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r,:l{ea!of Editorial: Iditorial

Martin Annable Alsistant:
..:i[di6r:Brenda Marshall Georgina Stewart
leniorArtlditor:Jayne Swanson PictunResearch:
Nic Dean,
€raham €oleman. SophieMortimer
€raig Glenday,Felix Leiac, Senior
len Way TerenceStrongman
ign::ledleyBrowne, llark*ing:
John Balmond
Humphieys-Davies, lleadof [irculation:
,Kwok ChrisJenner

Steven Dorril, Roy Stemman
Lionel& PatriciaFanthorpe;
Randles,Paul Lay.

Ihe Untold
ltory oi
Lee. I

he US public has come to accept b,v assassination- and the 26

an overwhelming majority - 89 per volumes of evidence pul>
c enl - lhat t he re \^ a sa c o n s p i ra c ya l lished in 1964.
I the heart of the assassinationof But it was the independent investiga-
PresidentJohn F. Kenneclyin Dallas on 22 tion started in 1967 by Jim Garrison, a
November 19{r3.With the Cold War still in maverick District Attorney in Nerv Orleans
progress, the US media accepted the word - r'vhere Oslvalcl had spent a number of
of the new president, Lyndon B. Johnson, months during the summer of 1963 - that
and the head of the FBI, J. Edgar Hoover, helped spawn a whole series of
that President Kennedy had been killed by conspiracy theories. So rvhy are nine out of
a lone assassin- Lee Harvev Oswald. ten people convinced that the truth abor,rt
It rvas also accepted that Oswald, a Kennedy's death u,ascovered up?
voung, social misfit and former marine with
a gruclge against the world, had, in turn, PR OOF OF A C ON S P IR A C Y
beerr killecl in the late morning of 24 In 1966, an FBI report was discovered in
November by another lone assassin- the which two agents present at Kennedy's
small-tirne club ownerJack Ruby. It was not autopsy noted that 'a tracheotomy hacl
Lurtil the micl-1960sthat people began to been performed, as well as snrgery of the
notice the discrepancybetween the conclu- head area, namell', the top of the skull'.
sions of the Warren.Commission - the offi- Agent James Sibert iater confirmed that
cial boclv established to inrrestigate the that rvas'exactlywhat the doctor had said'.
On the basis of extensive and diligent altered to hide the entry wound
investigation, David Lifton, the researcher of a bullet from the front, which
w ho not ed t he s i g n i fi c a n c e o f Si b e rr' s would have suggested the exis- '=
tgB,ort, concluded in his book BestEuidence tence of two gunmen and,
.*iat, 'during the six hours between the hence, a conspiracy. According ..:,
;;Dallas assassination and the Bethesda to Lifton, the decision to do so
IN av al Hos pit al . W a s h i n g to n l a u to p s y . had been taken at the highest
President Kennedy's body was intercepted levels of the US government.
and altered.' Lifton produced inexplicable
lb'ut ME D IC A T E V ID E N C E
convincing medical evidence that two
ambulances and two coffins had been used Lifton's ideaswould ha\.eentered
to move the President's body to Bethesda. the mix of conspiracy theories
Lifton proposed that the casket seen by and been forgotten had it not
millions on television and accompanied bv been for the testimonies of a
number of medical experts. Dr

I hove desfroyed certqin

Robert McClelland, the surgeon
who performed the tracheotoml' r
on Kennedy's throat, said that the +"*:
furelimlnory drofr notes retofing X-rays he had been allowed to see
1,fq [JFK's]outopsy reporf qnd... for the first time in 1989 'do not
frqnsmitted oll other popers fo show the same injuries to the
: o higher oufhority President's head that I saw in the
DrJomesJ.Humes,Novol MedicolCenter,Bethesdo emergencyroom'. The man nho

: .-n \ n
made some of the original X-rays
in 1963,Jerrol Custor, was also
shorvn the X-rays in 1989 and declared t Kennedy's outopsy
' blood-stainedJackie Kennedy was proba- them to be 'fake', while Floyd Reibe, the photogrophs were neyer
bly empty and was used as a decoy, officially autopsy photographer, thought the recentlr' shown fo the Worren
for security reasons. To reinforce his the- releasedphotographs'phony'. Commission- qrtists'
:lr'l ory, medical staff confirmed that That there was a conspiracy surround- impressions (inset) were
Kennedy's body had actually arrived at ing the death of Kennedy is no longer ir.r submitted insteod. When
Bet hes dain a
-^.t^ ^r^:--
m e ta l c-- a sl k e- t.
pla i n . ---^-^r doubt. The real question now is: rvhclkilled the photos first surfoced
Lifton also proposed that the gunshot the President if it was nor the lone sun- in 198t, reseorchers
wo u nds t o t he h e a d h a d b e e n s u rg i c a l l y man, Oswald? noted how they differed
One of the first investigators to gir.e seri- from the Commission
ous consideration to this qlrestiolr \ras drorrings ond concluded
District Attorney Jim Garrison. rr'hose thot the body hod been
enquiry forms the basis of Oliver Srone's tompered with.
the Warren Commission, and, in the mid-
1970s.rhe U S C orrgressagreed to se t up a
rrew enqui ry. In the summer of 197 9. t he
4 official AssassinationsCommittee reported,,
that, while it believed Oswalcl had pulled.
the trigeer. Kennedy 'was probably assassi-
rrated as a resrrl t of a conspi racy'.The
Commi ttee's scier.rtifi c evidence pointed to.r,,
a secorrdassassi onn the GrassyI{noll, t he
area where many witnessesin Dealy Plaza:
on thal fatefrrl day had given testimony
s that there was a gunman.


The Committee concluded that the Mafia
had the 'motive, means and opportuniq'to
()I assassinatePresident Kennedy' and named
tw o Mob bosses. C arl os Marcel l o and
Santos Trafficante, as the likely conspira-
tors. It al so suggesredthat the pl ot m ay
have been supported by anti - Cast r o
Cubans and, while it dismissed direct.
A meri can Intel l i gence i nvol ve m ent ,
thought it possible that rogue intelligence:
personnel had taken part. What connected
controversial hit movie, ,trK. tl re three groups w asC uba.
Garrison investigated the Irrcl easi rrsl rhosti l e to Fi del C ast r o and
activities of a New Orleans l ri s strerrstl rerri rrgti es rvi th the Soviet
businessman, Clay Shaw. A L' rri orr. the C t.\ Irad derel oped an
former wartime intelligence 'Executile Actiorr' capabiliq' to perform
officer with ties to the CIA, assassinations.In order to achieve its
Shawwas accusedof being part objective, the CIA recruited organized
of a conspiracy with David crime figures who had run the lucrative ,
Ferrie, a contract pilot for the gambling syndicates in Cuba before .
CIA's anti-Castroactivities. Castro came to power. The CIA'S..::,:i

Ferrie was a bizarre figure who disguised
his lack of body hair with a red toupee and
false eyebrows. Because of his connection
to the CIA's anti-Castro teams, Ferrie's
flight across Louisiana in the immediate
aftermath of the assassination had long
looked stu;picious.So when he was found
dead in mysterious circumstances,the idea
of CLA involvement in the assassination
began to look a serious possibility.
\\hile it was true that Carrison did
uncover new evidence, linking Ferrie to
Osrvalcland CIay Shaw, he did not provide
a shred of evidence of Shaw's complicity in
Kennedl"s death. Nor did he uncover I

Shaw's links to the Mafia - who are now

,,: ,:1.;:t;";
considered key players in the assassination. i..:::i,iiir*jiil

The Carrison investigation did, how-

ever, serve to highlight the inadequacies of
.: .. '.r



.t ,.:,tt,';'


V Two doys ofter the Tc c hnic ir l Sc r v ic es D i r , i s i o n developed

qssossinolion, Lee s pik t ' < l c iqar s . t r plodir r u n l . / ( ) r s . l l \ \ c l s l l i l 5
Oswold wos shot by containing toxic chcmicals, lethal pills,
Jock Ruby, ond died 48 and a pen \{ith a neeclic ancl poiscin fol its rc

hours olmost lo lhe \ 4af ia- bec k er l as s as r it r a I i o t t 'p c r r I i r ) r I s N
minute ofter Kennedy. against Castro. o
Ruby, who spent the Horveveq Kenncdl' deciclecl to cut the
resi of his lifu in o ioil CIA's fr.rnds and ordeled thcm not to assist
.,,,, overlooking Deoley in the campaign against Castro. As a comple te failure, and the \Iafia bosscs had
Plozo, cloimed to hove result, extrernist
anticastro flubans t i v t r r r r p h o p e t h a t t l r e r r r r i , l lr l l r t a l r l t' to
dcted olone, olrhough it believecl that Kennedl'hacl 'solcl out' the retrieve their casinos in f.lrba bv assassi- known thor he Cuban people ancl labellecl him a 'traitor' nating Castro. By' 1963. thel rrere looking
hod connections with and a 'commturist'. for other, more efl'ectile nlealls to achieve
Oswold ond the Mofio. Tire plots ag:rinst Castro pror,ecl to be a their ends.

