/Foundation
Concrete
Orientation
Vertical
Minimum Thickness (mm)
36
30
Outside Diameter (mm)
12.1
10.1
Type of Closure
2:1 Ellipsoidal
Minimum Thickness for Closure (mm)
36
30
Total Height of the Column (m)
31.80

01/21/15

EAM

SKETCH
12.1 m

13 m

31.8 m

18.8 m
10.1 m

87

APVD

PLATE LAYOUT FOR RECTIFYING SECTION

50 mm

30 mm
25 mm

12 m

10.08 m

50 mm

PLATE LAYOUT FOR STRIPPING SECTION

50 mm

40 mm
35 mm

10 m

7.6 m

50 mm

D-102: Distillation Tower 2


Project No. 1
SHEET 1 of 1
REV

DATE

BY

01/11/15

EAM

APVD

REV

DATE

BY

ALL

DISTILLATION COLUMN

MFS

ITEM NUMBER
D-102
TYPE
Pressure Vessel
MEASUREMENT SYSTEM
Metric System
SECTION
Rectifying
Stripping
OPERATING CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
376.2
379.7
Temperature (deg C)
127.4
211.4
DESIGN CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
549
552
Temperature (deg C)
155
239
Minimum Pressure (kPa)
0
0
Minimum Metal Temperature (deg C)
15 to 20
15 to 20
MAIN SPECIFICATIONS
No. of Trays
10
12
Internal Diameter (m)
0.7
1.4
Height (m)
6.6
9.6
Tray Spacing (m)
0.6
0.6
Tray Type
Sieve
Construction type
Cartridge-type
Packing type
Structured
Feed tray number
10
Side Stream Plate #
N/A
SPECIFICATION FOR CONSTRUCTION
Material
Carbon Steel
Support/Foundation
Concrete
Orientation
Vertical
Minimum Thickness (mm)
3
6
Outside Diameter (m)
0.8
1.5
Type of Closure
2:1 Ellipsoidal
Minimum Thickness for Closure (mm)
3
6
Total Height of the Column (m)
21.20

SKETCH
0.7 m

8.70 m

21.20 m
12.60 m

1.4 m

88

APVD

PLATE LAYOUT FOR RECTIFYING SECTION

50 mm

50 mm
40 mm

0.7 m

0.5915 m

50 mm

PLATE LAYOUT FOR STRIPPING SECTION

50 mm

50 mm
40 mm

1.4 m

1.204 m

50 mm

89

D-103: Distillation Tower 3


Project No. 1
SHEET 1 of 1
REV

DATE

BY

01/11/15

EAM

APVD

REV

DATE

BY

ALL

DISTILLATION COLUMN

MFS

SKETCH
2.9 m

6.5 m

ITEM NUMBER
D-103
TYPE
Pressure Vessel
MEASUREMENT SYSTEM
Metric System
SECTION
Rectifying
Stripping
OPERATING CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
105.5
369.7
Temperature (deg C)
153.4
235.5
DESIGN CONDITIONS
Pressure (kPa)
446
542
Temperature (deg C)
181
263
Minimum Pressure (kPa)
0
0
Minimum Metal Temperature (deg C)
15 to 20
15 to 20
MAIN SPECIFICATIONS
No. of Trays
21
34
Internal Diameter (m)
2.9
1.8
Height (m)
4.95
9.6
Tray Spacing (m)
0.45
0.6
Tray Type
Sieve
Construction type
Cartridge-type
Packing type
Structured
Feed tray number
21
Side Stream Plate #
N/A
SPECIFICATION FOR CONSTRUCTION
Material
Carbon Steel
Support/Foundation
Concrete
Orientation
Vertical
Minimum Thickness (mm)
9
7
Outside Diameter (mm)
3
1.9
Type of Closure
2:1 Ellipsoidal
Minimum Thickness for Closure (mm)
9
7
Total Height of the Column (m)
19.00
PLATE LAYOUT FOR RECTIFYING SECTION

19 m

12.5 m

50 mm

33 mm
25 mm

2.9 m

2.4505

50 mm

PLATE LAYOUT FOR STRIPPING SECTION

50 mm

38 mm
30 mm

1.8 m

1.53 m

50 mm

90

1.8 m

APVD

Heat Exchangers Specification Sheets


Aspen Exchanger Design & Rating V.8.0 (Aspen EDR) software was used in obtaining
appropriate, accurate, and acceptable sizing and specifications of heat exchangers of the
manufacturing plant. The major design program used in Aspen EDR was the Aspen Shell
& Tube Exchanger. Using this program, the following can be generated:

Heat Exchanger Specification Sheet

Tube Layout

Drawing or diagrams

Cost Estimate

91

HE-101: Feed Heater

92

93

HE-103: D-101 Condenser

94

95

HE-104: D-101 Reboiler

96

97

HE-105: Cooler 1

98

99

HE-107: D-102 Condenser

100

101

HE-108: D-102 Reboiler

102

103

HE-109: D-103 Condenser

104

105

HE-110: D-103 Reboiler

106

107

HE-111: Product Cooler 1

108

109

HE-112: Product Cooler 2

110

111

Pipes Specification Sheets

112

113

114

115

116

117

118

119

120

121

122

123

124

125

126

127

128

129

130

131

132

133

Pumps Specification Sheets


P-101

P-102

P-103

134

P-104

P-105

135

P-106

P-107

136

P-108

P-109

137

P-110

138

Compressor Specification Sheet

139

Economic Analysis

Before the initiation of the development of the process, at various stages in its
development, process engineers must make economic evaluation. The discussion in this
chapter determines whether the project should be undertaken or abandoned. The objective
for this analysis is to have a class 4 to 3 estimate of the capital requirement as well as the
production cost of the plant. The overall economic analysis of the plant will depend on the
capital requirement and production cost of the product.

Method for Capital Requirement Estimation


This section includes the components of calculating the fixed capital investment
which is the total cost of designing, constructing, and installing a plant. Table 48 shows the
composition of the fixed capital investment of the plant.

140

Table 48
Fixed capital investment of the plant
ISBL CAPEX

1. MAJOR PROCESS EQUIPMENTS


i. Storage Tanks
ii. Distillation Columns
iii. Reactors
iv. Heat Exchangers
v. Compressors
vi. Pumps
vii. Pipes
2. Building Cost
3. Trucks and other electric equipment
OSBL CAPEX
UTILITIES
i. Cooling Tower
ii. Boiler
iii. Furnace
iv. Scrubber
v. Biological Waste Water Treatment Plant
CONTINGENCY
COMMISSIONING COST
MINIMUM PAID UP CAPITAL REQUIRMENT ON BANKS
EIA PROCESSING FEE

Estimating the ISBL and OSBL capital costs. The ISBL plant cost includes the
cost of procuring and installing all the process equipment that makes up the new plant.
Included in the previous chapter are the design and specifications of the major process
equipment of the plant. Table 49 consists of the correlations to be used in estimating the
cost of the equipment of the plant.

141

Table 49
Purchase Equipment Cost for Common Plant Equipment

Unit for
EQUIPMENT
Size, S
Tanks
Cone Roof
10
4000
, 3
Pressure Vessels
shell mass,
vertical, cs
150
69200
kg
shell mass,
Horizontal, cs
250
69200
kg
Distillation Columns
Trays
Sieve trays
diameter, m
0.5
5
Reactors
Jacketed, agitated
0.5
100
, 3
jacketed, agitated, glass0.5
25
, 3
lined
Heat Exchanger
U-tube shell and tube
10
1000
, 2
Compressor
driver power,
Centrifugal
132
29000
kW
Pumps
flow Liters/s
Single-stage centrifugal
0.2
500
(L/s)
Utilities
Cooling Tower
flow Liters/s
100
10000
Boiler

kg/h steam

20000

800000

30

200

Furnace
duty, MW
Source: Towler and Sinnott, 2008

5700

700

0.7

-400

230

0.6

-2500

200

0.6

100

120

14000

15400

0.7

13000

34000

0.5

10000

88

8400

3100

0.6

3300

48

1.2

61000
90000
7000

650

0.9

93

0.8

71000

0.8

Equation 8 was used to obtain the purchase cost of the equipment. Given the
parameters, if the value of S is not within the range or limit given in the table, the actual
cost of the equipment can be derived from the computed cost using equation 9.
= +
=
=
=
142

(8)

=
,

,
= , (
)
,

(9)

For the cost of pipes, equation 10 may apply. The cost should already include the
cost for fittings, paint, installation, and insulation. The basis for the correlation is January
2006.
($) = ( , ).

(10)

For pressure vessels, shell mass is needed in estimating the purchase cost based on
Table 49. Equation 11 should be used in obtaining the shell mass of a pressure vessel.
Density of carbon steel is 7900 3 .
=

(11)

= ,
= ,
= ,
= , 3
The basis of this cost estimation is on the year 2006. Note that the prices of the
materials of construction and the costs of labor are subject to inflation. Through the use of
published cost indices, the cost of the equipment can be obtained at any latest year. The
following equations can be applied to consider the inflation of the cost.
=

(12)

2006 = 499.6 ( )
2015 = 609.065 ( )
= .

143

(13)

Most plant and equipment cost data used which came from Towler were based on
the location U.S. Golf Coast (USGC), as it was historically the main center of the chemical
industry, for which most data were available. The differences in cost between locations can
be estimated using the following equation.
=

(14)

=
= 1.12
In costing, it is also very important to consider the installation cost of the
equipment. Table 50 consists of the detailed typical factors for estimation of fixed capital
costs. These can be used to make an approximate estimate of capital cost using equipment
cost data published in the literature.

Table 50
Typical Installation Factor for Project Fixed Capital Cost
fer
fp
fi
fel
fc
fs
fl
fm
Source: Towler and Sinnott, 2008

144

0.3
0.8
0.3
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.1
1.3

Equation 15 is used to determine the final cost of the equipment including the
installation cost.
=

= ,, [( + ) +
=

+ + + + +
]

(15)

= ,
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
= , ,
=

Other cost factor that needs to be considered was the freight rate/cost. It is the cost
incurred in moving the goods from USGC to Philippines through marine transportation.
This includes packing, palletizing, documentation, loading, unloading charges, carriage
costs, and marine insurance costs. For freight rate estimates, worldfreightrates.com offers
a reliable calculator to get it. Origin port should be a USGC port such as New Orleans and
the Destination port should be Subic Bay, Philippines.
For imported goods, the Bureau of Customs imposes duties and taxes for
importation. The duties and taxes includes the Value Added Tax (VAT), Import Processing
Fee (IPF), and Customs Documentary Stamp imposed by the agency. The agency have
their own useful and reliable calculator (Customs PH, 2015).
Contingency and commissioning cost. The typical percentage of, or the norm
for commissioning services for, a chemical plant process was estimated at 3.5% of the total

145

capital investment (Killcross, 2012). For the contingency cost, typically the factor was 10%
of the total capital investment (Towler & Sinnott, 2008).

Method for Production Cost Estimation


In evaluating the financial attractiveness of a process, management requires the
details of both the total capital requirements and the production cost of producing a product.
The total production cost of the plant is subdivided into three main categories:
Direct costs. Known also as variable cost, tend to be proportional to the production
rate.
Indirect costs. Composed of fixed cost and plant overhead cost, tend to remain constant
regardless of the production rate.
General costs. It includes the costs of managing the firm, marketing the product,
research and development on new and old products, and financing the operation.
Table 51 shows the equations for calculating the components of production cost of a
particular chemical plant using numerical factors. Note that these factors were used for
approximation. For a good estimation of the production, they are very useful and reliable.
Most companies will have their own specific factors for their processes later in the
operational stage of their business. Equation 16 is used to obtain the production cost of the
plant.
= + + (16)

146

Table 51
Calculation Procedure for Production Cost
DIRECT COST
RAW MATERIALS

CATALYSTS

UTILITIES:
ELECTRICITY
FUEL
WATER
COMMUNICATION
BIOLOGICAL WWTP [2]





$0.20

OPERATING LABOR

+ +

TRANSPORTATION COST

OPERATING SUPERVISION [1]

0.20

QUALITY CONTROL [1]

0.20

MAINTENANCE LABOR [1]

0.027

MAINTENANCE MATERIAL [1]

0.018

OPERATING SUPPLIES [1]

0.0075

INDIRECT COST
FIXED CAPITAL COST:
DEPRECIATION [2]
LAND COST

REAL PROPERTY TAX


INSURANCE [1]

0.01
GENERAL COST

ADMINISTRATIVE [1]

0.045

MARKETING [1]

0.135

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT [1]

0.0575

[1] Silla, 2003


[2] Brown, 2006

147

Operational time of the plant was estimated to be 350 days per year. The total days
per year is 365 days, so there will be a 15 days no work day for employees. These 15 days
will be allotted to the maintenance of the plant.
Continuous processes were designed to operate 24 hours a day, 7 days a week,
throughout the year. Some downtime will be allowed for maintenance and, for some
processes, catalyst regeneration. Continuous processes will usually be more economical
for large-scale production. The plant attainment or operating rate is the percentage of the
available hours in a year that the plant operates, and is usually between 90 and 95% (Towler
& Sinnott, 2008).

148

Cost of Major Process Equipment


Cost of Atmospheric Vessels:
Table 52
Purchase Cost of Atmospheric Vessels
NUMBER
V-102
V-105
V-106
V-107
V-108
V-110
V-111
V-112

Capacity (m3)
882.6555446
414.832
59.2617
354.32645
159.5609
8.221475
18.13027
161.0571

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$

Cost
86,451.75
53,300.18
17,891.02
48,326.59
30,086.34
8,758.88
11,020.85
30,246.18

Quantity
6
3
3
1
1
1
1
1

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$

Final
518,710.47
159,900.55
53,673.05
48,326.59
30,086.34
8,758.88
11,020.85
30,246.18

Table 53
Final Cost of Atmosphere Vessel
Cost (2006)
Cost (2015)
Cost (2015 @ SE Asia)

$
$
$

860,722.91
1,049,221.22
1,175,127.77

3,760,408.86

$
Freight Cost

Bureau of Customs: Duties and Taxes


Value Added Tax (VAT)

Import Processing Fee

Customs Documentary Stamp

TOTAL COST

169,218,398.55
2,991.65
134,624.25

Cost of Equipment (w/ Installation factor consideration)

149

4,462,850.14
51,643.37
265.00
173,867,781.32

Cost of Pressure Vessels:


Table 54
Shell Mass of Pressure Vessels
Number

(m)

()

V-101
V-103
V-104
V-109
V-113

7.2
5.4
2.9
0.9
7.2

21.6
16.2
8.7
2.7
21.6

(m)

( 3 )

SHELL MASS (kg)

7900
7900
7900
7900
7900

181409.9357
52107.1092
9392.592344
241.2366167
73335.93147

0.047
0.024
0.015
0.004
0.019

Table 55
Purchase Cost of Pressure Vessels
Number
V-101
V-103
V-104
V-109
V-113

$
$
$
$
$

COST
184,012.98
155,148.57
55,241.54
5,782.92
190,549.24

ADJUSTED COST
$
328,081.28
-

Quantity
6
3
3
1
4

FINAL
$ 1,968,487.68
$ 465,445.71
$ 165,724.61
$
5,782.92
$ 762,196.94

Table 56
Final Cost of Pressure Vessels
Cost (2006)

3,367,637.87

Cost (2015)
Cost (2015 @ SE Asia)

$
$

4,105,150.56
4,597,768.63

Cost of Equipment (w/ Location and Installation factor


consideration)

14,712,859.60

$
Freight Cost

Bureau of Customs: Duties and Taxes


Value Added Tax (VAT)

Import Processing Fee

Customs Documentary Stamp

TOTAL COST

150

662,078,682.01
2,991.65
134,624.25
12,401,086.40
156,326.46
265.00
674,770,984.12

Cost of Distillation Columns:


Table 57
Purchase Cost of Trays for Distillation Columns
NUMBER
D-101-T

Dc (m)
12

# of trays
11

Cost per tray


$
3,100.00

Adjusted
$ 17,856.00

FINAL COST
$
196,416.00

D-101-B

10

16

3,100.00

198,400.00

D-102-T
D-102-B

0.7
1.4

10
12

$
$

158.80
335.20

$
$

1,588.00
4,022.40

D-103-T
D-103-B

2.9
1.8

21
34

$
$

1,109.20
488.80

$
$

23,293.20
16,619.20

12,400.00

Table 58
Shell mass of Distillation Columns
Number

(m)

()

(m)

( 3 )

SHELL MASS
(kg)

D-101
Top
Bot

12
10

9.9
14.4

0.036
0.03

7900
7900

106144.1113
107216.2741

D-102
Top
Bot

0.7
1.4

6.6
9.6

0.003
0.006

7900
7900

343.985546
2001.37045

D-103
Top
Bot

2.9
1.8

4.95
9.6

0.009
0.007

7900
7900

3206.436697
3002.055674

151

Table 59
Purchase Cost of Pressure Vessels for Distillation Columns
Need
Adjustment?

COST

ADJUSTED
COST

Quantity

FINAL

D-101
Top
Bot

Yes
Yes

$ 184,012.98
$ 184,012.98

$ 237,860.51
$ 239,299.19

1
1

$ 237,860.51
$ 239,299.19

D-102
Top
Bot

No
No

$ 7,249.83
$ 21,605.15

1
1

$ 7,249.83
$ 21,605.15

D-103
Top
Bot

No
No

$ 28,797.22
$ 27,665.91

1
1

$ 28,797.22
$ 27,665.91

Number

Table 60
Final Cost of Distillation Columns
Cost (2006)
Cost (2015)
Cost (2015 @ SE Asia)

$
$
$

1,002,816.61
1,222,433.45
1,369,125.46

Cost of Equipment (w/ Location and Installation factor


consideration)

4,381,201.49

$
Freight Cost

Bureau of Customs: Duties and Taxes


Value Added Tax (VAT)

Import Processing Fee

Customs Documentary Stamp

TOTAL COST

152

197,154,066.89
2,991.65
134,624.25
5,339,213.90
60,169.00
265.00
202,688,339.04

Cost of Reactors:
Table 61
Purchase Cost of Fluidized Bed Reactors
NUMBER

Volume (m3)

Need Adjustment

R-102
R-103
R-104
R-105

101.112
98.17203297
86.6518991
84.21924804

Yes
No
No
No

Cost
$
$
$
$

Adjusted Cost

400,830.51
395,867.04
363,917.27
357,011.49

$
$
$
$

403,945.40
395,867.04
363,917.27
357,011.49

Table 62
Purchase Cost of Packed Bed Reactors
NUMBER

Volume (m3)

Need Adjustment

Cost

Adjusted Cost

R-101
R-106

113.3
25.02

Yes
No

$ 400,830.51
$ 160,663.43

$ 437,443.24
$ 160,663.43

Table 63
Final Cost of Reactors
Cost (2006)
Cost (2015)
Cost (2015 @ SE Asia)
Cost of Equipment (w/ Location and Installation factor
consideration)
Freight Cost

$
$
$
$

2,118,847.87
2,582,875.55
2,892,820.61
9,257,025.97
416,566,168.43
2,991.65
134,624.25

Bureau of Customs: Duties and Taxes


Value Added Tax (VAT)

11,263,464.96
Import Processing Fee

127,130.87
Customs Documentary Stamp

265.00
TOTAL COST

428,091,653.51

153

Cost of Heat Exchangers:


Table 64
Cost of Heat Exchangers generated from Aspen Hysys V8.0
NUMBER
HE-101
HE-103
HE-104
HE-105
HE-107
HE-108
HE-109
HE-110
HE-111
HE-112

Cost
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$

56,088.00
214,234.00
260,661.00
16,750.00
10,626.00
14,577.00
401,970.00
38,004.00
58,110.00
15,415.00

Table 65
Final Cost of Heat Exchangers
Equipment Cost

$
1,216,807.20
$
1,362,824.06
Cost (2015 @ SE Asia)

61,327,082.88
$
3,257.58
Freight Cost

146,591.10
Bureau of Customs: Duties and Taxes
Value Added Tax (VAT)

5,784,498.72
Import Processing Fee

65,186.10
Customs Documentary Stamp

265.00
TOTAL COST

67,323,623.80

154

Cost of Pipes:
Table 66
Purchase Cost of Pipes
Pipes
PIPE-100
PIPE-101
PIPE-102
PIPE-103
PIPE-104
PIPE-105
PIPE-106
PIPE-107
PIPE-108
PIPE-109
PIPE-110
PIPE-111
PIPE-112
PIPE-113
PIPE-114
PIPE-115
PIPE-116
PIPE-117
PIPE-118
PIPE-119
PIPE-106
PIPE-107
PIPE-108
PIPE-109
PIPE-110
PIPE-111
PIPE-113
PIPE-112
PIPE-114
PIPE-115
PIPE-116
PIPE-117
PIPE-118
PIPE-119
PIPE-120
PIPE-121
PIPE-121-10
PIPE-121-2

Di (mm)
26.64
26.64
26.64
26.64
26.64
26.64
26.64
26.64
26.64
26.64
26.64
26.64
26.64
26.64
26.64
26.64
26.64
26.64
26.64
52.5
102.3
102.3
102.3
254.5
77.93
77.93
40.89
77.93
52.5
52.5
52.5
52.5
40.89
40.89
40.89
26.64
26.64
26.64

L (m)
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
12
12
12
12
12
12
8
8
5
2
2
11
10
30
3
1
5
5
5
5
5
3
50
5
5
5

Cost per length (m)


$
9,985.69
$
9,985.69
$
9,985.69
$
9,985.69
$
9,985.69
$
9,985.69
$
9,985.69
$
9,985.69
$
9,985.69
$
9,985.69
$
9,985.69
$
9,985.69
$
9,985.69
$
9,985.69
$
9,985.69
$
9,985.69
$
9,985.69
$
9,985.69
$
9,985.69
$
16,496.83
$
27,026.55
$
27,026.55
$
27,026.55
$
53,050.76
$
22,097.55
$
22,097.55
$
13,711.32
$
22,097.55
$
16,496.83
$
16,496.83
$
16,496.83
$
16,496.83
$
13,711.32
$
13,711.32
$
13,711.32
$
9,985.69
$
9,985.69
$
9,985.69

155

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$

Final cost
24,964.22
24,964.22
24,964.22
24,964.22
24,964.22
24,964.22
24,964.22
24,964.22
24,964.22
24,964.22
24,964.22
24,964.22
119,828.26
119,828.26
119,828.26
119,828.26
119,828.26
119,828.26
79,885.50
131,974.66
135,132.76
54,053.10
54,053.10
583,558.39
220,975.50
662,926.51
41,133.97
22,097.55
82,484.16
82,484.16
82,484.16
82,484.16
68,556.61
41,133.97
685,566.11
49,928.44
49,928.44
49,928.44

