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As-Sarf (Morphology) ~ Class Eleven

,
Our teacher began with praising Allaah and sending salaat and salaam on the Messenger of
Allaah, his family, companions and followers until the Last Day and began:

CHAPTER TWO

The Harakah on the Ayn in the Maadh differs from the Harakah on the Ayn in the
Mudaari. In the Maadh it has a Fathah and in the Mudaari it has a Kasrah.

The First Chapter is


on the Mudaari


, with a Fathah on the Maadh and a Dhammah

In the previous classes it was said that Chapter one is considered a pattern followed with
three types of verbs, which are:
1- Whenever the Ayn is a Waaw
2- Whenever the Laam is a Waaw
3- Whenever the Ayn and the Laam are identical, provided that the verb is Transitive.
As for Chapter Two it is taken as a Principle in Four types of Verbs:
1-Whenever the

is a

2-Whenever the is a

Establishing The Principles | Ustaad Fahd At-Tahiriyy | As-Sarf

3- Whenever the
4-Whenever the

and are identical, provided the verb is Intransitive.

is a .

*Note: A condition will be added to type number 2 and 4 -this will come later in shaa Allaah

In Chapter one it is said that: Whenever the Ayn is a Waaw and whenever the Laam
is a Waaw, but in Chapter two instead of a Waaw it is going to be a Yaa.

And in Chapter one it is said that: Whenever the Ayn and Laam are identical,
provided the verb is Transitive, but in Chapter two instead of Transitive it is
Intransitive.

You can see how the Chapters are put and organized in a way were it is easy to relate
to. Especially Chapter One and Two, they are almost the same.

The First type of Verbs which is a Principle to Chapter Two:


1-Whenever the

is a
Example:
The Root Letters:

- -
- -
- -

- -

- -
- -
Establishing The Principles | Ustaad Fahd At-Tahiriyy | As-Sarf

- -

- -
- -

The objective here is to match it to Chapter Two



BULIDING THE ROOT LETTERS TO THE
OF

, WHICH IS ON THE SCALE

- -

- -

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- -

- -

- -

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- -

- -

- -

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- -

There is a Principle that we took, which we can apply on these Verbs as well, which is:

GENERAL PRINCIPLE -: If the or the had a Harakah (i.e. Fathah, Kasrah, or


Dhammah) and the letter before had a Fathah, we turn the or the into an

Just as we did with

, we ended up saying , because the waaw had a

harakah and the letter before had a Fathah, so we were able to turn the Waaw into an
Alif.

Here we do the same by turning the Yaa into an Alif, because that which applies to the Waaw
applies to the Yaa as well, in this particular Principle.

He/it appeared/ showed

It is intransitive

Establishing The Principles | Ustaad Fahd At-Tahiriyy | As-Sarf

He spent the night

He came/ approached.

Here the Hamzah is written differently, and we shouldnt worry about it now. Our
Noble Ustaadh said before that the hamzah is written in different ways. It is
more important to know how to say it.

As said:

When comes the Help of Allah (to you, O Muhammad (Peace be upon him) against your
enemies) and the conquest (of Makkah), [110:1]

He turned aside

He was unsuccessful

It is the opposite of being successful

Establishing The Principles | Ustaad Fahd At-Tahiriyy | As-Sarf

He recompensed/ worshipped/ surrendered to someone with obedience

It increased

It ran (used for liquids)

He hunted (down).

BUILDING THE ROOT LETTERS TO THE


OF

, WHICH IS ON THE SCALE

The General Steps of the Mudaari, when it is on the scale of


1st : We bring the

in the beginning of the Verb (copy paste it as it is), and give it a

Fathah.
2nd : We bring the First Original letter, which is the

, and silence it.

Establishing The Principles | Ustaad Fahd At-Tahiriyy | As-Sarf

3rd : We bring the Second Original letter, which is the

, and give it a Kasrah (the harakah

can differ).
4th : We bring the Third Original letter, which is the

, and give it a Dhammah.

- -

- -

Establishing The Principles | Ustaad Fahd At-Tahiriyy | As-Sarf

- -

- -

- -

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- -

- -

- -

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- -

We apply the same Principles as we did with

Reminder:
PRINCIPLE -: The Dhammah is heavy on the , so it is moved to the letter before if it
is vacant (from any harakah).
If you cant Move Remove.
And this goes back to the Mother Principle which says: Arabs seek lightness in Speech
We ended up Moving the Dhammah on the Waaw to the vacant letter before it, because of the
heaviness caused by the Dhammah on the Waaw.

Here the same applies to these Verbs, because the Kasrah on the

is also heavy -just as

the Dhammah is heavy on the Waaw-.


Whatever we did with the Waaw we are going to do with the Yaa with no difference, by
Moving the Kasrah on the Yaa to the vacant letter before it.

Establishing The Principles | Ustaad Fahd At-Tahiriyy | As-Sarf

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He/it appears/ shows.

He spends the night.

He comes/ approach.

He turns aside.

He is unsuccessful.

He recompense/ worships/ surrenders to someone with obedience.

It increases.

Establishing The Principles | Ustaad Fahd At-Tahiriyy | As-Sarf

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It runs (used for liquids).

He hunts (down).

The Second type of Verbs which is a Principle to Chapter Two:

2-Whenever the is a

Here there is a condition to it (which we will get in the next class In shaa Allaah)

Example:
The Root Letters:

--

- -
- -
- -
- -

- -
- -

- -

Establishing The Principles | Ustaad Fahd At-Tahiriyy | As-Sarf

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- -
This case is just the same as the Second Type of the First Chapter. The only difference is
instead of dealing with a Waaw we are dealing with a Yaa.

Dont make it complicated it is easy in shaa Allaah.

The objective here is to match it to Chapter Two

BUILDING THE ROOT LETTERS TO THE

, WHICH IS ON THE SCALE OF

--

- -

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- -

- -

- -

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- -

- -

- -

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- -

Here we apply the same Principle as in Chapter One for the Second type of Verbs, which is:
GENERAL PRINCIPLE -: If the or the had a Harakah (i.e. Fathah, Kasrah, or
Dhammah) and the letter before had a Fathah, we turn the or the into an

has a Harakah, which is a Fathah and the letter before it has a Fathah, we are
able to apply the Principle and turn the into an Alif.
Because

Here it is a sitting Alif (a yaa without dots) and not a standing one, this way it is
taking the form of a

to indicate and hint that it was turned from a Yaa, and this

is at the end when there is no letter following it.

The Standing Alif at the end tells us that it is originally a Waaw.

For now we can call it a Sitting Alif.

He sought shelter.

Establishing The Principles | Ustaad Fahd At-Tahiriyy | As-Sarf

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He build

He bent

It contained

He protected

He judged/ decreed

As said:

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And your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him. And that you be dutiful to your
parents. If one of them or both of them attain old age in your life, say not to them a word of
disrespect, nor shout at them but address them in terms of honour. [17:23]

He threw/ shot

He practiced illegal sexual intercourse

He cured

Extra Note:
The way to know if the Alif was originally a Waaw or a Yaa is by knowing the Masdar and
the Mudaari. For example: , the Masdar of it is ( and we see that it has a Yaa, so the
Alif is originally a Yaa), Also , the Masdar of it is and the Mudaari is ( It has a
Waaw in the Masdar and in the Mudaari, so the Alif is originally a Waaw )

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HOMEWORK
Try to do the Mudaari of the following Verbs with the Principles given.

~~~ END OF CLASS ~~~

Notes transcribed by: Umm Sufyaan Al Maghribiyyah

Establishing The Principles | Ustaad Fahd At-Tahiriyy | As-Sarf

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