Mafia boss Santos Trafficante, rvho had
been inr,olr-eclirr the CIA plots to kill
Clastro,\\,asrcported as saying: 'This man
Kennedv is in trouble, and he r'vill get
rvhat' scorni ng to hi m... H e' s going t o be
hit.' Trafflcatrte was angrv abor-rt the
Kennedr.brothers'war on organized crime
clirccteclagainst his friencls, Sam Giancana
. anclJimrnv Hoffa, both of r,r'homhad liaised
,'l l'ith the flLA in the anti-Castroassassination
..:.:: plots. Union leader.fimrn,v Hoffa r'vasalso
heard expressing similar threats. Hoffa's
! lanl'er claimed, in 1994, that Hoffa had

3 sent him to New Orleans in 1963 to ask

: Trafficante al)d local crime boss Carlos
= Marcello to organize the assassination.
Marcello had been deported from the
US to Cuatemala in the summer of 1961 by
Attorney General Robert Kennedy.
Secretly returning to the US, Marcello
issued a traditional Sicilian oath -'take the
sto n e out of m y s h o e ' . Ma rc e l l o a l s o
claimed that, 'He was going to arrange to
have President Kennedy murdered.' In
addition, Marcello claimed to have taken
out 'insurance' by 'setting up a nut to take
the blame'.
The Assassinations Committee uncov-
ered evidence linking Oswald and his killer,
Jack Ruby, to the Marcelio crime organiza-
tion. In addition, it is known that ex-CIA
pilot David Ferrie worked for Marcello.
The Committee also established that would have been possible for Marcello's
Osrvald'suncle, Charles 'Dutz' Murret, had organization to have 'spotted' Oswald as a
'rrorked for years in the underworld gam- possiblescapegoat- a'patsy'.
bling syndicate with the Carlos Marcello John Martino, a friend of Mafia boss
crime family'. \Arhen Oswald was arrested Trafficante, worked as a CIA contract
for his part in a 'Fair Play for Cuba' meet- agent r,vith the anti-Castro Cuban groups.
ing, Murret arranged for a mob figure Before he died, he stated that Oswald had
related to Marcello to pay Oswald's bail. It been set up bv the ar-rti-Castro Cuban
groups. Not knowing who he r,vasrvorking
for, Oswald was to be killed after the assas- -oo
sination in the Texas Theater, the movie l

house where he was finallv arrested. But

there was a hitch. 'There was no way we
could get to him,' Martino claimed. 'They
had Ruby kill him.'


Ruby now appears to have been a much
more significant figure, one with ties to
major organized crime figures and with
interests in Cuba, including gun-runnine.
In particular, Ruby had visited Santos
Trafficante several times in Cuba.
In a rarely seen television interview
before he died in prison, Ruby saicl, 'The
world will never know the true facts of what
occurred... because unfortunately these
people, who have so much to gain and

33 lf onyone wqnted lo
but declined to ans\\'eran,vquestions relat-
v Florido's Mofio ing to theJFK assirssination.Following
shoot the President of lhe boss, Sonlos Giancana's murder. Tr-afficante was taped
Un i r e d St q t es...q l l o n e h o d to Trofficonte cqn now by the FBI saying, '\on' onlv two people
j::i do wqs get o high building be linked to the CIA are alive who knou' rr'ho killed Kennedy.
qnd o telescopic rifle through Dovid Ferrie A rrd they aren' t tal ki nq.'
22 November1963
JohnF. Kennedy,
(below left), o former The other person rvho clid rtot talk may
conlrocl ogent during have been the man rr-ho organized the
. the CIA's ollempls lo CIA's Executive Action against Castro -

- Ern
have such an ulterior motive to put me in
Fidel €ostro. Mony
William Harvey. Durins the attempts to
assassinateCastro, Harlev rtas in close
the position I'm in, will never let the"true contemporory touch with the Mafia. He had an intense
facts come above-board to the worlcl.' conspirocy reseorchers hatred of the Kennech'sfbr their failure to
Jimmy Hoffa disappeared in 1975, and fovour rogue elements support his anti-Castt'ocot.uuratrdos.
Giancana was murdered in the same year. within rhe ClA, rhe
Both were due to give testimonl, about the onli-Costro groups C ON S P IR A C Y C ON FIR ME D
anti-Castro plots to the official investiga- ond the Mofio os Before he died frorr cancer-,David Phillips,
tions Committee. Forced by a subpoena, co-conspirotorsin the the former senior CL\ officer rvho ran anti-
Trafficante did testifu to the Committee plot ro kill Kennedy. Cuban operatiorls in \Iexico City during
1963, confirrned to a researcherthat JFK
was done in bv a conspiracy'. He added
that it rvas likelv to have included 'rogue
American intelligence people'.
The vierv that the Kennedy conspiracy
involvecl a Mafia, anti-Castro Cuban, and
rogue CIA alliance was strengthened by
the releasein the early 1990sof millions of
files on the assassination.These files have
also helped to disprove a number of the
wilder theories. After years of confusion,
inadequate government investigation, con-
cealment and deliberate obstrlrction. the
'o truth about the world's most famous
murder may be, at last, in sight.


' ra,r, H





tancling on a hillside asked. I am \aif Qigek,' he alarmed girl that he was her father.
overlookins the Turkish replied. ancl began to tell them B efore thi s i nci dent rhere had
r illage of Han c a g i z .E n g i rr about evenrsin his previous life, been no contact between the two
I Sungur turned to his parents including rlte fact that he had f a m i l i e s b u r . r r o w . E n g i n 's m o th e r
and said, 'I can see the village gone to -\nkara shortlv before he decided to take Ensin to Ha
where I used to live.' They knew, died. Ensin rhen pleaded with his to meet the rest of the family.
horvever,that he had onlv ever ,,.i
parents to take l-rintto Hancagiz. The moment he met Naif ',,..::
lived with them in Tavla, a large
Qi cek' sw i dow .he cal l ed her ' m y
village about 4 km from Hancagiz. F A M IT Y ME E TIN G '
w i f e ' a n d t h e n i d e n t i f i e d a t l e a st .1 r
\{hat the two-year-olcl boy rvas At first, the Sungurs,lvho had seven other members of Naifs
telling them rvasthat Hancagiz had never heard of Naif Cicek, refused. familyby name.rn. ri",r.'i", *.r,,
been his home village in a previous But then not long afterr,vards,the on to poi nr out l and rhat he s aid
life. Because the Sungurs are Alevi young Engin came face-to-face had bel onged to hi m i n hi s pa st
Moslemswho, unlike their Sunni with Culhan Qigek, the dead man's l i fe. Thi s rurned oul ro be corr ect ,
Moslem neighbours, believe in daughter, who happened to be even though the land did not :.,:,l;:,j
reincarnation, they reacted with attendins the secondaryschool in adjoin Naif's properry. He atso ,;
crrri os it yr at her t han d e ri s i o n . Tavla. He immediately addressed accuratelv described how he fisd;.::,'1,
'\\hose son are you?' they her as 'my claughter',telling the been hit by a truck, driven by his : :..a...:tia

zto Journal of the AmericanSocietyfor PsychicalReseqrch
son, when it was backing up.
Table I
It also transpired that Naif had SvNopsrsor Srerruexrs on Excrx SuNcun
indeed g on e [o An k ar a t o s ee a Correct?
docto r. a s En sin h ad s aid. and had l I can seemy village whereI usedto live.
2. lam N a i f . . .
died sho rtly a flerw ar ds in f