PIPE-121-3
PIPE-121-4
PIPE-121-5
PIPE-121-6
PIPE-121-7
PIPE-121-8
PIPE-121-9
PIPE-122
PIPE-123
PIPE-123-10
PIPE-123-2
PIPE-123-3
PIPE-123-4
PIPE-123-5
PIPE-123-6
PIPE-123-7
PIPE-123-8
PIPE-123-9

26.64
26.64
26.64
26.64
26.64
26.64
26.64
40.89
26.64
26.64
26.64
26.64
26.64
26.64
26.64
26.64
26.64
26.64

5
5
5
5
5
5
5
50
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$

9,985.69
9,985.69
9,985.69
9,985.69
9,985.69
9,985.69
9,985.69
13,711.32
9,985.69
9,985.69
9,985.69
9,985.69
9,985.69
9,985.69
9,985.69
9,985.69
9,985.69
9,985.69

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$

49,928.44
49,928.44
49,928.44
49,928.44
49,928.44
49,928.44
49,928.44
685,566.11
49,928.44
49,928.44
49,928.44
49,928.44
49,928.44
49,928.44
49,928.44
49,928.44
49,928.44
49,928.44

Table 67
Final Cost of Pipe
Cost (2006)
Cost (2015)
Cost (2015 @ SE Asia)

$
$
$
$
Cost of Equipment (w/ Location and Installation factor
consideration)

$
Freight Cost

Bureau of Customs: Duties and Taxes


Value Added Tax (VAT)

Import Processing Fee

Customs Documentary Stamp

TOTAL COST

156

4,442,527.26
5,415,440.73
6,065,293.62
19,408,939.59
873,402,281.57
2,911.65
131,024.25
27,552,554.09
266,551.64
265.00
901,352,676.54

Cost of Pumps:
Table 68
Purchase Cost of Pumps
Number
P-101
P-102
P-103
P-104
P-105
P-106
P-107
P-108
P-109
P-110

Flow rate (m3/h)


6.619
14.33
1245
22.98
22.78
21.99
21.29
20.73
361.3
5633

Flow rate (L/s)


1.838611111
3.980555556
345.8333333
6.383333333
6.327777778
6.108333333
5.913888889
5.758333333
100.3611111
1564.722222

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$

Cost
3,399.68
3,551.87
56,741.85
3,743.91
3,739.28
3,721.06
3,705.03
3,692.28
15,409.32
330,313.69

Table 69
Final Cost of Pumps
Cost (2006)
Cost (2015)
Cost (2015 @ SE Asia)

$
$
$

428,017.99
521,753.92
584,364.40

Cost of Equipment (w/ Location and Installation factor


consideration)

1,869,966.07

Freight Cost

84,148,472.96
3,257.58
146,591.10

Bureau of Customs: Duties and Taxes


Value Added Tax (VAT)

1,583,017.47
Import Processing Fee

25,681.08
Customs Documentary Stamp

265.00
TOTAL COST

85,904,027.61

157

Cost of Compressor:
Table 70
Purchase Cost of Compressor
NUMBER
K-100

Driver Power (kW)


1.80E+02

Need Adjustment
No

Cost
78,319.38

Table 71
Final Cost of Compressor
Cost (2006)
Cost (2015)
Cost (2015 @ SE Asia)

$
$
$

78,319.38
95,471.32
106,927.88

Cost of Equipment (w/ Location and Installation factor


consideration)

342,169.23

15,397,615.19
3,257.58
146,591.10

Freight Cost
Bureau of Customs: Duties and Taxes
Value Added Tax (VAT)

Import Processing Fee


Customs Documentary Stamp
TOTAL COST

158

433,098.41

4,699.16

265.00
15,982,268.86

Cost of OSBL Equipment


Cost of Boiler:
Table 72
Purchase Cost of Boiler
kg/h steam
360581.279

Cost
1,504,690.06

Table 73
Final Cost of Boiler
Cost (2006)
Cost (2015)
Cost (2015 @ SE Asia)

$
$
$

1,504,690.06
1,834,217.19
2,054,323.25

Cost of Equipment (w/ Location and Installation


factor consideration)

6,573,834.39

$
Freight Cost

Bureau of Customs: Duties and Taxes


Value Added Tax (VAT)

Import Processing Fee

Customs Documentary Stamp

TOTAL COST

159

295,822,547.73
2,882.82
129,726.90
13,266,225.67
90,281.40
265.00
309,309,046.70

Cost of Furnace:
Table 74
Purchase Cost of Furnace
duty, MW
174.1

Cost
3,411,507.62

Table 75
Final Cost of Furnace
Cost (2006)
Cost (2015)
Cost (2015 @ SE Asia)

$
$
$

3,411,507.62
4,158,627.79
4,657,663.12

Cost of Equipment (w/ Location and


Installation factor consideration)

14,904,521.99

$
Freight Cost

Bureau of Customs: Duties and Taxes


Value Added Tax (VAT)

Import Processing Fee

Customs Documentary Stamp

TOTAL COST

160

670,703,489.66
2,882.82
129,726.90
23,354,129.56
204,690.46
265.00
694,392,301.57

Cost of Scrubber:
Table 76
Purchase Cost of Scrubber
Gas Effluent

Total Purchase Cost of Equipment

m3/h

8399

ft3/h

296607.9

acfm

4943.465
$

15,150.29

$
$
$
$

15,150.29
18,468.20
20,684.38
66,190.02
2,978,551.01
2,882.82
129,726.90

Bureau of Customs: Duties and Taxes


Value Added Tax (VAT)

Import Processing Fee

Customs Documentary Stamp

TOTAL COST

95,464.89
909.02
265.00
3,204,916.81

Table 77
Final Cost of Scrubber
Cost (2006)
Cost (2015)
Cost (2015 @ SE Asia)
Cost of Equipment (w/ Location and Installation factor
consideration)
Freight Cost

161

Cost of Cooling Tower


Table 78
Purchase Cost of Cooling Tower
Flow rate (m3/h)

Flow rate (L/s)


5653.898758
1570.527433

Cost
$ 331,770.12

Table 79
Final Cost of Cooling Tower
Cost (2006)
Cost (2015)
Cost (2015 @ SE Asia)
Cost of Equipment (w/ Location and Installation factor
consideration)
Freight Cost

$
331,770.12
$
404,427.78
$
452,959.11
$ 1,449,469.15
65,226,111.81
$
2,911.65

131,024.25

Bureau of Customs: Duties and Taxes


Value Added Tax (VAT)
1,987,996.75
Import Processing Fee

19,906.21
Customs Documentary Stamp

265.00
TOTAL COST
67,365,304.01

162

Cost of Biological Waste Water Treatment:


Table 80
Existing Activated Sludge Waste Water Treatment Plant in the Philippines
Plant
Location
CAPEX
Capacity

Existing Wastewater Treatment Plant Facility


Toyota Motor Philippines
Toyota Special Economic Zone, Santa Rosa City, Laguna, 4026

140,000,000.00
840 cubic meters per day

Table 81
Capital Cost of WWTP of Phace Philippines Corporation
Location
Capacity
CAPEX

Hermosa, Bataan
71.95 cubic meters per day
32,046,377.41

163

Indirect Costs of the Plant


Depreciation cost. Double Declining Balance Method with switch over to Straight
Line method was used in obtaining the depreciation of the investments per year. The cost
basis which amounts to the sum of ISBL and OSBL Capex is 3,920,857,301.32 pesos. The
useful life of the plant is fifteen years. The constant percentage of depreciation for double
declining balance method can be obtain using equation 17, and for straight line using
equation 18. To obtain the book value at any year, equation 19 can be used.
=

, %

(17)

1 =
=

(18)

2 =
= ( )

(19)

Note that depreciation is an implicit and non-cash cost. It is an expired portion of


the cost of the asset due to usage or wear and tear. The reason it is non-cash expense for
the period is that because it is but an amortized cost of something already paid for in the
past. The value of 1 is 13.33% and 2 is 6.67%. Table 82 shows the depreciation schedule
of the plant.

164

Table 82
Depreciation schedule of the plant (values in Philippine Peso)
k
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

B
3920857301
3659466815
3398076328
3136685841
2875295354
2613904868
2352514381
2091123894
1829733407
1568342921
1306952434
1045561947
784171460
522780974
261390487

R
13%
13%
13%
13%
13%
13%
13%
13%
13%
13%
13%
13%
13%
13%
13%


522780974
487928909
453076844
418224779
383372714
348520649
313668584
278816519
243964454
209112389
174260325
139408260
104556195
69704130
34852065


261390487
261390487
261390487
261390487
261390487
261390487
261390487
261390487
261390487
261390487
261390487
261390487
261390487
261390487
261390487


522780974
487928909
453076844
418224779
383372714
348520649
348520649
348520649
348520649
348520649
348520649
348520649
348520649
348520649
348520649


522780974
1010709882
941005752
871301623
801597493
731893363
697041298
697041298
697041298
697041298
697041298
697041298
697041298
697041298
697041298

3659466815
3398076328
3136685841
2875295354
2613904868
2352514381
2091123894
1829733407
1568342921
1306952434
1045561947
784171460
522780974
261390487
0

Land cost. The manufacturing plant of Phace Philippines Corporation will be


constructed in Hermosa Ecozone Industrial Park (HEIP). Shown in Table 83 is the
summary of the description of the plant location. The Ecozone is 162-hectare industrial
estate component of a 478-hectare mixed-use property development in the province of
Bataan by the Hermosa Ecozone Development Corporation, of which Science Park of the
Philippines, Inc. (SPPI) is a shareholder and General Manager. The project is registered
Special Economic Zone (Ecozone) under the Philippine Economic Zone Authority
(PEZA). These are areas designated by the government for development into balanced
agricultural, industrial, commercial, and tourist/recreational regions.

165

Table 83
Land facts about Hermosa Ecozone Industrial Park (HEIP)
Total Area
162 hectares
Saleable Area
124 hectares
Common Area
38 hectares
Sold Area
18.9 hectares
Remaining Area for Sale
105.1 hectares
Source: Science Park of the Philippines, 2015

Each Ecozone is to be developed as an independent community with minimum


government interference. It shall administer its own economic, financial, industrial and
tourism development without help from the national government. It shall also provide
adequate facilities to establish linkages with surrounding communities and other entities
within the country. Lease rates for industrial land were averaged to $0.27 per sq. m per
month. Based on the Plot Plan of the company, the total land area is 33129 SQM or 3.3129
hectares. See appendix F for the plot plan of the plant. Table 84 shows the cost of land
lease per year.

166

Table 84
Cost of Land lease annually
Rate
Rate
Cost of lease
(monthly)
(monthly)
per month
(USD/SQM) (PhP/SQM)

Cost of lease
per year

YEAR

SQM

2015(construction)
2016(construction)
2017
2018
2019

33129
33129
33129
33129
33129

$
$
$
$
$

2020

33129

$ 0.27

12.15

402,517.35 4,830,208.20

2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031

33129
33129
33129
33129
33129
33129
33129
33129
33129
33129
33129

$ 0.27
$ 0.27
$ 0.27
$ 0.27
$ 0.27
$ 0.27
$ 0.27
$ 0.27
$ 0.27
$ 0.27
$ 0.27

0.27
0.27
0.27
0.27
0.27

12.15
12.15
12.15
12.15
12.15
12.15
12.15
12.15
12.15
12.15
12.15
12.15
12.15
12.15
12.15
12.15

402,517.35
402,517.35
402,517.35
402,517.35
402,517.35
402,517.35
402,517.35
402,517.35
402,517.35
402,517.35
402,517.35
402,517.35
402,517.35
402,517.35
402,517.35
402,517.35

4,830,208.20
4,830,208.20
4,830,208.20
4,830,208.20
4,830,208.20
4,830,208.20
4,830,208.20
4,830,208.20
4,830,208.20
4,830,208.20
4,830,208.20
4,830,208.20
4,830,208.20
4,830,208.20
4,830,208.20
4,830,208.20

Fixed capital cost. Fixed capital cost is a production cost that does not vary with
the production volume. In order to obtain this cost, refer to Table 51. Table 85 shows the
fixed capital cost of the plant per year.

167

Table 85
Fixed Capital Cost of the Plant
YEAR
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031

Depreciation
Cost
522,780,973.51
487,928,908.61
453,076,843.71
418,224,778.81
383,372,713.91
348,520,649.01
348,520,649.01
348,520,649.01
348,520,649.01
348,520,649.01
348,520,649.01
348,520,649.01
348,520,649.01
348,520,649.01
348,520,649.01

Land Rental
Cost
4,830,208.20
4,830,208.20
4,830,208.20
4,830,208.20
4,830,208.20
4,830,208.20
4,830,208.20
4,830,208.20
4,830,208.20
4,830,208.20
4,830,208.20
4,830,208.20
4,830,208.20
4,830,208.20
4,830,208.20

Fixed Capital
Cost
527,611,181.71
492,759,116.81
457,907,051.91
423,054,987.01
388,202,922.11
353,350,857.21
353,350,857.21
353,350,857.21
353,350,857.21
353,350,857.21
353,350,857.21
353,350,857.21
353,350,857.21
353,350,857.21
353,350,857.21

Insurance cost. Insurance is the equitable transfer of the risk of a loss, from one
entity to another in exchange for payment. Refer to Table 51 for the equation in obtaining
insurance cost. Table 86 shows the annual insurance cost of the company.

168

Table 86
Annual insurance cost of the company
Year
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031

Cost
5,487,173.82
5,124,582.37
4,761,990.92
4,399,399.47
4,036,808.02
3,674,216.57
3,674,216.57
3,674,216.57
3,674,216.57
3,674,216.57
3,674,216.57
3,674,216.57
3,674,216.57
3,674,216.57
3,674,216.57

Direct Costs of the Plant


Cost of the raw materials. The raw materials of the process are propylene and
benzene and they will be sourced mainly from Petron and JG Summit. Table 87 shows the
flow rate for each of the raw materials as required by the process and their indicative prices.

Table 87
Cost calculation basis for raw materials
FLOWRATE
Operational Time
kg/h
# of days
# of Hours
Propylene
3354
350
8400
Benzene
6248.800049
350
8400
Flowrates acquired from the Aspen Hysys Simulation
Source of Price: ICIS Indicative Prices

169

MTpY
28,173.60
52,489.92

PRICE
USD/MT
1014.13
1039.81

The inflation of the prices of the raw materials is approximated to 5%, as given
from the trend of prices of propylene and benzene from the report of Pandia entitled
Global Acetone-Phenol Markets in the year 2009. US Dollar to Philippines Peso
conversion is averaged to forty five. Given in Table 88 and Table 89 are the cost of
propylene and benzene annually.

Table 88
Annual cost of propylene
Year
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031

Turndown
Capacity
50%
65%
75%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%

MTpY
14,086.80
14,086.80
21,130.20
28,173.60
28,173.60
28,173.60
28,173.60
28,173.60
28,173.60
28,173.60
28,173.60
28,173.60
28,173.60
28,173.60
28,173.60

Price (per MT)


$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$

170

1,014.13
1,064.83
1,118.07
1,173.98
1,232.68
1,294.31
1,359.02
1,426.98
1,498.32
1,573.24
1,651.90
1,734.50
1,821.22
1,912.28
2,007.90

Cost

642,860,049.03
675,003,051.48
1,063,129,806.09
1,488,381,728.52
1,562,800,814.95
1,640,940,855.69
1,722,987,898.48
1,809,137,293.40
1,899,594,158.07
1,994,573,865.97
2,094,302,559.27
2,199,017,687.24
2,308,968,571.60
2,424,417,000.18
2,545,637,850.19

Table 89
Annual cost of benzene
Year
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031

Turndown
Capacity
50%
65%
75%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%

MTPY
26,244.96
26,244.96
39,367.44
52,489.92
52,489.92
52,489.92
52,489.92
52,489.92
52,489.92
52,489.92
52,489.92
52,489.92
52,489.92
52,489.92
52,489.92

Price (per MT)


$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$

1,039.81
1,091.80
1,146.39
1,203.71
1,263.90
1,327.09
1,393.44
1,463.12
1,536.27
1,613.09
1,693.74
1,778.43
1,867.35
1,960.72
2,058.75

Cost - Benzene

1,228,039,655.60
1,289,441,638.39
2,030,870,580.46
2,843,218,812.64
2,985,379,753.27
3,134,648,740.93
3,291,381,177.98
3,455,950,236.88
3,628,747,748.72
3,810,185,136.16
4,000,694,392.97
4,200,729,112.62
4,410,765,568.25
4,631,303,846.66
4,862,869,038.99

Cost of the catalysts. Life of catalysts for R-102 to R-105 (oxidation towers) is
usually 3 years for copper oxide (CuO) synthetic catalyst (Cheng & Kung, 1994). For the
packed bed plug flow reactor R-101 (Alkylation reactor), the life of catalyst for zeolite is
usually 2 years (Anpo, Onaka, & Yamashita, 2003). For the cleavage reactor (R-106), the
life of catalyst for sulfonic acid resins is usually 8 months (Rase, 2000). Shown in Table
90 is the amount of each catalyst used in each reactors and their corresponding prices.
Shown in Table 91 is the final cost of catalyst for each of the reactor. Finally, shown in
Table 92 is the total cost of the catalyst used annually.

171

Table 90
Amount and Pricing of Catalyst Used for each Reactor
REACTOR Mass of catalyst (kg) Price (USD/Kg) Life of catalyst
R-102
198.55
3 years
376.00
R-103
198.55
3 years
376.00
R-104
198.55
3 years
376.00
R-105
198.55
3 years
376.00
R-101
7140
2 years
8.37
R-106
2.65854
8 months
2930.00

Table 91
Final Cost of Catalyst for each Reactor
REACTOR

Years of Operation

R-102
R-103
R-104
R-105
R-101
R-106

15
15
15
15
15
15

Cost of Catalyst
$
$
$
$

77,213.89
77,213.89
77,213.89
77,213.89

$ 4,641,000.00
$
5,051.23

Table 92
Total Cost of Catalysts per Year
Year
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031

Turndown
Capacity
50%
65%
75%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%

Cost of Catalyst
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$

4,725,471.23
4,883,301.96
4,883,301.96
4,883,301.96
4,883,301.96
4,883,301.96
4,883,301.96
4,883,301.96
4,883,301.96
4,883,301.96
4,883,301.96
4,883,301.96
4,883,301.96
4,883,301.96
4,883,301.96

Freight
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$

2,940.47
2,940.47
2,940.47
2,940.47
2,940.47
2,940.47
2,940.47
2,940.47
2,940.47
2,940.47
2,940.47
2,940.47
2,940.47
2,940.47
2,940.47

172

VAT

50,962,913.44
50,962,913.44
50,962,913.44
50,962,913.44
50,962,913.44
50,962,913.44
50,962,913.44
50,962,913.44
50,962,913.44
50,962,913.44
50,962,913.44
50,962,913.44
50,962,913.44
50,962,913.44
50,962,913.44

Cost - Catalyst

157,352,176.60
193,885,504.66
215,873,595.62
270,843,823.01
270,843,823.01
270,843,823.01
270,843,823.01
270,843,823.01
270,843,823.01
270,843,823.01
270,843,823.01
270,843,823.01
270,843,823.01
270,843,823.01
270,843,823.01

Utility costs of the plant. The main process of the plant requires a cooling water
system and a steam generation unit. Shown in Table 93 is the fuel requirement of the plant
and in Table 94 is the water requirement of the plant.

Table 93
Fuel requirement of the plant and its price
Fuel: Industrial LPG (Propane)
Volume Flow (L/year)
781,536.00
Price (per Liter)
5.5 PHP

Table 94
Water requirement of the plant and its price
WATER
Volume Flow (m3/h)
6100.64
Volume of water (1 day)
146415.36
Volume of water (1 year)
585,662.28
Volume with Make-up (1 year) 592,983.06

The fuel requirement of the plant amounts to an average of 782 3 annually. The
cost of the fuel consumption per year is shown in Table 95.

173

Table 95
Cost of Fuel Consumed Per Year
Year

Turndown Capacity

2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031

50%
65%
75%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%

Price (per Liter)

5.50
5.72
5.95
6.19
6.43
6.69
6.96
7.24
7.53
7.83
8.14
8.47
8.81
9.16
9.52

Cost - Fuel

2,149,224.00
2,235,192.96
3,486,901.02
4,835,169.41
5,028,576.19
5,229,719.24
5,438,908.00
5,656,464.32
5,882,722.90
6,118,031.81
6,362,753.09
6,617,263.21
6,881,953.74
7,157,231.89
7,443,521.16

The water requirement of the plant for both of its cooling water system and steam
generation unit amounts to an average of 593,000 3 annually. The maximum required
make-up water flow rate for cooling tower can be approximated with 1.25% of the total
flow. This percentage accounts the evaporation and blowdown losses (Stanford, 2012).
There will be a very high maintenance of cooling tower water because the cleaning will be
frequent. For industries, the average cost of cooling water chemicals is $0.043 3 of
total water requirement (LLC-Consulting-Group, 2003). The cost of the consumable water
per year is shown in Table 96.

174

Table 96
Cost of Consumed Water per Year
Turndown
Price (per 100
Year
Capacity
m3)
2017

50%

2018

65%

2019

75%

2020

100%

2021

100%

2022

100%

2023

100%

2024

100%

2025

100%

2026

100%

2027

100%

2028

100%

2029

100%

2030

100%

2031

100%

2,962.00

2,962.00

2,962.00

2,962.00

2,962.00

2,962.00

2,962.00

2,962.00

2,962.00

2,962.00

2,962.00

2,962.00

2,962.00

2,962.00

2,962.00

Cubic meter
used

Cost - PW

585,662.28

8,673,658.38

585,662.28

11,275,755.89

585,662.28

13,010,487.57

585,662.28

17,347,316.76

585,662.28

17,347,316.76

585,662.28

17,347,316.76

585,662.28

17,347,316.76

585,662.28

17,347,316.76

585,662.28

17,347,316.76

585,662.28

17,347,316.76

585,662.28

17,347,316.76

585,662.28

17,347,316.76

585,662.28

17,347,316.76

585,662.28

17,347,316.76

585,662.28

17,347,316.76

Cost of electricity. In order to obtain an approximation of the cost of electricity per


year, it is vital to obtain the amount of energy the process and the building utilize annually.
Electricity

consumption

for

commercial

buildings

can

be

assumed

to

be

17.3 2 (MGE). Shown in Table 97 is the electricity requirement of


each of the buildings of the plant and in Table 98 the electricity requirement of the process
annually.

