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DEUTSCHLAND
UBER ALLAH

BY
E.

F.

BENSON

HODDER AND STOUGHTON


LONDON

NEW YORK
moral

TORONTO
PRICE TWOPBNCB

DEUTSCHLAND UBER ALLAH

DEUTSCHLAND
UBER ALLAH

BY
E.

F.

BENSON

HODDER AND STOUGHTON


LONDON

NEW YORK

TORONTO

DEUTSCHLAND UBER ALLAH


IT was commonly

the beginning of this


whatever Germany's military resources
she was
might be,
hopelessly
and
childishly
lacking in diplomatic ability and in knowledge oi
psychology, from which all success in diplomacy

war

said

at

thai,

As instances of this grave defect


people adduced the fact that apparently she had
is

distilled.

not anticipated the entry of Great

Britain into

tin-

war at all, while her treatment of Belgium


immediately afterwards was universally pronounced
not to

be a crime

stupidest sort.

It

merely,
is

but a blunder of the

Germany

perfectly true that

did not understand, and, as

seems

likely in the light

innumerable other atrocities, never will understand, the psychology of civilised peoples
she has
never shown any signs up till now, at any rate, of
" having got the hang of it " at all.
But critics of her
of

diplomacy failed to seethe root-fact that she did not


understand it merely because it did not interest her.
It was not worth her while to master the psychology
of other civilised

was out not to


understand them but to conquer them.
She had all
the information she wanted about their armies and
nations, since she

navies and guns and ammunition neatly and correctly


tabulated.
Why, then, since this was all that concerned her, should she bother her head about what

JOO

'

DEUTSCHLAND UBER

they might

feel

torpedoing of

on the subject
neutral

<>t

All All.

gas-attacks or the

ships without

warning?

As

long as her fumes were deadly ami her submarines


subtle, nothing further

concerned

her'.

Inn Europe generally made a great mistake in


supposing that she could not learn psychology and
the process <>t its distillation into diplomacy when it
The psychology of the French ami
interested her.
English was a useless study, for she was merely
going t<> fight them, hut for years she had 1m n
Studying with an industry and a patience that put
our diplomacy to shame as was most swiftly and
iminiously proven when
came into conflict with
,

it

psychology ol the Turks.


For years she
had watched the dealings ol the Great Powers with
Turkey, but she had never really associated hersell
She sat quietly by and saw how
with that policy.
worked.
was this.
\-\>r
a hundred
it
Briefly
years Turkey had been a Si< k Man, ami for a
hundred years he had been kept alive in Europe by
hers) the

it

sedulous attentions

"I
the Physician-Powers,
him die tor tear of the stupendous
quarrels which would instantly arise over his orpse.
So there they all sat round his bed, and kept him
alive with injections ol strychnine ami oxygen and,
no less, by a policy oi rousing and irritating the
tin-

who dared

not

let

<

patient.

All

through

the

reign

of

Abdul

Hamid

Greal Britain plucked his pillow


from him. so to speak, by her protectorate of Egypt
Russia tweaked Eastern Rumelia from him; Franc<

they persevered:

deprived him of his hot-water bottle when sh<


snatched at the Constantinople quays, and they all
aid slapped him when he went to war with

DEUTSCHLAND UBER ALLAN.

1896, and instantly deprived

him <>i the


Thai /as the
principle of European diplomacy towards Turl
Germany always held aloof.
and from

Greece

in

territory

he

had won

in

Thessaly.

il

Bui from aboul the beginning of the reign of the


presenl

German Emperor, German

or rather Prussian

diplomacy had been going quietly aboul its work.


was worth while to study the psychology of the
It
Turks, because dimly then, but with ever increasing
distinctness,

Germany foresaw

that

Turkey might

counter oi immense importance in the threat


conflict which was assuredly drawing nearer, though
as yet its existence was but foreshadowed by the
be a

most distant reflections of summer lightning on a


But if Turkey was to be of any
serene horizon.
profit to her, she wanted a strong Turkey who could

and she had no use


the other Powers were bent
Her own eventual
on keeping alive but no more.
fight with her (or rather for her),

for

the Sick

Man whom

domination of Turkey was always the end in view,


but she wanted to dominate not a weak but a strong
And her diplomacy was not less than
servant.
simply from the facts that on the one hand
soothed Turkey instead of irritating, and on
the other it went absolutely unnoticed lor a long

brilliant
it

Nobody knew

was going

She
knowing
what magnificent material Anatolia afforded, and she
time

that

it

on.

sent officers to train the Turkish army, well

had thoroughly grasped the salient fact that to make


any way with Oriental peoples your purse must be
" There is no
open and your backshish unlimited.
God but backshish, and the Deutsche Bank is his
prophet."

DEUTSCH1 VND UBER ALLAH.

For years
the great

went on very quietly, and

this

blades of the

that crop

the whole field with

Turkey

to-day

ovei

the

To-day

toappear.

all

Ottoman Empire the first tiny


crop that Germany was sowing began

field of

its

ripe

men

neither

is

waves high and covers


and fruitful tars.
For
nor

less

than a

and more than makes up to her


has lost and hopes to regain.
she
for the colonies
She knows that perfectly well, .and so do any who
have at all studied the history and the results of her

German

colony,

Even Turkey itself must, as in an


diplomacy there.
For who
uneasy dream, be faintly conscious of it.
to-day

William

Sultan

the

is

No

Turkey?

Germany.

of

II.

of

It

is

in

other than
that

Berlin

his

Cabinet meets, and sometimes he asks Tal.iat Bey to


And Talaat
attend in a strictly honorary capacity.
Bey goes hack to Constantinople with a strictly
Or else he gives one to
honorary sword of honour.
William

from

II.

his soi-disant

master, the Sultan,

master from
one
knows
For no
better than
his real master.
William II. the use that swords of honour play in

or

takes one

deeds

his

soi-disant

objeel of this pamphlet

solid

present

to

dishonour.

of

The
and

back

staircase

supremacy

of

is

steps by

over

hewn
Germany's

to trace the

which

Turkey

was

achieved.

from the quiet spade-work that had been


going on for some years, Germany made no
important move till the moment when in I909 the
Apart

Young Turk
Abdul

after

the

forced

abdication

ot

llamid, proclaimed the aims and ideal of the

new regime.
for

party,

here, with

At once
her

Germany saw

help,

might

her opportunity,

arise

the

strong

DEUTSCHLAND UBER ALLAH.