3. Qigek. Y
r 1979, aged 54. Engin 4. I went to Ankara . . . v
was born nearly th"reeyearslater 5. beforeI died. v
6. CalledGtilhan"my daughter." v
8 O c t ober 1982 . 7. I am your.father. v
,;,;,iingin's story is just one of over 8. My son hid in kiln usedfor baking. v
9. CalledNaifs wife "my wife."
?,000 similar casesstudied by Dr 10. Calledat leastsevenotherfamily membersby name. v
Ian Stevenson,over more than 30 11. This is my land. v
years of painstaking research, as
12. I madethis myself. [tin into oil lamp] v
13. Talkedaboutbeinghit by his own truck . . .
possible evidence of reincarnation. 14. whenhis sonFikret accidentallybackedinto him. v
',.l:.: 15. RecognizedNaif's truck.
Accor ding lo Dr S te re l rs o na. w i d e 16. Identifiedhimselfas fatherof Naif's son Fikret. v
17. You arenot takinggoodcareof this truck. v
18. Recognized taxi (dolmus)driversNaif knew. ?
19. I had askedfor a loan of moneyfrom my sisterNazire . . . ?
20. but Nazirehad refused.
,| I
21. I had askedfor a loan of moneyfrom my sisterKiirciye (he gave
her Arabic name). . .
,ipresent - to information about a 22. andKtirciye gavehim the money. =
,:,,furmerlife passedon by a medium.
At Dr Sfevenson's request, Engin occasionsas soon as he is able tcr
SPONTANEOU S RECALL Sungur's cose wos re-exomined by speak.These memories then begin
s p i n i o rt. m ttc h
In Dr S t ev ens on' o psychologisr J0rgen Keil in 1994. Our to fade around the age of six or
of t his info rmatio n c an be of 22 stofements Engin mode oboul seven.Often, the child persistsin
disc ard ed be ca use t he m em or ies his former lifie, 17 were correcl ond making strch claims even wheu the
only five were unconfirmed. rest of the family is unreceptive.
Memories are frequentll'
im por t an t l v . t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n accompaniedby manr-rerisms and
',:, be ruled out. can often be corroborated by speechpatterns that correspond to
'.:,,,..,,, Engin Sungur's case,howeveq is checking with the families involved the previous personalitl'. In Eusirt's
anoth er ma tter. Dl St ev ens on has and the place to which it refers. case,for example, Naif's'nidciu'
nd that spontaneous pastlife In a typical case of this kind, the
: colle ctio ns o f yor Lng c hildr er r ar c
rally more lucid and complete
c hild s t a l t s t o t a l k a b o u l m e m o r i e s
of a previous life between the age
33 1t-
T h e re is e n o u g h
ln a ny o the r acc ounl. M or e of trvo and four - on many
evidence to soy there is
q re o l p h e n o me n on
wh ic h is n o t
imo g in o f io n , n o t f o k e d
A ndrew S el bv. P ost-l i feInvesi i qotor

noticed that Engin spoke ancl
behaved like an aclult and that,
while talking, he r-rsedsin'rilarhand
gestr-rresto her late husbzrnd.
On the surface,Engin's
remarkable memories appear to
suggestthat some part of the dead
malr's personality survivecl death
and re-emerged in the young bov.
B rrl some parapsl cht-rl ogistarsgue
that there mav be a perfectly
natural explanation for this.
Most casesof spontaneolrs

-Io recollection occur in cultures knorvledgeof- the deceased

where belief in rcincarnation is personalitr'.
strong. They also happen within a There is also a rvealth of
few years of the prbvious evidence that apparent memories
personality's death and only a of past lives occur in \{'estern
short distance from the place c u l l u re s ,w here rei ncarnati oni s
where the deacl person lived. not widely accepted. Irrespective of
To some mincls, this is too much their views on the subject, many
of a coincidence.Either the whole people appear able to produce
family is unconsciouslyengaged in past-life memories when directed
a 'fantasy creation' - the parents to do so in an altered state of
implant the idea of a past life into consciousness, such as hypnosis.
the mind of their child who then
elaborates on the details - or the PA ST .IIFE R E GR E S S ION
claim is fraudulent. The majority of researchers
In a number of casesfrom n'orking in this field, inch,rding
India, involving children from Professor Stevenson,distrust this
poor families who claimed to have practice - known as pastJife
belonged to a higher caste,it has regression- on the grounds that
been suggestedthat the parents adults under hypnosiscan adopt a
were 'feeding' the child's memory cor-rvincingidentity separate from
l o r fi n anc ialgain. Bu t. a s D r their everyday personality, which is
Stevensonpoints out, even if this based on pure fantasy.
were true, it does not account for On the other hand, some
the numerous caseswhere the people claim to have been famous
child and its family lived far away historical figures and provide
fro m - and had no p re v i o u s details which they are convinced
they have not learned in this life.
Sceptics argue that the
subconsciousmir-rd has a
re m ar k ablec apac i tyfo r s to ri n g
information acquired through
re a ding.wat c hing te l e v i s i o n-
even background conversation.
The subconsciouscan absorb
information on a specific historical
fi g u r e or age and th e n u s e i t to
create a past-life memory - a
p ro ces sk nown as cry p to m n e s i a .
Other doubters regard
regresseclpast-lilememories as the
combined result of leadinq

Sc i e n t i f i c olly sp e o ki n g ,
c lo i m s o f r e i n co rn q fi o n
ore simply very
difficult to fesf
Dr RichqrdWisemon,Poropsychologist

questions from the therapist and a
fertile imagination on the part of
the subject. In an altered state of
consciousness. the mind can be In spite of these criticisms, there problems in this life. There have
eager to please and will therefore has been an increasingtrend been many claims of remarkable
co me up wit h t he a n s w e rsi t. towards consulting pastJife cures,particularly of phobias that
believes the therapist wants to therapists. They use hypnosis ancl have allegedly been inheritecl florn
hear. The extent to which this can o th e r rel axal i ontechrri qrres
to a previous life.
happen is demonstrated regularly regresstheir clients to past lives in
by stage hypnotists. order to discover the cause of P OS ITIV E E V ID E N C E?
There have also beeu mauv
instanceswhen hypnoticalh
regressed subjects har.e provided
information that thev could not
have acquired noln-ra1h.Iu one
case,journalist Rav Brvant -
regressed to a past life as a farm
labourer in Essexat the tr,lrn of the
centurv - n,asaskedbr' hvpnotist
JOeK ccl on to go back i rr ti m e t o
22 April 1884,n'hen he r'vouldhave
been four l'ears old. \then he dicl,
he looked terrified and said the
honse rvasshaking and plates were
falling off the shelf.
\Vl"ratBryant did not know rvas
that a researcher had previously
found a ref'erence to the 'Great
EssexEarthquake' on that day.
Keeton had decided to see what


r sporked

{;iahf), during which'-

o life in ! 9fh-cenfuqf:
Under hypnosis,
in o rhick lrish brogue ond pro


reincarnation', while sceptics subpersonalities emereing

believe the answerlies elsewhere. accidentally lr,hen hypnosis has
So me parapsychol ouissr been used to treat medical
mainrain that this kind of conditions. This abilitv of the
information may be acquired by a personality to 'split' probably exists
fo rm o f extrasensor)percepti on to some degree ir-rall of us and
would happen if Bryant were (ESP) - recalling a past life by onlv reveals itself rvhen rve slip into
regressed to the time when the telepathicallytuning into someone arr al tered statcof corrsci orr sr r ess.
earthquake was in fr-rllforce. else's life. But if ESP is the ansrver, But if this is the case,how does
Casessuch as this and that of rvhy'do the vast majoritv of people one account for the accurate,and
Engin Sungur appear to defi, rvho tune into prer.ior.rslives shon often obscure, historical details
normal explanation. But are ther. no other ESP abilities? that can surface during hypnosis?
proof of past lives?Professor Another theofy is that past-life
Stevenson only goes so far as to say recall is a biological phenomenon QU E S TION S R E MA IN
that the1,are 'suggestiveof' - the result of an ancestral, racial \A4rile these theories may explain
or collective memory rvhich some casesof apparent past-life
stretches back across the centuries. recall, none of them satisfactorily
Somehow - no one knows horv - accounts for all the data retrieved
the individual becomes wirecl into fiom such memories. This is why
the experiencesor mental D r S tevc' rrson
thi nks reirrcar narion
processesof an ancestor, or a offers the most likelv explanation.
fellow countryman or woman. However, even if there is a solid
Yet another theory attempts to core of evidence that points to the
link past-life memories with sun ival of the personality after
rnultiple personality disorder. death, there are still a number of
There have been casesof unanswered questions. For
instance, what part of us is it that
{ Reincornotionists cloim thqt the actually reincarnates? If we all live
lolentsof o childhoodgeniussuchos a number of lifetimes, why are
.s Mozorl musl hove been'imported' some lives remembered and not
from o former life. Opponentsorgue others? And, most pr"rzzlingof all,
: thot they ore lhe product of why do most of us not have
inheritonce ond porenfol influence. any pastlife experiences? ffiil