175

Table 97
Electricity Requirement of the Buildings
ELECTRICITY COST OF THE BUILDINGS
LENGTH
WIDTH
AREA
Area
Buildings
(m)
(m)
(m2)
(ft2)
15,096.3
ADMIN BLDG
27.5
51
1402.5
7
43,400.0
MANUFACTURING
72
56
4032
4
QUALITY CONTROL
17.5
50.9
890.75
9,587.94
LAB
CANTEEN
40
18
720
7,750.01
PRODUCTION
25.9
18
466.2
5,018.13
OFFICE
RESEARCH&DEV
17.5
27
472.5
5,085.94
SECURITY OFFICE
27.83
12.2
339.526
3,654.62
MAINTENANCE
17.5
18
315
3,390.63
CONTROL ROOM
25
8
200
2,152.78
WAREHOUSE
20.04
22
440.88
4,745.59
TOTAL (kWh per Year)

kWh per
YEAR
261,167.20
750,820.78
165,871.43
134,075.14
86,813.65
87,986.81
63,224.99
58,657.87
37,243.09
82,098.68
1,727,959.64

Table 98
Electricity requirement of the Process
EQUIPMENT

POWER
KW

P-101
P-102
P-103
P-104
P-105
P-106
P-107
P-108
K-100

5.735
18.26
164.2
0.3521
0.01056
0.01792
0.02498
2.538
180.0417

Electricity Requirement
kWh/Day
kWh/Year
Process

P-109
P-110

2093
82.73
TOTAL

137.6
438.2
3940.8
8.4504
0.25344
0.43008
0.59952
60.912
4321.001
Utilities
50232
1985.52

176

48,160.00
153,370.00
1,379,280.00
2,957.64
88.70
150.53
209.83
21,319.20
1,512,350.28
17,581,200.00
694,932.00
21,394,018.18

In order to get the annual cost of electricity consumption, the electricity requirement
of both the process and the buildings were combined. A total of 23,121,977.82 of
electricity per year will be required by the whole plant. The cost of electricity for the
industry in Hermosa, Bataan is 6.4708 (Provincial Government of Bataan, n.d.).
Shown in Table 99 is the annual cost of electricity of the company.

Table 99
Cost of Electricity
Turndown
Year
Capacity
2017
50%
2018
50%
2019
75%
2020
100%
2021
100%
2022
100%
2023
100%
2024
100%
2025
100%
2026
100%
2027
100%
2028
100%
2029
100%
2030
100%
2031
100%

Consumption per Year


Process

Buildings

138,436,412.87
138,436,412.87
138,436,412.87
138,436,412.87
138,436,412.87
138,436,412.87
138,436,412.87
138,436,412.87
138,436,412.87
138,436,412.87
138,436,412.87
138,436,412.87
138,436,412.87
138,436,412.87
138,436,412.87

11,181,281.23
11,181,281.23
11,181,281.23
11,181,281.23
11,181,281.23
11,181,281.23
11,181,281.23
11,181,281.23
11,181,281.23
11,181,281.23
11,181,281.23
11,181,281.23
11,181,281.23
11,181,281.23
11,181,281.23

Cost

80,399,487.66
101,164,949.59
115,008,590.88
149,617,694.10
149,617,694.10
149,617,694.10
149,617,694.10
149,617,694.10
149,617,694.10
149,617,694.10
149,617,694.10
149,617,694.10
149,617,694.10
149,617,694.10
149,617,694.10

Cost of communication. Communication within a company is a very important


factor for success. In the business world, good communication is important for the daily
operation of the plant. Table 100 summarizes the price of the communication the company
should have. Table 101 shows the annual cost of communication within the company,
divided to internet and landline services.
177

Table 100
Price of communication services
`
Voice / Landline:

COST
PhP 936.00
(21.53 USD)
PhP 617.00
(14.19USD)

Monthly Rental (Commercial)


Monthly Rental (Residential)
Data / Internet:
Monthly Rental 1MB up to 4MB
(Commercial)
Monthly Rental up to 1MB
(Residential)

PhP 4, 000.00
(92.00 USD)
PhP 999.00
(23.00 USD)

Table 101
Annual cost of communication services of the company
Year
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031

Internet
11,232.00
11,232.00
11,232.00
11,232.00
11,232.00
11,232.00
11,232.00
11,232.00
11,232.00
11,232.00
11,232.00
11,232.00
11,232.00
11,232.00
11,232.00

Landline
48,000.00
48,000.00
48,000.00
48,000.00
48,000.00
48,000.00
48,000.00
48,000.00
48,000.00
48,000.00
48,000.00
48,000.00
48,000.00
48,000.00
48,000.00

Operating cost of Waste Water Treatment Plant. For a biological sewage


treatment plant, the annual operating expenses will be based on the amount of organics it
will handle. Refer to Table 51 for the equation in obtaining the annual expenses of WWTP.
Shown in Table 102 is the cost of biological WWTP operation annually.
178

Table 102
Cost of Biological WWTP Operation per Year
Year
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031

Cost

330,775.68
330,775.68
330,775.68
330,775.68
330,775.68
330,775.68
330,775.68
330,775.68
330,775.68
330,775.68
330,775.68
330,775.68
330,775.68
330,775.68
330,775.68

Operating labor. To determine labor costs, one must estimate the number of
operators (crew size) and the wage rate. The preferred way to determine labor needs is to
get a manufacturing estimate. However, because there is not enough time or because
manufacturing has not staffed a project, which is often not practical. Table 103 shows the
summary of labor cost annually. The management decided a 4% increase in labor per year.
See Appendix E for the breakdown of wage and monetary benefits for each employees of
the company.

179

Table 103
Summary of Labor Cost per Year
`Year
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031

Net Pay (w/


Company
benefits)
Contribution
18,782,880.00 2,262,292.48
19,534,195.20 2,352,784.17
20,315,563.01 2,446,895.54
21,128,185.53 2,544,771.36
21,973,312.95 2,646,562.22
22,852,245.47 2,752,424.71
23,766,335.29 2,862,521.69
24,716,988.70 2,977,022.56
25,705,668.25 3,096,103.46
26,733,894.98 3,219,947.60
27,803,250.77 3,348,745.51
28,915,380.81 3,482,695.33
30,071,996.04 3,622,003.14
31,274,875.88 3,766,883.27
32,525,870.91 3,917,558.60
TOTAL

Yearly Bonus

4,564,680.00
4,747,267.20
4,937,157.89
5,134,644.20
5,340,029.97
5,553,631.17
5,775,776.42
6,006,807.47
6,247,079.77
6,496,962.96
6,756,841.48
7,027,115.14
7,308,199.75
7,600,527.74
7,904,548.85

TOTAL
25,609,852.48
26,634,246.57
27,699,616.44
28,807,601.09
29,959,905.14
31,158,301.34
32,404,633.40
33,700,818.73
35,048,851.48
36,450,805.54
37,908,837.76
39,425,191.27
41,002,198.93
42,642,286.88
44,347,978.36
487,191,272.95

Cost of transportation of goods. This cost includes the transportation of the


products phenol and acetone to its respective users through truck loads. The total number
of trucks of the company is twenty two with a capacity of 14 3 each. Table 104 shows
the customers of the company and their location, as well as distance to be travelled by the
trucks and the price of fuel per liter. Table 105 shows the annual cost on transportation.

180

Table 104
Price of Fuel and Consumption per Truck
Customer number of Price of Fuel Distance
Location
companies
per Liter
(km)
Manila
35

34.60
197.6
Laguna
11

34.60
285.2
Cavite
3

34.60
247
Rizal
9

34.60
279.8
Batangas
1

34.60
415

L/distance(km)

L/week

0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3

4979.52
2395.68
518.7
2350.32
871.5

Table 105
Annual cost on transportation
Customer Location
Manila
Laguna
Cavite
Rizal
Batangas

Cost (weekly)

TOTAL

172,291.39
82,890.53
17,947.02
81,321.07
30,153.90

Cost (Yearly)
8,269,986.82
3,978,745.34

861,456.96
3,903,411.46
1,447,387.20
18,460,987.78

Other estimated costs. Table 106 and 107 shows the other costs related to the
direct cost of the plant. Refer to Table 51 for the equations used in estimating the values
under these costs.

181

Table 106
Operating, Quality Contol, and Laboratory Cost per Year
Operating Supervision

Quality Control

Laboratory Costs

Cost

Cost

Cost

YEAR

2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031

5,121,970.50
5,326,849.31
5,539,923.29
5,761,520.22
5,991,981.03
6,231,660.27
6,480,926.68
6,740,163.75
7,009,770.30
7,290,161.11
7,581,767.55
7,885,038.25
8,200,439.79
8,528,457.38
8,869,595.67

5,121,970.50
5,326,849.31
5,539,923.29
5,761,520.22
5,991,981.03
6,231,660.27
6,480,926.68
6,740,163.75
7,009,770.30
7,290,161.11
7,581,767.55
7,885,038.25
8,200,439.79
8,528,457.38
8,869,595.67

2,560,985.25
2,663,424.66
2,769,961.64
2,880,760.11
2,995,990.51
3,115,830.13
3,240,463.34
3,370,081.87
3,504,885.15
3,645,080.55
3,790,883.78
3,942,519.13
4,100,219.89
4,264,228.69
4,434,797.84

Table 107
Maintenance Labor, Maintenance Material, and Operating Supplies Cost per
year
Maintenance Labor

Maintenance Material

Operating Supplies

Cost

Cost

Cost

YEAR
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031

14,245,501.91
13,304,496.15
12,363,490.40
11,422,484.65
10,481,478.90
9,540,473.14
9,540,473.14
9,540,473.14
9,540,473.14
9,540,473.14
9,540,473.14
9,540,473.14
9,540,473.14
9,540,473.14
9,540,473.14

9,497,001.27
8,869,664.10
8,242,326.93
7,614,989.77
6,987,652.60
6,360,315.43
6,360,315.43
6,360,315.43
6,360,315.43
6,360,315.43
6,360,315.43
6,360,315.43
6,360,315.43
6,360,315.43
6,360,315.43

182

3,957,083.86
3,695,693.38
3,434,302.89
3,172,912.40
2,911,521.92
2,650,131.43
2,650,131.43
2,650,131.43
2,650,131.43
2,650,131.43
2,650,131.43
2,650,131.43
2,650,131.43
2,650,131.43
2,650,131.43

General Costs of the Plant


General costs include the costs of managing the firm, marketing the product,
research and development on new and old products, and financing the operation. Refer to
Table 51 for the equations in obtaining the estimates for the general costs of the plant.
Table 108 shows the summary for the general cost of the plant.

Table 108
General costs of the plant
YEAR
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031

Admin

Marketing

Research and Development

Cost

Cost

Cost

92,776,682.22
124,655,924.66
149,741,749.13
207,347,393.38
217,130,057.82
227,405,891.73
238,297,540.40
249,732,836.09
261,738,923.75
274,344,304.04
287,578,901.15
301,474,133.81
316,062,990.04
331,380,105.49
347,461,845.78

278,330,046.67
373,967,773.99
449,225,247.40
622,042,180.13
651,390,173.47
682,217,675.18
714,892,621.19
749,198,508.28
785,216,771.24
823,032,912.13
862,736,703.45
904,422,401.44
948,188,970.13
994,140,316.48
1,042,385,537.34

183

118,547,982.84
159,282,570.40
191,336,679.45
264,943,891.54
277,443,962.78
290,574,194.98
304,491,301.62
319,103,068.34
334,444,180.34
350,551,055.17
367,461,929.25
385,216,948.76
403,858,265.05
423,430,134.80
443,979,025.16

Income Statement of the Company


The income statement or consolidated statement of operations is a summary of the
incomes, expenditures, and taxes paid by the company over a fixed period of time. The
income statement gives a good insight into the overall profitability and margins of a
business. Table 109 shows the indicative price of the products of the company.

Table 109
Pricing of Products

Acetone
Phenol

FLOWRATE
kg/h
4369.793128
7071.121303

Operational Time
# of days
# of Hours
350
8400
350
8400

PRICE
USD/MT
36,706.26 1807.788
59,397.42 1984.158
MTpY

Flowrates acquired from the Aspen Hysys Simulation


Source of Price: ICIS Indicative Prices

The inflation of the prices of the raw materials was approximated to 5%, as given
from the trend of prices of propylene and benzene from the report of Pandia entitled
Global Acetone-Phenol Markets in the year 2009. US Dollar to Philippines Peso
conversion is averaged to forty five. Given in Table 88 and Table 89 are the cost of
propylene and benzene annually. Table 110 shows the annual revenue generated from
acetone. Table 111 shows the annual revenue generated from phenol.

184

Table 110
Revenue from acetone
Year
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031

Turndown
Capacity
50%
65%
75%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%

MTPY
18353.13
23859.07
27529.7
36706.26
36706.26
36706.26
36706.26
36706.26
36706.26
36706.26
36706.26
36706.26
36706.26
36706.26
36706.26

Price (per MT)


$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$

1,807.79
1,898.18
1,993.09
2,092.74
2,197.38
2,307.25
2,422.61
2,543.74
2,670.93
2,804.47
2,944.70
3,091.93
3,246.53
3,408.85
3,579.30

Revenue

1,493,035,990.88
2,037,994,127.55
2,469,108,269.92
3,456,751,577.89
3,629,589,156.78
3,811,068,614.62
4,001,622,045.35
4,201,703,147.62
4,411,788,305.00
4,632,377,720.25
4,863,996,606.26
5,107,196,436.58
5,362,556,258.41
5,630,684,071.33
5,912,218,274.89

Table 111
Revenue from phenol
Year
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031

Turndown
Capacity
50%
65%
75%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%

MTPY

Price (per MT)

Revenue - Phenol

29698.71
38608.32
44548.06
59397.42
59397.42
59397.42
59397.42
59397.42
59397.42
59397.42
59397.42
59397.42
59397.42
59397.42
59397.42

1984.158
2083.3659
2187.534195
2296.910905
2411.75645
2532.344272
2658.961486
2791.90956
2931.505038
3078.08029
3231.984305
3393.58352
3563.262696
3741.425831
3928.497122

2,651,711,939.36
3,619,586,797.22
4,385,268,619.71
6,139,376,067.60
6,446,344,870.98
6,768,662,114.53
7,107,095,220.25
7,462,449,981.26
7,835,572,480.33
8,227,351,104.34
8,638,718,659.56
9,070,654,592.54
9,524,187,322.17
10,000,396,688.27
10,500,416,522.69

185

Table 112 shows the detailed summary of the taxes and mandatory contributions of
a corporation. Based on the table, the total tax rate that can be imposed on a corporations
profit is 42.48%.

186

Table 112
Detailed summary of the taxes and mandatory contributions of a corporation
Tax or
mandatory
contribution

Payments
(number)

Notes on
Payments

Time
(hours)

Corporate
income tax

online filing

42

Local business
tax

Employer paid
- Social security
contributions

Real property
tax

Statutory
tax rate

30%
0.50%

online filing

38

2.89% to
6.50%

Tax base

taxable
profit
previous
year
turnover
gross
salaries

Total
tax rate
(%
profit)

20.46
8.84

6.06

Employer paid
- Health insurance

12

online filing

1.16% to
1.19%

assessed
property
value
gross
salaries

Employer paid
- Housing
development fund

12

online filing

2% or P100
per worker

gross
salaries

0.56

Tax on interest

online filing

20%

interest

0.51

Employer paid
- Employer's
compensation

paid jointly

P 30

per
employee
per month

0.17

P 10,500

fixed fee

0.08

P 10,000

fixed fee

0.08

basic fee +
24%
P 500

P 1.5 per
check

vehicle
weight
fixed fee
value
added
number of
checks

P 0.5 per
each P 4
various
rates

insurance
premium
contract
value

Community tax
certificate
Environmental
tax

2%

Notes
on TTR

4.44
1.24

Vehicle tax

BIR certificate

paid jointly

Value added
tax (VAT)

online filing

Tax on check
transactions

online filing

Tax on
insurance
contracts

online filing

Stamp duty

online filing

Employee paid
- Social security
contributions

paid jointly

1.33% to
2.98%

gross
salaries

withheld

Employee paid
- Payroll tax

paid jointly

1.16% to
1.19%

per
employee
per month

withheld

Employee paid
- Housing
development fund

paid jointly

2% or P
100 per
worker

gross
salaries

withheld

Totals:

36

113

193

187

12%

0.04
0
0
0
0
0

42.48

not
included
small
amount
small
amount
small
amount

Table 113 shows the annual production cost and revenue of the company. Imposing
the 42.48% on the revenue, the annual profit of the company is depicted in Table 114.

Table 113
Production Cost and Revenue of the Company per Year
Year
PRODUCTION COST

Table 114
Annual Profit of the Company
Year
PROFIT
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031

Total REVENUE

3,270,703,198.73
4,154,190,983.79
4,833,394,458.10
6,446,398,502.45
6,678,358,290.60
6,923,852,453.54
7,222,621,590.59
7,536,310,967.82
7,865,665,868.56
8,211,468,811.18
8,574,541,409.64
8,955,746,327.09
9,355,989,327.03
9,776,221,427.05
10,217,441,160.17

2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031

TAX

874,044,731.51
1,503,389,940.98
2,020,982,431.54
3,149,729,143.04
3,397,575,737.16
3,655,878,275.61
3,886,095,675.01
4,127,842,161.06
4,381,694,916.77
4,648,260,013.42
4,928,173,856.18
5,222,104,702.03
5,530,754,253.55
5,854,859,332.55
6,195,193,637.41

188

371,294,201.94
638,640,046.93
858,513,336.92
1,338,004,939.96
1,443,290,173.14
1,553,017,091.48
1,650,813,442.74
1,753,507,350.02
1,861,344,000.64
1,974,580,853.70
2,093,488,254.11
2,218,350,077.42
2,349,464,406.91
2,487,144,244.47
2,631,718,257.17

4,144,747,930.24
5,657,580,924.78
6,854,376,889.63
9,596,127,645.49
10,075,934,027.76
10,579,730,729.15
11,108,717,265.60
11,664,153,128.88
12,247,360,785.33
12,859,728,824.60
13,502,715,265.83
14,177,851,029.12
14,886,743,580.57
15,631,080,759.60
16,412,634,797.58

FINAL PROFIT

502,750,529.56
864,749,894.05
1,162,469,094.62
1,811,724,203.08
1,954,285,564.01
2,102,861,184.13
2,235,282,232.27
2,374,334,811.04
2,520,350,916.12
2,673,679,159.72
2,834,685,602.08
3,003,754,624.61
3,181,289,846.64
3,367,715,088.08
3,563,475,380.24

Cost of Permits and Licenses


Before putting up a plant, the following government permits and license in Table
115 must be paid and accomplished. These fees are paid on a yearly basis.

Table 115
Required Permits and Licenses of the Company
Mayor's Permit
Sanitary Permit
Location Clearance
Building Permit
Occupational
Occupancy
Fire Permit
Community Tax Certificate
Environmental Tax
BIR Certificate
SEC Company name verification and reservation
Notarize articles of incorporation and treasurer's
affidavit at the notary
SEC company Registration
Pay registration fee and Documentary stamp taxes at
AAB (Authorized Agent Bank)
Barangay Clearance
Special Books of Account
Application for certificate of registration (COR) and TIN
at BIR
Printing or receipts and invoices
World Bank Group, 2015
Provincial Government of Bataan, 2015

189

2,500.00
1,000.00
6,000.00
25,000.00
10,000.00
5,000.00
6,000.00
10,500.00
10,000.00
500.00
40.00

500.00

3,645.00

4,670.00

800.00
400.00

115.00

4,000.00

Cost of Buildings
Shown in Table 116 is the cost of the buildings inside the plant site. The cost was
generated using Aspen Hysys Economic Evaluator software.

Table 116
Cost of buildings
LENGTH
(m)

WIDTH
(m)

AREA
(m2)

ADMIN BLDG

27.5

51

1402.5

QUALITY CONTROL
LAB

17.5

50.9

890.75

40

18

720

PRODUCTION OFFICE

25.9

18

466.2

RESEARCH&DEV

17.5

27

472.5

SECURITY OFFICE

27.83

12.2

339.526

MAINTENANCE

17.5

18

315

CONTROL ROOM

25

200

20.04

22

440.88

Buildings

CANTEEN

WAREHOUSE

TOTAL

COST OF
BUILDINGS
$
1,103,000.00
$
1,362,200.00
$
566,200.00
$
502,700.00
$
509,500.00
$
366,100.00
$
339,600.00
$
227,900.00
$
312,900.00

238,054,500.00

Trucks and Electronic Devices


Trucks owned by the company will be used in the transport of products to their
respective users in the Philippines. Shown in Table 117 is the summary of the total cost of
trucks owned by the company.

190

Table 117
Cost of trucks of the company
Description
Isuzu 8PC1
8 Wheeler
Tank Truck
14,000 L Capacity

1,200,000.00
Assumption: Per day delivery
Volume of Acetone Product per day:
Volume of Phenol Product per day:
Number of Trucks for Acetone:
Number of Trucks for Phenol:
TOTAL NUMBER OF TRUCKS:
Cost of Trucks:

135.432
161.592
10
12
22
26,400,000.00

In case of plant operation, a more effective and efficient way of communicating is


through the use of radio. The personnel operating the main process of the plant are required
to use radio in communicating with other personnel within the plant area. Shown in Table
118 is the cost of radio owned by the company.

Table 118
Cost of radio
Number of Personnel that needs Radio
Price of Two-Way Radio
Total Cost
Source: OLX Philippines, 2015

191

23

4,500.00
103,500.00

Project Evaluation
Table 119 shows the summary of the expenses of the company. The total capital
expense of the company is around 4.5 billion PhP. It can be deduced that the construction
and operation of the plant requires very large amounts of capital.

Table 119
Total capital expenditure of the company
ISBL CAPEX
OSBL OPEX
Contingency
Commissioning
Minimum Paid up Capital Requirement on Bank
(SEC)
EIA
TOTAL CAPEX

2,814,539,354.81

1,106,317,946.51

392,085,730.13

137,230,005.55

500,000.00

300,000.00

4,450,973,036.99

About half of the total capital expenses of the company will come from bank
financing. The debt capital is raised through long term bonds with the bank. Table 120
shows the description of the bank and the annuity.

