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Journal of Telecommunications, ISSN 2042-8839, Volume 28, Issue 1, November 2014 www.journaloftelecommunications.co.uk

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You are on page 1of 6

Mitigation Technique

Ashwini Saykar and Debashis Adhikari

AbstractThe desire for higher data rates of transmission has resulted in the evolution of many new communication

technologies over the years. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is one such technology which is capable of

achieving a high rate system. Although OFDM has many advantages of being a bandwidth efficient and high rate system, the

problem of peak to average power ratio (PAPR) has resulted in a considerable disadvantage to this technology. In this paper we

discuss a pulse shaping method to reduce the PAPR. Few broadband pulse shapes are analysed that can be used to modulate

the sub-carrier frequencies. It is established that PSWF based pulses could lead to minimize the problem of PAPR.

Index Terms PAPR, OFDM, PSWF.

1 INTRODUCTION

the fastest growing voice and data communication

technology. This rapid development of wide areamultimedia networks has built up general greed for

higher data rates. However such a goal is bound by optimal spectrum utilization and major channel impairments

like delay spread, noise, interference and channel variations as well as battery life of portable devices.

High data rates are primarily governed by the symbol

rate and transmit constellation complexity. Also a dispersive multipath channel results in severe intersymbol interferernce (ISI), thereby limiting the signaling rate. This

would call for complex equalizers as the data rates are

higher. For a single carrier system, the increase in signal

bandwidth due to increase in symbol rate results in frequency selective fading as the coherence bandwidth becomes less than the signal bandwidth.

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)

is one such technology that is best suited to achieve this

goal of high data rate. It can be viewed as a kind of multicarrier system with a narrow-band transmission scheme.

OFDM has the advantage of combating multipath fading

by virtue of multiplexing serial data into large number of

subcarrier frequencies, each of narrow bandwidth. Thus,

with a large number of subcarriers (N), the subcarrier

bandwidth (B/N, with B as the total bandwidth) becomes

much less than the coherent bandwidth thereby satisfying

the conditions of a frequency flat fading channel. In contrast, a multi-carrier transmission scheme uses fewer subcarrier frequencies resulting in broader subcarrier bandwidths as in the case of HSPA. A proper choice of symbol

duration and carrier spacing makes the OFDM technology an efficient one. The system complexity largely reduces by IDFT DFT process. OFDM is bandwidth efficient

International University, Lavle, Pune, India.

D. Adhikari is a Faculty at Synbiosis Institute of Technology, Symbiosis

International University, Lavle, Pune.

are overlapped.

However there are few limitations of OFDM inspite of

the avantages of being a high rate system. One of the major limitations is the high peak-to-average power ratio

(PAPR) and its sensitivity against carrier frequency offset

(CFO). An outcome of CFO is loss of orthogonality

among the carriers resulting in inter carrier interference

(ICI).

In this paper PAPR and its mitigation techniques using

different pulse shapes is presented. In Section 2 the problem of PAPR and many proposed reduction techniques in

literature is discussed. Section 3 discusses about the system model of PAPR reduction scheme with different

pulse shapes for OFDM symbols. In Section 4 we discuss

few broadband waveforms that can be used as pulse

shapes and analyze these pulse shapes with simulation

results in Section 5.

2.1 PAPR mathematical foundation

A major drawback in OFDM because of multiple carriers

is the non-constant envelope with high peaks leading to

high peak to average power ratio (PAPR). PAPR is

defined as the ratio between the maximum power and the

average power of a complex bandpass signal s(t)

{ ()} =

|( () 2 )|2 |()|2

=

{|( () 2 )|2 }

{|()|2 }

(1)

x(0), x(1) .. x(N-1) the average power in each symbol is

given as

. = {|()|2 } = 2

(2)

peak power. The PAPR for a single carrier system is

therefore

| =

= 1 = 0

(3)

the mean power level for a single carrier system.

For N sub-carrier OFDM system, the kth sample of

IFFT is given as

1

1

() = () 2

(4)

=0

power is given as

. = {|()|2 }

1

2

1

{|()|2 } {| 2 | }

2

=0

1

=0

=0

1

1

2

= 2 {|()|2 } = 2 2 =

(5)

1

=0

=0

1

1

(0) = () 2 = ()

(6)

1

(0) =

1

1

() = =

=

=0

(7)

=0

system with N sub-carriers is given as

| =

(8)

system with N subcarriers, the maximum power occurs

when all of the N subcarrier components add up with

identical phases. This results in a high peak value signal

causing different types of non-linearities.