Turkey which she desired to sec, instead of th<


weak Turkey which all the other European Powers
had been keeping on a lowering
(desirous only that

from that moment


to

Turkey

in

it

diet

for

so

long

should not quite expire), and

she began to lend, or rather

let,

ever increasing quantities the resoui

It was
and her military knowledge.
in her interests, if Turkey was to be of use to her,
that she should educate, and irrigate, and develop

of her scientific

the unexploited

treasures

of

human

material,

of

and Germany's gold,


were at Turkey's
laboratories
her schools, her
But in every case she, as in duty bound
disposal.
saw that she got very good value
people,
her
to
fertility

and

mineral wealth

for her outlay.

Here, then, was the great psychological

moment

The Young
moved.
when Germany
Turks proclaimed that they were going to weld
the Ottoman Empire into one homogeneous and
harmonious whole, and by a piece of brilliant
paradoxical reasoning Germany determined that it
In flat
was she who was going to do it for them.
contradiction of the spirit of their manifestos, which
proclaimed the Pan-Turkish ideal, she conceived
and began to carry out under their very noses the
And
great new chapter of the Pan-Germanic ideal.
know
the
difference
They
did
not
Turks
the Young
mistook that lusty Teutonic changeling for their own
new-born Turkish babe, and they nursed and nourished
Amazingly it throve, and soon it cut its teeth,
it.
and one day, when they thought it was asleep, it arose
from its cradle a baby no more but a great Prussian
"
guardsman who shouted " Deutschland uber Allah
instantly

DEU Mill. AND

BER

Only once was there a check


infant, and thai
was

in

tin-

no

Prussian

childish ailment.

All. Ml.
career of the

more

than

For when the Balkan wars broke


army was in the transitional stage.

>ut

the Turkish

the

German tutors had nol ye! had time


army with German discipline and

to inspire

tradition;

had only weeded nut, so to speak, the old


Turkish spirit, the blind obedience to the ministers
The Shadow >i God, in
God.
of the Shadow <>i
<|
the
Sultan
hail been drag
the
in
person
fact,
into the light, and Ins
.at
Shadow had grown
In consequence there was not at
appreciably less.
this juncture any cohesion in the army, and it
they

suffered reverse alter reverse.

Bu1 a strong though

a curtailed Turkey was more in accordance with


Prussian ideas than a weak and unformed one, and

Germany bore the Turkish


And that was the only

defeats

German

then

very valiantly.

set-back
that
this
Pan-Prussian youngster experienced, and it was no
more than an attack of German measles which Invery quickly got over.
For two or three years
influence wavered,

on

blessings

the

out,

falling

recovered, "with

that

all

the

more

endears."
is

It

ideal

to

how Germany adapted


her own ends, and h\ a

vindication

ol

Germany's methods the

Pan-Turkish

the

triumphant

account of
in

publication

written

see

interesting to

as

this
ol

German

disseminated

ideal is to he found
w 5 by Tekin Alp, which was
propaganda and by Germany

Pan-Turkish
i

broadcast

over

the Turkish

movement was organised by Kemal

'Ihe
>

as

.1

branch

committee

ol

the

Empire.

Bey in
Union and

DEUTSCHLAND UBER ALLAH


I'n^irss

I'artv at
Constantinople, and its headwere in Salonica, where the depo ed
Abdul llannd was subsequently confined.
Another
branch, under Zia Bey, worked al Constantinople.

quarters

Kemal Bey
who

national

Turkish

all

collected a group of

young and ardenl

exploited the idea of a restoration of a


and universal Turkey which should unite

writers,

and, as was hinted even


other nationalities, such as the
were a menace, or might con-

elements,

then, extirpate the

Armenians, which
ceivably be a menace, to complete Turkish autocracy.
The young writers were supplemented by a group
called Yeni Hayat, or the "
tor

the restoration of

Young

national

Life,"

who worked

traditions.

Certain
opposition was met with, but this was overcome, and
at

once Kemal Bey and

translated

into

Khalif

well

that,

bond

of

his assistants

Turkish, and

the

had the Koran

prayers

for

the

Arabic no longer, but in Turkish


were
distributed throughout the Empire.
Knowing full

forces,

posal,

in

if

from language, the religious


Islam was one of the strongest uniting
apart

not actually the strongest, at

they

the Turkish

proclaimed

that

the

true

and not the Arab version.

their dis-

was
With a

faith

stupendous audacity they claimed this difference


between the two, namely, that the Arab conception
of Allah was the God of Vengeance, the Turkish
conception the God of Love.
The Turkish language
and the Turkish Allah, God of Love, in whose name
the Armenians were tortured and massacred, were
the two wings on which Turkey was to soar.
Auxiliary soaring societies were organised, among
them a Turkish Ojagha with similar aims, and no


DEI rSCHl \\l>

Ml

BER

\l!

were founded
of
There were also a Turkish
Guiji or gymnastic club and an Izji or boy scouts'
dub.
A union ol merchants worked for the same
object in districts where hitherto trade had been in
the hands ol
Greeks and Armenians, and signs
appeared on their shops that only Turkish labour
was employed.
Religious funds also were used for
similar economic restoration.
Turkey then was to be for the lurks, and so
than
was a great deal more
Turkey.
They
fewer

than

claimed

that

Azerbaijan

were

the

10,000,000 population ol
Turks, while the province

most active and enlightened

richest,

was

entirely Turkish.

Similarly

regarded the country south oi the Caucasus


since Turks formed 50 to So per

they
as

the

ol

Persia

district of

it

the Empire.

one-third

branches

sixteen

throughout

Turkish,

cent, of

its

population.

Kasan,

in fact,

was Turkish,

and if the Turks in the plain ol the Volga, in the


Crimea, and in tin- Caucasus were welded into
Turkey, a nation ol between forty and fifty million
would he formed- Osnianlis all ol them.