Table 120
Capital loan and interest
2,225,336,518.50
BPI
2,225,336,518.50
6.00%
3
2,650,411,398.91
10

302,351,929.12

Cash on hand
BANK
Bank loan (PRINCIPAL)
Interest rate (compounding per year)
Tenor/Defer
Future Worth at year 3
Number of terms
Annuity

192

The internal rate of return (IRR) of the company was projected to be 24%, as shown
in Table 121. At year 2020, the total capital expenditure is expected to be recovered,
therefore the return of investment (ROI) is 6 years. Figure 16 shows the project cash flow
of Phace Philippines Corporation.
Based on the economic analysis of the project using class 3 estimation, the project
is concluded to be feasible since it is highly profitable. The plant designers recommends to
continue the project to its next stages such as detailed engineering design, procurement,
construction, startup, trial runs, and production or commercial operation.

Table 121
Internal rate of return
YEAR
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031

Bank Annuity

Annual Profit
-

314,565,371.62
314,565,371.62
314,565,371.62
314,565,371.62
314,565,371.62
314,565,371.62
314,565,371.62
314,565,371.62
314,565,371.62
314,565,371.62
IRR

(2,315,228,518.50)
(2,315,228,518.50)
502,750,529.56
550,184,522.43
847,903,723.00
1,497,158,831.45
1,639,720,192.39
1,788,295,812.51
1,920,716,860.64
2,059,769,439.42
2,205,785,544.50
2,359,113,788.09
2,520,120,230.46
3,003,754,624.61
3,181,289,846.64
3,367,715,088.08
3,563,475,380.24

193

24%

Cumulative Profit
502,750,529.56
1,052,935,051.99
1,900,838,774.99
3,397,997,606.45
5,037,717,798.84
6,826,013,611.34
8,746,730,471.99
10,806,499,911.41
13,012,285,455.91
15,371,399,244.01
17,891,519,474.46
20,895,274,099.07
24,076,563,945.71
27,444,279,033.79
31,007,754,414.03

CASH FLOW
5,000,000,000.00
4,000,000,000.00
3,000,000,000.00
2,000,000,000.00
1,000,000,000.00
(1,000,000,000.00)

2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031

(2,000,000,000.00)
(3,000,000,000.00)

Figure 16. Project Cash Flow of Phace Philippines Corporation

Breakeven Analysis
If a proposal is intended to generate added volume, it is important to check the
estimated volume to be produced, so that the added revenues balance the added costs. This
volume is called the breakeven volume. The following equations must be used to obtain
the break even volume. Table 122 shows the calculation basis for the breakeven volume.
= ( ) + ( ) (20)
2
= 1.618182165
1
= .

(21)

= + (. )

(22)


+ (. )

Let =

194

(23)

Table 122
Calculation Basis for Breakeven Analysis
Year
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031

PRODUCTION COST

2,712,464,361.58

2,835,631,286.44

4,366,775,747.44

6,031,806,007.70

6,300,526,376.70

6,582,723,662.99

6,880,225,862.31

7,192,584,954.92

7,520,543,056.81

7,864,879,360.64

8,226,411,988.37

8,605,999,936.54

9,004,545,118.75

9,422,994,510.15

9,862,342,399.22

Acetone
(X1) MTPY Price (per MT)
18,353.13 $
1,807.79
18,353.13 $
1,862.02
27,529.70 $
1,917.88
36,706.26 $
1,975.42
36,706.26 $
2,034.68
36,706.26 $
2,095.72
36,706.26 $
2,158.59
36,706.26 $
2,223.35
36,706.26 $
2,290.05
36,706.26 $
2,358.75
36,706.26 $
2,429.52
36,706.26 $
2,502.40
36,706.26 $
2,577.47
36,706.26 $
2,654.80
36,706.26 $
2,734.44

Phenol
(X2) MTPY Price (per MT)
29,698.71 $
1,984.16
29,698.71 $
2,043.68
44,548.06 $
2,104.99
59,397.42 $
2,168.14
59,397.42 $
2,233.19
59,397.42 $
2,300.18
59,397.42 $
2,369.19
59,397.42 $
2,440.26
59,397.42 $
2,513.47
59,397.42 $
2,588.88
59,397.42 $
2,666.54
59,397.42 $
2,746.54
59,397.42 $
2,828.93
59,397.42 $
2,913.80
59,397.42 $
3,001.22

Breakeven sales volume is the amount of product that you will need to produce and
sell to cover total costs of production. Table 123 shows the breakeven volume of the
products acetone and phenol.
Table 123
Breakeven volume of acetone (1 ) and phenol (2 )
Year
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031

X2/X1
1.618182165
1.618182165
1.618182165
1.618182165
1.618182165
1.618182165
1.618182165
1.618182165
1.618182165
1.618182165
1.618182165
1.618182165
1.618182165
1.618182165
1.618182165

X1
12,010.91
12,190.59
18,226.30
24,442.62
24,787.91
25,143.84
25,514.75
25,896.23
26,288.36
26,691.26
27,105.05
27,529.85
27,965.79
28,413.00
28,871.61

195

X2
19,435.85
19,726.59
29,493.47
39,552.61
40,111.36
40,687.31
41,287.52
41,904.81
42,539.35
43,191.32
43,860.91
44,548.32
45,253.75
45,977.41
46,719.52

A benefit-cost ratio (BCR) is an indicator, used in the formal discipline of costbenefit analysis, which attempts to summarize the overall value for money of a project or
proposal. Table 124 shows the benefit to cost ratio of the plant. The ratio should be greater
than 1 for the project to be justifiable.

Table 124
Benefit to cost ratio (f) of the plant
n
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

Year
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031

Production Cost
(PhP)
3074233529
3916060631
4571068739
6120371891
6354543098
6602276466
6901796804
7216267436
7546434846
7893082804
8257034225
8639153123
9040346669
9461567344
9903815202

Revenue (PhP)
4144747930
5657580925
6854376890
9596127645
10075934028
10579730729
11108717266
11664153129
12247360785
12859728825
13502715266
14177851029
14886743581
15631080760
16412634798
TOTAL
f

196

PW PC (PhP)
PW-R (PhP)
3074233529
4144747930
3158113412
4562565262
2972859482
4457841369
3210057091
5033046707
2687803956
4261854067
2252087605
3608828040
1898593799
3055862454
1600887537
2587625465
1350107487
2191134466
1138810578
1855396120
960743009.3
1571101554
810648596
1330368251
684108304.9
1126521503
577405847.5
953909337.1
487415051.1
807745809.7
26863875284
41548548335
1.546632714

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October

14,

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http://www.petron.com/PETRON_APPROVES_$178.4M_CONTRACT_FOR_PETROCHEM_PROJECT.html

200

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Petron:

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http://www.bataan.gov.ph/home/business2/costofdoingbusiness2.html

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http://training.itcilo.it/actrav_cdrom1/english/global/frame/epzppi.htm#anchor445
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Retrieved

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http://toplinechem.lookchem.com/products/CasNo-67-64-1-Acetone2064394.html
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http://www.emb.gov.ph/laws/toxic%20substances%20and%20hazardous%20wast
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204

205

Appendix A

ASPEN HYSYS SIMULATION

Figure 1. Data for the components of the process in Aspen Hysys

Figure 2. React ion data for the main react ion in Alkylator

Figure 3. React ion data for the side react ion in Alkylator

206

Figure 4. React ion data for the cumene oxidation process

Figure 5. React ion data for the cleaving of cu mene hydroperoxide to phenol
and acetone

Figure 6. React ion data for steam generat ion

207

Figure 7. Overview of the process

STEP BY STEP SIMULATION SNAPSHOTS

208

209

210

211

212

213

214

215

216

217

218

219

Appendix B
STORAGE TANKS CALCULATION SHEETS

REV
1

CALCULATION SHEET
CREATED BY
CHECKED BY
EAM
ALL
MFS

DATE
1/2/15

APPROVED BY

Service: Propylene Feed


OPERATING CONDITIONS
C
25
T
F
77
Bar
12
P
psia 174.0933
psig 159.3933
psia 226.1138
true VP and Reid VP at 37.8 C
kPaa
1559
(100F)
Type of Vessel
Pressure vessel
If TVP (true vapor pressure) of the chemical is greater than 90 (), then use a pressure
vessel for the storage tank, otherwise use an atmospheric vessel for the storage tank.
DESIGN CONDITIONS
T
P (MAWP)
minimum P
minimum design metal temperature

C
F
Bar
psia
psig
psia
psig
C

93.33333
200
13.72321
199.0933
184.3933
0
-14.7
15 ~ 20

The minimum design metal temperature is based from the ambient temperature here in the
country .The design conditions were acquired based on the following table.

220

Operating T
0 to 200 degF
Over 200 degF
Reactors

Design T
250 degF
operating + 50 degF
operating + 50 degF

Operating P
0 to 25 psig
25 to 250 psig
250 to 1000 psig
over 1000 psig

Design P
50 psig
operating + 25 psig
operating + 10%
operating + 5%

LIQUID CAPACITY
28
day
Capacity/Storage time
672
hr
3354
flow rate
kg/hr
3689.4
Rated mass flow rate
kg/hr
506.8
Density
kg/m3
4892.022
m3
Rated Volume of liquid
1292335
gal
use vertical tanks on concrete foundation

Assumptions:

The storage for this chemical will be divided to 6 tanks, with 1 week storage time
each. It is assumed that the transaction time between the company and the provider
as well as delivery of the product will take 2 weeks. It is very important for
continuous production to have enough storage of feed.
Based on the rule of thumb of Chemical Engineering Design, if the rated volume
of the liquid is greater than 10,000 gallons, vertical tanks on concrete foundations
is typically used.
The choses material of construction is carbon steel since propylene is not corrosive.
ASME BPV (ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code) suggest circular geometry
for storage tanks.
Outage and Innage of the tank are assumed to be 500 . The outage is
the allowance for spillage, and the innage is the non-pumpable volume. The pump
should not be placed under the innage to avoid pump cavitation.
Based on the rule of thumb for Chemical Engineering Design, Optimum length to
diameter ratio for vessels is 3 ( = 3).
2
4892.022 3
(3 0.50 0.5) =
( )
4
6

221

= 7.133506 7200
= 3 = 3 7200 = 21600
Based on the Rules of thumb, the corrosion allowance for non-corrosive streams like
propylene is 0.15in or 3.8mm. The typical joint efficiency is 0.85. To calculate the
minimum thickness of the vessel, first is determine the maximum allowable stress (S)
which will be based on the type of material used. Using table 13.2 in Towler, the Maximum
allowable stress for carbon steel at 250 is 12.9ksi or 12900psi.
For cylindrical vessels:
=


(1)
2 1.2


(2)
4 + 0.8

Where:
= ( )
=
=
=
=

(1) =

199.0933 7200
= 66.08574
2 12900 0.85 1.2 199.0933

222

(2) =

199.0933 7200
= 32.56463
4 12900 0.85 + 0.8 199.0933

Choosing the higher value for ,


= 66.08574 + 3.8 70
= 2 + = 2 70 + 7200 = 7340
For heads and closures, 2:1 ellipsoidal is the common in the chemical industry.
=
=


2 0.2

199.0933 7200
66
2 12900 0.85 0.2 199.0933

223

REV
1

CALCULATION SHEET
CREATED BY
CHECKED BY
EAM
ALL
MFS

DATE
1/2/15

APPROVED BY

Service: Benzene Feed


OPERATING CONDITIONS
C
25
T
F
77
Bar
1
P
psia 14.50777
psig -0.19223
psia 3.24E+00
true VP and Reid VP at 37.8 C
kPaa
22.36
(100F)
Atmospheric
Type of Vessel
vessel
If TVP (true vapor pressure) of the chemical is greater than 90 (), then use a pressure
vessel for the storage tank, otherwise use an atmospheric vessel for the storage tank.
DESIGN CONDITIONS
T
P (MAWP)
minimum P
minimum design metal temperature

C
F
Bar
psia
psig
psia
psig
C

93.33333
200
13.72321
199.0933
184.3933
0
-14.7
15 ~ 20

The minimum design metal temperature is based from the ambient temperature here in the
country .The design conditions were acquired based on the following table.
Operating T
0 to 200 degF
Over 200 degF
Reactors

Design T
250 degF
operating + 50 degF
operating + 50 degF

224

Operating P
0 to 25 psig
25 to 250 psig
250 to 1000 psig
over 1000 psig

Design P
50 psig
operating + 25 psig
operating + 10%
operating + 5%

LIQUID CAPACITY
day

28

hr

672

flow rate

kg/hr

6248.8

Rated mass flow rate

kg/hr

6873.68

Density

kg/m3

872.2

m3

5295.933

gal

1399037

Capacity/Storage time

Rated Volume of liquid


use vertical tanks on concrete foundation

Assumptions:

The storage for this chemical will be divided to 6 tanks, with 1 week storage time
each. It is assumed that the transaction time between the company and the provider
as well as delivery of the product will take 2 weeks. It is very important for
continuous production to have enough storage of feed.
Based on the rule of thumb of Chemical Engineering Design, if the rated volume
of the liquid is greater than 10,000 gallons, vertical tanks on concrete foundations
is typically used.
The chosen material of construction is carbon steel since benzene is not corrosive.
ASME BPV (ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code) suggest circular geometry
for storage tanks.
Outage and Innage of the tank are assumed to be 500 . The outage is
the allowance for spillage, and the innage is the non-pumpable volume. The pump
should not be placed under the innage to avoid pump cavitation.
Based on the rule of thumb for Chemical Engineering Design, Optimum length to
diameter ratio for vessels is 3 ( = 3).
2
5295.933 3
(3 0.50 0.5) =
( )
4
6
= 7.321595 7400
= 3 = 3 7400 = 22200

Based on the Rules of thumb, the corrosion allowance for non-corrosive streams is 0.15in
or 3.8mm. The typical joint efficiency is 0.85. To calculate the minimum thickness of the

225

vessel, first is determine the maximum allowable stress (S) which will be based on the type
of material used. Using table 13.2 in Towler, the Maximum allowable stress for carbon
steel at 250 is 12.9ksi or 12900psi.
For liquid storage tanks, the minimum wall thickness required to resist the hydrostatic
pressure can be calculated from the following equation:
=


+
2 103

Where:
= ,
= ,
= , /3
= ( )
= , 9.81 / 2
= , /2
= ,
=

1
872 (22200 500) (1000) 9.81
2 88.942369 0.85

7400
1000
+ 3.8 = 12.887
103

13
= 2 +
= 2 13 + 7400 = 7426
For heads and closures, 2:1 ellipsoidal is the common in the chemical industry.
=


2 0.2

226

64.7 7400
22
2 12900 0.85 0.2 64.7

227

REV
1

DATE
1/2/15

CALCULATION SHEET
CREATED BY
CHECKED BY
EAM
ALL
MFS

APPROVED BY

Service: Acetone Product A


OPERATING CONDITIONS
30
C
T
86
F
3.659
Bar
53.08393782
P
psia
psig 38.38393782
21.47
psia
true VP and Reid VP at 37.8 C
148
kPaa
(100F)
Type of Vessel
Pressure vessel
If TVP (true vapor pressure) of the chemical is greater than 90 (), then use a pressure
vessel for the storage tank, otherwise use an atmospheric vessel for the storage tank.
DESIGN CONDITIONS
C 93.33333333
T
F 200
Bar 5.382214286
P (MAWP)
psia 78.08393782
psig 63.38393782
psia 0
minimum P
psig -14.7
minimum design metal temperature
C 15 ~ 20
The minimum design metal temperature is based from the ambient temperature here in the
country .The design conditions were acquired based on the following table.
Operating T
0 to 200 degF
Over 200 degF
Reactors

Design T
250 degF
operating + 50 degF
operating + 50 degF

Operating P
0 to 25 psig
25 to 250 psig
250 to 1000 psig
over 1000 psig

LIQUID CAPACITY
Capacity/Storage time
day

228

Design P
50 psig
operating + 25 psig
operating + 10%
operating + 5%

hr
kg/hr
kg/hr
kg/m3
m3
gal

168
flow rate
4370
Rated mass flow rate
4807
Density
774.4
1042.841
Rated Volume of liquid
275489.4
use vertical tanks on concrete foundation

Assumptions:

The storage for this chemical will be divided to 3 tanks, with 1 week total storage
time.
Based on the rule of thumb of Chemical Engineering Design, if the rated volume
of the liquid is greater than 10,000 gallons, vertical tanks on concrete foundations
is typically used.
The choses material of construction is carbon steel since Acetone is not corrosive.
ASME BPV (ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code) suggest circular geometry
for storage tanks.
Outage and Innage of the tank are assumed to be 500 . The outage is
the allowance for spillage, and the innage is the non-pumpable volume. The pump
should not be placed under the innage to avoid pump cavitation.
Based on the rule of thumb for Chemical Engineering Design, Optimum length to
diameter ratio for vessels is 3 ( = 3).
2
1042.841 3
(3 0.50 0.5) =
( )
4
3
= 5.397469 5400
= 3 = 3 5400 = 16200

Based on the Rules of thumb, the corrosion allowance for non-corrosive streams like
propylene is 0.15in or 3.8mm. The typical joint efficiency is 0.85. To calculate the
minimum thickness of the vessel, first is determine the maximum allowable stress (S)
which will be based on the type of material used. Using table 13.2 in Towler, the Maximum
allowable stress for carbon steel at 250 is 12.9ksi or 12900psi.
For cylindrical vessels:

229


(1)
2 1.2


(2)
4 + 0.8

Where:
= ( )
=
=
=
=
(1) =

78.08393782 5400
= 19.30974
2 12900 0.85 1.2 78.08393782

(2) =

78.08393782 5400
= 9.599945
4 12900 0.85 + 0.8 78.08393782

Choosing the higher value for ,


= 19.30974 + 3.8 24
= 2 + = 2 24 + 5400 = 5448
For heads and closures, 2:1 ellipsoidal is the common in the chemical industry.
=


2 0.2

78.08393782 5400
20
2 12900 0.85 0.2 78.08393782

230

REV
1

DATE
1/2/15

CALCULATION SHEET
CREATED BY
CHECKED BY
EAM
ALL
MFS

APPROVED BY

Service: Acetone Product B


OPERATING CONDITIONS
30
C
T
86
F
3.659
Bar
53.08393782
P
psia
psig 38.38393782
21.47
psia
true VP and Reid VP at 37.8 C
148
kPaa
(100F)
Type of Vessel
Pressure vessel
If TVP (true vapor pressure) of the chemical is greater than 90 (), then use a pressure
vessel for the storage tank, otherwise use an atmospheric vessel for the storage tank.
DESIGN CONDITIONS
C 93.33333333
T
F 200
Bar 5.382214286
P (MAWP)
psia 78.08393782
psig 63.38393782
psia 0
minimum P
psig -14.7
minimum design metal temperature
C 15 ~ 20
The minimum design metal temperature is based from the ambient temperature here in the
country .The design conditions were acquired based on the following table.
Operating T
0 to 200 degF
Over 200 degF
Reactors

Design T
250 degF
operating + 50 degF
operating + 50 degF

Operating P
0 to 25 psig
25 to 250 psig
250 to 1000 psig
over 1000 psig

LIQUID CAPACITY
Capacity/Storage time
day

231

Design P
50 psig
operating + 25 psig
operating + 10%
operating + 5%

hr
kg/hr
kg/hr
kg/m3
m3
gal

24
flow rate
4370
Rated mass flow rate
4807
Density
774.4
148.9773
Rated Volume of liquid
39355.62
use vertical tanks on concrete foundation

Assumptions:

The storage for this chemical will be divided to 3 tanks, with 1 day total storage
time.
Based on the rule of thumb of Chemical Engineering Design, if the rated volume
of the liquid is greater than 10,000 gallons, vertical tanks on concrete foundations
is typically used.
The choses material of construction is carbon steel since Acetone is not corrosive.
ASME BPV (ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code) suggest circular geometry
for storage tanks.
Outage and Innage of the tank are assumed to be 500 . The outage is
the allowance for spillage, and the innage is the non-pumpable volume. The pump
should not be placed under the innage to avoid pump cavitation.
Based on the rule of thumb for Chemical Engineering Design, Optimum length to
diameter ratio for vessels is 3 ( = 3).
2
148.9773 3
(3 0.50 0.5) =
( )
4
3
= 2.877947 2900
= 3 = 3 2900 = 8700

Based on the Rules of thumb, the corrosion allowance for non-corrosive streams like
propylene is 0.15in or 3.8mm. The typical joint efficiency is 0.85. To calculate the
minimum thickness of the vessel, first is determine the maximum allowable stress (S)
which will be based on the type of material used. Using table 13.2 in Towler, the Maximum
allowable stress for carbon steel at 250 is 12.9ksi or 12900psi.
For cylindrical vessels:

232


(1)
2 1.2


(2)
4 + 0.8

Where:
= ( )
=
=
=
=
(1) =

78.08393782 2900
= 10.37005
2 12900 0.85 1.2 78.08393782

(2) =

78.08393782 2900
= 5.155526
4 12900 0.85 + 0.8 78.08393782

Choosing the higher value for ,


= 10.37005 + 3.8 15
= 2 + = 2 15 + 2900 = 2930
For heads and closures, 2:1 ellipsoidal is the common in the chemical industry.
=
=


2 0.2

78.08393782 2900
11
2 12900 0.85 0.2 78.08393782

233

REV
1

DATE
1/2/15

CALCULATION SHEET
CREATED BY
CHECKED BY
EAM
ALL
MFS

APPROVED BY

Service: Phenol Product B


OPERATING CONDITIONS
C
54.44
T
F
129.992
Bar
3.759
P
psia
54.53472
psig
39.83472
psia
2.57E-02
true VP and Reid VP at 37.8 C
kPaa
0.1773
(100F)
Atmospheric
Type of Vessel
vessel

If TVP (true vapor pressure) of the chemical is greater than 90 (), then use a pressure
vessel for the storage tank, otherwise use an atmospheric vessel for the storage tank.
DESIGN CONDITIONS
T

P (MAWP)

minimum P
minimum design metal temperature

C
F
Bar
psia
psig
psia
psig
C

93.33333
200
5.482214
79.53472
64.83472
0
-14.7
15 ~ 20

The minimum design metal temperature is based from the ambient temperature here in the
country .The design conditions were acquired based on the following table.