':l*:d' ,.-

A Ook lslond is one t is one of the world's great secrets- village of Chester, arld strollecl turder the
of hundreds of smoll a mystery r.thich has consisteutlv shade of the old oaks u{rich gave the island
islonds in Molone foiled all attempts to get to its bot- its name.
Boy, off.the coosl of is.H,ss tom. Since the discorrery of rl're Oak .' Approaching tl'ie easterll end, Dan
Novo Srotio. More ls land M oney Pit nv o c e t t t t t r i t 's a q o . l h i s noticed one particularlr'sturcly tree with a
money hos been masterpiece of construction has I'r'ithst<tod lopped branch fronr n'hich an old ship's
poured into the pir all efforts to discover whatever it r.,'asbuilt block and tackle htrng. Beneath this
(inser) - in respect of lo c or r c eal. b r a r r c h l a 1 a c i r c t r l a r d t p r e s s i o r r . a s th t- r u g h
drilling, surveying the earth had settled again after being dis-
ond legol bottles - THE DISCOVERY t r r r h e d . H i s m i n d l u l l o f t h e p o s s i b i l i tr o f
thqn hos ever Gome On e s rrm m e r' ' sd a v i rr 1795.\oung D ani cl fi ndirrg pirltes' lreasure. M cGi r r r r i s
ouf of if. r Mc G i rrrri sto o k a b re a k from the errdl ess r e t u r r r e d l o t h e m a i n l a r r d a r r d t o l d tr r 'cr
fi s h i n g . l a rmi rrg a rrd l b r estrv by w hi ch rhe liierrds. ParrlSmith and Antholrr Vaugharr.
Nova Scotians survived. Dan rorved out to u'hat he had found. The three lads
uninhabited Oak Island, just a ferv hun- brought picks and shovels and began to
d re d m e tre s o ffs h o re fr om thc fi shi ne dig rrrrder"the old oak tree.
It became clear to the young adventur-
ers that this shaft was no mere natural
blow-hole in the limestone. The back-fitled
earth in the centre was easyto lift out. but
th e s i d e sw e re b ri c k -h a r dcl ay.coveredw i th
the pick marks of the original diggers.
Some 60 cm down, the treasure'hunters
discovered a layer ofdeliberately laid slabs,
not unlike paving stones. These were not
incligenous to Oak Island - the slabs came
from Gold Rir"er.3 km away.
The boys removed this layer and dug on.
T h re e me tre s d o w n rhel encountered a
p l a tfo rm o f o a k l o g s .d ecayi ngon the oul -
s i d e . b u t s e t fi rm l y a n d del i berarel yi nro
the hard clay walls of the shaft. Removing
these with difficulty, they dug on again. At
six metres they encountered an exactly
similar oak layer. FJaving struggled ro ger
these,they recognized that this job
was going to be more than three men
c o u l d ta c k l e . T h e y ma rked l he spol care-
fu l l y . a n d fo r th e ti me b ei ng w enr back ro
th e i r l a rm i n g . fi s h i n g a n d ti mber curri ng.



Word soon got around about the shaff on to glaze the windows of 20 houses. A local
c, Oak Isl4Lnd, and businessman Simeon carpenter said .he had seen bushels of
Lynds organized a syndicate of lvealthy coconut fibre brought up.
friends to back a digging expedition. Evervthing u,ent r,vell for the diggers
- As they dug cleeper.Lvnds' men discov-
a until they reached the 30-metre ievel,
ered more platforms of oak loss at regular where they discovered an unusual slab of
o th re e me tre i n te rv a l s .b u t there w ere l ayers stone - possibly porphvry - bearing an
<- o f c h a rc o a l .s h i p ' s p u try a nd coconur fi bre inscription . in strange characters which

down there as well. Enough putty came up none of them could read. The floor of the
pit was grorving increasingly darnp,
although there had been no sign of rvater
earlier. A bit deeper and they were taking
out one barrel of water for every two bar-'
rel s oI earth.

The men probed the floor of the pit with a
l ong crow bar w hi ch srruck some solid
obstructi ongoi rrg ri ghr acrossfrom wall r o
wall, but night was falling and they decided
to resume work at first light. \Arhen dar,tn
came, they discovered to their horror that
the Money Pit was flooded to a depth of 20
metres.A l l artemptsro bai l out the waler
proved usel ess. They obrai neda prrmp ar r d
tried to clear the water, but the pump burst
and w ork nas abandorred.
Fol l ow i ngthi s. al most nol hi nq w asdone
on the island until the Truro Company was
formed in 1849. Smith and Vaushan - rrvo
of the three original discoverers- were still
. alive, and gave all the help they could to
the Truro men, ensuring that they were
digging in the right placb.
Jotham B. McCully, in charge gf opera-
tions had traced the source of the flood
water. He discovered an artificial beach at
Smi t h' s Cov e. and a d ra i n a g e s y s te ml e a d -
i n g t o t he lower le v e l so f th e Mo n e y P i t.
He built a coffer dam acrossSmith's Cove,
and found the remains of a much older
dam at low tide. But uriusually high tides
d e st r oy edlhe new d a m . e m p h a s i z i n ga g a i n
just how expert the original builders had
been. Like their predecessors.McCul\"s
team were also forced to stop when they
rari out of monev.
In 1861,when yet another parallel shaft
was linked do the water-filled Money Pit,
there was a loud crash and a cataclysmic
rush of mud and water.'' A treasure

The structures beneoth Ook .
l s l o n d m u st rq n k o s th e
eighrh wonder of the world
Ook lslondReseorcher

- ##
chamber and its contents, which McCully's
me n had dis c ov e re d i n 1 8 4 9 . c o l l a p s e d
inlo the unknown depths below. \\4rat had
b e en s o t ant aliz in g l yc l o s e w a s n o w m o re
inaccessiblethan ever.
Since then, one expeditioq after
another has attempted to overcome the
Mo n ey P it ' s def en c e s- a n d fa i l e d . F re d
Nolan, a shrewd and skilful professional
surveyor, believeslthat the treasure is not in
th e M oney P it ir se l f. b u t c o n c e a l e d e l s e -
wh e r e on t he is la n d . H i s re s e a rc hi s c e n -
tred o4 thq many curious marker stones
and the weird patterns they form.
\44rat lies at the bottom of the pit? If we
could be sure about who built it, we might
find an answer.There are severaltheories
which deserVecareful consideratioh. ,'
Could anc ie n t Ph o e n i c i a n and
Carthaginian traders have sailed much
farther '!han they are normally believed
to have done? Certainly, their architects
and builders were second to none. These
people would have had the skill and the

manpower to create the Oak Islancl svsteln,
., especially if the sea level was lorver in their
day.The problern rvith tlis theory is one of
motive - unless it may be sussested that
these traders were refugees from the Punic
Wars, burying the treaslrresof Carthage as
far as oossible from their hated Romar
co nquer or s .
Alternatively, an old Norse runic stone
found in 1812 at Yarmouth, Nova Scotia,
su gges t st hat V ik in g s rc a c h e d th o s e s h o re s o