The sources of non-linearity can be [1] in the FFT and

IFFT blocks due to limited binary word lengths, signal

clipping and quantization errors and non-linearity of

power amplifiers (PA). Of these, the non-linearity in the

PA is most dominant in a multicarrier modulations system, because of high PAPR.

As long as the signal swing is within the dynamic range

of the PA, no problem is encountered. However due to

high peaks encountered in OFDM, the peak signals resulting in high PAPR is likely to drive the PA into saturation. An input back-off (IBO) is required to shift the operating point to the left [2], where,

2

() = 10 log10 (

) = 10 log10 (

)

{|()|2 }

(9)

not exceed the saturation level, IBO should be atleast

equal to PAPR.

The PAPR reduction techniques is classified as clipping

techniques, coding technique, probabilistic (scrambling)

technique, adaptive predistortion technique and DFT

spreading technique.

In the first technique the peak of the resultant summed

carrier output is clipped by block-scaling, filtering, peak

cancellation, Fourier projection and decision aided reconstruction techniques. The coding technique reduces the

PAPR without causing any distortion and out-of band

noise, but suffers from bandwidth efficiency [1]. The

probabilistic technique is to scramble an input data block

of OFDM symbols and transmit the one with minimum

PAPR. This reduces the probability of incurring high

PAPR. This technique includes selective mapping (SLM),

partial transmit sequence (PTS), tone reservation (TR) and

tone injection (TI). In the adaptive pre-distortion technique the non-linear effects of the HPA is compensated

by automatically modifying the input constellation with

the least hardware requirement. In the DFT spreading

technique, the input signal is spreaded with DFT which

can be subsequently taken as IFFT. This reduces the

PAPR of OFDM signal to the level of single carrier transmission. This technique, also known as Single Carrier

FDMA (SC-FDMA) is adopted for uplink transmission in

3GPP LTE standard.

A modified SLM technique for PAPR reduction of coded OFDM signal is proposed in [3]. In this technique the

phase sequence is embedded in check sequence of coded

data blocks. Based on SLM approach, [4] proposed a post

IFFT PAPR reduction technique for determining a unique

set of time-domain sequences per OFDM block that can

minimize PAPR. In [5] a semi-blind SLM technique is

proposed where the same PAPR as that of a classical SLM

is maintained while increasing the overall throughput. A

non-linear companding technique to reduce high PAPR of

OFDM signals is discussed in [6]. A non-linear companding transform (NLT) technique is proposed in [7] for

further reducing the PAPR of SC-FDMA. Modification of

dummy subcarriers to reduce PAPR is proposed in [8].

Attempts have also been made to reduce the problem

of PAPR by adopting suitable pulse shaping techniques.

An efficient technique based on proper selection of time

waveforms of the different subcarriers of an OFDM modulation scheme to reduce PAPR is proposed in [9]. It was

shown that with broadband pulse shaping the PAPR of

OFDM modulated signals can be made very close to that

of single carrier signals. The complimentary CDF (CCDF)

of PAPR to ascertain the reduction in performance was

derived in [10] with pulse shaping filters.

10

PULSE SHAPING TECHNIQUES

The system model is shown in Fig. 1. For a N subcarriers

system with pulse-shaping. The incoming data is fed to

the constellation mapper to obtain the baseband modulated output. The modulation technique selected should

be bandwidth efficient. The baseband modulated stream

is then split into N parallel sreams. Each stream is shaped

by a pulse shape and transmitted over a given carrier. The

OFDM transmitted signal is expressed as [11]

() = () () 2 , ( + 1)

(10)

=0

k and T is the duration of the OFDM block. The pulse

shape () is of duration T having a bandwidth equal to

or less than the OFDM signal x(t) used with subcarrier k

with

| ()| =

(11)

=

Using phase shift keyed modulated symbols in the constellation mapper and considering (1) we obtain from

above

1

1

= max (| ()|)

0

(12)

=0

the number of sub-carriers N as well as the pulse shape

() used for each sub-carrier.

As shown in [slimanne] the above expression reduces to

the following if the same pulse shape is used for each subcarrier,

1

Gaussian pulse shapes are derived from the Gausssian

function

1

2

() =

( 2 )

(15)

2

2 2

InFig.

general

nth for

order

derivative

of waveforms

Gaussian pulse is

1 Systemthe

model

OFDM

with different

given recursively as

|()|2

|()|2

MITIGATION

() () =

( 1) (2)

() 2 (1) ()

(16)

where is the scaling factor < < . Higher orderwaveforms are formed by highpass filtering of the

Gaussian pulses. The time domain plots for derivatives of

Gaussian pulses for order n = 0 to 4 is shown in Fig.2.

