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ELE B7 Power Systems

Engineering
Power System Components Modeling

Power System Components


ELE B7

The main components of a power system are


generators, transformers and transmission lines.
In this lecture, we shall discuss the models of these
components that will be used subsequently in power
system studies.

Slide # 1

ELE B7

Section I: Transmission Lines

Slide # 2

Transmission lines- CONSTRUCTION

ELE B7

Three-phase conductors, which


carry the electric current;
Insulators, which support and
electrically isolate the conductors;
Tower, which holds the insulators
and conductors;
Foundation and grounding; and
Optional shield conductors, which
protect against lightning

Slide # 3

Transmission lines- VOLTAGE LEVELS

ELE B7

Overhead Transmission lines (OTL) are operating at different


voltage levels:
Distribution: 6.3, 11, 13.8, 22, 33, 69 kV
Supplies residential and commercial customers

Subtransmission: 69, 110, 132 kV


Interconnection between substations and large
industrial customers

Transmission: 132, 220, 400 kV


Interconnection between substations, power
plants

EHV transmission: 500, 735, 765 kV


Interconnection between systems

UHV (experimental): 1200, 1500 kV

Transco 220 KV

Slide # 4

Transmission Line- TYPES OF CONDUCTORS

ELE B7

Transmission line conductors can be made of copper or aluminum


However, aluminum conductors have completely replaced copper
for overhead lines because of the much lower cost and lighter
weight of an aluminum conductor compared with a copper
conductor of the same resistance.
Symbols identifying different types of aluminum
conductors are as follows:

AAC

all-aluminum conductors

AAAC all-aluminum-alloy conductors

Aluminum outer strands


2 layers, 30 conductors

ACSR aluminum conductor, steel-reinforced


ACAR aluminum conductor, alloy-reinforced

Steel core strands,


7 conductors

ACSR
Slide # 5

Transmission Line- PARAMETERS

A transmission line has four parameters :

Resistance,
Inductance,
Capacitance, and

Conductance.

ELE B7

The conductance, exists between conductors or between


conductors and the ground, accounts for the leakage current at
the insulators of overhead lines and through the insulation of
cables.
Since leakage at insulators of overhead lines is negligible, the
conductance between conductors of an overhead line is usually
neglected.
Slide # 6

Transmission Line Parameters-RESISTANCE


ELE B7

It is very well known that the dc resistance of a wire is given by:

where is the resistivity of the wire in - m, l is the length in


meter and A is the cross sectional area in m2

The line resistance increases by:

Stranding
Temperature
Skin effect

AC resistance higher than DC


Accurate value from Tables
Slide # 7

Transmission Line Parameters-RESISTANCE


ELE B7

Example:
A three-phase overhead transmission line is designed to deliver 190.5MVA at 220kV over a
distance of 63km, such that the total transmission line loss is not to exceed 2.5% of the rated
line MVA. Given the resistivity of the conductor material to be 2.84*10-8 ohm-meter.
Determine the required conductor diameter and the conductor size. Neglecting power loss
due to corona and insulator leakage and other reactive loss.
Solution:
The total transmission line loss is:

PLoss 190.5 * 2.5% 4.7625 MW


IL

190.5( MVA )

500 A

3 ( 220 kV )

d 1.894 cm 0.7456 in 556 ,000cmil

PLoss 3 * I L 2 * R
R

4.7625 MW
3( 500 )

* l 2.84 10 8 * 63 10 3
A

R
6.35
A 2.81764 10 4 m 2

6.35

1 in = 1000 mils
1 cmils = sq mil
Slide # 8

Transmission Line Parameters-INDUCTANCE


ELE B7

The inductance per phase of 3-phase equilateral spaced solid


conductors is given by:
D
L 2 10 (ln ) H / m
r
7

where,
r
D is the distances between the conductor
r r e 1 / 4, and r is the radius of the conductor

D
D

For inequilaterally spaced conductors, the inductance per phase is:


7

L 2 10 ln
where,

Deq
r

H /m

Deq 3 D12 D23 D31


Slide # 9

Transmission Line Parameters-INDUCTANCE


ELE B7

The inductance per phase of 3-phase stranded conductors is:


L 2 10 7 ln

GMD
H /m
GMR

where,
- GMD is the Geometrical Mean Distance
- GMR is the Geometrical Mean Radius