'centuries before Columbus. Might they o

have dug the Oak Island shaft to protect 'i
the body of a leader they revered? Perhaps d

some of the ancient timbers found below .9

Oak Island were the remains of a buried
Viking funeral vesselintended to take their A Only one mon - accessto the same ancient geograflhical
lost leader to Valhalla. Jomes Pirblodo - is information that l'as recorded o+. a
rhoughr to hove famous map.
KN I G HT S T EMP T AR found onyrhing of The Templars had the strength, disci-
The most intriguing theory involves the volue in the Pir. ln pline and stamina to carrv out the lvork oJr
Knights Templar. \{rhen King Philip le Bel | 849, lhe drilling Oak Island. Thev also had the necessarrr'
o f Fr anc et r ied t o d e s tro l th e i r n o b l e o rd e r' foremon look skill - Templar militar-r' ar-chitectnre r'r,as
in 1307, a handful of Templars-foughl somefhing from o the best iii'the lvorld. Ther.also had some-
their way clear of his treachery and were drill tip ond pur itjn
,.,s thing infinitely precious to hide liom cun-
protected by thg Sinclairs of Orkney. These his pocket. Pirblodo ni ng and darrgerorrs errerrris.
same Templars may rvell have had accessto refused to shore his
part of whatever .ancient agd mysterious secret ond left rhe GENI u s _.,-...._
treasure was concealed at Rennes le islond rhot doy. He Sir Francis Drake is another leacling;con-
Ch a t eau,in F r ar rc e .Ev e n mo re i mp o rta n t tried to buy the. tender for the lole of the lrnknorvn genius
l o lhem t lr an t heir o \v n e s c a p ew a sto k e e p islond buf died in o rvho constructed the Oak Island svstem.
this semi-legendary Arcadian treasure safe mining occident. Drake had the skill, tl're courase, and able
frora the avaricious Philip. miners ,from Cornu'all and Devon in his
Thc r e is s t r on g e r i d e rrc e tl ra ( Pri rrc e crew. He also hacl an-rple tl'easLlreto con-
H e n r y of O r k nel c rrl i s te dth e h e l p o f th e ceal, and his clates fit rve11rr'ith the radio
Venetian Zeno brothers. r,l'hou'er'b exoert carbon dating of sorne of the old timbers
n a r igat or s .and w h o a l m o s t c e rta i n l y h a d found on Oak Isiand.
Another theorr specr,rlatesthat when
things r,r'erelooking particularly bleak fbr
the British redcoats during thd American
\4hr of hrdependence, a lieutenant of
Engineers rvas despatch-edto Nova Scotia
rvi th a l rrrgt' amountol gol d. A ccompar r ied
bv a contingent of experieiieed Welsh and
Cornish miners, he constructed the Oak
Island \Ioney Pit and its impregnable
defences. For the designer, retrieval rvas
perfectly simple: either close sorne h-vpo-
thetical $,atergates across the flood tr-rn-
nels, or retrieve the gold in some other
carefully pre-planned way.
The structuresbeneath Oak Island are a
work of engineering genius. If the riddle
is errer solved, the answer may pro\re e\ren
more aslourrding tlrarr lhc m o st [r r _
daring theories vet prrt forward. g :\i
UFOLoGISTSrs Dn Anunru

or 20 years, Dr Armen Victorian has probably

done more to expose the secrets of the world,s
governments than any other individual. By researching for 30 years but for 20 of them I,ve
ffi#ffi utilizing the Freedom of Information Act, and concentrated on matters and issuesto do with politics
a number of 'contacts, he is unwilling to discuss, and intelligence.
Victorian has uncovered the truth about subjects such
as psychic spies, LSD tests on the British Ar-y, UFOs, Whqt kind of subiecfs do you reseorch?
and radiation experiments on the general public.
The work I do is so diverse. I've investiqated mind
Victorian's life is almost as secret as the cases he
control, and particularly the CIA's UK-iLTRA
investigates, and *re air of mystique surrounding the
proj ect, electromagnetic and microwave weapons
Armenian-born researcher can be cut with a knife. He
is careful not to reveal too much - about his work or development, the research done into LSD with the
life - other than that he was a diplomat ,for two British Army, non-lethal weapons, you name it.
English-speaking countries in the West'. IIis public
profile increased in lg8g when, under the open name, Whqf ore your lofest proiects?
of Dr Henry, he hit the headlines for smuggling rare I'm currently investigating the research conducted by
orchids into the UK. Although he was convicted, he the US Army to create what they term ,Warrior
was released on appeal when it was discovered that Priests' and 'Super Soldiers'. These projects involve
Kew Gardens had issued illegal permits for species psychic training projects and the development of
that officially did not exist. human potential in soldiers. I,m also writing a book
Today, howevero Victorian wishes to concentrate on
about NORAD lNorth American Aerospace Def'ense],
his research work and, through his thick East
who are kindly providing me with technical advice.
European accent, gives a rare interview about his
crusading 'hobby'.
Why do you so rqrely publish your findings?
Serious researchersare not public figures, they're not
6# after publiciq' or glory. They do the research for their
& & tr'r difficult for me to trace exactly when I own sakes,to learn more and improve their knolvledge.
started researching. It was the type of work that I used I see myself in this category. I do write, but what I
to do as a diplomat and subsequently I thought it write is very much reference for other researchers.
might be a good idea to put some of it into the public From time to time there are issueswhere the public
domain. The public have got the right to know where interest outweighs the information,s classification_
their tax dollars or pounds are going. I,ve been the public have got every right ro learn about it.
Why should you decide whot informqtion Why ore you so unpopulqr with UFOlogists?
should be mqde public? Almost every time I've decided to investigate the
I have the research material and have made the information they've published, I've discovered a great
endeavour to find it. When it's necessary,and it might deal of inaccuracies and speculations. They're
make a tremendous difference and someone may pick businessmen,not researchers.
up on my work and further it, then I'll provide the
information. I did this with my research into LSD tests, ls this why you now disossociqte yourself
radiation experimentation, and nonJethal weapons. from UFO groups?
Yes.A big problem with UFO groups and researchers
How did you begin reseorching UFOs? is the element of show-off - when they do get
About 20 years ago, in the course of one of my trips to information that is useful, they boast about it, saying
South America, a German friend and I encountered to government agencies, 'We know you have this
something on the border of Bolivia. & & information, and you should
b yar iv er s ide. I t wa s a c ra ft, allor,r'us accessto it.' But when
&& l l tt
definitely not made by man. It was they do that, the government, or
surrounded by natives, and there
My research shows that some the agencieswho have that
were bodies - humanoid - which
parts of the goaernment in the informatior-r, then know that the
had been thrown or had crawled past haaenot beenclean. public at iarge are prir,y to this
out. I'd now describe them as EBEs They haae committedcrimes information. \1hat do they do
Iextraterrestrial biological entities] . and got away with it next? Thev change the codename
I know I wasn'thallucinating. of the project. The,v say,'We have
no information on that,' and
Whol did you do? they're telling the truth because
We were so frightened, we got away as quickly as that codename no longer exists.That is the naivety
possible. I thollght we might have stumbled into a of the UFO researchers today'.
restricted zone or something. Aty*uy, I was so
intrigued that I began to investigate UFOs. Years later, Con you give on exomple where the
I heard reports from an investigative journalist that a codenqme hqs been chonged?
craft had hit a nearby mountainside in that region and If someone writes to the US Airforce IUSA-FI and asks
ended up in the river. There were even photos taken for information on UFOs, ther-rr'ill get a standard
of the impact site I'd witnessed. response: that the USAF discontinued investigations
of UFOs on the closing of Project Blue Book in 1969.
That doesn't mean they're not compiling evidence,or
monitoring the situation, or gilirrg the information to
other departments. The US,\F no longer use the term
UFOs, and haven't done since 1974.

Whor lerm do fhe USAFnow use for UFOs?

For earth-bound objects, they use Uncorrelated
Targets Reports (UTRs) and for space-bound objects,
Uncorrelated Events Reports (UERs).

How did you find out obout fhe chonge in

UFO terminology?
I was given the information on a discretionary basis
from certain government agencies,and through my
communications with NORAD.