Germany

saw,

Germany

licked her lips and took out

her long spoon, for her

She did not interfere


hour was come.
helped to further the Pan-Turkish ideal.
usual

foresight

she

Germany

tabulated,

perceived

that

the

she only

With her
Izji,

for

who

instance, was a thing to encourage, for the boys

being

were

trained now

would

in

tew

years

be

young men ot whom she could not


too
have
many.
By all means the boy-scoul
movement was to be encouraged. She encouraged
so generously and methodically that in i^io,
it
pre.

|S(

lv

tin-


DEUTSCHLAND UBER ALLAH
according

an absolutely reliable source of informathai the whole boy-scout movement,


wiih its innumerable branches, i^ undei the control
a German officer, ( )olonel von Hoff.
In its cla

we

tion,

>i

to

find

boys an-

(derneks)

"a

in

recreational

positively

enjoy

thai

lii

will

William

II.

skirmishing,

(a

them
They

trained

military

in

manner," so

Prussian touch)to

be

of

learn

use

tin-

to

exer<

the

to

trigger- drill,

they are taught

practices,

they enjoy

thai

they

make

Sultan
learn

reports

oil

the

movements

neal

ways of judging distance. They are divided


two classes, the junior class ranging from the

into

of their

companies, they are shown

ages ol twelve to seventeen, the senior class consisting


ot boys over seventeen but not yet of military
age.
But since Colonel von Hoff organised this boys of
the age of seventeen have

Prussian
'.raining

become

of military age.

thoroughness therefore saw that their


must begin earlier the old junior class has
;

become the senior

class,

and a new junior class

has been set on foot which begins


exercises

in

Allah, at the

the service

age of

those pigeon-livered

of

eight.

its

William
It

is

recreational

II.,

Gott and

great fun, but


are not diverted

all

boys who
have to go on with their fun all the same, for,
needless to say, the Izji is compulsory on all boys.
Of course they wear a uniform which is made in
Germany and is of a " semi-military " character.
by

little

it

The

provision of soldiers and sailors, then, trained


from the early age of eight was the first object of

Germany's peaceful and benign penetration. As


from the Pisgah height of the Pan-Turkish ideal she
saw the promised land, but she had no idea of seeing

io

1)1.

rSCHLAND UBER

\1

\II.

Moses, and expiring without entering


and po
it, and her faith that she would entei
She has noi only
it
has been wonderfully justified.
a year ago towns
penetrated >ut has dominated
only,

it

like

it

Aleppo were crammed with German officers,


while al Islahie there were separate wooden barracks
There is
for the exclusive use of German troops.
a military mission at Mamoura, where all the buildings
arc permanent erections solidly built of stone, for no
merely temporary occupation is intended, and
thousands of freight-cars with Belgian marks upon
them throng the railways, and on some is the
significant German title of "Military Headquarl
There are troops in the
of the Imperial Staff."
Turkish army to which is given the title of " Pasha
formation," in compliment to Turkey, but the Pasha
formations arc under the command of Baron Kress
\
m Kressenstein, and are salted with ierman officers,
N.C.O.s, ana privates, who, although in the Turkish
army, retain their (ierman uniforms.
This (ierman leaven tonus an instructional
of the troops in these
for the remainder
s
like

<

formations,

who

urged to respect

The Germans are


Turkish.
Moslem customs and to show

are

particular

consideration

vances.

Every

for

(ierman

stantinople to join the

their

religious

contingent

ob

arriving

at

Pasha formations finds

when the troops

quarters prepared on a ship, and

"
they take supplies
leave for their " destination

depots

at

the railway station which

or three months.
diaries,

and are

They

will last

are enjoined

provided

with

to

from
them two

write

war

handbooks on the
in Mesopotamia,

military and ge< (graphical conditions

DEUTSCHLAND

ALLAH.

LJBER

and with notes on the training and man


menl oi camels. Tins looks as if they were intend* d
for use against the English troops in Mesopotamia,
but
cannot find that they have been identified
with maps,

there.

The

greatest secrecy

observed with r<


Pasha Formations, and their constitution
and movements are kept extremely veiled.
Wireless stations have been sel up in Asia Minor
and Palestine, and these are under the command of
A Turkish air-service was instituti d,
Major Schlee.
.it
the head of which was Major Serno, a Prussian
is

these

to

officer.

At Constantinople there

a naval

school
Turkish engineers and mechanics in the arsenal,
to help on the Pan-Turkish ideal, and with a viewis

for

to

that

all

the

instructors

by the spring of this year

arc

German.

Similarly

Germany had arranged

to

submarine training in Constantinople for the


Turks, and a submarine school was open and at
work in March. Other naval cadets were sent to
Germany for their training, and Turkish offii
start

were present at the battle of Jutland in June, 1916,


of course were decorated by the Emperor in
person lor their coolness and courage.

and

A complete revision of the Turkish system of


exemption from military service was necessary as
soon as Germany began to want men badly.
Tin
age for military service was first raised, and we find
a Turkish order of October, 1916, calling on all men
forty-four, and forty-five years of age
exemption tax if they did not wish to be

of forty -three,

to

pay

their

called to the Colours.

That secured

their

money,

and, with truly Prussian irony, hardly had this been


done when a fresh Army order was issued calling

DEUTSCH1

is

out

all

WD

UBER

Al

\II.

men whether

tax or Me!.

November

Still

a in :sh

they had paid their exemption


more men were needed, and in
levy pi boys was raised regardless

whether they had reached the military age or not.


This absorbed the senior class of tin- boy scouts,
who hitherto had learned their drill in a " recreationol

the Prussian
manner."
ain
Moloch was
more,
hungry for
and in December the Turkish
Gazette announced that all males in Asia Minor
between the ages ol fourteen and sixty-five wen- to
be enrolled lor military service, and in [anuary ol
o 7 fresh recruiting was foreshadowed
this year,

ary

by

tin'

ord.r that

men

of

forty-six

to liltv-two

who

had paid their exemption money should he medically


examined to see
they were lit for active service.
Wider and wider the net was spread, and in the same
month a fresh Turco-German convention was signed
wherehy was enforced a reciprocal surrender in both
countries of persons liable to military service, and of
deserters, and simultaneously all Turks living in
Switzerland who had paid exemption money were
recalled to their Germanised fatherland.
Bynowthe
fust crops oi the year were ripening in Smyrna, and
it

in

default

labour (for everyone was now


were reaped hv Turkish soldiers and

of civilian

soldier) they

the produce sent direct to

Already

Germany.