The inductance per phase of 3-phase


bundled conductors is:
L 2 10
GMR 2 Ds d
d

GMD
ln
H /m
GMR

GMR 3 Ds d 2

D31

D23

D12

GMD Deq 3 D12 D23 D31


GMR 1.091 4 Ds d 3
d

d
d

d
d

Slide # 10

Transmission Line Parameters-INDUCTANCE


ELE B7

Transposition:
When the conductors of a three-phase line are not spaced
equilaterally, the flux linkages and the inductance of each phase are
not the same. A different inductance in each phase results in
unbalance circuit.
Balance of the three phases can be restored by exchanging the
positions of the conductors at regular intervals along the line as shown
below
Pos.1

D12

Cond. a

Cond. b

Pos.3

Cond. c

Cond. c

D23

D23

D23

Cond. b

D12

D12
Pos.2

D31

Cond. c

Cond. a

Cond. b

Cond. a

Such an exchange of the conductor positions is called transposition.


Slide # 11

Transmission Line Parameters-INDUCTANCE


ELE B7

Slide # 12

Transmission Line Parameters-CAPACITANCE


ELE B7

Capacitance of a Three-Phase Transposed Line:


2 o
Cn
ln( Deq / r )

F /m
Phase a

GMD Deq 3 D12 D23 D31

Phase
b

Phase
c

Capacitance of Three-Phase Bundled Line:

2 o
Cn
ln( Deq / D bS )

F /m

where,
0=8.8510-12
r is the equivalent radius of the conductor

Dsb 2 r d
Dsb

rd
3

Dsb

1.091 r d
4

d
d

Slide # 13

Transmission Line Parameters-CAPACITANCE


ELE B7

EXAMPLE:
A 400kV, 60Hz, three phase with bundled conductor line, two sub-conductors per-phase
as shown in the Figure. The center to center distance between adjacent phases is 12 m and
distance between sub-conductors is 45 cm. The radius of each sub-conductor is 1.6 cm.
Find the capacitance per phase per km.
D31
D12

D23

b
d

SOLUTION:

D bS r d 1.6 45 8.485cm 0.08485m

Deq 3 Dab Dac Dbc 3 12 *12 * 24 15.119m


2 o
Cn
0.0107 F / km
b
ln( Deq / D S )

NOTE

Use r for L
Use r for C
Slide # 14

Section II: Transmission Line


Performance

Transmission line representation

Series impedance
z r j x / mi

Z z R j X

Shunt admittance
y g j b S / mi

ELE B7

Y y G j B S

G is almost always ignored


R is sometimes ignored for analysis purposes (lossless line), but never in the real world!
Slide # 16

Transmission line models

ELE B7

Short line (up to 50 miles long)


+
VS

IS

IR

+
VR

Ignore shunt
admittance

Medium-length line model (50-150 miles long)


+
VS

IR

IS

Z
Y

+
VR

Nominal
circuit

Slide # 17

Two-Port Network- ABCD parameters

ABCD parameters
+
VS

IR

IS

VS AVR BI R
I S CVR DI R

ELE B7

Two-port
Network

or

+
VR

VS A B VR
I C D I (1)
R
S

Applies to linear, passive, two-port networks


A, B, C and D depend on transmission line parameters
Slide # 18

ABCD Parameters Example 1

Find the ABCD parameters


for the nominal circuit

+
VS

IS

ELE B7

IR

Z
Y

VR

KVL equation:
Y VR

VS VR Z I R

YZ
VS 1
VR Z I R
2

( 2)

KCL equation:
Y Vs Y VR
IS

IR
2
2

Y 2Z
YZ

VR 1
I S Y
I R

4
2

(3)

By inspection,
A D 1

YZ
pu,
2

B Z ,

YZ
C Y 1
S
4

Slide # 19

ABCD Parameters

ELE B7

Series impedance Z:

A D 1,

Shunt admittance Y:

A D 1,

Why use ABCD?

