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Impedancematching
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

ortheoutputimpedanceofitscorrespondingsignalsourcetomaximizethepowertransferorminimize
obtainedwhen

wheretheasteriskindicatesthecomplexconjugateofthevariable.WhereZSrepresentsthecharacteristic
impedanceofatransmissionline,minimumreflectionisobtainedwhen

Theconceptofimpedancematchingfoundfirstapplicationsinelectricalengineering,butisrelevantinotherapplicationsinwhichaformof
goal.

Contents
1Theory
1.1Reflectionlessmatching
1.2Complexconjugatematching
2Powertransfer
3Impedancematchingdevices
3.1Transformers
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3.2Resistivenetwork
3.3Steppedtransmissionline
3.4Filters
4Powerfactorcorrection
5Transmissionlines
6Electricalexamples
6.1Telephonesystems
6.2Loudspeakeramplifiers
7Nonelectricalexamples
7.1Acoustics
7.2Optics
7.3Mechanics
8Seealso
9Notes
10References

Theory
Impedanceistheoppositionbyasystemtotheflowofenergyfromasource.Forconstantsignals,thisimpedancecanalsobeconstant.For
varyingsignals,itusuallychangeswithfrequency.Theenergyinvolvedcanbeelectrical,mechanical,magneticorthermal.Theconceptof
electricalimpedanceisperhapsthemostcommonlyknown.Electricalimpedance,likeelectricalresistance,ismeasuredinohms.Ingeneral,
reactancecomponent(symbol:X)whichformstheimaginarypartofZ.
Insimplecases(suchaslowfrequencyordirectcurrentpowertransmission)thereactancemaybenegligibleorzerotheimpedancecanbe
consideredapureresistance,expressedasarealnumber.Inthefollowingsummarywewillconsiderthegeneralcasewhenresistanceand
reactancearebothsignificant,andthespecialcaseinwhichthereactanceisnegligible.
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Reflectionlessmatching
maximumpowertransfermatching.[1]

Complexconjugatematching
Complexconjugatematchingisusedwhenmaximumpowertransferisrequired.Thisisdifferentfromreflectionlessmatchingonlywhenthe

(where*indicatesthecomplexconjugate).
followthefrequencydependenceofthesourceimpedance.Forwidebandwidthapplicationsamorecomplexnetworkneedstobedesigned.

Powertransfer
inputimpedance)isequaltothecomplexconjugateoftheimpedanceofthesource(thatis,itsinternalimpedanceoroutputimpedance).For
twoimpedancestobecomplexconjugatestheirresistancesmustbeequal,andtheirreactancesmustbeequalinmagnitudebutofopposite
powertheoremforamathematicalproof).
powerthatcanpassthroughtheconnectionislimitedbythehigherimpedance.Thismaximumvoltageconnectionisacommonconfiguration
calledimpedancebridgingorvoltagebridging,andiswidelyusedinsignalprocessing.Insuchapplications,deliveringahighvoltage(to
powertransfer.
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werematchedat600ohms.Onereasonforthiswastomaximizepowertransfer,astherewerenoamplifiersavailablethatcouldrestorelost
signal.Anotherreasonwastoensurecorrectoperationofthehybridtransformersusedatcentralexchangeequipmenttoseparateoutgoing
fromincomingspeech,sothesecouldbeamplifiedorfedtoafourwirecircuit.Mostmodernaudiocircuits,ontheotherhand,useactive
amplificationandfilteringandcanusevoltagebridgingconnectionsforgreatestaccuracy.Strictlyspeaking,impedancematchingonlyapplies

Impedancematchingdevices
impedancemismatch,allofwhicharecalled"impedancematching":
voltageandfixedsourceimpedance,themaximumpowertheoremsaysthisistheonlywaytoextractthemaximumpowerfromthe
source.
sourcewithafixedsourceimpedance,this"reflectionlessimpedancematching"attheendofthetransmissionlineistheonlywayto
avoidreflectingechoesbacktothetransmissionline.
Devicesintendedtopresentanapparentsourceresistanceasclosetozeroaspossible,orpresentinganapparentsourcevoltageashigh
aspossible.Thisistheonlywaytomaximizeenergyefficiency,andsoitisusedatthebeginningofelectricalpowerlines.Suchan
impedancebridgingconnectionalsominimizesdistortionandelectromagneticinterferenceitisalsousedinmodernaudioamplifiers
andsignalprocessingdevices.
impedances,engineersusecombinationsoftransformers,resistors,inductors,capacitorsandtransmissionlines.Thesepassive(andactive)
impedancematchingdevicesareoptimizedfordifferentapplicationsandincludebaluns,antennatuners(sometimescalledATUsorroller
coasters,becauseoftheirappearance),acoustichorns,matchingnetworks,andterminators.