August, 91 6, certificates of Ottoman


nationality had been granted to Serbians resident in
in

Empire who were willing to become Ottoman


and their "willingness" was intensified
by hints
incidents akin to the Armenian
that
massacres mighl possibly occur among other alien
pie.
They had to sign a declaration that

the

subjects,

DEUTSCHLAND UBER ALLAH.


would not

they

no

thus

.iikI

revert

doubl

Imkisli army.

13

former nationality,
Serbs passed into the

their

to

many

enrolments were desirable,


and in March, 191 7. all Greeks living in Anatolia
wen- forcibly proselytised, their property was confiscated, and they were made
liable to military
Furthei

were nol available, for of


those who were removed from the villages where
they lived to military centres ten per cent, died on
Unfortunately

service.

all

the forced marches from hunger and exposure.


That was annoying for the German recruiting agents,
but it suited well enough the Pan-Turkish ideal of

exterminating foreign
or

among

916, there were considerable

when

in

trouble

was
November,

troops

the

firmly dealt with, as, for instance,


1

When

nationalities.

occurred

discontent

it

desertions from the

49th Division. On that occasion the order was


given to fire on them, and many were killed and
wounded. The officer who gave the order was
commended by the Prussian authorities for his
Should such an incident occur again, it
firmness.
will

for

no doubt be dealt with with no


in

command
taneously

of
in

all

less firmness,

Mackensen was put

April, 191 7,

troops

in

Asia

in

Minor.

supreme
Simul-

Berlin Prince Zia-ed-Din, the Turkish

Sultan's heir, presented a sword of

honeur to the
him good
news of the progress of the German harbour
works begun in the winter at Stamboul, and
himself learned that the railway bridge which the
Turks proposed to build over the Bosphorus was not
to be proceeded with, for the German high command
had superseded that scheme by their own idea of
Sultan

William

II.

Probably

he gave

DEC IM

WD

III

\M Ml

UBER

making
tunnel under the Bosphorus instead, which
would be safer from aircraft.
Such up to date, though in brief outline, is the
.1

history oi

the

progress

ol the Prussian octopus in


and naval matters.
In October,
[914, just before Turkey came into the war. sin- had
bees mobilising lor three months, while Enver Pasha
continued successfully convincing our Ambassador
in
Constantinople of his sincere and unshakable
friendship for England, and had 800,000 men under

Turkish

military

German influence was


which now was thoroughly
trained in German methods, bul thai army might still
be called a Turkish army.
Nowadays by no stretch
ol language can
be called Turkish except in so far
that all Turkish efficient manhood is enlisted in it, for
arms.

Already,

strong

in

the

course,

ol

army,

it

there

is

no branch or department

of

the Prussian octopus has not thrown


tentacles and affixed

and

naw

its

are

all

paralysing

immovable suckers.

alike, its wireless stations, its

aircraft,

its

its

over which

it

controlled

directly

submarines,
from Berlin,

and, as we have seen, the generalissimo of the


is

Mackensen, who

the

is

Army

foi

absolutely the Hindenburg of


is the control oi Berlin

Hut thorough as

East.

and naval matters,


one whit more thorough than her control
is not
in all other matters oi national life.
Never before
been
very successful in her colonisahas Germany
hut if complete domination
the sucking <>l a
tions
is a mere rind ol itself, and vet at the
country till

over Constantinople

in

military

it

it

same time
he taken

lull

to bursting

"I

Prussian ichor

may

Germany's equivalent of colonisation,


tlnn indeed we must he forced t" recognise her
as

DEUTSCHLAND UBER
And

success.

sake

the

oi

Prussian

\l.l\lf

15

was all done in the name and for


Pan-Turkish ideall
Even now

if

the

Pecksniffs

pamphlet,

"

published

in

like Herr Ernsl Marre, whos<


Turks and Germans after the War," wa

1910, continue to

insist

thai

Germany

is

nobly devoting herself to the well-being of Turkey.


" In doing this," he exclaims in
thai illuminating

document,

"we

This

war

is

are
of

omitting to say from

Perhaps

ated.
is

he

true,

benefiting

liberation

the

forgets

for

Turkey.
Turkey,"

whom Turkey
Armenians.
and
that,

though

being liber
Occasionally, it
is

naively

remarks,

"

Turkey is a very difficult country to govern.


But after the war Turkey will be very important

as

country."
But then he remembers
"
and
again
says,
We wish to give besides taking,
and we should often like to give more than we
can hope to give."
Let us look into this, and
see the manner in which Germany expresses her
yearning to impoverish herself for the sake of
Turkey.
transit

All this reorganisation of the


of

course

skilful

very

expensive

affair
and required
was necessary to get the
Turkey's exchequer arrangements into

financing, and

whole of

Turkish army was

German hands.

it

series

of

financial

regulations

was promulgated.
The finance minister during
was
still
Turkish,
1916
but the official immediately
under him was German.
He was authorised to
deposit

with

the

Controllers

of
the Ottoman
Debt
German
Imperial
Bills
of
jT30,ooo,ooo and to issue German paper money
to the like amount.
This arrangement ensures

National

DEUTSCH1 VND UBER

16

circulation

the

German

the

ol

are

after the

in

peace.

ol

which

notes,

gold two years


Gold is declared

redeemable by Turkey
declaration

Ml

to

be the

standard currency, and no creditor is obliged to


epl in payment ol a debt more than 300 piastres
a<
And since there is no
in silver or fifty in nickel.
has been all called in, and
gold in currency (tor
i

it

penalties of death have been authorised for hoardei


it

follows that this

and other issues

of

German

paper

At the same
through the Umpire.
expert,
Kautz,
Dr.
was
appointed t<
a
German
time
start hanks throughout Turkey in order to tree tin
pe. in. itits from the Turkish village usurer, and in
filter

will

righl

consequence enslave them to the German hanks.


