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PenologyWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Penology
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Penology(fromtheLatinpoena,"punishment"andtheGreeksuffixlogia,"studyof")isasectionof
criminologythatdealswiththephilosophyandpractice[1][2][3]ofvarioussocietiesintheirattemptsto
represscriminalactivities,andsatisfypublicopinionviaanappropriatetreatmentregimeforpersons
convictedofcriminaloffences.
TheOxfordEnglishDictionarydefinespenologyas"thestudyofthepunishmentofcrimeandprison
management",andinthissenseitisequivalentwithcorrections.[4]
Penologyisconcernedwiththeeffectivenessofthosesocialprocessesdevisedandadoptedforthe
preventionofcrime,viatherepressionorinhibitionofcriminalintentviathefearofpunishment.Thestudy
ofpenologythereforedealswiththetreatmentofprisonersandthesubsequentrehabilitationofconvicted
criminals.Italsoencompassesaspectsofprobation(rehabilitationofoffendersinthecommunity)aswellas
penitentiarysciencerelatingtothesecuredetentionandretrainingofoffenderscommittedtosecure
institutions.
Penologyconcernsmanytopicsandtheories,includingthoseconcerningprisons(prisonreform,prisoner
abuse,prisoners'rights,andrecidivism),aswellastheoriesofthepurposesofpunishment(suchas
deterrence,rehabilitation,retribution,andutilitarianism).Contemporarypenologyconcernsitselfmainly
withcriminalrehabilitationandprisonmanagement.Thewordseldomappliestotheoriesandpracticesof
punishmentinlessformalenvironmentssuchasparenting,schoolandworkplacecorrectionalmeasures.

Contents
1History
2Seealso
3References
4Furtherreading
5Externallinks

History
Historicaltheoriesofpunishmentwerebasedonthenotionthatfearfulconsequenceswoulddiscourage
potentialoffenders.AnexampleofthisprinciplecanbefoundintheDraconianlawofAncientGreeceand
theBloodyCodewhichpersistedinRenaissanceEngland,when(atvarioustimes)capitalpunishmentwas
prescribedforover200offenses.Similarly,certainhududoffensesunderShariahadithtraditionmayincur
fearfulpenalties.
Moderntheoriesofthepunishmentandrehabilitationofoffendersarebroadlybasedonprinciples
articulatedintheseminalpamphlet"OnCrimesandPunishments"publishedbyCesare,Marquisof
Beccariain1764.Theycenterontheconceptofproportionality.Inthisrespect,theydifferfrommany
previoussystemsofpunishment,forexample,England'sBloodyCode,underwhichthepenaltyofthefthad
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beenthesameregardlessofthevaluestolen,givingrisetotheEnglishexpression"Itisaswelltobehanged
forasheeporalamb".SubsequentdevelopmentoftheideasofBeccariamadenonlethalpunishmentmore
sociallyacceptable.Consequentlyconvictedprisonershadtobereintegratedintosocietywhentheir
punishmentwascomplete.
Penologistshaveconsequentlyevolvedoccupationalandpsychologicaleducationprogramsforoffenders
detainedinprison,andarangeofcommunityserviceandprobationorderswhichentailguidanceand
aftercareoftheoffenderwithinthecommunity.Theimportanceofinflictingsomemeasureofpunishment
onthosepersonswhobreachthelawishowevermaintainedinordertomaintainsocialorderandto
moderatepublicoutragewhichmightprovokeappealsforcruelvengeance.

Seealso
AuburnSystem
ZebulonBrockway
ElmiraSystem
Incapacitation(penology)
Panopticon

References
1. RajendraKumarSharma(1January1998).CriminologyAndPenology(http://books.google.com/books?
id=1pRJTw6EdtsC&pg=RA2PA1).AtlanticPublishers&Dist.pp.2ff.ISBN9788171567546.Retrieved
2March2013.
2. ShlomoGioraShohamOriBeckMartinKett(8October2007).InternationalHandbookofPenologyand
CriminalJustice(http://books.google.com/books?id=vUICkjo8k1EC).CRCPress.ISBN9781420053883.
Retrieved2March2013.
3. (1992).(http://books.google.com/books?id=ZLeIyEwkbL8C)..ISBN978957
0504354.Retrieved2March2013.
4. ToddR.Clear(1994).HarminAmericanpenology:offenders,victims,andtheircommunities
(http://books.google.com/books?id=t1GtSid5fvwC&pg=PR15).SUNYPress.p.15.ISBN9780791421741.

Furtherreading
Diiulio,JohnJ.,GoverningPrisons:AComparativeStudyofCorrectionalManagement
(http://books.google.com/books?id=s6AsM5Y_MUIC&printsec=frontcover),SimonandSchuster,
1990.ISBN0029078830

Externallinks
TheFloridaStateUniversityCollegeofCriminologyandCriminalJustice
(http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/)
CrimLinks(http://www.crimlinks.com/)UKbasedsite
Retrievedfrom"http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Penology&oldid=649899002"
Categories: Penology Criminallaw
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