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Engineering Chemistry and Environmental Studies UNIT IV

Principles of Metallurgy
1. Write the Distinction between metals and non-metals?
Ans:
Distinction between metals and non-metals:
Metals
1). Metals are solids at room temperature

Non-metals
1). Non-metals present in solid liquid and

2). They are good conductors of electricity and

gaseous state
2). They are insulators

heat
3). They are hard and strong
4). They are reducing agents
5). They contain 1 to 3 valency electrons
6). The density of metals is high
7). They form basic oxides
8). They have makeable and ductile properties
9). They participate in reactions by losing of

3). They are soft and weak


4). They are oxidizing agents
5). They contain 4 to 7 valency electrons
6). The density of non - metals is low
7). They form acidic oxides
8). They do not have such properties
9). They participate in reactions by gaining or

electron

sharing of electrons.

2. Define Metallurgy?
Ans:
Metallurgy:
The branch of science which deals about extraction of metals and manufacture of alloys and
uses is called as metallurgy.
3. Define Mineral?
Ans:
Mineral:
The naturally occurring material which contains metal either in native state or in combined state
is called mineral.

4. Define Ore?
Ans:
Ore:
A mineral from which metal can be extracted profitable is called an ore
Metal
Na
K
Mg
Al

Mineral
NaCl (Rock Salt)
KCl MgCl2. 6H2) (Carnalite)
MgCO3 Magnasite
MgCO3.CaCO3 Dolamite
MgSO4.7H2O - Epsum
Al2O3.2H2O- Bauxite

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Lecturer in Chemistry

Ore
NaCl (Rock Salt)
Carnalite
Magnesite
Bauxite
Principles of Metallurgy

Engineering Chemistry and Environmental Studies UNIT IV

Fe

Cu
Zn
Ag
Pb

Na3AlF6 Cryolite
Al2O3 Corundum
Fe2O3Heamatite
Fe3O4 Magnetite
Fe2S2 Iron Pryrites
FeCO3 - Siderite
Cu2O Cuprite
FeCu2S Copper pyrites
Cu2S Copper glance
ZnS Zinc blend
ZnO Zinkite
ZnCO3 - Calamine
Ag2S Argentile
AgCl Horn Silver
Pbs - Galena
PbO - litharge

Cryolite
Heamatite
Magnetite
Iron Pyrites

Copper pyrite
Zinc blend
Calamine
Argentile
Galena

5. Define Gangue?
Ans:
Gangue:
The earthly impurities associated with the ore are called gangue or matrix.
Impurities like sand, rock and clay are called gangue.
6. Define Flux?
Ans:
Flux:
The chemical substance added to the ore to remove gangue is called flux.
Fluxes are two types
They are
(a) Acidic fluxes
(b) Basic fluxes
a) Acidic flux:
It is used to remove the basic impurities like CaO, MgOetc
Eg: SiO2, P4O10etc
b) Basic flux:
It is used to remove the Acidic impurities like SiO2
Eg:CaO, MgO etc.
7) Define Slag?
Ans:
Slag:
Flux reacts with the gangue and form fusable product. This product is called slag.
Flux + gangue
Slag
SiO2+ CaO
CaSiO3
8) Write Extraction of metals from ore?
Ans:
Prepared by V Naga Surendra Reddy
Lecturer in Chemistry

Principles of Metallurgy

Engineering Chemistry and Environmental Studies UNIT IV

Extraction of metals from ore:


The common steps involved in the metallurgical process are
1) Concentration of ore
2) Extraction of crude metal
3) Purification of crude metal
9) Write the Concentration of ore?
Ans:
1). Concentration of ore:
The process of removal of gangue from the ore is known as concentration of ore.
The common methods of concentration of ore are
a) Hand picking
b) Levigation (or) Washing
c) Froth floatation.
10) Write about Hand picking?
Ans:
a). Hand picking:
This process depends on the difference in size, shape and color of the ore particles and gangue.
The impurities should be picked up by hand.
Eg: heamatite (Fe2O3) is concentrated by this process.
11) Write about b) Levigation (or) Washing?
Ans:
b) Levigation (or) Washing:
This process depends on the difference in the density of ore particles and gangue particles.
The ore is made into powder and washed in a stream of water.
The lighter gangue particles are washed along with the water.
The heavier ore particles are settle down.
12) Write about Froth floatation?
Ans:
c). Froth floatation:
This process is based on the difference in the wetting properties of gangue and ore particles.
The gangue particles are wetted with the water and ore particles are wetted with the oil.
The ore is powdered and made into pasty material with water.
This paste taken into partitioned tub.
Pine oil, lime and potassium ethyloxanthate are added to paste.
The total mixture is stirred thoroughly by passing air.
Then froth produces much, for which ore particles stick and gradually passed into other part of
tub.
The gangue particles left over in the first part only.
Sulphide ores like galena (PbS), Zinc blend (ZnS) are concentrated by this method.