Similarly a German was put at the head of the
Ottoman Agricultural Bank. TJiese new branches
is
pleasant to think that
worked very well, but
one sueh was started by the Deutsche Hank at
lad in October, 1916, which now has its shutters
Before this, as we learn from the Oestrrup.
it

retchischer

other

issued

from

Volkswirt (June,

gold

notes,

which

Turkey,

1916),

payment

in

retainable

is

lined

notes
public,

rather

were
but

accepted
the

than

longer

in

war
will

their

at

first

till

(It

not

These

that.)

willingly

increase

gold

for

Berlin

in

after
the
the end of
six months
reasonable to wonder whether it
ret.

Germany had

by

number (by

is

be

gold
the

the

second issue) has caused them to be viewed with


justifiable suspicion, and the depreciation in them
But the Turkish public has no redress
continues
pi
by hoarding gold, which is a penal offence.
That

these

arrangements

have

not

particularly

DEUTSCHLAND UBER
helped Turkish

fad

Turkish

the

thai

piastres,

is

may

credit

17

gathered from the


nominally
100
/,

be

gold

now worth 280

AI.I.AII.

piastres.

Again, the Deutsche Orient bank lias made


many extensions, and is already financing cotton

and wool trade for after the war.


of tins provoked much applause

who

circles,

find

it

The establishment
in German financial

be an instance of the

to

" far-

reaching and powerful Germano- Austrian unity, which


replaces the disunion of Turkish finance."
This is
true, especially if
we omit the word
"Austrian," inserted for diplomatic reasons.
Again

profoundly

we find Germany advancing ^3,000,000 of Germar


paper to the Turkish Government in January, 191 7
for the payment of supplies they have received froir
Krupp's works and (vaguely)

German

conjecture,

is

minister.

interest

to

the

This

to be

March of
Ottoman Bank a German

In

the

for

too, we may
redeemed after the war in gold.
this year we find in the report of

financial

loan of ^"1,000,000 for

the purchase of agricultural implements by Turkey,

guaranteed by house-taxes.
In all up to
that month, as was announced in the Chamber of
Deputies at Constantinople, Germany had advanced
and

this is

Turkey the sum

to

would seem,
dates
all

"

in

in gold.

for

of

^142,000,000,

entirely,

it

German paper, to be repaid at various


The grip, in fact, is a strangle-hold,

Turkey's good, as no doubt will prove the


" announced by Zimmermann in

New Conventions

May,

191

7,

to

Capitulations, "

take

the

place

of

the

abolished

which left Turkey at the mercy of


predatory Powers who looked for the disruption of
Herr Zimmermann does not
the Ottoman Empire."

DEUTSCH1 VND UBER

look
-

he

that:

for

looks

lor

its

\l

\II.

And

absorption.

it.

The

development of Turkey by this


Power has been equally
disinterested
and
benevolent
thorough and far-reaching, though Germany here
has had a certain amount of competition by Hungar)
industrial

intend

against,

Germany was
But

she

Hungary considered

f<>r

trespassing

has

been

<>n

to

able

thai

her sphere of interest.

make no

appreciable

headway against her more .unto partner, and her


monopoly of sugar-production was
not favourably received, for Germany already had

application for a

taken

the

beet

industry

well

in

hand.

In

Minor the acreage of cultivation early in 1017 had


fallen more than 50 per cent, from that under crops
1>. fore
the war, but owing to the importation of
machinery from the Central Powers, hacked up by
a compulsory Agricultural Service law, which has
just been passed, it is hoped that the acreage will
he increased this year by something like 30 per cent.
yield per acre also will he greatly increased this

The

year,

for

Germany

manure badly

has,

herself,

though

sent

large

needing

artificial

quantities

into

Turkey, where they will be more profitably employed.


She has no fear about securing the produce. This

augmented

yield will,

it

is

true, not

be adequate to

supply the needs of Turkey, who


has suffered from very acute food shortage, which
to famine and
in certain districts has amounted
for

the last two years

wholesale starvation of the poorer classes.


unlikely that their needs will be considered

But
at

Germany's needs (she tin- fairy godmother


Pan-Turk ideal) must obviously have the firsl

it

is

all,

for

>f

the

call

on

DEUTSCHLAND
mch

ALLAH

LJBER

provisions as are obtainable.

Tims, though

in

Kebruary, 191 7, there was a daily shortage in Smyrna


"I
700 sacks ol flour, and the Vrab and
rreek
(

population was starving, no Hour


'"

imported into Smyrna.

'"

at

all

Bu1

simultaneously

Germany was making huge purchases


and

flour

Constantinople

in

was allowed

(paid

ol

for

meat,

fish,

German

in

paper), including 100,000 sheep.

Yel such was the


villainous selfishness of the famine-stricken folk
at
Adrianople that when the trams containing these
supplies were passing through a mob held them up
and sold the contents to the inhabitants. That,
however, was an isolated instance, and in any case a

law was passed

in

October, 1916, appointing a

tary commission to control


that

troops

ordains

shall

the

that

come under

this

be

supplies.

all

supplied

requirements
head.

first,

of

(Private

It

mili-

enacts

and specially

German

troops

firms

have been
augmented wheat supplies, but special permission was
given in 191 5 to German and Austro- Hungarian
societies to buy.)
A few months later we find that
there are a hundred deaths daily in Constantinople
from starvation and 200 in Smyrna, where there
is
a complete shortage of oil.
But oil is still
expressly

prohibited

from

purchasing

these

being sent to Germany, and during igi6 five


hundred reservoirs of oil were sent there, each
containing up to 15,000 kilogrammes.
But Kultur
must be supplied first, else Kultur would ir row
lean,

and

after

the Smyrniotes.

the

Turkish

God

of Love
will
look
no wonder that- he
blockade of Germany does not produce the desired

result

little

It

is

quicker, for food

is

already pouring

in

TSCHLAND

DEI

BER

Al

\H.

from Turkey, and when the artificial manures


produced their early harvest the stream will become
1

torrent.