Much of your informqtion comes from the

Freedom of Informqtion Act [FOIA]. How .
does this operEie? j
It's simple: you write a request and they consider -b
processing it. If you're after information that has
already been released, they give it to you. If it's not p
been released, they assessfrom the formulation of o

your letter what type of researcher you are - whether 6

wrro xiicidi
tg R e f e re o c e :
F9 6 _ r5 8 6
Dear Mt , cloday:

with O r, of the fOfa clossifies **,t.;r'sr,?+i+1i*if

of notionol
6f ncnexistence of

his detoils r*?;,l{;ry-+thT,

responsive Io yalor To
stqndord r:epty, The X i*ffii,;l'rj-q.#H$Tfr;lii
the ClA, who confirmed it sd"
you're a newcomer in the research field or you know you are? No. Investigarivejournalists don't
your work, and have the experience. Accordingly, and alwayshave to tell people who they are.
in conjunction with the regulations of the FOIA, they
process the request. How do you investigote coses in Britoin,
where lhere is no FOIA?
How mony coses do you hqve in fhe FOIA I don't know any researcher n-ho has been able to gain
system ot fhe momenl? accessto British records other than those available in
At any given time, I have 2-4,000 cases.I'm a very the Public Records Office. Haling said that, the way a
persistent researcher. It might take four or five years serious researcher can gain accesslegitimately does
before I get a response, positive or otherwise. But I not necessarilyhave to be through the gor,ernment
w i l l p ur s ue it . I ' m a v e ry p a ti e n r ma n . directly. This is how I for-rnclour abont rhe hurnan
experimentation programme in Britain, for instance.
How do you get hold of informqtion not I made FOLA.requesrsrhrough the US Department of
ovoilqble fhrough the FOIA? Energy [DoE] and discovered there rr.ereprogr.ammes
That's an area I can't really discuss.Some researchers in the 1950sand 1960susing hlrman guinea pigs.
may have a few sources- lvhen you are known as a
serious researcher, and the information is considered Whqr were they testing on fhese people?
by some as r,aluabie, the sources come to you. The DoE scienrisrsrvould inject the human subjects
with radioactive rnaterial without their knowledge.
Do you use fqlse nqmes to obtoin your Thev even gave plutonium to pregnant women to see
informotion? how it would affect the foetus. The British Atomic
I r.rsenicknames.I don't think it's a crime. Lr rny Enerw Establishment was involved, and so was the US
field, I'm known as a dark horse - if I contact A tomi c E nergyC ommi ssi on.
someone for information, the minute I mention mv
name, that person lvill think twice. And if I want to Hos your reseqrch eyer got you into trouble?
know what that person \Arell,my car's been tampered with, I've received
knows, what am I threatening phone calls,and my phone's been
supposed to do? Would bugged. My home's been broken into several times,
)'ou introcluce yourself as and my mail's been tampered with. Just today, in fact,
I received an anonymous letter, on floppy clisc.
{ Suspecfing his colls were
being monitored, Vicforion Who's responsible for this hqrqssment?
hod o surveillonce compony I'm not going to name names - I'll leave that one
seorch his house, where open. I wrote to the Security Service Tribunal, who
fhey discovered rhis said they neither confirmed nor denied breaking into
odiusroble-frequency bug my house. I supposeI don't have an enemy in any
plonted in his relephone. one person. I live a very modest life.

s dawn broke over Ilkley Moor, in e nce. S he put hi m i n touch rr' i th another A Folklore is full of
\{'est Yorkshire, on 30 November researcher, Peter Hough. n'ho sr.rgqested toles of men dressed
1987, a former poiiceman, rvhom that Spencer subject ]rinrselfar.rcll.risphoto- in block who
ffi rve shall call Philip Spencer, rvas graph to a thor-oughirtvestigation.Spencer periodicolly emerge
focusing his camera on the r,illirgc of a5;recdto co-operate frillr'. from their dork
Menston belolr',when he noticed a strange Abolrt six u'eeks into tl-ie investigation, underworld into
'entity with a green cast' some dist;rncein Spencer receivedan ullexpected visit from eveiydoy life. Some
front of him. The next thins he remembers t\'vo lrell, r'vho plesented themselves as reseorchers believe
was arriving in Menston some time later, Roval Air Force Inte lligence officers. the MIB ore o lole
confused and disorientatecl.He took the Flashing their ID cards ar hirn, thev save 2oth century version
film to be cleveloped that mornins and their narnes as Jeff-erson and Davis. Their of these mythologicol
when he collected the prints trvo hotrrs nlission, the,vexplained, rvas to recc-rverthe figures. MIB visits
lateq he discovered that he had taken a photograph he had taken on Ilklev Moor. coincidewirh UFO or
p h o togr aph ol t he e rrti tr. Unfbrtunatelv for them, Spencer had given olien encounlerssuch
Alarmecl b,v this strange 'encounter', the print they rvarrtedto Hough. Aggrievecl, os lhe one cought on
Spencer sought out the address of UFO the strangers left empty-handed. film by Philip Spencer
researcher Jer-rnv Randles from the local \{l-rat puzzlecl Spencer rvas hon' these (inset).
library and wrote to her about his experi- stransers knel v of the photograph' s
psycholosist $'ho ran a series of tests on
l-rim,rcportecl thertSpencer 'lvastelling the
tr-uth as he bel i eved i t' . Furtherrnor e,
Spencer's cxperience is far from utrique.
The files of UFO rescarchersaround the
lvorld are buleirts rvith similar tales of sinis-
ter Men In Black (\IIB) rvho call on their
r,ictinrsn'ith the solc intention of terrorizing
them i nto si l ence.

Although accounts van' rviclelf in detail,
there are enotrgh sirnilaritiesto suggestal]
r-urderlving pattern. Tvpic:rllri NIIBs make
their presencefelt.shortlr-afier a UFO sight-
ing or an encounter rvith an extraterrestrial
(ET), either by,r'isitine or telepl'tonins the
UFO or ET rvitnessor an investigator-han-
clling the case. \\'hen thev appear in pcr-son,
usuailv in pairs or qroups of three, thev are
dressed in black or in rnilitarv uniftrrrn.
OIten, thev arrive in an old-fashionedbl:rck
car u'hich is in rnint.conditiotr.
Sonre X,IlBspr-ovicleproof of their iden-
titr', brrt u'hetr trames arc given, thev invari-
ablv tur-n orrt to be falsc. Nlost curior-rsof all,
in almost e\rerv case, NIIBs appear to havc
o detailed inforntation abor-rtthe victim ancl
I his experience r'r4rich onlv the victim carr
verifii Gir.en that the visit ciften takes pl:icc
u,ithin hour-s of the UFO inciclent, hor'r'do
-p tl-revacqr-rirethis knou'leclge so quicklr'?
To sorne UFO rescarchers,the onlr-peo-
ple u,ith accessto this kirrcl of information

arc govcrnrrient intellis-erice2lgellts.The,v
o bel i eve thcsc sh:rcl or* ' strangers ar e


e xisten ce . C ) nh his ir ' if e. Pc t er '
Hough, Jennv R:u'rclles :rncl -\t-thr.rr-
T omlinso n, an oth cr r es ear c hel uolk t ng ot t
thc case, hacl an1' knolr,leclge of rt. Hough ':.-,:::i=::==::::t::::- : :

contactecl RAF Intelligence to confrt'm the .==.:=:.:===

visitors' identities. Hc rvas told that no sr.rch ,
men existed and that none of their stirfl hacl ,' . ,_a_::a=::,,
ever visitecl Spencer.
\{hen Hough's enquiries drerv a blirnk,
l-re decicied that Spencer mlrst have beert 3:
the r,ictirn of one o['the stlangest bv-procl-
ucts of'th e mod ern UFO pher t onlenon - a
visit fi-om thc 'N'Ien In Black'.
It 'rvoulcl be tempting to disrniss
Spencer's accoullt as the cre:rtiotr of an
o\,cracti\re imirgination rvere it not fbr the
fact that Dr .|irn Sinsleton, the clinicirl
i n volv edin a c am p a i g no [d i s i n fo rma ti o n to
conceal the true nature of covert govern-
ment operations. Just what they are cover-
ing up is not entirely clear, but it is generally

t- _anratr.n, pose|
:t-J"":t:T $paceflo;r-:,y:^,.x,"iiJ1
,,. i2.1t,!.3,.\rli,,dj,,
',,- d,n^J.Ii,:?"'w'*i,',gi":":^ 1ffi,,fif.:rig;'t:"
a puzzl:

:lr:;:lrlffiHl Yi*w:i!!'"iffi
ur. it'r. *orr. ol under-
cover intelligence agents why are there no A Jomes Templeton's countable access to private infbrntation -
reports of their threats ever being carried photogroph of o others are ricldled. rvith implausible cletails.
out? It is a curious fact that none of the vic- 'spocemon' (below) One extraorclinarr. case foliol-ect a UFO
tims who have defied MIB instrrrctions have wos foken with on abduction of nvo men that occnrred in
ever been punished with physical violence. ordinory comero in October 1975, at the heigl-rt of UFO acrivity
cleor <ondirions.He in the State of \Iaine. US-\. \earli a year