Transformers

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Transformersaresometimesusedtomatchtheimpedancesofcircuits.Atransformerconvertsalternatingcurrentatonevoltagetothesame
waveformatanothervoltage.Thepowerinputtothetransformerandoutputfromthetransformeristhesame(exceptforconversionlosses).
Thesidewiththelowervoltageisatlowimpedance(becausethishasthelowernumberofturns),andthesidewiththehighervoltageisata
higherimpedance(asithasmoreturnsinitscoil).
Oneexampleofthismethodinvolvesatelevisionbaluntransformer.Thistransformerconvertsabalancedsignalfromtheantenna(via300
connectedtoamatchingtransformerwithaturnsratioof2(suchasa2:1transformer).Inthisexample,the75ohmcableisconnectedtothe
transformersidewithfewerturnsthe300ohmlineisconnectedtothetransformersidewithmoreturns.Theformulaforcalculatingthe
transformerturnsratioforthisexampleis:

Resistivenetwork
unavoidableconsequenceofusingresistivenetworks,andtheyareonly(usually)usedtotransferlinelevelsignals.

Steppedtransmissionline
toreconnectthecircuit.

Filters
possibletoachieveperfectimpedancematchingatallfrequencieswithanetworkofdiscretecomponents.Impedancematchingnetworksare

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wouldprovideaperfectmatchatonespecificfrequencyonly.Widebandwidthmatchingrequiresfilterswithmultiplesections.
Lsection
Asimpleelectricalimpedancematchingnetworkrequiresonecapacitorandoneinductor.One
reactanceisinparallelwiththesource,theeffectivenetworkmatchesfromhightolowimpedance.The
Lsectionisinherentlyanarrowbandmatchingnetwork.
reactance isinparallelwiththesourceimpedance,thecombinedimpedancecanbewrittenas:

Iftheimaginarypartoftheaboveimpedanceiscanceledbytheseriesreactance,therealpartis

Lnetworksfornarrowbandmatching
transmissionlinewithcharacteristic
impedanceZ0.XandBmayeachbe
eitherpositive(inductor)ornegative
(capacitor).IfZ/Z0isinsidethe1+jx
circleontheSmithchart(i.e.if
Re(Z/Z0)>1),network(a)canbe
usedotherwisenetwork(b)canbe

Solvingfor

If

used. [3]

theaboveequationcanbeapproximatedas

Theinverseconnection(impedancestepup)issimplythereverseforexample,reactanceinserieswiththesource.Themagnitudeofthe
OptimalmatchingcircuitscanbedesignedforaparticularsystemusingSmithcharts.
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Powerfactorcorrection
throughthepowerlines,andminimizespowerwastedintheresistanceofthosepowerlines.Forexample,amaximumpowerpointtrackeris
resistance.However,themaximumpowertheoremdoesnotapplytoits"downstream"connection.Thatconnectionisanimpedancebridging
connectionitemulatesahighvoltage,lowresistancesourcetomaximizeefficiency.
capacitors.Itisonlynecessaryforcorrectiontobeachievedatonesinglefrequency,thefrequencyofthesupply.Complexnetworksareonly
requiredwhenabandoffrequenciesmustbematchedandthisisthereasonwhysimplecapacitorsareallthatisusuallyrequiredforpower
factorcorrection.

Transmissionlines
ImpedancebridgingisunsuitableforRFconnections,
becauseitcausespowertobereflectedbacktothesource
fromtheboundarybetweenthehighandthelow
impedances.Thereflectioncreatesastandingwaveifthere
isreflectionatbothendsofthetransmissionline,which
dependentloss.Inthesesystems,impedancematchingis
desirable.
Inelectricalsystemsinvolvingtransmissionlines(suchas
comparedtothewavelengthofthesignal(thesignal
changesrapidlycomparedtothetimeittakestotravelfrom
mustbematchedtothetransmissionline'scharacteristic
impedance( )topreventreflectionsofthesignalatthe
endsoftheline.(Whenthelengthofthelineisshortcomparedtothewavelength,impedancemismatchisthebasisoftransmissionline
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modifiedgroundplaneoracoaxialmatchingsection,i.e.,partorallthefeederofhigherimpedance).
Thegeneralformofthevoltagereflectioncoefficientforawavemovingfrommedium1tomedium2isgivenby