.1

months
Turkey

ol

these

all

and

busy

of her food supplies, for the

ideal;

Turkish

been

tremendous
war Germany has not only been denuding

during

But

same

the

in

increasing

vastly

the

of the Panspun she lias

sake

altruistic

productiveness

her

ol

new and most important colony. There is a great


irrigation work going on in Konia, and another at
Ernst
Adana financed by the Deutsche Bank.
Adana
this,
for
ol
accounl
capital
Marre gives us a
was already linked up with the Bagdad railway in
>ber, 1916, which was to be the great artery
There is
connecting Germany with the East.
some considerable shortage of labour there (owing
the Armenian massacres, to which
to
in part
>

we shall revert
arrangements are
of

irrigation

the

have

been

paid

presently),

excellent

in

financial

The whole

shape.

German hands and


by German paper; and to
&c, back into her own

works are
for

reservoirs,

the

the

but

in

has been agreed that Turkey, already


it
completely bankrupt, will have to pay nol only
what has been spent, but a handsome sum in
compensation; while, as regards shortage of labour,

control

have been released in large numbers to


This irrigation scheme at
without
pay.

prisoners

work

Adana
times
kly

will

the

the

crop,

Arab magazine, El

telU us also
there.

increase
present

of

cotton
so

we

Mem

yield

learn
el

by

four

from

the

1 smalt,

which

the electric-power stations en


DEUTSCHLAND UBER ALLAH
the

21

ihe same paper (October, 1916) announces to


Anatolian merchants thai
transport
is
now

easy, owing to

from

the

arrival

Germany, while

prophesies

engines

of

Die

Zeit

prosperous Future

and

(February,

trucks
191 7)

GermanoTurkish cotton combine.


Hitherto Turkey has
largely imported cotton from England now Turkey
a

for

this

thanks to German capital on terms above stated


the process of internal development so
will, in

Germany, grow cotton


enough to give a preferential

unselfishly devised lor her by


for herself, anil be kind
tarill to

rermany.

similarly

the irrigation

may be predicted for


Konia, where will arise a

future

bright

scheme

at

Artesian wells have been sunk,


the suggestion to introduce Bulgarian

sugar-beet industry.

and there

is

labour

default

in

of

Turkish.

As we have

seen,

Hungary attempted to obtain a monopoly with regard


to sugar, but Germany has been victorious on this
point (as on every other when she competes with
Hungary) and has obtained the concession for a
period of thirty years.
A similar irrigation scheme
bringing into cultivation the Makischelin Valley,
near Aleppo, and Herr Wied has been appointed as
is

expert for irrigation plant

Syria.

in

it
would be easier to enumerate the
and economical developments of Turkev

Indeed,
industries

over which

got the

Germany has

control

than

not at the present

those

over

moment

which she has.

shown a parental interest


in Turkish educational questions.
She established
last
year, under German management, a school
In

for

particular

the

she

study of

has

German

in

Constantinople;

she

rSCHLAND UBER

nil
has

under

put

Governmenl
technical

protection

the

Jewish

the

education

Al

German

the

ol

institution

Haifa

at

from

Palestine;

in

Ml

Sivas

For

mission of schoolmasters has been senl to Germany


Ernsl Marre
for the study of German methods.

surmises

that

German

even

compulsory

in

"House

the

of

the

become

doubtless

intermediate

Turkish

In April, 1917, the

>ndary) schools.
of

will

Friendship"

first

was

(!)

stone

laid

at

Constantinople, the object of which institution is to


create among Turkish students an interest in everythe year arrangein
10,000 Turkish youths to go
imagine
These
to Germany to be taughl trades.
were unfit for military service. With regard to such

German, while

thing

ments wen- made

earlier

for

a scheme Halil Haled Bey praises the arrangement


When
for the education of Turks in Germany.
"they
us,
lost
tells
he
France,
to
they used to go
"
(certainly Prussian Got! is nearer akin
their religion

"and returned home unpatriotic


In Germany they will have access to
and useless.
suitable religious literature" (Gotl !) "and must adopt
all they see good in German methods without losing
Turkish Allah)

to

their original characteristics."


is

Comment

The hand is the hand

needless.

but the voice

is

onthis script

ol Halil

the voice of Prussia!

Haled Bey,

Occasionally,

Prof
competition is seen.
Austrian quarterly review, shows

but rarely, Austrian

an
rerman influence, and we find in October,
ipi6, an Ottoman-Austrian college started at Vienna
But Germany
for 250 pupilsof theOttoman Empire.
Ai Adana (where are the
in
Berlin.

Schmoller,
jealousy of

I, .,

in

<

German

irrigation

works)

the

German-Turkish

DEUTSCHLAND UBER ALLAN.


Society has opened
ivripiucallv, courses
at

lectures

300, while,

ol

German

Tanin announces

the

colonists.

course

Turco-German FriendMarx,

von

Munich,
April on foreign influence and the
Professor

Society.

ship

future

ol

be held by the

i<>

school

Turkish have been organised

in

sake

Constantinople

In
ol

lor the

Berlin

German

23

discoursed last

ol

development of nations, with special reference


Turkey and the parallel case of Germany.

to

So much for German education, but her penepower extends into every branch of industry
and economics.
In November, 1916, a Munich
expert was put in charge of the College of Forestry,
and an economic society was started in Constantitrative

on

nople

German

German

with

lines

instructors.

Inoculation against small-pox, typhoid, and cholera

was made compulsory


Ministers of

figureheads

all

of

Ministers Germans.

was
and

appointed

as

and we

right

of

and of Commerce,
have as their acting

them,

purchase.

for

beet.

silkworm

breeding

Practically

They own

all

the

the Anatolian

(originally British), with right to

Angora and Konia

concession, with

same year a German

In the

expert

Minor are pure German concerns

railway concession
build to

find that the Turkish

Justice,

for the cultivation of

railways in Asia

by

Posts, of

the

Bagdad

railway

preferential rights over minerals

they have bought the Mersina-Adana railway, with

Bagdad railway
they
have bought the Smyrna-Cassaba railway, built
with French capital.
They have secured also the
Ilaidar Pasha Harbour concession, therebv conright of

linking

trolling

and

up

to

handling

the

all

merchandise

arriving

DEUTSCHLAND UBER Ml

c4
at

railhead from the interior

\II.