+
VS

B Z ,

B 0,

C 0

C Y S

Easier than circuit analysis for hand calculations


Easier to concatenate elements
IR

IS

A1
C
1

B1
D1

A2
C
2

B2
D2

+
VR

+
VS

IR

IS

A1
C
1

B1 A2
D1 C2

B2
D2

+
VR

Slide # 20

ABCD Parameters Example 2

ELE B7

A 345 kV transmission line has z = 0.05946 + j0.5766 /mi, y =


7.387410-3 S/mi and = 222 mi. Calculate:
a)

ABCD parameters, assuming nominal circuit model


Z z 13.2 j128 ,
A D 1 YZ

C Y 1 YZ
b)

Y y j1.64 103 S

0.895110.69 pu,

1.554 10
4

B Z 128.6884.11

90.33 S

Receiving-end no-load voltage


VS AVR BI R
VR

IR 0

VS
345 3

222.5 0.69 kV
A 0.895110.69

VR LL 385.4 kV (12% above nominal)


Slide # 21

The long transmission line

ELE B7

Impedance and admittance parameters are


distributed rather than lumped
At 60 Hz, effects of distributed parameters are
significant for long lines (>150 miles)
Need a new model to accurately represent long
transmission lines
1.
2.

Derive exact model for a generic transmission line


represented as a two-port network (ABCD matrix)
Determine relationship to nominal model
Slide # 22

The long transmission line

ELE B7

The exact network equations in ABCD format:


cosh( ) Z c sinh( )
V
S

I sinh( )
cosh( )
S
Zc

where ,
A
C

V R
I
R

cosh( ) Z c sinh( )
B

sinh( )

cosh( )
D
Zc

zy m 1 (propagati on constant)
Zc

z
(character istic impedance)
y
Slide # 23

The long transmission line

Relationship to nominal circuit model:


cosh( )
V S
I sinh( )
S
Zc

V S
I
S Y

Z c sinh( )
V R
cosh( ) I R

Y 'Z '
2
Y 'Z

'1
4

Y ' Z '

1
2
Z'

'

V R
I
R

tanh( 2 )
Y'

2
Zc

Z ' Z c sinh( ),

ELE B7

Exact network equations


in ABCD format
Equivalent circuit equations
(Z and Y are the series
impedance and shunt
admittance of the equivalent
circuit that models the
terminal behavior exactly)

In terms of the usual Z = z and Y = y:


Z ' Z

sinh( )

and

Y ' Y tanh( 2 )

2
2
2

Slide # 24

The long transmission line Example 3

For the line in Example 2, calculate:

a.

Propagation constant and characteristic impedance


b.

zy 2 . 069 10 3 87 . 06 m 1 ,

Zc

ELE B7

z
280 . 11 2 . 94
y

Equivalent circuit parameters


Z' Z

sinh( )
1 . 2422 84 . 32

( 4 % lower )

Y ' Y tanh( 2 )

0 . 8346 10 3 89 . 9
2
2
2
Y ' 1 . 6693 10 3 89 . 9

( 2 % higher )
Slide # 25

Loadability

ELE B7

Power transfer capability of a transmission line may


be limited by any one of the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Conductor temperature & sag requirements


Voltage profile
Stability considerations
Real power losses
Reservation requirements

Slide # 26

Temperature / sag limitations

Operate within conductor or insulator temperature


rating

Heat gain (I2R, other heat sources)


Heat dissipation (wind, conduit)
Summer vs. winter ratings; continuous vs. emergency
ratings

Meet minimum sag requirements

ELE B7

Heat causes conductors to stretch, which reduces ground


clearance for overhead lines

For most short transmission lines, temperature / sag


limitations dictate transfer capability
Slide # 27

Voltage profile

Voltage regulation (typically, VR 10%)


VR %

V R NL V R FL
V R FL

100 ,

VR NL

VS

Operating range
0 .95 V R 1 .05 pu

ELE B7

and

0 .95 V S 1 .05 pu

Voltage profile is a consideration for all lines

Slide # 28

Stability considerations

Steady-state stability limit

PMAX

V RV S
sin ,
P PS PR
X
PMAX

V RV S
X

or

V V
s

PMAX

Real Power

For a loss-less 3-phase line (R=G=0),


ignoring distributed effects:

ELE B7

V RV S
X

30

60

90

120

150

180

For > 90o, synchronism between sending and receiving end cannot
be maintained

Lines are operated at < 35o to prevent transient instability during


system disturbances

Long lines are typically stability-limited


Slide # 29