Prepared by V Naga Surendra Reddy


Lecturer in Chemistry

Principles of Metallurgy

Engineering Chemistry and Environmental Studies UNIT IV

13) Write about Extraction of crude metal?


Ans:
2) Extraction of crude metal:
The extraction of crude metal can be done by three methods.
They are
a) Roasting
b) Calcination
c) Smelting.
14) Explain Roasting with example?
Ans:
a) Roasting:
The process of heating the ore in the presence of air below its melting point is called roasting.
Sulphide ores undergoes roasting, it converted into oxide with evolution of SO2.
Eg:
2FeS + 3O2
2FeO + 2SO2
2ZnS + 3O2
2ZnO + 2SO2

15) Explain the Calcination with examples?


Ans:
b) Calcination:
The process of heating the ore in the absence of air below its melting point is called calcination.
Carbonate converted into oxide and CO2 evolved.
Eg:
1) CaCO CaO + CO
3

1) Al2O3.H2O

Al2O3 + 2H2O

16) Write the Smelting with examples?


Ans:
Smelting:
The pyrochemical process used to extract the metal or metal sulphide in the fused state is called
smelting.
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Lecturer in Chemistry

Principles of Metallurgy

Engineering Chemistry and Environmental Studies UNIT IV

In this process concentrated ore is heated with reducing agent or sometimes with a flux and
reducing agent.
Then, the metal is obtained in the fused state.
Example:
Iron ore heamatite is heated with coke and lime.
Then, Fe2O3 reduced to Fe
Fe2O3 + 3C2Fe + 3CO
The gangue (SiO2) present in the ore is removed as slag on reaction with lime.
CaO + SiO2
CaSiO3
Flux gangue
slag
17) Write about Purification of crude metal?
Ans:
3). Purification of crude metal:
The process of removal of impurities from the crude metal to get pure metal is called purification
or refining.
Eg: Electrolytic refining.
Electrolytic refining:
In this process crude metal blocks used as anode.
Pure metal sheets used as cathode.
Acidified metal salt is taken as electrolyte.
On passing current through the cell, pure metal from the anode deposits on the cathode.
Impurities left over at the anode only.
It is called anode mud.
Example:
Refining of copper.
In this process, impure copper is anode, pure copper is cathode and acidified CuSO4 is used as
electrolyte.
When current passed through the cell, the following reactions occur in the cell.
At cathode: Cu+2 + 2eCu (reduction)
+2
At anode: Cu
Cu + 2e- (oxidation)

Prepared by V Naga Surendra Reddy


Lecturer in Chemistry

Principles of Metallurgy

Engineering Chemistry and Environmental Studies UNIT IV

18) Write about the Alloys?


Ans:
Alloys:
Homogeneous mixture of two or more elements with metallic properties is called an Alloy.
Generally, Alloys contain two or more metals. Sometimes a non-metal may be present.
The properties of an Alloys are
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

Alloys are hard than metals


Alloys have more malleable character than metals.
Alloys have more ductile character than metals
Alloys have lower melting points than Component metals.
Alloys are less reactive.
Alloys have more corrosion resistant.
Alloys have low electrical and thermal conductivity.

S.No
Name of Alloy
1.
Brass
2.

German Silver

3.

Nichrome

Composition of Alloy
Cu = 60-70%
Zn = 30-40%
Cu = 50%
Zn = 30%
Ni = 20%
Ni = 60%
Fe = 25%
Cr = 15%

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Lecturer in Chemistry

Uses of Alloy
a). Decorative hardware
b). Machinery Parts
a). Decorative hardware
b). Rheostats
c). Resistors
a). heating coils
b). Resistance wire

Principles of Metallurgy