Mean-

Asia Minor.

oi

construction is
pushed on in .til
under German control, and the Turkish
Minister oi
Finance (August, 1916) allocai
large sum of paper German money tor the conrailway

time

directions

struction

of

ordinary

roads,

military

roads,

which are new

local

Turkey,
government roads, all ol
but which will be useful for the complete German
To
occupation which is being swiftly consolidated.
stop the mouths of the people, all political clubs
to

have been suppressed by the Minister of the Interior,


tor Prussia does not care for criticism.
To supply
German ammunition needs, lead and zinc have been
taken from the roofs of mosques and door-handles

from mosque gates, and the iron railings along the


Champs de Mars at Pera have been carted away
A Turco-G< rman
for the manufacture of bombs.
convention signed in Berlin in January of this year
permits subjects of one country to settle in the
other

while retaining their nationality and

and

other

ing

trading

Dr.

Konig has opened an

Syrians of

all

threatening

of

In

enjoy-

Lebanon

agricultural school

In the

religions.

plague

privileges.

locusts

in

for

loins district the

February,

1917,

was combated by Germans and a German expert,


Dr. Bucher, had been already sent to superintend
For this concerns supplies to
the whole question.
Germany, as does also the ordinance passed in the
same month that two-thirds of all fish caught in
the Lebanon district should be given to the military
authorities (these are German) and that every fish
;

weighing over 6oz.

Korban

also.

The

should be
copper mines at An^h.ina M.iden,
in

the

Beirul

district

DEUTSCHLAND UBER ALLAH.

25

near Diarbekr, are busy exporting their produce into


(

rermany.

There

is

no end to

German

penetration:

this

water-seekers, with divining and boring apparatus,


accompanied the Turkish expedition into Sinai;
Russian prisoners were sent by Germany for
agricultural work in Asia Minor, to take the place
of
a
slaughtered Armenians
German-Turkish
;

January 11, 1917, gives the whole


reorganisation of the economic system to a special

treaty, signed

German

mission.

Stuttgart

journal

characteristic "
is

how,"

it

Lobgesang" over this feat.


proudly exclaims, " we work

liberation of peoples

In

the

German

chants a

and

same noble

"That
for

the

nationalities."
spirit,

we must suppose,

were introduced in December,


191 6, to replace the Turkish Shuriat, and in the
same month all the Turks in telegraph oflices in
Constantinople were replaced by Germans.
Ernst
"
Marre, in his " Turks and Germans after the War
legal reforms

young Germans
He particularly recommends

(1916), gives valuable

advice

to

settling in Turkey.
them, knowing how religion is one of the strongest
bonds in this murderous race, to " trade in articles
of devotion, in rosaries, in bags to hold the Koran,"
and points out what good business might be built
Earlier in this year we find a
up in gramophones.
" German Oriental Trading Company " founded for
the import of fibrous materials for needs of military
authorities, and a great carpet business established
at Urfa with German machinery that will supplant
the looms at Smyrna.
A saltpetre factory is
established at Konia by
Herr Toepfer, whose

DEUTSCHLAND UBER Ml
enterprise

Turkish

rewarded

is

put
I

German
of

capitalists

finds

it

undertake

to

gone

has

too

far

for

releases

some struggling limb

instance,

when we see

German

Director's

stamp

temporarily,

Vidin

granted

to

exploitation

the

German octopus
moment and

the
its

victim, as, for

the " imperial

for

German

Damascus has been

at

as

<>i

ol

is

September, 1916, the

that in

Great Radio Station"

carded

were

Occasionally the

metallic ores.

Agriculture

ol

the vilayet

in

near Con-

afforestation

concessions

ninety

1916)

Cross and

Iron

the Ministry

l>v

German hands, and

into

Vpril,

The

decoration,

stantinople ordered

an

with

Ml.

that

"

station'

dis-

should

be

treated for the present as a Turkish concern."

Export

Company

Society "

Industrial

Company
at

"

"

at

Tripolis,

Company"

was
and
in
1916,
at Smyrna, a " Trading and
at Beirut, a "Tobacco Trading

"Trading and
established at Angora

Weaving

an

"

Import

Company"
Company" in

Latakieh, an " Agricultural

"Corn

Exporting

Lebanon, a " Rebuilding Commission" (perhaps for


sacked Armenian houses) at Konia. More curious yet
a Baedeker, in fai
will be a Tourist's Guide Book
for travellers in Konia and the erection ol a monument in honour of Turkish women who have replaced
men called up for military duty. Truly these last
two items a guide book for Anatolia and a

monument

to

women

Turks.

A new

Turkish

women

tells

are

Prussian day

strange
is

enterprises

dawning,

it

for

seems,

as well, for the Tanin (April,

<

for

us that diplomas are to be conferred on ladies

who have completed


Sc hool

at

their

Constantinople.

studies in the Technical

DEUTSCHLAND UBER ALLAH


needless to multiply instances

|S

!'

penetration

ol

27

German

have bul given the skeleton ol this


German monster thai has fastened itsell with
tentacles and suckers on every branch oi Turkish
:

industry.

There

casl

feelers

none round which it has not


Semitic moneylendi
ever
obtained a surer hold on his victim.
In matters
its

is

-no

naval, military, educational, legal, industrial,

has

Strangle-hold.

Turkey's

life

Germany

is

aln

crushed out of her, and, as we have .seen, it hi.


been crushed out of her by the benevolent Kulturmongers who, among all the Greal Towns of
Europe, sacrificed their time and their money to the
achievement of the Pan-Turkish ideal.
Silently and
they worked, bamboozling their chief tool,
Enver Pasha, even as Enver Pasha bamboozled us.
As long as he was of service to them they retained
him for his peace of mind at one time they stopp< d
up all letter-boxes in Constantinople because so
skilfully

many

threatening letters were sent him.