$i] ] : . : , ] l .:.::.].,i,.:]...'''..sen liltothe|oc o|af t er t ] r einc ic 1er lt . or l11 S e p t e n r b e r 1 9 7 6 ,

.. t h a t w hilesome-MIBvisitsap pear t obebut noonec ou|dgiv es l1 B r e

entirely credible - the only grounds for sus- him o sotisfociory I
, , . - , . , . ^ ' : ' ; , "-'_ ^ ,,:;',." ^;:::::" ,',.:^:
- __,:_:.. r myself feel cer r oin r h or
;,;.-.,,,, ..,picion beingo a false identityr claim or unac- explonorion.
. qGGounfs given by witnesses

ffiftilt} T?1@,.q+ffi
4|,,=. $-
li -Tl-:l*1
octuolly -',Tl',:
perceive ',n-'v-1:,
Dr Alvin Lowson,UFO Reseorcl^er

the investisating psvchiatrist, Dr Herbert

Hopkins, was working alone at home when
he received a telephone call from a man
purporting to be a UFO investigator. The
stranger asked if he might visit the doctor
and, within less than a minr-lte of making
the call, appeared at the back door. 'I saw
no car, and even if he did have a car, he
could not have possibh'gotten to my house
that quicklv from anv pay phone,' Dr
Hopkins later obsert'ed.
His visitor advised Dr Hopkins to destroy
all his records on the abduction case. But
when the conversation turned to UFOs. Dr
Hopkins noticed that the stranger's speech
began to falter. Shakily, the man stood up
and, stumbling towards the door, excused
himself, saying, 'My energy is running
low... must go now.'
It was only after he had left that Dr
Hopkins registered his visitors' odd appear-
ance. He wore an old-fashioned black suit,
which looked brand new.'He was also com-
pletely bald and had no eyelashesor eye-
brows. Stranger still, he was wearing lipstick.

Dr Hopkins' experience is one of the most
reliable and detailed accounts of an MIB
] visit. As some aspectsof his story border on
the absurd, it also presents the mystery at its
! most bizarre. Some researchers have
I observed that the behaviour and appear-
s ance of many MIBs seem to have a surreal
p quality reminiscent of a dream sequence.
This suggests that MIBs may not be an
E entirely physical phenomenon - a view sup-
ported by those who are convinced that
MIBs are extraterrestrials.
V ln 1952, AIbert Other investigators have tried to find a
Bender, from psvchologicalansl-er to the MIB phenome-
Conneclicut, lounched non. .\nerican UFO researcher Dr Alvin
The Internofionol Flying Larvsonnotes that all alien figures linked to
Soucer Burecu (|FSB), UFO sightings - and the vast majorin' of
the first moior UFO reports, especiallvin the US. describe\IIBs r-ealenigma for Dr Lan'son is not so mqehltt
reseorch group. The as 'foreign-looking' - seem to corresponcl rihat the victim sees but what triggers
IFSBclosed down | 8 to the archeq'pes that psvchologist Carl archen'pal images in the first place rar$i
monfhs loter, however, Jung proposed lie buried in elerlone's zle to rr-hich he has no solution.
ofter his fomily wos unconscious imagerl'. Cor-rldit be that a real
threofened by three visitor triggers the victim's imagination to tA C K OF E V ID E N C E
MlBs, who demonded draw upon this well of imagerv and create a \A'hatis most strangeabout the MIB ph.-lriii
he stop his reseorch. bizarre, dream-like sequence of events?The nomenon is that it has becomepart of the
UFO mythology on the basis of mere
hearsay.Although reports of MIB.visits con-
ti nue one has ever been able
to produce irrefutable evidence of a viOi!,rtrr:ti:
having taken place. To add to the .""{P:.;;
sion, government bodies, such as tn€1jl:
Ministry of Defence, now openly admits
being interested in hearing about .
sightings - most recently, the sightingS:tt$
'black triangles' all over Europe - futi!i!!r,
denies having any involvement in l:..i:,1

the MIB phenomenon.

+ In the next issue, UFO FILE asks

British gouernmentis so interestedin the !hla&:
triangles' that haue repeated\ been seen.'oIjgr,
o Europesincethe 1980s.


Exlsr, AND

magine a source of energy energy are met with suspicion.

that is non-polluting, Some believe that this is evidence
composed of readily of academic conceit - far from
::. @ recyclable materials, that b e i n g o b j ecti veand corrsci enti ous.
...',:i.tttployt no radioactive compounds scientistsrefuse to recognize data
' l.'and generatesno nuclear that challengesthe norm or
, radiation. The power it provides is contradicts their preconceived
',:;:;,,way in excessof any input of po\\'er ideas. Others believe research is
;,: ,.,neededto produce it, yet it can be suppressedby pressure from big
by traditional means for businesses. There is a lot of monev
across the national grid. in oil and coal production, and
believe that if such a ground-breaking, profit-stripping
of energv existed, the developmentsin sciencecould
:o m bined ef f or t s o f th e Pe n ta g o n . very well upset this multi-billion
OPE C, S hell, B P a n d th e dollar industrv.
intern atio na l mo tor c om pan ies
would con sp lre lo k eep lI a s ec r el. I BJI*Jry!!.gJ**__
Yet there are manv scientists who One man rvho claims to have
claim to b e close r o dis c t ir er ing been the victim of big business
such energl sources. interestsis Dennis Lee, an
independent inventor from
ENEGADE SCIENCE Washington DC. In 1986,he
rrent fossil fuels are dirty. They allegedly discovered a wav of
l lut e t he at m os p h e rea n d ma k i n g free el ectri ci tr usi rrg
destroy commu nitie s - ev en t heir substancesthat 'boil' at very
ext r a ctio n ca n da m age t he nat ur al low temperatures.
w orld. But the ir b igges t dr awbac k Most cornrnercial energl
i s i n dis put able:t he l a re fi n i re . generators produce porver by
hether reserveslast 50 or 500 burning fuel - oil or coal - to
llyeatt, one day fossil fuels will be heat water. The water is converted
exh au ste d, an d via ble aller nat iv es into steam which drives a turbine
:,inust be found. that generates electricity. However,
, , Despite this imperative, the byproducts of this burning
d e v elonm ent sir r th e a re a o f n e rv process escapear-rdseriously
clarnage the cnr.irolment. .t :
o Dennis Lee's Lorv Temperature, '.,
E lrlpasscclthis processby' using '
srrbstancesti-ratcl'rangefrom a ' ::
liqriid to a eas rr.hen exposeclto q141'.
T h e g a r c a n l h ( 'n l r e r r s e d l o po w e r
(rrrhi rrcsrl rat qerrerareel ecrricir yin
the rrornralw a1.The el ectri ci t y
produced i s. i rr effect, free because
it only usesa natural power ro,ruca .
- namell', heat from the sun thaf
'phase-chanees'the substances.. .
The applical.icins of such
technologl' are revolutionary.
Toxic rvaste. ozone depletion, air
pollution. fanrine. poverty - all
coulri be banisheclforer,er.with
( l i . ( o \ e r '\ o l g c r r r r i r r e l r e e p o w er .
\rrri, illrrrirrg all rhis arrd more.
Lcr rrrrj rerl arr er-B oei ngpl ani
\tll)r I\ i.or. a \ll::achusetts
l r.rrrLrl eol Tecl rrrol o$ (MIT)
pr-ofessorand an ex-Department of,
D r' l -rrresci cnti stto exami ne his
.ul rcepl . E ach anal l zcd and l