Operating T
0 to 200 degF
Over 200 degF
Reactors

Design T
250 degF
operating + 50 degF
operating + 50 degF

234

Operating P
0 to 25 psig
25 to 250 psig
250 to 1000 psig
over 1000 psig

Design P
50 psig
operating + 25 psig
operating + 10%
operating + 5%

LIQUID CAPACITY
day
Capacity/Storage time
hr
flow rate
kg/hr
Rated mass flow rate
kg/hr
Density
kg/m3
m3
Rated Volume of liquid
gal

1
24
7071
7778.1
1050

177.7851
46965.86
use vertical tanks on concrete foundation

Assumptions:

The storage for this chemical will be divided to 3 tanks, with 1 day total storage
time.
Based on the rule of thumb of Chemical Engineering Design, if the rated volume
of the liquid is greater than 10,000 gallons, vertical tanks on concrete foundations
is typically used.
The choses material of construction is carbon steel since Acetone is not corrosive.
ASME BPV (ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code) suggest circular geometry
for storage tanks.
Outage and Innage of the tank are assumed to be 500 . The outage is
the allowance for spillage, and the innage is the non-pumpable volume. The pump
should not be placed under the innage to avoid pump cavitation.
Based on the rule of thumb for Chemical Engineering Design, Optimum length to
diameter ratio for vessels is 3 ( = 3).
2
177.7851 3
(3 0.50 0.5) =
( )
4
3
= 3.045342 3100
= 3 = 3 3100 = 9300

Based on the Rules of thumb, the corrosion allowance for non-corrosive streams is 0.15in
or 3.8mm. The typical joint efficiency is 0.85. To calculate the minimum thickness of the
vessel, first is determine the maximum allowable stress (S) which will be based on the type
of material used. Using table 13.2 in Towler, the Maximum allowable stress for carbon
steel at 250 is 12.9ksi or 12900psi.

235

For liquid storage tanks, the minimum wall thickness required to resist the hydrostatic
pressure can be calculated from the following equation:
=


+
2 103

Where:
= ,
= ,
= , /3
= ( )
= , 9.81 / 2
= , /2
= ,
=

1
1050 (9300 500) (1000) 9.81
2 88.942369 0.85

3100
1000
+ 3.8 = 5.658425
103

6
= 2 +
= 2 6 + 5800 = 3112
For heads and closures, 2:1 ellipsoidal is the common in the chemical industry.
=


2 0.2

79.53 3100
12
2 12900 0.85 0.2 79.53

236

REV
1

DATE
1/2/15

CALCULATION SHEET
CREATED BY
CHECKED BY
EAM
ALL
MFS

APPROVED BY

Service: Benzene Recycle Stream


OPERATING CONDITIONS
70.05
C
T
158.09
F
1
Bar
P
psia 14.50777
psig -0.19223
psia 4.96E+00
true VP and Reid VP at 37.8 C
34.23
kPaa
(100F)
Atmospheric
Type of Vessel
vessel
DESIGN CONDITIONS
C 93.33333
200
F
Bar 4.459679
64.7
psia
50
psig
0
psia
-14.7
psig
15 ~ 20
C

T
P (MAWP)
minimum P
minimum design metal temperature

The minimum design metal temperature is based from the ambient temperature here in the
country .The design conditions were acquired based on the following table.
Operating T
0 to 200 degF
Over 200 degF
Reactors

Design T
250 degF
operating + 50 degF
operating + 50 degF

Operating P
0 to 25 psig
25 to 250 psig
250 to 1000 psig
over 1000 psig

Design P
50 psig
operating + 25 psig
operating + 10%
operating + 5%

LIQUID CAPACITY
Capacity/Storage time

237

day

hr

0.5

flow rate

kg/hr

1.06E+06

Rated mass flow rate

kg/hr

1161340

Density

kg/m3

819.4

m3

708.6529

gal

187206.3

Rated Volume of liquid

use vertical tanks on concrete foundation


The outage and innage of the tank is assumed to be 500 millimeters. The outage is the
allowance for spillage, and the innage is the non-pumpable volume. The pump should not
be placed under the innage to avoid pump cavitation.
The optimum Length to diameter ratio for vessels is 3. The volume is divided in 2, since it
is a liquid holdup tank.
2
708.6529 3
(3 0.50 0.5) =
( )
4
2
= 5.431252 5500
= 3 = 3 5500 = 16500
Based on the Rules of thumb, the corrosion allowance for non-corrosive streams is 0.15in
or 3.8mm. The typical joint efficiency is 0.85. To calculate the minimum thickness of the
vessel, first is determine the maximum allowable stress (S) which will be based on the type
of material used. Using table 13.2 in Towler, the Maximum allowable stress for carbon
steel at 250 is 12.9ksi or 12900psi.
For liquid storage tanks, the minimum wall thickness required to resist the hydrostatic
pressure can be calculated from the following equation:
=


+
2 103
238

Where:
= ,
= ,
= , /3
= ( )
= , 9.81 / 2
= , /2
= ,
=

1
819.4 (5500 500) (1000) 9.81
2 88.942369 0.85

5500
1000
+ 3.8 = 8.47
103

9
= 2 +
= 2 9 + 5500 = 5518
For heads and closures, 2:1 ellipsoidal is the common in the chemical industry.
=


2 0.2

64.7 5500
17
2 12900 0.85 0.2 64.7

239

REV
1

DATE
1/2/15

CALCULATION SHEET
CREATED BY
CHECKED BY
EAM
ALL
MFS

APPROVED BY

Service: Condensate from Distillation Column 1


OPERATING CONDITIONS
70.05
C
T
158.09
F
1
Bar
P
psia 14.50777
psig -0.19223
psia 4.96E+00
true VP and Reid VP at 37.8 C
34.23
kPaa
(100F)
Atmospheric
Type of Vessel
vessel
DESIGN CONDITIONS
T
P (MAWP)
minimum P
minimum design metal temperature

C 93.33333
200
F
Bar 4.459679
64.7
psia
50
psig
0
psia
-14.7
psig
15 ~ 20
C

The minimum design metal temperature is based from the ambient temperature here in the
country .The design conditions were acquired based on the following table.
Operating T
0 to 200 degF
Over 200 degF
Reactors

Design T
250 degF
operating + 50 degF
operating + 50 degF

Operating P
0 to 25 psig
25 to 250 psig
250 to 1000 psig
over 1000 psig

LIQUID CAPACITY
min
Liquid holdup time
hr
flow rate
kg/hr

240

Design P
50 psig
operating + 25 psig
operating + 10%
operating + 5%

5
0.083333
1.43E+06

Rated mass flow rate


Density
Rated Volume of liquid

kg/hr
kg/m3
m3
gal

1568930
819.4
159.5609
42151.51

The outage and innage of the tank is assumed to be 500 millimeters. The outage is the
allowance for spillage, and the innage is the non-pumpable volume. The pump should not
be placed under the innage to avoid pump cavitation.
1/3
4
= ( 159.5609 2)
3

5200
= 3 = 3 5200 = 15600

Based on the Rules of thumb, the corrosion allowance for non-corrosive streams is 0.15in
or 3.8mm. The typical joint efficiency is 0.85. To calculate the minimum thickness of the
vessel, first is determine the maximum allowable stress (S) which will be based on the type
of material used. Using table 13.2 in Towler, the Maximum allowable stress for carbon
steel at 250 is 12.9ksi or 12900psi.
For liquid storage tanks, the minimum wall thickness required to resist the hydrostatic
pressure can be calculated from the following equation:
=


+
2 103

Where:
= ,
= ,
= , /3

241

= ( )
= , 9.81 / 2
= , /2
= ,
=

1
819.4 (5200 500) (1000) 9.81
2 88.942369 0.85

5200
1000
+ 3.8 = 3.80
103

4
= 2 +
= 2 4 + 5200 = 5208
For heads and closures, 2:1 ellipsoidal is the common in the chemical industry.
=


2 0.2

64.7 5200
16
2 12900 0.85 0.2 64.7

242

REV
1

DATE
1/2/15

CALCULATION
CREATED BY
CHECKED BY
EAM
ALL
MFS

APPROVED BY

SERVICE: CONDENSATE from Distillation Column 2


OPERATING CONDITIONS
91.98
C
T
197.564
F
3.7
Bar
53.67876
P
psia
psig 38.97876
psia 2.15E+01
true VP and Reid VP at 37.8 C
148
kPaa
(100F)
Type of Vessel
Pressure vessel

DESIGN CONDITIONS
T
P (MAWP)
minimum P
minimum design metal temperature

C
F
Bar
psia
psig
psia
psig
C

93.33333
200
5.423214
78.67876
63.97876
0
-14.7
15 ~ 20

The minimum design metal temperature is based from the ambient temperature here in the
country .The design conditions were acquired based on the following table.
Design Temperature and Design Pressure
Operating T
0 to 200 degF
Over 200 degF
Reactors

Design T
250 degF
operating + 50 degF
operating + 50 degF

Operating P
0 to 25 psig
25 to 250 psig
250 to 1000 psig
over 1000 psig

LIQUID CAPACITY
min
Capacity/Storage time
hr
243

Design P
50 psig
operating + 25 psig
operating + 10%
operating + 5%

5
0.083333

flow rate
Rated mass flow rate
Density
Rated Volume of liquid

kg/hr
kg/hr
kg/m3
m3
gal

5.59E+03
6153.4
700.5
0.732025
193.3804

The outage and innage of the tank is assumed to be 500 millimeters. The outage is the
allowance for spillage, and the innage is the non-pumpable volume. The pump should not
be placed under the innage to avoid pump cavitation.
1/3
4
= ( 0.732025 2)
3

900
= 3 = 3 900 = 2700

Based on the Rules of thumb, the corrosion allowance for non-corrosive streams like
propylene is 0.15in or 3.8mm. The typical joint efficiency is 0.85. To calculate the
minimum thickness of the vessel, first is determine the maximum allowable stress (S)
which will be based on the type of material used. Using table 13.2 in Towler, the Maximum
allowable stress for carbon steel at 250 is 12.9ksi or 12900psi.
For cylindrical vessels:
=


(1)
2 1.2


(2)
4 + 0.8

244

Where:
= ( )
=
=
=
=

(1) =

78.67876 900
= 3.242912
2 12900 0.85 1.2 78.67876

(2) =

78.67876 900
= 1.612162
4 12900 0.85 + 0.8 78.67876

Choosing the higher value for ,


= 3.242912 + 3.8 4
= 2 + = 2 4 + 900 = 908
For heads and closures, 2:1 ellipsoidal is the common in the chemical industry.
=
=


2 0.2

78.67876 900
4
2 12900 0.85 0.2 78.67876

245

REV
1

DATE
1/2/15

CALCULATION
CREATED BY
CHECKED BY
EAM
ALL
MFS

APPROVED BY

OPERATING CONDITIONS
151.9
C
T
305.42
F
1.013
Bar
P
psia 14.69637
psig -0.00363
psia 2.07E-01
true VP and Reid VP at 37.8 C
1.427
kPaa
(100F)
Atmospheric
Type of Vessel
vessel

DESIGN CONDITIONS
C 179.6778
355.42
F
Bar 4.459679
64.7
psia
50
psig
0
psia
-14.7
psig
15 ~ 20
C

T
P (MAWP)
minimum P
minimum design metal temperature

The minimum design metal temperature is based from the ambient temperature here in the
country .The design conditions were acquired based on the following table.
Operating T
0 to 200 degF
Over 200 degF
Reactors

Design T
250 degF
operating + 50 degF
operating + 50 degF

Operating P
0 to 25 psig
25 to 250 psig
250 to 1000 psig
over 1000 psig

Design P
50 psig
operating + 25 psig
operating + 10%
operating + 5%

LIQUID CAPACITY
Capacity/Storage time

246

min

hr

0.083333

flow rate

kg/hr

6.80E+04

Rated mass flow rate

kg/hr

74822

Density

kg/m3

758.4

m3
Rated Volume of liquid

8.221475

gal

2171.884
The outage and innage of the tank is assumed to be 500 millimeters. The outage is the
allowance for spillage, and the innage is the non-pumpable volume. The pump should not
be placed under the innage to avoid pump cavitation.
1/3
4
= ( 8.221475 2)
3

2000
= 3 = 3 2000 = 6000

Based on the Rules of thumb, the corrosion allowance for non-corrosive streams is 0.15in
or 3.8mm. The typical joint efficiency is 0.85. To calculate the minimum thickness of the
vessel, first is determine the maximum allowable stress (S) which will be based on the type
of material used. Using table 13.2 in Towler, the Maximum allowable stress for carbon
steel at 250 is 12.9ksi or 12900psi.
For liquid storage tanks, the minimum wall thickness required to resist the hydrostatic
pressure can be calculated from the following equation:
=


+
2 103

Where:
= ,

247

= ,
= , /3
= ( )
= , 9.81 / 2
= , /2
= ,
=

1
758.4 (2000 500) (1000) 9.81
2 88.942369 0.85

2000
1000
+ 3.8 = 4
103

4
= 2 +
= 2 4 + 2000 = 2008
For heads and closures, 2:1 ellipsoidal is the common in the chemical industry.
=
=


2 0.2

64.7 2000
6
2 12900 0.85 0.2 64.7

248

REV
1

DATE
1/2/15

CALCULATION
CREATED BY
CHECKED BY
EAM
ALL
MFS

APPROVED BY

Service: Cumene Recycle Stream


OPERATING CONDITIONS
151.9
C
T
305.42
F
1.013
Bar
P
psia 14.69637
psig -0.00363
psia 1.81E-01
true VP and Reid VP at 37.8 C
1.247
kPaa
(100F)
Atmospheric
Type of Vessel
vessel

DESIGN CONDITIONS
C 179.6778
355.42
F
Bar 4.459679
64.7
psia
50
psig
0
psia
-14.7
psig
15 ~ 20
C

T
P (MAWP)
minimum P
minimum design metal temperature

The minimum design metal temperature is based from the ambient temperature here in the
country .The design conditions were acquired based on the following table.
Operating T
0 to 200 degF
Over 200 degF
Reactors

Design T
250 degF
operating + 50 degF
operating + 50 degF

Operating P
0 to 25 psig
25 to 250 psig
250 to 1000 psig
over 1000 psig

Design P
50 psig
operating + 25 psig
operating + 10%
operating + 5%

LIQUID CAPACITY
Capacity/Storage time

249

day

hr

flow rate

kg/hr

1.25E+04

Rated mass flow rate

kg/hr

13750

Density

kg/m3

758.4

m3

18.13027

gal

4789.511

Rated Volume of liquid

The outage and innage of the tank is assumed to be 500 millimeters. The outage is the
allowance for spillage, and the innage is the non-pumpable volume. The pump should not
be placed under the innage to avoid pump cavitation.
The optimum Length to diameter ratio for vessels is 3. The volume is divided in 2, since it
is a liquid holdup tank.
2
18.13027 3
(3 0.50 0.5) =
( )
4
1
= 2.091816 2100
= 3 = 3 2100 = 6300
Based on the Rules of thumb, the corrosion allowance for non-corrosive streams is 0.15in
or 3.8mm. The typical joint efficiency is 0.85. To calculate the minimum thickness of the
vessel, first is determine the maximum allowable stress (S) which will be based on the type
of material used. Using table 13.2 in Towler, the Maximum allowable stress for carbon
steel at 250 is 12.9ksi or 12900psi.
For liquid storage tanks, the minimum wall thickness required to resist the hydrostatic
pressure can be calculated from the following equation:
=


+
2 103

250

Where:
= ,
= ,
= , /3
= ( )
= , 9.81 / 2
= , /2
= ,
=

1
758.4 (6300 500) (1000) 9.81
2 88.942369 0.85

2100
1000
+ 3.8 = 5
103

5
= 2 +
= 2 5 + 2100 = 5
For heads and closures, 2:1 ellipsoidal is the common in the chemical industry.
=
=


2 0.2

64.7 2100
7
2 12900 0.85 0.2 64.7

251

REV
1

DATE
1/2/15

CALCULATION SHEET
CREATED BY
CHECKED BY
EAM
ALL
MFS

APPROVED BY

Service: Water
OPERATING CONDITIONS
C
30
T
F
86
Bar
1
P
psia
14.50777
psig
-0.19223
psia
9.49E-01
true VP and Reid VP at 37.8 C
kPaa
6.545
(100F)
Atmospheric
Type of Vessel
vessel

DESIGN CONDITIONS
T

P (MAWP)

minimum P
minimum design metal temperature

C 93.33333
F
200
Bar 4.459679
psia
64.7
psig
50
psia
0
psig
-14.7
C
15 ~ 20

The minimum design metal temperature is based from the ambient temperature here in the
country .The design conditions were acquired based on the following table.
Operating T
0 to 200 degF
Over 200 degF
Reactors

Design T
250 degF
operating + 50 degF
operating + 50 degF
252

Operating P
0 to 25 psig
25 to 250 psig
250 to 1000 psig

Design P
50 psig
operating + 25 psig
operating + 10%

over 1000 psig


LIQUID CAPACITY
day
Capacity/Storage time
hr
flow rate
kg/hr
Rated mass flow rate
kg/hr
Density
kg/m3
m3
Rated Volume of liquid
gal

operating + 5%

1
24
6100.649
6710.714
1000

161.0571
42546.78
use vertical tanks on concrete foundation

Assumptions:

Based on the rule of thumb of Chemical Engineering Design, if the rated volume
of the liquid is greater than 10,000 gallons, vertical tanks on concrete foundations
is typically used.
The chosen material of construction is carbon steel since water is not corrosive.
ASME BPV (ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code) suggest circular geometry
for storage tanks.
Outage and Innage of the tank are assumed to be 500 . The outage is
the allowance for spillage, and the innage is the non-pumpable volume. The pump
should not be placed under the innage to avoid pump cavitation.
Based on the rule of thumb for Chemical Engineering Design, Optimum length to
diameter ratio for vessels is 3 ( = 3).
2
161.0571 3
(3 0.50 0.5) =
( )
4
1
= 4.2029 4300
= 3 = 3 4300 = 12900

Based on the Rules of thumb, the corrosion allowance for non-corrosive streams is 0.15in
or 3.8mm. The typical joint efficiency is 0.85. To calculate the minimum thickness of the
vessel, first is determine the maximum allowable stress (S) which will be based on the type
of material used. Using table 13.2 in Towler, the Maximum allowable stress for carbon
steel at 250 is 12.9ksi or 12900psi.

253

For liquid storage tanks, the minimum wall thickness required to resist the hydrostatic
pressure can be calculated from the following equation:
=


+
2 103

Where:
= ,
= ,
= , /3
= ( )
= , 9.81 / 2
= , /2
= ,
=

1
1000 (12900 500) (1000) 9.81
2 88.942369 0.85

4300
1000
+ 3.8 = 7.259
103

8
= 2 +
= 2 8 + 4300 = 4316
For heads and closures, 2:1 ellipsoidal is the common in the chemical industry.
=
=


2 0.2

64.7 4300
13
2 12900 0.85 0.2 64.7

254

REV
1

DATE
1/2/15

CALCULATION SHEET
CREATED BY
CHECKED BY
EAM
ALL
MFS

APPROVED BY

Service: LPG Fuel (Propane)


OPERATING CONDITIONS
30
C
T
86
F
10.8
Bar
156.6839
P
psia
141.9839
psig
188.9842
psia
true VP and Reid VP at 37.8 C
1303
kPaa
(100F)
Type of Vessel
Pressure vessel
DESIGN CONDITIONS
C
F
Bar
psia
psig
psia
psig
C

P (MAWP)

minimum P
minimum design metal temperature

93.33333
200
12.52321
181.6839
166.9839
0
-14.7
15 ~ 20

LIQUID CAPACITY
day
hr
m3/hr
m3/hr
m3
gal

Capacity/Storage time
Volumetric Flow Rate
Rated Volumetric Flow Rate
Rated Volume of liquid

45
1080
2.71
2.981
3219.48
850496.5

use vertical tanks on concrete foundation

The minimum design metal temperature is based from the ambient temperature here in the
country .The design conditions were acquired based on the following table.
Operating T

Design T

Operating P
255

Design P

0 to 200 degF
Over 200 degF
Reactors

250 degF
operating + 50 degF
operating + 50 degF

0 to 25 psig
25 to 250 psig
250 to 1000 psig
over 1000 psig

50 psig
operating + 25 psig
operating + 10%
operating + 5%

Assumptions:

The storage for the fuel will be 45 days (1 2 ), since the company
plans to buy fuel only on days that the price is ideally low. The capacity of the fuel
tank is enough for this to be possible. The storage tank is divided into 4.
Based on the rule of thumb of Chemical Engineering Design, if the rated volume
of the liquid is greater than 10,000 gallons, vertical tanks on concrete foundations
is typically used.
ASME BPV (ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code) suggest circular geometry
for storage tanks.
Outage and Innage of the tank are assumed to be 500 . The outage is
the allowance for spillage, and the innage is the non-pumpable volume. The pump
should not be placed under the innage to avoid pump cavitation.
Based on the rule of thumb for Chemical Engineering Design, Optimum length to
diameter ratio for vessels is 3 ( = 3).
2
3219.48 3
(3 0.50 0.5) =
( )
4
4
= 7.103344 7200
= 3 = 3 7200 = 21600

Based on the Rules of thumb, the corrosion allowance for non-corrosive streams like
propylene is 0.15in or 3.8mm. The typical joint efficiency is 0.85. To calculate the
minimum thickness of the vessel, first is determine the maximum allowable stress (S)
which will be based on the type of material used. Using table 13.2 in Towler, the Maximum
allowable stress for carbon steel at 250 is 12.9ksi or 12900psi.
For cylindrical vessels:
=


(1)
2 1.2


(2)
4 + 0.8
256

Where:
= ( )
=
=
=
=
(1) =

181.68 7200
= 60.24897
2 12900 0.85 1.2 64.7

(2) =

181.68 7200
= 29.72649
4 12900 0.85 + 0.8 64.7

Choosing the higher value for ,


= 60.24897 + 3.8 65
= 2 + = 2 65 + 2900 = 7330
For heads and closures, 2:1 ellipsoidal is the common in the chemical industry.
=
=


2 0.2

181.68 7200
65
2 12900 0.85 0.2 64.7

257

Appendix C
REACTORS CALCULATION SHEETS

REV
1

DATE
1/2/15

CALCULATION
CREATED BY
CHECKED BY
EAM
ALL
MFS

LEGEND:
= , 2
= ,
= ,
= , 3
= , 3
=
= , /
= , /2
= , /2
= ,
= , 2
= , /
= ,
= ,
DATA FROM ASPEN HYSYS
Total Volume (m3)
113.3
Number of tubes
1000
Length (m)
10
Diameter of tube (m)
0.1201
Void Fraction
0.7
Void Volume (m3)
79.3
Ac (m2)
0.011328591

CATALYST BED SPECIFICATIONS


Volume of Catalyst bed (m3) 34
700
( 3 )
dp (m)
0.003
Mass of catalyst (kg)
7140
HEAT TRANSFER CALCULATIONS IN THE REACTOR
Mass flow (kg/s)
297.6710076
258