whilethevoltagereflectioncoefficientforawavemovingfrommedium2tomedium1is

sothereflectioncoefficientisthesame(exceptforsign),nomatterfromwhichdirectionthewaveapproachestheboundary.
Thereisalsoacurrentreflectioncoefficientitisthesameasthevoltagecoefficient,exceptthatithasanoppositesign.Ifthewaveencounters
currentisgoingtheoppositedirection).Thus,ateachboundarytherearefourreflectioncoefficients(voltageandcurrentononeside,and
voltageandcurrentontheotherside).Allfourarethesame,exceptthattwoarepositiveandtwoarenegative.Thevoltagereflection
coefficientandcurrentreflectioncoefficientonthesamesidehaveoppositesigns.Voltagereflectioncoefficientsonoppositesidesofthe
boundaryhaveoppositesigns.
whichsideoftheboundaryismedium1andwhichsideismedium2.Withasingletransmissionlineitiscustomarytodefinethevoltage
ontheotherside.

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Inatransmissionline,awavetravelsfromthesourcealongtheline.Supposethewavehitsaboundary(anabruptchangeinimpedance).Some
Let
and bethevoltageandcurrentthatisincidentontheboundaryfromthesourceside.
and

bethevoltageandcurrentthatisreflectedbacktowardthesource.

Onthelinesideoftheboundary
phasors.

and

where ,

, , , , ,and

are

Ataboundary,voltageandcurrentmustbecontinuous,therefore

Alltheseconditionsaresatisfiedby

where

[4][5][6]

Thepurposeofatransmissionlineistogetthemaximumamountofenergytotheotherendoftheline(ortotransmitinformationwith
minimalerror),sothereflectionisassmallaspossible.Thisisachievedbymatchingtheimpedances and sothattheyareequal(
).
Sourceendconditions
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Atthesourceendofthetransmissionline,theremaybewavesincidentbothfromthesourceandfromthelineareflectioncoefficientforeach
directionmaybecomputedwith
,
transmissionline.Thiscancausearesonanceconditionandstronglyfrequencydependentbehavior.Inanarrowbandsystemthiscanbe
desirableformatching,butisgenerallyundesirableinawidebandsystem.
Sourceendimpedance

[7]
and
Transferfunction

where

Notethatifthereisaperfectmatchatbothends
and
andthen

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Electricalexamples
Telephonesystems
Telephonesystemsalsousematchedimpedancestominimiseechoonlongdistancelines.Thisisrelatedtotransmissionlinetheory.Matching
circuittothecentraloffice(orexchange),cancellationisnecessaryatthetelephoneearpiecesoexcessivesidetoneisnotheard.Alldevices
is600ohms(nominal).Terminatingnetworksareinstalledattheexchangetoofferthebestmatchtotheirsubscriberlines.Eachcountryhas

Loudspeakeramplifiers
Audioamplifierstypicallydonotmatchimpedances,butprovideanoutputimpedancethatislower
damping.Forvacuumtubeamplifiers,impedancechangingtransformersareoftenusedtogetalow
impedances.
Theoutputtransformerinvacuumtubebasedamplifiershastwobasicfunctions:
SeparationoftheACcomponent(whichcontainstheaudiosignals)fromtheDCcomponent
(suppliedbythepowersupply)intheanodecircuitofavacuumtubebasedpowerstage.A
loudspeakershouldnotbesubjectedtoDCcurrent.
Reducingtheoutputimpedanceofpowerpentodes(suchastheEL34)inacommoncathode

Typicalpushpullaudiotubepower
amplifier,matchedtoloudspeaker
withanimpedancematching
transformer

configuration.
Theimpedanceoftheloudspeakeronthesecondarycoilofthetransformerwillbetransformedtoahigherimpedanceontheprimarycoilin
thecircuitofthepowerpentodesbythesquareoftheturnsratio,whichformstheimpedancescalingfactor.
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TheoutputstageincommondrainorcommoncollectorsemiconductorbasedendstageswithMOSFETsorpowertransistorshasaverylow
outputimpedance.Iftheyareproperlybalanced,thereisnoneedforatransformeroralargeelectrolyticcapacitortoseparateACfromDC
current.