But now
Enver Pasha seems to have had his day he b< came
a little autocratic and thought that he was the head
of the Pan-Turkish ideal.
So he was, but the PanTurkish ideal had become Pan-Prussian, and he had
;

not noticed the transformation.


the

Talaat Bey has taken

he who in May, 191 7, was received by


Emperor William, by King Ludwig, and by the

his place

it is

Austrian Emperor, and he who is the mouthpiece of


the German efforts to make a separate peace with
Russia.
Under Czardom, he proclaimed, the exist-

ence

of

Turkey

revolution has

was

made

no longer desires

threatened, but now the


friendship possible, for Russia

territorial

annexation.

And, oh,


hi

rSCHl

UBER

\\'l>

\l

\II.

Turkey would like to be Russia's friend!


Enver Pasha has been thrown aside tor contumacy,

how
an d

cannot

April

nil

2,

think

but

7.

it

visited

he

curious

thai

submarine base

the

Wilhelmshaven he was very nearly killed


But

accident.

Since then

part

active

soup-kitchen

have

in

left

in a

at

motor-

an accident.
has taken anymore

may have been

it

find that he

cannot
in

when on

Pan-Turkish ideals than to open

some
to

provincial town.

the end of

essay the quesof and complicity

this

Germany's knowledge
From the tribune of
Armenian
massacres.
in the
the Reichstag on January 15, 1916, there was made

tion

of

a definite denial of

the existence of such massai n

on another subsequent occasion it was stated


at all
that Germany could not interfere in Turkish internal
;

a Hairs.
In view of the fact that there

appertaining to Turkey

in

is

no internal

affair

which Germany has not

interfered, the second of these statements may be


But the denial of the massacres
called insincere.
is

a deliberate

knew

all

lie.

Germanyofficial Germany

about them, and she permitted them

t<>

go

The proofs of this are here shortly stated.


on.
the
(1) In September, 1915, four months before
was made in the Reichstag,
grade teacher in the
Dr. Martin
German Technical School at Aleppo, prepared and
, in his name and that of several of his
them to the (i rmau
of
colleagues, a report

denial uf the massacres

Niepage, higher

In that report he
Constantinople.
he
has seen with his
of
what
gives a terrible account
own eyes, and also states that the Country Turks'

Embassy

at

DEUTSCHLAND UBER ALLAH.

20

explanation with regard

measures

is

thai

it

is

t<> the origination


of tho
" the teaching of the Germans."
1

The German Embassy at Constantinople therefon


knew ot the massacres, and knew also that tinTurks attributed them to orders from Germany.
Dr. Niepage also consulted, before
sending his
report, with the German Consul at Aleppo, lierr
Hoffman, who told him that the German Embassy
had been already advised in detail about the
massacres from the consulates at Alexandretta,
Meppo, and Mosul, but that he welcomed a further
protest on the subject

These

had not
gone astray, for in August, 191 5, the German
Ambassador in Constantinople made a formal protest
to the Turkish Government about the massacres.
There is, then, no doubt that the German Government, when it officially denied the massacres, was
perfectly cognisant of them.
It was also perfectly
(2)

reports, or ethers like them,

capable of stopping them, for they were not local


violences, but
wholesale murders
organised at
Constantinople.
Germany had indeed already given
assurances that such massacres should not occur.

She had assured the Armenian Katholikos


that so long as

Germany had any

at

Adana

Turkey
the horrors that had
influence

in

he need not fear a repetition of


taken place under Abdul Hamid.
Had she, then, no
influence in Constantinople, or how was it that she
had obtained complete control over all Turkish
branches of government ? The same assurance was
given by the German Ambassador in April, 19 15, to
the Armenian Patriarch and the President
Armenian National Council.

4^>

of

the

DEUTSCHLAND UBER
So,

in

All. All.

support of the Pan-Turkish ideal and in


of the Turkish Allah, the God of Love,

the name
Germany stood by and

the infamous tale

let

murder ho

ol

lust

The

to
rapine and
Turks had planned to exterminate the whole
Vrmenian race excepl some half-million, who would
agricultural
penniless to work al
he deported
developments under German rule, hut this quality
of Turkish mercy was too strained for Major Pohl,
who proclaimed that it was a mistake to span
Hut he was a soldier, and did not duly
many.
.iii.l

weigh the claims

was

she

let

Government
"

You

to

Germany

Germany;

What

difficulty.

retorted

(perhaps

Belgium and your

if

But

Turkish

the

did

it

on.

so

retort),

Why do you mind about


Armenians ? What about

are not consistent.

slaughter of

the

end.

the Armenian massacre- go


a

in

its

of agriculture.

The choice was open


chose, and

told

a few

atrocities

there?"

And all the ingenuity of the Wilhelmstrasse


would not In- able to find an answer to that.
do not say that Germany wanted the massacres,
She wanted more agricultural
for she did not.
1

labour,

and

think that,

if

only for that

reason, she

But she allowed them to go on


was in her power to stop them, and all the
perfumes of Arabia will not wash clean her hand

deprecated them.

when

it

from that stinking horror.


Here, then, are some of the
those who, at the end of the war,

problems which
will have to deal

with the problem of Turkey must tackle.


as well to recognise that at the present

Turkey

is

virtually

It

is

just

moment

and actually a German colony,

DEUTSCHLAND UBER
Hid

most

the

ever had.
abolish,

It

the

valuable
will

supremacy

martyrised peoples;
the

supremacy

colony

it

of
will

to

;I

Germany has
limit,

Turkey over

or rather

aliens

and

be

Germany

of

thai

be enough

nol

All. All

necessary to abolish
over Turkey.
To do

this the victory ol


our Allied Nations must be
complete, and Germany's octopus monopoly of
Turkish industries severed.
Otherwise we shall

immediately be

confronted

already reaches as

as

with

Germany

Mesopotamia.

that

That is
done now; and that, before there can come any
permanent peace for Europe, must be undone.
Nothing less than the complete release of that
sucker and tentacle embrace will suffice.

PriH id

Qrtat BriM.n

>,

far

r 1 H K FIELD A QlEEN
buildiHfl, I oidon, t
,

lEORACt CoX LTD..


4

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