t orrfi r' medhi s fi ndi ngs as gel ruine. l

Lee suspecl edrhar hi s amazi ng
design would not be welcomed try.,
e\eryone.To sal eguardhi msel f . 11, :
arrd hi s devi ce.he cl eci dedro '
di stri brrtehi s researchto u r' ,.touo. k
of i rrrenrorsand sci enti sts.If ma ny
peoplecouldrepronu.i'n,r' ;
fin dinss, Lee surmisea,'it *o"f a Ue;:rgr'h+****-&
harder l o suppressrhe data.
Unfortunately, he did not reckon
with the lorces of lalr ancl order.
l n earl yJanuary 1988.I5 armed
pol i cemerrhurst i rrl o Lce' s
laboratory and forcibly
documents, records and
designs. Although
, v er epr odu c e d a u th o ri z i n g
,.over 450 secret papers not
l,bv the search warrant were
, Lee, maintaining his
e, continued his rvork
Federal agentssperrtsix
s'examining papers taken
ng the raid, attempting to find
,technicaliq' to close Lee down
and for all. However. rro
could be brought. ) Usingsimpleloborotory equipment,
StonleyPonsond Mortin Fleischmonn o
SS PRODUCTION cloimedfo hove generotednucleor

nont hs lat er ,a C a l i fo rn i a n energy (inser)ot room lemperolures. d

ag ree d to m ar k et one of This is yet to be proved conclusively. s


'designs.The police, realizing

ergy machine could soon held in jail for ten months until his =_9
public, promptly arrested trial came to court.
was charged with 38 Eventually, one year after his l

of t he C a l i l o rn i a n C i v i l arrest, some of the alleged 'victims'

illd ten counts of fraud. Bail of Lee's supposedlyfraudulent
at t he out r a g e o u s l yh i g h machine came forward. They
of $l m illio n . a n d L e e w a s testified that his designs did exactly
as claimed and that none of them
had been duped or deceived in
any way. A 70-page lawsuit alleging
gross mistreatment of Lee was
issued asainst the officials involved

l r is only o m qtter
of time before unlimited his treatment at the hands of the
pollufion-free energy authorities. Despite his lawyers
w i l l be ovoilqble to oll efforts, tl-recar.npaignto prove the
Nu EnergyHorizons
State had illegallr held Lee failed.
On 5 llarch 1993,he receiveda
three and a halfvear sentence.
Atternpts to ilithdraw the guilty
in the case- it was dismissed plea have been repeatedly ignored.
without a hearing.
Believing it would help his case, GtOB A t C ON S P IR A CY
Lee eventually pleaded guilty to Lee's treatment by the US legal
e i g h t u n i ntenti onal regi strati on sYstemseemsincredible. Is it
violations. Sentencing was delayed possible that entire governments
for a further 18 months rvhile are in league with oil cartels and
lawyers attempted to bring charges other organizations in an attempt
against the State of California for to suppressnew technology? The
its hear'y-handedtactics. Lee, Pentagon in particular has been
releasedon bail, spent this time accused of everything from hiding
developing and promoting his Low evidence of life on Mars to mind
Temperature Phase-Change control and experi mental ionon
Electric Cenerator and detailine humans. Is it possible that Lee was
even demanded blood samples to reactor.The Tokomak uses
prove that senior PHACT members hot plasma. heated to about
are not aliens. million degrees Celsius, to
the conditions necessary
C OtD FU S ION fusion. A powerful magnetic
Outlandish persecution claims are i s generatedi nsi de the
not, however, limited to fringe which keeps the incredibly
science. Occasionally,the scientific radioactive plasma away frouilii
community itself can turn on its i nteri or reactor w al l s.Thi s prr
members and wage campaigns of the lokomak lrom radioactive
derision and contempt. One emissions,and guards against -,r.,,::
example of this was the alleged potentially lethal radioa"ctiveleaks.
l 'r'r:li:::
discovery of cold fusion in 1989 by As far as anyone has been able to
Stanley Pons of the University of prove. thi s i s the onl y w ay to
Utah and Martin Fleischmann of generate safe and reliable power
the University of Southampton. from nuclear fusion.
Current scientific knowledge ::'..
statesthat nuclear fusion can only EXPTOStVE DTSCOVER
o c c u r rv hen tw o l i ght atomi c The scientific community was ,' i..,
nuclei, such as hvdrogen, are therefore stunned to hear of rbe.:*..
joined together.With most nuclei, 1989breakthroughi n ' col d'
this fr-rsionproduces - logically fusion. Pons and Fleischman
enor"rgh- one heavier nucleus. But claimed to have found a walt
r.ith hydrogen nuclei, a fraction of generating nuclear energy frc
the mass is converted into heat in water.using basic equipment - at .
the fusion process, and this can be room temperatures.hs potentiil to
c o n v e rte di nto el ectri ci tyto run. solve rhe impending global l-uel
fbr example, generating plants. crisis,let alone the eFlectit would
However, temperatures in excessof have on the world economv.
/. was :
100 million degreesCelsiusare astronomical.For a brief but
needed to fuse the nuclei together. i ntenseperi od. col d fusi on
Apart from the obvious dangers the scientific Holv Grail.
involved with such extreme Pons and Fleischmann re.dt
temperatures, there is also the risk their conclusion through: iqr
of radioactive leaks. [unded with their own
a victim of a global conspiracy? Russian scientistshave addressed the results were discovereai:
Dennis Lee seemsto think so. this problem with the Tokomak accident. An experiment invo
Persecutiontheories seem
particularly thick on the ground
amons fiinge scientistslike Lee
and his proponents. But perhaps
one explanation for Lee's
treatrnent could be that he is, in
fact, a fraud.
Ar organization that suggested
this possibiliw in lieu of hard
evidence rvasPHACT, the
Philadelphia Associatior-rfor
Critical Thinking. Despite offering
to er,aluateLee's clainrs
independently, they have been met
with scorn and hysteria. Some of
the more zealousof Lee's
supporters have gone as far as to
accuse PHACT of being
government spies - a few have
hydrogen resulted in an explosion
en ou gh to leav e a c r at er
cm d ee p in a c onc r et e
he energl'for such a
$li explosion had to have
ro m some wher e. and Pons
ischmann concluded that .rt
,only have been generated by
r reaction.


tists around the r'vorld tried to
::rbereatePons' and Fleischmann's
Its with no success.Repeating o
ex per im ent p ro v e d i mp o s s i b l e . _6
to the chagrin of its
royerers',who claim a Wind forms use nofurol energy to researcherslike Lee, Pons and
paign of belittl e me n ta n d power turbines. Four thousond Fleischmann be persecr-rted or
windmills con produce 4OO megowofts thrown in prison?,\mid the
of electriciry obouf 20 per cent of o accusationsof frar,rdand cleceit,
convenlionol power stotion. what else is being done to protect
Fftold fusion cqn be our future energy needs?Wave
fed up for indusfry, Pons ancl Fleischrnann are power, solar power, wind porver -
t con se quences qre adamant that they have been all have been mooted as potential
immeosuroble. lt will victims of ignorance and slancler, saviours,but research and
meon the end of the ancl there ale organizntions that investment on a scalethat could
F o s s i l Fu e l A g e believe thern. Alt]-rough houndecl make a lasting difference to man's
ii1,,,r!,l;i iitir, :
A r r n u r \- . L to r Ke
from their acaclemic posts. both enerel needs is some way off.
are involved in mr.rlti-rnillion doll:rr'
research programmes iirncled br D E N IA T OF FA C TS
theJapanesc car companv Tovota. Fron.rCiopelnicusand Calileo, tl-re
nce is being waged against Hundreds of other scientists clairn histolr of scienceis littered with
Sceptics hvstericallv accused to have produced evidence ofcold exanrplesof blinkereclvision and
Fleischmann of inventing f r r s ion. 1 c t m a i n s t l e a m s c i e r r c e ignorance. One of the most
hing scientific ethics, abs olr r t c l l r c f r r s e s t o r e c o g n i z e a r r r fanrotrsexarnplesof this was the
and c or r up ti o n . a rrd th e research in this area. refus:rlamong scientiststo
e.pisode has been dismissed Br r t i f a g l c , h a l f u c l c r i s i s i s j r r s r r-ccognizethe rvork of the \\rright
'pathological science around the corner, should' br-othersin 1903 - even though
thev had been flving in public for
Like cold fusion and free
o energy,scientists'knew' that flight
- was an impossibility, and so
_a ignored all evidence to the

o contrary. Is this another example

of' the'pathologiczrl science'that
; Pons and Fleischmant-rhave been
accused of? G'iven that the work of
: Dennis Lee and the possibilityof
cold fusion were both privately
funcled projects, can the scientific
community afford to ignore the
revolutionary claims of these
scientific heretics?It would seem
thar there i s l i ttl e to l ose- F
anclevcrr' l hi nsro gal r). b$