Nonelectricalexamples
Acoustics
Similartoelectricaltransmissionlines,animpedancematchingproblemexistswhentransferringsoundenergyfromonemediumtoanother.If
theacousticimpedanceofthetwomediaareverydifferentmostsoundenergywillbereflected(orabsorbed),ratherthantransferredacrossthe
border.Thegelusedinmedicalultrasonographyhelpstransferacousticenergyfromthetransducertothebodyandbackagain.Withoutthe
gel,theimpedancemismatchinthetransducertoairandtheairtobodydiscontinuityreflectsalmostalltheenergy,leavingverylittletogo
intothebody.
Thebonesinthemiddleearprovideimpedancematchingbetweentheeardrum(whichisacteduponbyvibrationsinair)andthefluidfilled
innerear.
Hornsareusedliketransformers,matchingtheimpedanceofthetransducertotheimpedanceoftheair.Thisprincipleisusedinbothhorn
loudspeakersandmusicalinstruments.Mostloudspeakersystemscontainimpedancematchingmechanisms,especiallyforlowfrequencies.
Becausemostdriverimpedanceswhicharepoorlymatchedtotheimpedanceoffreeairatlowfrequencies(andbecauseofoutofphase
cancellationsbetweenoutputfromthefrontandrearofaspeakercone),loudspeakerenclosuresbothmatchimpedancesandprevent
interference.Sound,couplingwithair,fromaloudspeakerisrelatedtotheratioofthediameterofthespeakertothewavelengthofthesound
beingreproduced.Thatis,largerspeakerscanproducelowerfrequenciesatahigherlevelthansmallerspeakersforthisreason.Elliptical
speakersareacomplexcase,actinglikelargespeakerslengthwiseandsmallspeakerscrosswise.Acousticimpedancematching(orthelackof
it)affectstheoperationofamegaphone,anechoandsoundproofing.

Optics
Asimilareffectoccurswhenlight(oranyelectromagneticwave)hitstheinterfacebetweentwomediawithdifferentrefractiveindices.For
nonmagneticmaterials,therefractiveindexisinverselyproportionaltothematerial'scharacteristicimpedance.Anopticalorwaveimpedance
(thatdependsonthepropagationdirection)canbecalculatedforeachmedium,andmaybeusedinthetransmissionlinereflectionequation

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tocalculatereflectionandtransmissioncoefficientsfortheinterface.Fornonmagneticdielectrics,thisequationisequivalenttotheFresnel
equations.Unwantedreflectionscanbereducedbytheuseofanantireflectionopticalcoating.

Mechanics
Ifabodyofmassmcollideselasticallywithasecondbody,maximumenergytransfertothesecondbodywilloccurwhenthesecondbodyhas
ofthemovingandstationarybodies,andPisthemomentumofthesystem(whichremainsconstantthroughoutthecollision),theenergyofthe
secondbodyafterthecollisionwillbeE2:

whichisanalogoustothepowertransferequation.
Theseprinciplesareusefulintheapplicationofhighlyenergeticmaterials(explosives).Ifanexplosivechargeisplacedonatarget,thesudden
wavesreachareasofhighacousticimpedancemismatch(suchastheoppositesideofthetarget),tensionwavesreflectbackandcreate
spalling.Thegreaterthemismatch,thegreatertheeffectofcreasingandspallingwillbe.Achargeinitiatedagainstawallwithairbehindit
willdomoredamagetothewallthanachargeinitiatedagainstawallwithsoilbehindit.

Seealso
Power(physics)
Reflectioncoefficient
Ringing(signal)
Standingwaveratio
Transmissionline
WetTransformer

Notes
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issue1(July2009),pp.104110(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WJX4W2122T
1&_user=5755111&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_acct=C000000150&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=57551
11&md5=fe79f204b33cf7eb6d03cb89ff250c91)Retrieved20111029.
3. Pozer,David.MicrowaveEngineering(3rded.).p.223.
4. Kraus(1984,p.407)
6. Hayt(1989,pp.398401)
7. Karakash(1950,pp.5257)

References
Floyd,Thomas(1997),PrinciplesofElectricCircuits(5thed.),PrenticeHall,ISBN0132322242
Hayt,William(1989),EngineeringElectromagnetics(5thed.),McGrawHill,ISBN0070274061
Karakash,JohnJ.(1950),TransmissionLinesandFilterNetworks(1sted.),Macmillan
Kraus,JohnD.(1984),Electromagnetics(3rded.),McGrawHill,ISBN0070354235
Stutzman,GaryThiele(2012),AntennaTheoryandDesign,JohnWiley&Sons,ISBN0470576642
Young,E.C.,ThePenguinDictionaryofElectronics,Penguin,ISBN0140511873(see'maximumpowertheorem','impedance
matching')

ImpedanceMatching(http://www.antennatheory.com/tutorial/smith/chart.php)ImpedanceMatchingwiththeSmithChartforAntennas
UnityGainandImpedanceMatching(http://www.rane.com/note124.html)
p_faqid=224)
Calculation:DampingofimpedancematchingconnectingZoutandZin(http://www.sengpielaudio.com/calculatorbridging.htm)
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TutorialonRFimpedancematchingusingtheSmithChart(http://www.maximic.com/appnotes.cfm?appnote_number=742&CMP=WP
6)
Conjugatematchingversusreflectionlessmatchingpdf(http://www.ece.rutgers.edu/~orfanidi/ewa/ch12.pdf)