APPROVED BY

G (kg/m2s)
h (W/m2K)
Square Pitch Size (mm)
Minimum Area Required
(m2)
Baffle Spacing
Shell Diameter Required
(m)
Baffle Spacing (m)
As (m2)
Heat Evolved in the
reaction (kW)

28903.69239
636025.5239
100

()

27.28

Water circulation rate


(kg/h)

66676.29231

10
1/5 of dt
3.908820095
0.781764019
0.305577491
2114

TUBE SPECIFICATIONS
Material
Carbon Steel
4.728346457
TUBE I.D. (in)
4.813
TUBE O.D. (in)
5.563
Nominal Pipe Size (in)
5
Schedule No.
80XS, 80S
Wall Thickness (in)
0.375
Cross Sectional Area (in2)
6.11

= (0.1201)2 = 0.011328591 2
4
=

=
= 113.3 79.3 = 343
= ( )
= (1 0.7)(700)(34) = 7140
=

.
1.1 297.6710076 /

=
= 28903.69239 2
2

0.011328591

259

. . 15.1 28903.692390.95

=
=
= 636025.5239 2
.
0.42
0.1201

(1) :
= 100
= ( ) (# )
100 2
= (
) (1000) = 10 2
1000
( + . ) .
= (
)

10 (1 + 0.2) 0.5
= (
) = 3.908820095
4
=

1
= 3.908820095 = 0.781764019


.
.
3.908820095 0.781764019
=
0.01 = 0.305577491 2
0.1
=

2114 /
3600
=

= 66676.29231
4.184 27.28

260

REV
1

DATE
1/2/15

CALCULATION
CREATED BY
CHECKED BY
MFS
ALL
EAM

LEGEND:
= , 2
= ,
= ,
= , 3
= , 3
=
= , /
= , /2
= , /2
= ,
= , 2
= , /
= ,
= ,
DATA FROM ASPEN HYSYS
Total Volume (m3)
25.02
Number of tubes
100
Length (m)
10
Diameter of tube (m)
0.1785
Void Fraction
0.7
Void Volume (m3)
17.51
0.025024553
Ac (m2)
CATALYST BED SPECIFICATIONS
Volume of Catalyst bed
7.51
(m3)
0.00118
( 3 )
dp (m)
0.00002
0.00265854
Mass of catalyst (kg)
HEAT TRANSFER CALCULATIONS IN THE REACTOR
5.957000989
Mass flow (kg/s)
261.8508784
G (kg/m2s)
6172.20338
h (W/m2K)
Square Pitch Size (mm)
100
Minimum Area Required
1
(m2)
261

APPROVED BY

Baffle Spacing
Shell Diameter Required
(m)
Baffle Spacing (m)
As (m2)
Heat Evolved in the
reaction (kW)

1/5 of dt
1.236077446
0.247215489
0.305577491
5154

()

27.28

Water circulation rate


(kg/h)

162558.9454

TUBE SPECIFICATIONS
Material
Carbon Steel
7.027559055
TUBE I.D. (in)
7.187
TUBE O.D. (in)
8.625
Nominal Pipe Size (in)
8
Schedule No.
120
Wall Thickness (in)
0.719
Cross Sectional Area (in2)
17.86

= (0.1785)2 = 0.025024553 2
4
=

=
= 25.02 17.51 = 7.51 3
= ( )
= (1 0.7)(7.51)(0.00118) = 2.65854
=

.
1.1 5.957000989 /

=
=
261.85087

0.025024553 2
2

. . 15.1 28903.692390.95

=
= 6172.203192 2
.
0.42
0.1201

262

(1) :
= 100
= ( ) (# )
100 2
= (
) (100) = 1 2
1000
( + . ) .
= (
)

1 (1 + 0.2) 0.5
= (
) = 1.236077446
4
=

1
= 1.236077446 = 0.2472154892


.
.
1.236077446 0.247215489
=
0.01 = 0.03055774903 2
0.1
=

2114 /
3600
=

= 162558.9454

4.184

27.28

263

REV
1

DATE
1/2/15

CALCULATION
CREATED BY
CHECKED BY
EAM
ALL
MFS

Legend:
= ,
= , 3
= , 3
= ,
= ,
= , /
= , 3
= ,
= , 2
=
= , ( )
= , 3
= ,
= , /
= , /
= , /
=
= , /
= ,
= ,
=

264

APPROVED BY

REACTOR VESSEL
Residence time (h)
(

V (m3)
D (m)
Reactor L (m)
u (m/s)
Height of Fluid (m)

4
25.278
101.112
4
12
0.000558766
9

CATALYST INFORMATION
( 3 )

790

diameter (m)
Ac (cm2)

1.40E-07
1.54E-10

DESIGN OF THE BED

0.8

Bed Height (m)

0.1

Bed Volume (m3)

1.256637061

(. )

2.15E-05

(/ 3 )

1.597

(Pa)

154.6318456

Mass of Catalyst (Kg)


( )

198.5486557
4.33E-08

( )

1.20404E-07

( )

3.92E-07

STATUS

PASSED

BUBBLE VELOCITY AND CLOUD SIZE

0.490948231

(m/s)

0.001390645

()

2.44E-05

Type of plate
0 ()

Porous
1.17376E-05

0.401772564

=
= 4 25.278 = 101.112 3
265

=(

/
1/3

4
)
= ( 101.112) = 4

= = 3 4 = 12

25.278/3600
=
=
= 0.000558766 /


= (1.40 7)2 = 1.54 10
4

ASSUMPTION: Bed height is 0.1m

= 42 0.1 = 1.256637061 3
4
= ( ) ( )
= 0.1 (790 1.597) (1 0.8) 9.80665 = 154.6318456
= ( )
= (1 0.8) 790 1.256637061 = 198.5486557
( )

[( )]

2
(0.6 1.40 7)
0.83
[9.80665(790 1.597)]
=
= 4.33 8 /
150 2.15 5
1 0.8

( )

(790 1.597) 9.80665 (1.40 7)2 0.83


=
= 1.20404 7 /
150 2.15 5
1 0.8
=

( )

9.80665(790 1.597)(1.40 7)2


=
= 3.92 7 /
18 2.15 5
=

< < ,

266

. /
)

The typical is 0.6


0.071 1/3
= (
) = 0.490948231
0.6
= (

= + (. )( )/
= 0.000558766 (4.33 8) + (0.71)(9.80665 (1.40
= 0.001390645 /

1
7))2

= . [ ( )].
= 0.652[(1.54 10)(0.000558766 (4.33 08)) 100]0.4
= 2.44 05
= . ( )
= 0.00376((0.000558766 (4.33 08)) 100)2
=

0.000558766 (4.33 08)


= 0.401772564
0.001390645

267

REV
1

DATE
1/2/15

CALCULATION
CREATED BY
CHECKED BY
EAM
ALL
MFS

Legend:
= ,
= , 3
= , 3
= ,
= ,
= , /
= , 3
= ,
= , 2
=
= , ( )
= , 3
= ,
= , /
= , /
= , /
=
= , /
= ,
= ,
=

268

APPROVED BY

REACTOR VESSEL
Residence time (h)
(

V (m3)
D (m)
Reactor L (m)
u (m/s)
Height of Fluid (m)

4
24.54308240
98.17203297
4
12
0.00054252
8

CATALYST INFORMATION
( 3 )

790

diameter (m)
Ac (cm2)

1.40E-07
1.54E-10

DESIGN OF THE BED

0.8

Bed Height (m)

0.1

Bed Volume (m3)

1.256637061

(. )

2.15E-05

(/ 3 )

1.597

(Pa)

154.6318456

Mass of Catalyst (Kg)


( )

198.5486557
4.33E-08

( )

1.20404E-07

( )

3.92E-07

STATUS

PASSED

BUBBLE VELOCITY AND CLOUD SIZE

0.490948231

(m/s)

0.001374398

()

2.42E-05

Type of plate
0 ()

Porous
1.10649E-05

0.394700865

=
269

= 4 24.54300824 = 98.17203296 3
/
1/3

4
= ( )
= ( 98.17203297) = 4

= = 3 4 = 12

24.54300824/3600
=
=
= 0.0005425195944 /


= (1.40 7)2 = 1.54 10
4

ASSUMPTION: Bed height is 0.1m

= 42 0.1 = 1.256637061 3
4
= ( ) ( )
= 0.1 (790 1.597) (1 0.8) 9.80665 = 154.6318456
= ( )
= (1 0.8) 790 1.256637061 = 198.5486557

( )

=
[( )]

(0.6 1.40 7)2


0.83
[
(
)]
=
9.80665 790 1.597
= 4.33 8 /
150 2.15 5
1 0.8

( )
=

(790 1.597) 9.80665 (1.40 7)2 0.83


=
= 1.20404 7 /
150 2.15 5
1 0.8
( )
=

9.80665(790 1.597)(1.40 7)2


=
= 3.92 7 /
18 2.15 5
< < ,
270

. /
)

The typical is 0.6


0.071 1/3
= (
) = 0.490948231
0.6
= (

= + (. )( )/
= 0.000542519594 (4.33 8) + (0.71)(9.80665 (1.40
= 0.001374398 /

1
7))2

= . [ ( )].
= 0.652[(1.54 10)(0.000542519594 (4.33 08)) 100]0.4
= 2.42 05
= . ( )
= 0.00376((0.000542519594 (4.33 08)) 100)2
= 1.106494791 09
=

0.000542519594 (4.33 08)


= 0.3947010211
0.001374398

271

REV
1

CALCULATION
CREATED BY
CHECKED BY
EAM
ALL
MFS

DATE
1/2/15

Legend:
= ,
= , 3
= , 3
= ,
= ,
= , /
= , 3
= ,
= , 2
=
= , ( )
= , 3
= ,
= , /
= , /
= , /
=
= , /
= ,
= ,
=

REACTOR VESSEL
Residence time (h)
(

V (m3)
D (m)
Reactor L (m)
u (m/s)
Height of Fluid (m)

4
21.66297478
86.6518991
4
12
0.000478857
7

CATALYST INFORMATION
( 3 )

790
272

APPROVED BY

diameter (m)
Ac (cm2)

1.40E-07
1.54E-10

DESIGN OF THE BED

0.8

Bed Height (m)

0.1

Bed Volume (m3)

1.256637061

(. )

2.15E-05

(/ 3 )

1.597

(Pa)

154.6318456

Mass of Catalyst (Kg)


( )

198.5486557
4.33E-08

( )

1.20404E-07

( )

3.92E-07

STATUS

PASSED

BUBBLE VELOCITY AND CLOUD SIZE

0.490948231
(m/s)

0.001310736

()

2.44E-05

Type of plate
0 ()

Porous
8.62027-06

0.365301355

=
= 4 21.66297478 = 86.6518991 3
=(

/
1/3

4
)
= ( 86.6518991) = 4

= = 3 4 = 12

21.66297478/3600
=
=
= 0.0004788568775 /


= (1.40 7)2 = 1.54 10

4
273

ASSUMPTION: Bed height is 0.1m

= 42 0.1 = 1.256637061 3
4
= ( ) ( )
= 0.1 (790 1.597) (1 0.8) 9.80665 = 154.6318456
= ( )
= (1 0.8) 790 1.256637061 = 198.5486557
( )

[( )]

2
(0.6 1.40 7)
0.83
[9.80665(790 1.597)]
=
= 4.33 8 /
150 2.15 5
1 0.8

( )
=

(790 1.597) 9.80665 (1.40 7)2 0.83


=
= 1.20404 7 /
150 2.15 5
1 0.8
( )
=

9.80665(790 1.597)(1.40 7)2


=
= 3.92 7 /
18 2.15 5
< < ,

. /
= (
)

The typical is 0.6


0.071 1/3
= (
) = 0.490948231
0.6
= + (. )( )/
1

= 0.000478857 (4.33 8) + (0.71)(9.80665 (1.40 7))2


= 0.001310736 /
274

= . [ ( )].
= 0.652[(1.54 10)(0.000478857 (4.33 08)) 100]0.4
= 2.297854424 05
= . ( )
= 0.00376((0.000478857 (4.33 08)) 100)2 = 8.62027223 06

0.000478857 (4.33 08)


=
= 0.3653014032
0.001310736
=

275

REV
1

DATE
1/2/15

CALCULATION
CREATED BY
CHECKED BY
EAM
ALL
MFS

Legend:
= ,
= , 3
= , 3
= ,
= ,
= , /
= , 3
= ,
= , 2
=
= , ( )
= , 3
= ,
= , /
= , /
= , /
=
= , /
= ,
= ,
=

276

APPROVED BY

REACTOR VESSEL
Residence time (h)
(

V (m3)
D (m)
Reactor L (m)
u (m/s)
Height of Fluid (m)

4
21.05481201
84.21924804
4
12
0.000465414
7

CATALYST INFORMATION
( 3 )

790

diameter (m)
Ac (cm2)

1.40E-07
1.54E-10

DESIGN OF THE BED

0.8

Bed Height (m)

0.1

Bed Volume (m3)

1.256637061

(. )

2.15E-05

(/ 3 )

1.597

(Pa)

154.6318456

Mass of Catalyst (Kg)


( )

198.5486557
4.33E-08

( )

1.20404E-07

( )

3.92E-07

STATUS

PASSED

BUBBLE VELOCITY AND CLOUD SIZE

0.490948231

(m/s)

0.001297292

()

2.27E-05

Type of plate
0 ()

Porous
8.14301-06

0.358724213

=
= 4 21.05481201 = 84.21924804 3
277

=(

/
1/3

4
)
= ( 84.21924804) = 4

= = 3 4 = 12

21.05481201/3600
=
=
= 0.000465414 /


= (1.40 7)2 = 1.54 10
4

ASSUMPTION: Bed height is 0.1m

= 42 0.1 = 1.256637061 3
4
= ( ) ( )
= 0.1 (790 1.597) (1 0.8) 9.80665 = 154.6318456
= ( )
= (1 0.8) 790 1.256637061 = 198.5486557
( )

[( )]

2
(0.6 1.40 7)
0.83
[9.80665(790 1.597)]
=
= 4.33 8 /
150 2.15 5
1 0.8

( )

(790 1.597) 9.80665 (1.40 7)2 0.83


=
= 1.20404 7 /
150 2.15 5
1 0.8
=

( )

9.80665(790 1.597)(1.40 7)2


=
= 3.92 7 /
18 2.15 5
=

< < ,

278

. /
)

The typical is 0.6


0.071 1/3
= (
) = 0.490948231
0.6
= (

= + (. )( )/
= 0.000465414 (4.33 8) + (0.71)(9.80665 (1.40
= 0.001297292 /

1
7))2

= . [ ( )].
= 0.652[(1.54 10)(0.000465414 (4.33 08)) 100]0.4
= 2.27 05
= . ( )
= 0.00376((0.000465414 (4.33 08)) 100)2 = 8.14301 06
=

0.000465414 (4.33 08)


= 0.358724213
0.001297292

279

Appendix D
DISTILLATION COLUMNS CALCULATION SHEETS

REV
1

DATE
1/2/15

CALCULATION
CREATED BY
CHECKED BY
EAM
ALL
MFS

APPROVED BY

VAPOR
TRAY
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

TRAY

Mole flow
kmol/h
kmol/s
18330
5.091667
18500
5.138889
18500
5.138889
18500
5.138889
18490
5.136111
18490
5.136111
18480
5.133333
18480
5.133333
18470
5.130556
18470
5.130556
18460
5.127778
12040
3.344444
12050
3.347222
12060
3.35
12060
3.35
12060
3.35
12060
3.35
12060
3.35
12060
3.35
12040
3.344444
11870
3.297222
10460
2.905556
8872
2.464444
9413
2.614722
9841
2.733611
9940
2.761111
9958
2.766111

Mass Rate
kg/h
kg/s
1426408
396.2244
1440915
400.2542
1440845
400.2348
1440652
400.181
1440455
400.1265
1440258
400.0716
1440058
400.0161
1439856
399.96
1439650
399.9029
1439440
399.8444
1439222
399.784
941574.2
261.5484
942553.4
261.8204
942676.9
261.8547
942769.9
261.8805
942861.1
261.9059
942951.5
261.931
943035.5
261.9543
943086.7
261.9685
942890.6
261.9141
937918.6
260.5329
893579.4
248.2165
939337.1
260.927
1102676
306.299
1177582
327.1062
1193788
331.6078
1196744
332.4288

LIQUID
280

Vol Rate
m3/h
516004.5
519853
518852.8
517814.2
516777.1
515741.5
514706.8
513672.4
512637.2
511599.9
510558.6
332641.8
332358.5
331801.6
331236.9
330673.4
330110.5
329540.6
328929.7
328104.8
325842.2
306986.9
281593.3
305734.7
320596
323502
323575.7

Density
kg/m3
2.764332
2.771774
2.776983
2.782179
2.787382
2.792596
2.797822
2.803063
2.808322
2.813605
2.818917
2.830595
2.835954
2.841086
2.846211
2.851336
2.856473
2.861667
2.867137
2.873749
2.878444
2.910806
3.335794
3.606644
3.673105
3.690203
3.698496

Mole flow
kmol/
h
1

4849

4847

4843

4840

4836

4831

4827

4822

4817

10

4811

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

1.21E
+04
1.21E
+04
1.21E
+04
1.21E
+04
1.21E
+04
1.21E
+04
1.21E
+04
1.21E
+04
1.21E
+04
1.20E
+04
1.05E
+04

Mass Rate

Vol
Rate

Density

Surface
Tension

kg/m3

dyne/cm

811.6506

20.8

811.5178

20.8

811.4453

20.8

811.3741

20.8

811.3036

20.8

811.2341

20.8

811.1658

20.8

811.0989

20.7

811.0339

20.7

810.9712

20.7

810.9133

20.7

810.6797

20.7

810.5885

20.7

810.5128

20.7

810.4378

20.7

810.3631

20.7

810.2895

20.6

810.2209

20.6

810.1769

20.6

810.2793

20.6

811.2073

20.5

kmol/s

kg/h

kg/s

m3/h

1.3469
44
1.3463
89
1.3452
78
1.3444
44
1.3433
33
1.3419
44
1.3408
33
1.3394
44
1.3380
56
1.3363
89
3.3666
67
3.3694
44
3.3722
22
3.3722
22
3.3722
22
3.3722
22
3.3722
22
3.3722
22
3.3666
67
3.3194
44
2.9277
78

37880
9.7
37873
9.8
37854
6.1
37834
9.8
37815
2.1
37795
2.5
37775
0.4
37754
4.9
37733
4.4
37711
6.8
95108
4.6
95206
3.8
95218
7.3
95228
0.4
95237
1.5
95246
1.9
95254
5.9
95259
7.1
95240
1
94742
9
90308
9.8

105.224
9
105.205
5
105.151
7
105.097
2
105.042
3
104.986
8
104.930
7
104.873
6
104.815
1
104.754
7
264.190
2
264.462
2
264.496
5
264.522
3
264.547
6
264.572
8
264.596
1
264.610
3
264.555
8
263.174
7
250.858
3

466.715
2
466.705
5
466.508
4
466.307
5
466.104
3
465.898
2
465.688
3
465.473
3
465.251
2
465.018
8
1172.85
6
1174.40
2
1174.68
6
1174.91
1
1175.13
2
1175.35
2
1175.56
3
1175.72
5
1175.54
7
1169.26
2
1113.26
6

281

22

8951

23

9492

24

9920

25
26
27

1.00E
+04
1.00E
+04
9844

2.4863
89
2.6366
67
2.7555
56
2.7833
33
2.7888
89
2.7344
44

94884
7.5
11121
87
11870
93
12032
98
12062
54
11831
50

263.568
8
308.940
8
329.748
334.249
5
335.070
6
328.652
9

1204.50
7
1475.75
2
1598.41
8
1625.00
6
1629.94
7
1599.04
3

787.7476

18.6

753.6406

16.1

742.6672

15.3

740.4884

15.1

740.0571

15.1

739.9114

15.1

FLV AND MINIMUM DIAMETER CALCULATIONS


TRA
Y

FLV

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

0.015498
0.015361
0.015369
0.015379
0.015388
0.015397
0.015406
0.015414
0.015423
0.015432
0.038962
0.059748
0.059754
0.059809
0.059865
0.059922
0.059978
0.060033
0.060076
0.05984
0.057356
0.064547
0.078772
0.075022
0.071968
0.071352
0.069897

0.13
0.13
0.13
0.13
0.13
0.13
0.13
0.13
0.13
0.13
0.14
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.115
0.125
0.115
0.11
0.11
0.11
0.11

0.131023749
0.131023749
0.131023749
0.131023749
0.131023749
0.131023749
0.131023749
0.130897521
0.130897521
0.130897521
0.140966561
0.120828481
0.120828481
0.120828481
0.120828481
0.120828481
0.120711512
0.120711512
0.120711512
0.120711512
0.115569335
0.123198835
0.110117671
0.104261741
0.103987725
0.103987725
0.103987725

282

()

2.241293072
2.238088186
2.235880711
2.233686444
2.231496069
2.229309033
2.227124756
2.222799031
2.220620053
2.218441184
2.386744898
2.041246954
2.03919572
2.037250936
2.03531525
2.033384669
2.029489979
2.027554414
2.025557372
2.023346131
1.936679592
2.022971011
1.65149126
1.492496605
1.472803274
1.468940064
1.467138741

1.905099111
1.902374958
1.900498604
1.898633477
1.896771658
1.894912678
1.893056043
1.889379176
1.887527045
1.885675006
2.028733163
1.735059911
1.733316362
1.731663295
1.730017963
1.728376969
1.725066482
1.723421252
1.721723766
1.719844211
1.646177654
1.719525359
1.403767571
1.268622114
1.251882783
1.248599055
1.24706793

TRAY
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

()

157.6680381
158.8439865
158.5383449
158.2210005
157.9041107
157.587675
157.2715292
156.9554532
156.6391507
156.3221946
156.0040071
101.6405367
101.5539838
101.3838101
101.2112729
101.0391093
100.8670884
100.6929506
100.5063116
100.2542358
99.56290608
93.80155737
86.04238696
93.4189498
97.95987487
98.84782498
98.87035813

( )

( )

70.34690823
70.97306867
70.90644155
70.83402462
70.76154556
70.68902188
70.61639846
70.61162574
70.53847439
70.46488128
65.36266496
49.79335622
49.80099888
49.76500847
49.72756575
49.6901107
49.70070778
49.66226797
49.61908907
49.5487323
51.40907483
46.36821628
52.09981369
62.59240354
66.512532
67.29193886
67.38991711

79.93967
80.65121
80.5755
80.49321
80.41085
80.32843
80.24591
80.24048
80.15736
80.07373
74.27576
56.58336
56.59204
56.55115
56.5086
56.46603
56.47808
56.4344
56.38533
56.30538
58.4194
52.69115
59.20433
71.12773
75.58242
76.46811
76.57945

()

10.08872
10.13352
10.12877
10.12359
10.11841
10.11323
10.10803
10.10769
10.10245
10.09718
9.724753
8.487884
8.488535
8.485467
8.482275
8.479079
8.479984
8.476704
8.473018
8.467009
8.624494
8.190755
8.68224
9.516441
9.80992
9.86723
9.874411

10.2
10.3
10.3
10.3
10.3
10.3
10.3
10.3
10.3
10.2
9.9
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.8
8.3
8.8
9.7
10
10
10

1. Calculation of the diameter for the rectifying and stripping part of the distillation
column.
The first tray is to be considered in this calculation
=

2.764332 3
105.2249 /

= 0.0155

396.2244 /
811.6506 3

Assumed plate spacing is 0.9


1 = 0.13, which is based from figure 11.29 of Towler
283

= [. ].
1 = 0.13[20.80.02]0.2 = 0.131023749
=

811.6506 2.764332
= 0.131023749
= 2.241293072 /
2.764332
85% , = 2.241293072 0.85 = 1.905099111 /
= .
= 1.1

396.2244
= 157.6680381 3
3

@ %
157.6680381
=
= 70.3469082 2
1.905099111
=

=
.
70.3469082
=
= 79.94 2
1 0.12
=
=

4 79.94
= 10.089 10.2

2. Plate Design
The Stripping section will be the basis of the calculation
= 10

= 102 = 78.53981634 2
4
=

% = 12%
284

= %
= 0.12 78.53981634 = 9.424777961 2
=
= 78.53981634 9.424777961 = 69.11503838 2
=
= 78.53981634 2 9.424777961 = 59.69026042 2
% = 6%
= %
= 78.53981634 0.06 = 4.721238898 2

59.69026042
% =
100 = 12%

78.53981634

= 0.76, which is based from figure 11.33 of Towler


= .
= 0.76 10 = 7.6

is set to be 40

3. Weeping Test
The Stripping section will be the basis of the calculation

, = .

= 1.1 335.0706
= 368.5776268 /

max

, = .
= 0.5 250.8583 = 125.4291356 /

/
= [
]

368.5776268 2/3
= 750 [
] = 114.6701249
811.2073 7.6
/
]

114.6701249 2/3
= 750 [
]
739.9114 7.6

= [
min

285

+ = 40 + 59.42894361 = 99.42894361

2 is 31, based from figure 11.32 of Towler


Hole diameter is set to be 8
. (. )
.
31 0.9(25.4 8)
=

= 7.976507131 /
3.6984960.5

0.5

0.5 281593.3
=
= 8.299437091
2 4.71238898 3600
=

. > .

4. Pressure Drop
The Stripping section will be the basis of the calculation

Plate thickness is set to 5


.

332641.8
= 1.1
= 21.56879178 /
3600 4.71238898
=

( ) 100 is set to be 8%, based from figure 11.36 of Towler


is set to be 0.83, based from figure 11.36 of Towler

=

2
21.56879178
2.830595
= 51 (
)
= 131.753965
0.83
739.9114
=
=

12500
= 16.89391468
739.9114

= + + ( + )
= 131.753965 + 16.89391468 + (40 + 114.6701249)
= 303.3180046
286

5. Downcomer Liquid Backup


The Stripping section will be the basis of the calculation
=

1629.947
= 0.452763128 3
3600

= 8, due to very high liquid loading


=
= 40 5 = 35
= (
= (

35
) 7.6 = 0.266 2
1000

Since < :


= [
]

368.5776268 2
8
= 166 [
] = 9.096270081
739.9114 0.266

= ( + ) + +
= (40 + 114.6701249) + 303.3180046 + 9.096270081 = 467.0843996
12 ( + ) = 470
( + ) >

9.424777961 467.0843996 739.9114


=
= 28.40
114.6701249 1000
= =

>

6. Entrainment
The Stripping section will be the basis of the calculation

287

1.1 332641.8
=
= 1.47059944 /
69.11503838 3600
=

1.47059944
% =
100 = 72%
2.041246954
% =

% <

Fractional entrainment is 0.0125, based from figure 11.31 of Towler


< .

7. Tray Layout
The Stripping section will be the basis of the calculation

Unperforated strip and Calming Zone is bot set at 50 mm


is 0.76, which is based from figure 11.34 of Towler
is 98, which is based from figure 11.34 of Towler
= 180 98 = 82

,
= (

)(
)

2 50 82
, = (10
)(
) = 14.16858287
1000
180

=
= 0.05 14.16858287 = 0.708429143 2
= +
50
= 7.6 +
= 7.65
1000
= ( )
50
= 2 (7.65
) = 0.765 2
1000
=
288

= 59.69026042 0.708429143 0.765 = 58.2068327 2

4.71238898
=
= 0.080945474
58.21683127

is 3.3, which is based from figure 11.35 of Towler


. < . < .

8 2
= (
) = 5.02655 05
4 1000
=


4.71238898
=
= 93750
5.02655 05
=

289

REV
1

CALCULATION
CREATED BY
CHECKED BY
MFS
ALL
EAM

DATE
1/2/15

APPROVED BY

VAPOR
TRAY
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

Mole flow
kmol/h
kmol/s
96.33
0.026758
97.2
0.027
97.17
0.026992
97.04
0.026956
96.59
0.026831
95.16
0.026433
92.25
0.025625
89.3
0.024806
87.63
0.024342
86.56
0.024044
172.7
0.047972
167.1
0.046417
158
0.043889
161.9
0.044972
184.7
0.051306
202.2
0.056167
208.4
0.057889
210
0.058333
210.5
0.058472
210.5
0.058472
210.3
0.058417
209.5
0.058194

Mass Rate
kg/h
kg/s
5593
1.553611
5644
1.567778
5643
1.5675
5639
1.566389
5624
1.562222
5580
1.55
5501
1.528056
5437
1.510278
5395
1.498611
5327
1.479722
1.08E+04
2.988889
1.10E+04
3.041667
1.21E+04
3.35
1.53E+04
4.255556
1.97E+04
5.483333
2.25E+04
6.236111
2.34E+04
6.491667
2.36E+04
6.558333
2.37E+04
6.572222
2.37E+04
6.575
2.36E+04
6.563889
2.35E+04
6.516667

Vol Rate
m3/h
799.2007
805.9617
805.3451
804.5153
802.894
798.7686
790.1682
780.876
775.7699
772.2426
1552.955
1545.278
1544.723
1667.957
1948.277
2146.496
2215.003
2232.074
2235.372
2234.898
2232.072
2223.214

Density
kg/m3
6.998242
7.002814
7.006934
7.009189
7.004661
6.985753
6.961808
6.962693
6.954382
6.898091
6.928727
7.086104
7.807227
9.184888
10.13203
10.4589
10.55078
10.57761
10.58437
10.59109
10.58658
10.55229

LIQUID
TRAY

Mole flow
kmol/h
21.94

kmol/s
0.006094

Mass Rate
kg/h
1275

Vol Rate

Density

kg/s
m3/h
kg/m3
0.354167 1.847276 690.2053
290

Surface
Tension
dyne/cm
15

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

21.91
21.78
21.33
19.89
16.99
14.04
12.37
11.3
332.8
3.27E+02
3.18E+02
3.22E+02
3.45E+02
3.62E+02
3.69E+02
3.70E+02
3.71E+02
3.71E+02
3.70E+02
3.70E+02
365

0.006086
0.00605
0.005925
0.005525
0.004719
0.0039
0.003436
0.003139
0.092444
0.090889
0.088333
0.089444
0.095778
0.100639
0.102361
0.102806
0.102917
0.102944
0.102889
0.102667
0.101389

1273
1269
1254
1210
1132
1068
1025
956.9
2.78E+04
2.80E+04
2.91E+04
3.24E+04
3.68E+04
3.95E+04
4.04E+04
4.07E+04
4.07E+04
4.07E+04
4.07E+04
4.05E+04
3.98E+04

0.353611
0.3525
0.348333
0.336111
0.314444
0.296667
0.284722
0.265806
7.730556
7.786111
8.094444
8.997222
10.225
10.98056
11.23333
11.3
11.31667
11.31667
11.30556
11.25833
11.04444

1.84531
1.838167
1.812396
1.733741
1.586969
1.457147
1.373964
1.259486
35.54694
35.71434
37.04695
41.6149
48.31121
52.54772
53.99058
54.36786
54.45887
54.46241
54.38167
54.05371
52.68442

689.8569
690.3617
691.9017
697.9129
713.3096
732.9392
746.0164
759.7545
782.9085
784.8389
786.5695
778.327
761.9349
752.2687
749.0196
748.2362
748.0875
748.0388
748.414
749.8098
754.6823

15
15
15
15
15.1
15.3
15.5
16.2
17.5
17.5
17.4
16.6
15.5
14.8
14.5
14.5
14.4
14.4
14.4
14.4
14.6

FLV AND MINIMUM DIAMETER CALCULATIONS


TRAY

FLV

0.023

0.12

0.113290501

1.11937399

0.951467891

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

0.023
0.023
0.022
0.022
0.020
0.019
0.018
0.017

0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.115
0.115
0.115
0.11

0.113290501
0.113290501
0.113290501
0.113290501
0.108714439
0.109000911
0.109284402
0.105460467

1.118719403
1.118800341
1.119878269
1.125149214
1.093157047
1.113090902
1.12592005
1.097236511

0.950911493
0.95098029
0.951896528
0.956376832
0.92918349
0.946127267
0.957032043
0.932651035

10
11
12
13

0.490
0.245
0.253
0.269

0.058
0.081
0.082
0.083

0.056471536
0.078865422
0.079747615
0.079963853

0.598961503
0.835650383
0.83640646
0.794396284

0.509117278
0.710302826
0.710945491
0.675236842

291

()

14
15
16
17
18
19

0.264
0.232

0.082
0.081

0.07792453
0.076266069

0.705444189
0.65271718

0.59962756
0.554809603

0.213
0.207
0.205
0.205

0.081
0.08
0.08
0.08

0.075954345
0.075016637
0.074912879
0.074912879

0.638267341
0.627264885
0.625527938
0.625304552

0.54252724
0.533175152
0.531698747
0.531508869

20
21
22

0.205
0.204
0.200

0.08
0.08
0.08

0.074912879
0.074912879
0.075119824

0.625262287
0.625988714
0.630820234

0.531472944
0.532090407
0.536197199

TRAY

()

( )

( )

()

0.244200229

0.218157855

0.247907

0.561823

0.7

0.246266085

0.22013213

0.25015

0.564359

0.7

0.246077669

0.219947796

0.249941

0.564123

0.7

0.245824113

0.219509674

0.249443

0.563561

0.7

0.245328716

0.21804105

0.247774

0.561672

0.7

0.244068169

0.223269081

0.253715

0.568366

0.7

0.241440298

0.216909776

0.246488

0.560213

0.7

0.238600992

0.211916461

0.240814

0.553727

0.7

0.237040792

0.216034365

0.245494

0.559082

0.7

10

0.235963019

0.393953564

0.447675

0.754981

0.9

11

0.474513969

0.567837912

0.64527

0.906413

1.1

12

0.472168228

0.564520064

0.6415

0.903761

1.1

13

0.4719986

0.594160131

0.675182

0.927183

1.1

14

0.509653591

0.722457707

0.820975

1.022398

1.2

15

0.595306779

0.912043986

1.036414

1.14874

1.3

16

0.655873927

1.027584971

1.16771

1.219334

1.4

17

0.676806438

1.078980276

1.226114

1.249455

1.4

292

18

0.682022634

1.090315225

1.238995

1.256

1.4

19

0.683030249

1.092316131

1.241268

1.257152

1.4

20

0.682885361

1.092158243

1.241089

1.257061

1.4

21

0.682021895

1.089511487

1.238081

1.255537

1.4

22

0.679315449

1.07687644

1.223723

1.248236

1.4

1. Calculation of the diameter for the rectifying and stripping part of the distillation
column.
The first tray is to be considered in this calculation
=

6.998242 3
0.354167 /

= 0.0229547

1.553611 /
690.2053 3

Assumed plate spacing is 0.9


1 = 0.12, which is based from figure 11.29 of Towler
= [. ].
1 = 0.12[20.80.02]0.2 = 0.11329
=

690.2053 6.998242
= 0.11329
= 1.11937 /
6.998242
85% , = 1.11937 0.85 = 0.95147 /
= .
= 1.1

1.553611
= 0.22420 3
3

@ %
0.22420
=
= 0.21816 2
0.95147
=

293


=
.
0.21816
=
= 0.247907 2
1 0.12
=

4 0.247907
=
= 0.568123 0.7

2. Plate Design
The Stripping section will be the basis of the calculation
= 0.7

= 0.72 = 1.53938 2
4
=

% = 19%
= %
= 0.12 1.53938 = 0.29248 2
=
= 1.53938 2 0.29248 = 1.2468982
=
= 1.53938 2 2 0.29248 = 0.955416 2
% = 4%
= %
= 1.53938 0.04 = 0.06158 2

0.29248
% =
100 = 19%

1.53938

= 0.86, which is based from figure 11.33 of Towler


= .
= 0.86 0.7 = 1.204
294

is set to be 50

3. Weeping Test
The Stripping section will be the basis of the calculation

, = .

= 1.1 335.0706
= 12.4483 /

max

, = .
= 0.5 250.8583 = 3.89306 /

/
= [
]

2/3
1.204
= 750 [
] = 41.7727
690.2053 1.204
/
]

2/3
1.204
= 750 [
]
690.2053 1.204

= [
min

+ = 50 + 19.901597 = 69.9

2 is 30.5, based from figure 11.32 of Towler


Hole diameter is set to be 4
. (. )
.
30.5 0.9(25.4 4)
=

= 3.45379/
6.9982420.5

0.5

0.5 281593.3
=
= 3.48427
2 4.71238898 3600
=

. > .

4. Pressure Drop
The Stripping section will be the basis of the calculation

295

Plate thickness is set to 4


.

12.4483
= 1.1
= 11.0926 /
3600 0.06158
=

( ) 100 is set to be 6%, based from figure 11.36 of Towler


is set to be 0.81, based from figure 11.36 of Towler

=

2
11.0926
6.998242
= 51 (
)
= 88.5926
0.81
690.2053
=
=

12500
= 16.710363
690.2053

= + + ( + )
= 88.5926 + 16.710363 + (50 + 19.901597) = 197.0757
5. Downcomer Liquid Backup
The Stripping section will be the basis of the calculation
=

1629.947
= 0.452763128 3
3600

= 8, due to very high liquid loading


=
= 50 5 = 45
= (
= (

45
) 1.204 = 0.048162
1000

Since < :


= [
]

296

2
12.4483
8
= 166 [
] = 19.820257
690.2053 0.04816

= ( + ) + +
= (50 + 19.901597) + 197.0757 + 19.820257 = 308.6687
12 ( + ) = 470
( + ) >

0.29248 19.820257 690.2053


=
= 3.016677
12.4483 1000
= =

>

6. Entrainment
The Stripping section will be the basis of the calculation
.

1.1 1.553611
=
= 0.547783 /
1.2468982 3600
=

0.547783
% =
100 = 65%
1.11937
% =

% <

Fractional entrainment is 0.018, based from figure 11.31 of Towler


< .

7. Tray Layout
The Stripping section will be the basis of the calculation

Unperforated strip and Calming Zone is bot set at 50 mm


is 0.86, which is based from figure 11.34 of Towler
297

is 118, which is based from figure 11.34 of Towler


= 180 118 = 62

,
= (


)(
)

2 50 62
, = (1.4
)(
) = 1.406735
1000
180
=
= 0.05 1.406735 = 0.07033682
= +
50
= 1.204 +
= 1.254
1000
= ( )
50
= 2 (1.254
) = 0.1254 2
1000
=
= 0.955416 0.0703368 0.1254 = 0.758679 2

0.06158
=
= 0.081161
0.758679 2

is 3.1, which is based from figure 11.35 of Towler


. < . < .

4 2
= (
) = 1.25664 05
4 1000
=


0.06158
=
= 4900
1.25664 05
=

298

REV
1

DATE
1/2/15

CALCULATION
CREATED BY
CHECKED BY
MFS
ALL
EAM

APPROVED BY

VAPOR
TRAY
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33

Mole flow
kmol/h
kmol/s
577.7
0.160472
577.3
0.160361
578
0.160556
578.6
0.160722
579.2
0.160889
579.8
0.161056
580.1
0.161139
580.1
0.161139
579.7
0.161028
578.9
0.160806
577.7
0.160472
576.2
0.160056
574.4
0.159556
572.5
0.159028
570.3
0.158417
568.1
0.157806
565.8
0.157167
563.2
0.156444
560.2
0.155611
556.2
0.1545
550.7
0.152972
517.3
0.143694
516.2
0.143389
515.1
0.143083
514.2
0.142833
513.4
0.142611
512.8
0.142444
0.142333
512.4
0.142278
512.2
0.142306
512.3
0.142361
512.5
0.142472
512.9
0.142611
513.4

Mass Rate
kg/h
kg/s
68029.07
18.89696
67994.22
18.88728
68095.24
18.91535
68202.51
18.94514
68332.34
18.98121
68493.52
19.02598
68664.11
19.07336
68850.3
19.12508
69062.62
19.18406
69294.75
19.24854
69535.34
19.31537
69765.68
19.37936
69949.14
19.43032
70066.96
19.46305
70086.87
19.46858
69995.96
19.44332
69772.48
19.38124
69389.88
19.27497
68800.89
19.11136
67917.21
18.86589
66581.9
18.49497
63531.38
17.64761
64358.21
17.87728
65105
18.08472
65765.63
18.26823
66339.64
18.42768
66832.01
18.56445
67254.8 18.68189
67614.66 18.78185
67918.56 18.86627
68171.86 18.93663
68379.98 18.99444
68544.55 19.04015
299

Vol Rate
m3/h
19426.52
18630.87
17932.72
17287.34
16691.86
16141.47
15624.33
15135.73
14672.46
14229.42
13803.61
13393.9
12998.19
12618.47
12253.47
11904.11
11568.81
11245.18
10929
10613.41
10288.89
9460.717
9243.674
9033.46
8832.594
8641.826
8461.178
8290.901
8130.311
7978.81
7835.755
7700.711
7573.014

Density
kg/m3
3.501866
3.649546
3.797263
3.945228
4.093752
4.243326
4.394692
4.548858
4.706954
4.869823
5.037477
5.208765
5.381451
5.552729
5.719758
5.879981
6.031087
6.170632
6.29526
6.399188
6.471245
6.715282
6.962406
7.207095
7.445789
7.676578
7.898665
8.111881
8.316368
8.512367
8.700101
8.879698
9.051158

34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55

514.1
514.9
515.9
516.9
518.1
519.1
519.8
519.8
517.9
512.1
499.6
483.2
477.6
485.5
493.3
496.9
498.6
499.7
500.6
501.4
502.3
503.1

0.142806
0.143028
0.143306
0.143583
0.143917
0.144194
0.144389
0.144389
0.143861
0.14225
0.138778
0.134222
0.132667
0.134861
0.137028
0.138028
0.1385
0.138806
0.139056
0.139278
0.139528
0.13975

68667.73
68749.07
68785.15
68766.07
68679.32
68488.76
68130.68
67468.01
66224.57
63858.69
59577.27
53513.75
48610.16
46927.33
46786.9
46869.59
46954.53
47035.15
47114.38
47193.01
47271.19
47349.03

19.07437
19.09696
19.10699
19.10169
19.07759
19.02466
18.92519
18.74111
18.39571
17.73853
16.54924
14.86493
13.50282
13.03537
12.99636
13.01933
13.04293
13.06532
13.08733
13.10917
13.13089
13.15251

7452.289
7338.101
7229.977
7127.151
7029.238
6934.568
6840.936
6743.263
6631.836
6488.824
6296.449
6100.489
6045.466
6118.838
6154.611
6124.889
6068.412
6005.085
5941.014
5877.868
5816.08
5755.739

9.214314
9.368783
9.513882
9.648464
9.770521
9.876428
9.959263
10.00525
9.985858
9.841335
9.462043
8.772043
8.040763
7.669322
7.601927
7.652317
7.737532
7.832554
7.93036
8.028934
8.127672
8.226403

LIQUID
TRAY

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

Mole flow
kmol/h
492.4
493.1
493.7
494.3
494.9
495.2
495.1
494.8
494
492.8
4.91E+02
4.90E+02
4.88E+02

kmol/s
0.136778
0.136972
0.137139
0.137306
0.137472
0.137556
0.137528
0.137444
0.137222
0.136889
0.136472
0.135972
0.135417

Mass Rate
kg/h
57989.95
58090.97
58198.23
58328.06
58489.24
58659.83
58846.03
59058.34
59290.48
59531.06
59761.4
59944.86
60062.69

kg/s
16.10832
16.13638
16.16618
16.20224
16.24701
16.2944
16.34612
16.40509
16.46958
16.53641
16.60039
16.65135
16.68408

300

Vol Rate

Density

m3/h
76.61432
76.92985
77.24954
77.5818
77.91597
78.18978
78.37033
78.4317
78.34191
78.09256
77.69905
77.17555
76.56319

kg/m3
756.9074
755.1161
753.3797
751.8266
750.6708
750.2237
750.8713
752.9907
756.8168
762.3141
769.1394
776.7338
784.4852

Surface
Tension
dyne/cm
17.4
19
22.5
29.8
43.5
67.5
106
164
241
337
443
552
654

14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54

4.85E+02
4.83E+02
4.81E+02
4.78E+02
4.75E+02
4.71E+02
4.66E+02
5.92E+02
591.3
590.2
589.3
5.89E+02
5.88E+02
587.5
587.4
587.4
587.6
588
588.5
589.2
590.1
591
592.1
593.2
594.2
595
594.9
593
587.2
574.8
558.3
552.7
560.6
568.4
572
573.7
574.8
575.7
576.6
577.4
578.2

0.134833
0.134222
0.133583
0.132861
0.132
0.130917
0.129361
0.164556
0.16425
0.163944
0.163694
0.163472
0.163306
0.163194
0.163167
0.163167
0.163222
0.163333
0.163472
0.163667
0.163917
0.164167
0.164472
0.164778
0.165056
0.165278
0.16525
0.164722
0.163111
0.159667
0.155083
0.153528
0.155722
0.157889
0.158889
0.159361
0.159667
0.159917
0.160167
0.160389
0.160611

60082.6
59991.68
59768.2
59385.6
58796.61
57912.93
56577.63
70602.5
71429.33
72176.12
72836.75
73410.77
73903.13
74325.93
74685.78
74989.68
75242.98
75451.1
75615.67
75738.85
75820.19
75856.27
75837.19
75750.44
75559.89
75201.81
74539.13
73295.69
70929.82
66648.39
60584.88
55681.28
53998.46
53858.02
53940.71
54025.65
54106.27
54185.5
54264.13
54342.31
54420.15

16.68961
16.66436
16.60228
16.496
16.33239
16.08693
15.71601
19.61181
19.84148
20.04892
20.23243
20.39188
20.52865
20.64609
20.74605
20.83047
20.90083
20.95864
21.00435
21.03857
21.06117
21.07119
21.06589
21.04179
20.98886
20.88939
20.70531
20.35991
19.70273
18.51344
16.82913
15.46702
14.99957
14.96056
14.98353
15.00713
15.02952
15.05153
15.07337
15.09509
15.11671

301

75.87267
75.11872
74.28265
73.32044
72.14571
70.6062
68.45231
84.5613
84.25948
83.96778
83.71539
83.51417
83.36783
83.28101
83.24952
83.26963
83.33702
83.44922
83.60139
83.79104
84.01419
84.26458
84.529
84.79026
85.00098
85.07374
84.81858
83.85035
81.42911
76.53283
69.45836
63.95781
62.30325
62.30435
62.46854
62.61684
62.76265
62.90914
63.0583
63.20683
63.35389

791.8872
798.625
804.6052
809.9461
814.9703
820.2244
826.5261
834.9268
847.7305
859.5692
870.0521
879.0217
886.4706
892.4715
897.1317
900.5646
902.8758
904.1559
904.4786
903.9015
902.4689
900.2154
897.1736
893.3862
888.9295
883.9603
878.8066
874.125
871.0621
870.8472
872.2474
870.5939
866.7037
864.4344
863.486
862.7975
862.0776
861.3296
860.5392
859.7538
858.9867

744
816
868
901
916
911
884
824
985
1.13E+03
1.26E+03
1.37E+03
1.46E+03
1.53E+03
1.59E+03
1.63E+03
1.66E+03
1.68E+03
1.69E+03
1.69E+03
1.67E+03
1.65E+03
1.62E+03
1.58E+03
1.53E+03
1.46E+03
1.38E+03
1.27E+03
1.12E+03
888
560
239
77.7
31.1
20.6
18.4
17.8
17.7
17.6
17.5
17.5

55

577.7

0.160472 54370.04 15.10279 63.35391 858.1955

17.4

FLV AND MINIMUM DIAMETER CALCULATIONS

TRAY

FLV

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34

0.058
0.059
0.061
0.062
0.063
0.064
0.066
0.067
0.068
0.069
0.070
0.070
0.071
0.072
0.072
0.073
0.073
0.074
0.074
0.073
0.093
0.10
0.10
0.10
0.10
0.10
0.10
0.11
0.11
0.11
0.11
0.11
0.11
0.11

0.08
0.08
0.08
0.079
0.079
0.079
0.079
0.078
0.078
0.078
0.078
0.078
0.078
0.078
0.078
0.077
0.077
0.077
0.077
0.077
0.076
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.098
0.098
0.098
0.098
0.098
0.098
0.098

0.077802551
0.079183503
0.0819069
0.085558733
0.092282413
0.100758536
0.11027632
0.118811198
0.128319309
0.137219105
0.14493369
0.15145249
0.156676605
0.160769326
0.163767091
0.163677382
0.164903428
0.165448876
0.165267859
0.164276401
0.159879594
0.218012426
0.224083402
0.229017205
0.232883175
0.235865582
0.238085138
0.235125375
0.236296668
0.237160138
0.237728874
0.238011213
0.238011213
0.237445187
302

()

1.141191479
1.136240194
1.150786712
1.177998341
1.246222173
1.335956563
1.437229608
1.524000834
1.622044109
1.711328391
1.785001076
1.843249113
1.885176832
1.913170082
1.928183864
1.907653032
1.903868437
1.894172251
1.879208042
1.859744525
1.80897986
2.439782224
2.479730186
2.505845993
2.519621757
2.523621899
2.519545708
2.461469283
2.447561394
2.43093614
2.411803198
2.390314803
2.366576523
2.337865273

0.970012757
0.965804165
0.978168705
1.00129859
1.059288847
1.135563078
1.221645167
1.295400709
1.378737493
1.454629132
1.517250915
1.566761746
1.602400307
1.626194569
1.638956284
1.621505077
1.618288171
1.610046413
1.597326836
1.580782846
1.537632881
2.073814891
2.107770658
2.129969094
2.141678493
2.145078614
2.141613852
2.09224889
2.080427185
2.066295719
2.050032719
2.031767583
2.011590045
1.987185482

35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55

TRAY
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

0.11
0.11
0.11
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.11
0.11
0.11
0.10
0.11
0.11
0.11
0.11
0.11
0.11
0.11
0.11
0.11
0.11

0.098
0.098
0.098
0.097
0.097
0.097
0.097
0.098
0.098
0.098
0.1
0.098
0.098
0.098
0.098
0.098
0.098
0.098
0.098
0.098
0.098

()

157.6680381
158.8439865
158.5383449
158.2210005
157.9041107
157.587675
157.2715292
156.9554532
156.6391507
156.3221946
156.0040071
101.6405367
101.5539838

0.236873712
0.236006019
0.234828873
0.230942584
0.228789614
0.226225498
0.222498188
0.219211675
0.209267926
0.190834847
0.164237975
0.128559531
0.107046422
0.098581068
0.096379272
0.095742349
0.09563453
0.095526224
0.095417424
0.095417424
0.095308125

( )

70.34690823
70.97306867
70.90644155
70.83402462
70.76154556
70.68902188
70.61639846
70.61162574
70.53847439
70.46488128
65.36266496
49.79335622
49.80099888
303

2.309812591
2.279646292
2.247419235
2.190679651
2.15235003
2.113000914
2.067757222
2.03559698
1.957396007
1.822286311
1.627915784
1.328516683
1.131421859
1.046017957
1.018842628
1.006046898
0.998306859
0.990492196
0.982762126
0.976277754
0.968783015

( )

79.93967
80.65121
80.5755
80.49321
80.41085
80.32843
80.24591
80.24048
80.15736
80.07373
74.27576
56.58336
56.59204

1.963340702
1.937699348
1.91030635
1.862077704
1.829497526
1.796050777
1.757593639
1.730257433
1.663786606
1.548943364
1.383728416
1.129239181
0.96170858
0.889115264
0.866016234
0.855139863
0.848560831
0.841918367
0.835347807
0.829836091
0.823465563

()

10.08872
10.13352
10.12877
10.12359
10.11841
10.11323
10.10803
10.10769
10.10245
10.09718
9.724753
8.487884
8.488535

10.2
10.3
10.3
10.3
10.3
10.3
10.3
10.3
10.3
10.2
9.9
8.6
8.6

14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

101.3838101
101.2112729
101.0391093
100.8670884
100.6929506
100.5063116
100.2542358
99.56290608
93.80155737
86.04238696
93.4189498
97.95987487
98.84782498
98.87035813

49.76500847
49.72756575
49.6901107
49.70070778
49.66226797
49.61908907
49.5487323
51.40907483
46.36821628
52.09981369
62.59240354
66.512532
67.29193886
67.38991711

56.55115
56.5086
56.46603
56.47808
56.4344
56.38533
56.30538
58.4194
52.69115
59.20433
71.12773
75.58242
76.46811
76.57945

8.485467
8.482275
8.479079
8.479984
8.476704
8.473018
8.467009
8.624494
8.190755
8.68224
9.516441
9.80992
9.86723
9.874411

8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.6
8.8
8.3
8.8
9.7
10
10
10

8. Calculation of the diameter for the rectifying and stripping part of the distillation
column.
The first tray is to be considered in this calculation
=

3.501866 3
16.10832 /

= 0.05798

18.89696 /
756.9074 3

Assumed plate spacing is 0.6


1 = 0.08, which is based from figure 11.29 of Towler
= [. ].
1 = 0.08[20.80.02]0.2 = 0.077802
=

756.9074 3.501866
= 0.077802
= 1.14119/
3.501866
85% , = 1.14119 0.85 = 0.970012 /
= .

304

= 1.1

18.89696
= 3.9358799 3
3.501866 3

@ %
3.9358799
=
= 2.06119894 2
0.970012
=

.
5.201478
=
= 5.91077 2
1 0.12
=

4 5.91077
=
= 2.743324 2.9

9. Plate Design
The Stripping section will be the basis of the calculation
= 2.9

= 2.92 = 2.54469 2
4
=

% = 19%
= %
= 0.19 2.54469 = 9.424777961 2
=
= 78.53981634 9.424777961 = 0.43491 2
=
= 2.54469 2 9.424777961 = 1.5777078 2
% = 10%
= %
= 2.54469 0.1 = 0.254469 2
305


9.424777961
% =
100 = 19%

2.54469

= 0.85, which is based from figure 11.33 of Towler


= .
= 0.85 2.9 = 1.53

is set to be 38

10. Weeping Test


The Stripping section will be the basis of the calculation

, = .

= 1.1 16.10832
= 23.17830 /

, = .
, = 0.5 16.10832 = 7.48028 /
= [
max = 750 [

/
]

16.10832 2/3
] = 114.6701249
756.9074 7.6

/
= [
]

16.10832 2/3
min = 750 [
]
756.9074 7.6
+ = 38 + 24.36576 = 62.36576

2 is 30.2 , based from figure 11.32 of Towler


Hole diameter is set to be 3
. (. )
.
30.2 0.9(25.4 3)
=

= 3.17409 /
3.5018660.5

0.5

306

0.5 281593.3
= 3.1744096
2 0.254469 3600

. > .

11. Pressure Drop


The Stripping section will be the basis of the calculation

Plate thickness is set to 3


.

16.10832
= 1.1
= 12.35446 /
3600 0.254469
=

( ) 100 is set to be16%, based from figure 11.36 of Towler


is set to be 0.9, based from figure 11.36 of Towler

2
12.35446
3.501866
= 51 (
)
= 74.485526
0.9
756.9074
=

=
=

12500
= 14.971371
756.9074

= + + ( + )
= 74.485526 + 14.971371 + (38 + 24.36576) = 176.5540
12. Downcomer Liquid Backup
The Stripping section will be the basis of the calculation
=

1629.947
= 0.02363 3
3600

= 1, due to very high liquid loading


=
= 38 5 = 33

307

= (
= (

33
) 1.53 = 0.05049 2
1000

Since < :

]

2
368.5776268
8
= 166 [
] = 50.18383
756.9074 0.43491
= [

= ( + ) + +
= (38 + 24.36576) + 176.5540 + 50.183839471 = 313.834
12 ( + ) = 319
( + ) >

9.424777961 50.183839471 756.9074


=
= 3.08
9.424777961 1000
= =

>

13. Entrainment
The Stripping section will be the basis of the calculation
.

1.1 18.89696
=
= 1.52524 /
2.06119894 3600
=

1.52524
% =
100 = 60%
1.14119
% =

% <

308

Fractional entrainment is 0.015, based from figure 11.31 of Towler


< .

14. Tray Layout


The Stripping section will be the basis of the calculation

Unperforated strip and Calming Zone is bot set at 50 mm


is 0.85, which is based from figure 11.34 of Towler
is 97, which is based from figure 11.34 of Towler
= 180 97 = 83

,
= (


)(
)

2 50 83
, = (10
)(
) = 2.46265
1000
180
=
= 0.05 2.46265 = 0.123132 2
= +
50
= 1.53 +
= 1.58
1000
= ( )
50
= 2 (1.53
) = 0.158 2
1000
=
= 1.577707 0.123132 0.158 = 1.29657 2
0.254469
=
= 0.196262

1.29657

is 2.6, which is based from figure 11.35 of Towler


. < . < .

309


3 2
= (
) = 7.06858 05
4 1000


0.254469
=
= 36000
7.06858 05
=

310

Appendix E
Wage and Monetary Benefits Breakdown
See attached A3 document.

311

Appendix F
Attached A3 documents

Process Flow Diagram

Piping and Instrumentations Diagram

Plot Plan

Phases of the Project

312

List of Tables

Table Number

Title

Page

Import data for phenols in the Philippines

Import data for acetone in the Philippines

Value of output of industries that uses phenol

Assumed phenol consumption in 2009 and 2010

Percent increase in phenol consumption based on


39% per annum growth rate

10

Value of output of industries that uses acetone

11

Assumed acetone consumption in 2009 and 2010

12

Increase in acetone consumption based on 39%


per annum growth rate

14

Recent phenol capacities/expansions and active


phenol projects

19

10

Paint Manufacturers in the Philippines

23

11

Plastic product manufacturer in the Philippines

24

12

Resins Manufacturer in the Philippines

28

13

Import and Export Data of Propylene and Benzene

29

14

List of Suppliers of raw materials in the Philippines

29

15

SWOT/TOWS Matrix

30

vii

16

Projected phenol and acetone capacity of the


proposed plant

32

17

Process cost correlation constants for the plant

34

18

Cost of the two processes at lower capacity

34

19

Capacity of plant obtained through stoichiometric


ratio and proportion method

35

20

Cost of the actual plant at year 2006

35

21

CE cost index up to year 2017 through


extrapolation

35

22

ICIS Indicative price of raw materials and products

36

23

Preliminary Total Capital Expenditures of the Plant

36

24

Preliminary Project Cash Flow and IRR

37

25

General Information of the Geography of


Hermosa, Bataan

42

26

Electric charge of PENELCO

43

27

List of Airport near Hermosa Bataan

44

28

List of Ports near Hermosa Bataan

44

29

Prices of Balanga Water District Services

45

30

Internet / Landline Rates

46

31

DOLE labor price in Region 3

47

32

Information on catalyst used for alkylation and


transalkylation reactions

51

33

Kinetics of alkylation and transalkylation reactions


(E is in kJ/kmol, rate of reaction is in kmol/m^3s,
and concentration is in kmol/m^3)

52

34

Catalyst for Oxidation Data

53

35

Cumene oxidation reaction details

54

36

Optimum operation conditions and Reaction kinetics


of Catalytic Decomposition Process of Cumene
Hydroperoxide

56

37

Catalyst for Cleaving Reaction Data

56

38

Comparison of cost of production of phenol


and acetone

39

Data for the component list of the main process in


Aspen Hysys

40

59

Data for the component list of the steam gen utility in


Aspen Hysys

41

57

59

Data for the component list of the cooling water system


utility in Aspen Hysys

60

42

Material Streams of the Process

60

43

Composition of each streams for the process

61

44

Energy streams of the process

64

45

Cooling Water Requirement of the Plant

65

46

Steam requirement of the plant

65

47

Fuel requirement of the plant

65

48

Fixed capital investment of the plant

49

Purchase Equipment Cost for Common


Plant Equipment

50

141

142

Typical Installation Factor for Project


Fixed Capital Cost

144

51

Calculation Procedure for Production Cost

147

52

Purchase Cost of Atmospheric Vessels

149

53

Final Cost of Atmosphere Vessel

149

54

Shell Mass of Pressure Vessels

150

55

Purchase Cost of Pressure Vessels

150

56

Final Cost of Pressure Vessels

150

57

Purchase Cost of Trays for Distillation Columns

151

58

Shell mass of Distillation Columns

151

59

Purchase Cost of Pressure Vessels for


Distillation Columns

152

60

Final Cost of Distillation Columns

152

61

Purchase Cost of Fluidized Bed Reactors

153

62

Purchase Cost of Packed Bed Reactors

153

63

Final Cost of Reactors

153

64

Cost of Heat Exchangers generated from Aspen


Hysys V8.0

154

65

Final Cost of Heat Exchangers

154

66

Purchase Cost of Pipes

155

67

Final Cost of Pipe

156

68

Purchase Cost of Pumps

157

69

Final Cost of Pumps

157

70

Purchase Cost of Compressor

158

71

Final Cost of Compressor

158

72

Purchase Cost of Boiler

159

73

Final Cost of Boiler

159

74

Purchase Cost of Furnace

160

75

Final Cost of Furnace

160

76

Purchase Cost of Scrubber

161

77

Final Cost of Scrubber

161

78

Purchase Cost of Cooling Tower

162

79

Final Cost of Cooling Tower

162

80

Existing Activated Sludge Waste Water Treatment


Plant in the Philippines

81

Capital Cost of WWTP of Phace Philippines


Corporation

82

163

Depreciation schedule of the plant (values in


Philippine Peso)

83

163

165

Land facts about Hermosa Ecozone


Industrial Park (HEIP)

166

84

Cost of Land lease annually

167

85

Fixed Capital Cost of the Plant

168

86

Annual insurance cost of the company

169

87

Cost calculation basis for raw materials

169

88

Annual cost of propylene

170

89

Annual cost of benzene

171

90

Amount and Pricing of Catalyst Used for


each Reactor

172

91

Final Cost of Catalyst for each Reactor

172

92

Total Cost of Catalysts per Year

172

93

Fuel requirement of the plant and its price

173

94

Water requirement of the plant and its price

173

95

Cost of Fuel Consumed Per Year

174

96

Cost of Consumed Water per Year

175

97

Electricity Requirement of the Buildings

176

98

Electricity requirement of the Process

176

99

Cost of Electricity Consumption per Year

177

100

Price of communication services

178

101

Annual cost of communication services


of the company

178

102

Cost of Biological WWTP Operation per Year

179

103

Summary of Labor Cost per Year

180

104

Price of Fuel and Consumption per Truck

181

105

Annual cost on transportation

181

106

Operating, Quality Contol, and Laboratory


Cost per Year

107

182

Maintenance Labor, Maintenance Material, and


Operating Supplies Cost per year

182

108

General costs of the plant

183

109

Pricing of Products

184

110

Revenue from acetone

185

111

Revenue from phenol

185

112

Detailed summary of the taxes and mandatory


contributions of a corporation

113

187

Production Cost and Revenue of the


Company per Year

188

114

Annual Profit of the Company

188

115

Required Permits and Licenses of the Company

189

116

Cost of buildings

190

117

Cost of trucks of the company

191

118

Cost of radio

191

119

Total capital expenditure of the company

192

120

Capital loan and interest

192

121

Internal rate of return

193

122

Calculation Basis for Breakeven Analysis

195

123

Breakeven volume of acetone (X_1)


and phenol (X_2)

195

124

Benefit to cost ratio (f) of the plant

196

List of Figures

Figure Number

Title

Demand tend line for phenols in the


Philippines based on import data

Demand trend line for Acetone in the


Philippines based on Imports

Page

2 year forecast of assumed phenol


consumption in the Philippines (Note
that this is based only from Bisphenol-A
and phenolic resin applications of phenol)

Forecast of assumed phenol consumption


in the Philippines (5 vs. 2 year data point forecast)

10

2 year forecast of assumed acetone


consumption in the Philippines (Note that
this is based only from Bisphenol-A and
solvent applications of acetone)

Forecast of assumed acetone consumption


in the Philippines (5 vs. 2 year data point forecast)

13

14

Initial Block Flow Diagram for Waste


Water Treatment Facility

17

Projected phenol and acetone capacity of plant

33

viii

Company Logo of Phace Philippines Corporation

10

Organizational chart of PhAce Philippines


Corporation

11

49

Chemical Structures of Benzene plus Propylene


to Cumene

13

41

Block Flow Diagram of Phenol and Acetone


production through Cumene Process

12

40

50

Diagram of the industrial alkylation of benzene


to Cumene

50

14

Diagram for the mechanism of Cumene Oxidation

53

15

Diagram for the Mechanism of CHP decomposition


to Phenol and Acetone

16

55

Project Cash Flow of Phace Philippines


Corporation

194

List of Appendices

Appendix Number

Title

Page

Aspen Hysys Simulation

ix

Storage Tanks Calculation Sheets

Reactors Calculation Sheets

xi

Distillation Columns Calculation Sheets

xii

Wage and Monetary Benefits Breakdown

xiii

Attached A3 documents

xiv

Definition of Terms
Annual cost. The sum of the annuitized values of a cash flow series.
Annuity. A series of uniform payments or withdrawals occurring at equal time intervals.
Capital. A firms investment in long-term assets that are not bought or sold in the normal
course of business, e.g., plant equipment, buildings, and site upgrades. These assets are
depreciated.
Cash flow. The flow of money into or out of a company, a project, a personal account, and
so on.
Cash flow diagram. A diagram showing all cash flows and the time they occur. Cash flows
in are shown by an arrow into the timeline and cash flows out by an arrow away from the
timeline.
Chemical engineering plant cost index (CEPI). An index of the costs to design, purchase
and install chemical plant equipment. It is maintained by Chemical Engineering and
includes costs (1) for equipment, machinery and supports (61% of the index weighting);
(2) for construction labor (22%); (3) for buildings (7%); and (4) for engineering and
supervision (10%). The period 1957 to 1959 is defined as an index of 100.
Depreciation. A deduction from revenues (allowed by the government when calculating
income taxes) of a fraction of the capital invested in a plant. This deduction may be
considered as a fund to allow eventual replacement of the plant. It is not a cash flow.
Expense. A firms costs that are chargeable against sales in a specific period.
Fixed costs. Production costs that do not vary with production volume.

Future worth. This the projected value of a present sum of money when it grows at a
specified interest rate for a given number of years.
General expense. Broad corporate level expenses research and development,
marketing, sales, and administrative costs.
Inflation. The devaluing of money because the volume of money increases faster than the
supply of goods.
Interest. The return from the investment of funds or the money paid for the use of
borrowed money.
Internal rate of return. See Return on investment (ROI).
Manufacturing costs. The cost to manufacture a product. It is comprised of operating
labor (wages), employee benefits, supervision (wages and benefits), laboratory costs,
maintenance costs, utility costs, depreciation, insurance and taxes, operating (consumable)
supplies, plant overhead, and contract manufacturing costs.
Product cost. The sum of production cost and general expense.
Production cost. The cost to produce a product. It is made up of raw material costs,
packaging material costs, manufacturing costs, and delivery costs.
Project life. The years a process or project is expected to operate without major revision.
This is determined by the shorter of product or process obsolescence or by depreciable life.
Return on investment (ROI). The interest rate at which the net present value of a cash
flow series is zero. This is the percent return from an investment.
Unit cost. Production costs expressed in dollars per unit of production (e.g. $/ton, $/lb,
$/case).
Variable costs. Those costs that vary with production volume.