The Gaussian monocycle (n = 1) has a single zero-crossing

and each of the further derivatives adds one more zero

crossing. The spectrum of nth order derivative of Gaussian

1

= max (| ()|) = max | ()|2

0

0

(13)

=0

sub-carrier waveforms have the following properties

[2002]

(i) Broadband pulse shapes are desirable.

(ii) All selected pulse shapes should be different and satisfy the orthogonality criterion

, =

() 2( ) = {

0,

0

(14)

derivative of functions.

11

() =

(2)

() =

(2)

(2)2

(

)

2

(17)

where () is the Fourier spectrum of the first order derivative of the Gaussian pulse. The power spectral density on nth order derivative of Gaussian pulse is

() = | ()|2 = (2)2 ((2)2 )

(18)

by computing the inverse Fourier transform of () to

obtain

1 2

2

() = (2)2 ()2

(

)

(19)

4 2

2 2 2

Hermite pulses of nth order are obtained from derivatives

of Gaussian pulse as

2

2

() = () ( 2 ) ( 2 )

(20)

4

2

The time domain pulse shapes are shown in Fig. 3 and 4

for even and odd orders respectively. The ACF of the

MHP is given as

() = 2 (

2

! !

)(

) (1) 2 (21)

2

! ! ( )!

=0

Fourier transform of () we obtain the power spectral

density of MHP as

()

= 2

=0

! !

1

2

2

(1) ()2

( ) (22)

2

! ( )! !

2

The mathematical equation for raised cosine pulse is

given as,

cos ( ) sin ( )

.

() =

(23)

1 (2 )

and one. As the value of increase from zero to one, the

pulse shape becomes sharper and the side-lobe reduces.

Fig. 6 shows the raised cosine pulse for different roll-off

factors. As the roll factor increases, side lobe level is suppressed significantly and the energy content is bound in

the main lobe only. Autocorrelation function becomes

sharper as we go on increasing the roll-off factor. Fig. 5

shows the time domain autocorrelation of raised cosine

pulse shapes of different roll-off factors.

based pulse shape

PSWF of the form n(c,t) arevreal, continuous functions

of time t for 0 having the property of orthogonality

over the time and frequency intervals. Here n represents

the order of the pulse and c represents the timebandwidth product. The PSWF are solution of the Helmholtzs differential equation

2

(1 2 )

2

+ ( 2 2 ) = 0

(24)

2

1

() =

1

sin ( )

()

( )

(25)

The above set of equations are assumed to have a solution

of the form

() ()

=0,2,..

1 (,

0

) =

(26)

{=1,23,..

() ()

the Legendre polynomials. The final expression for the

PSWF pulse shape is given as [12]

1/2

(, ) = (

()

)

2

2 + 1

(

) () ()

2

(27)

=0,2,..

Fig.7 and 8. The pulse shapes are characterized by exactly

n zero crossings in the interval . The zero-crossings shift

towards the origin with larger values of c. This signifies

time compression of PSWF pulses and consequently a

higher change in the random process within the same

time duration.

PULSE-SHAPES

The PAPR evaluated for the broadband pulse shapes discussed in the previous section is shown in in Table. 1.

(i) It is seen that the the PAPR is lowest for PSWF based

pulse shapes and highest for raised cosine pulse

shapes.

(ii) The PAPR for raised cosine pulse shapes increases as

we increase the roll-off factor .

(iii) The variation of PAPR for PSWF based pulses is due

to the time-bandwidth product c which is governing

factor in the pulse shape design. The higher value of

PAPR for n = 7 is contributed to the asymptotic behaviour of pulse shape as the value of c and n increases.

(iv)

The higher value of PAPR in case of Gaussian

pulses compared to MHP for orders more than 2 is primarily due to smaller decorrelation time resulting in

12

6 CONCLUSION

In this paper the effect on PAPR due to application of

different broadband pulse shapes in an OFDM system is

studied. It is analysed that PSWF based pulses due to

their unique property of double orthogonality both in

time and frequency domain, is best suited for a low

PAPR. Also the advantage of the time bandwidth product

as being an additional degree of freedom in the design

procedure would result in larger number of orthogonal

pulse shapes.

REFERENCES

[1]

MATLAB, John-Wiley & Sons, 2010 .

[2] Wayne Tomasi, Electronic Communication System, Pearson

Education India, 1998.

[3] S. H . Han, J. H. Lee, Modified Selected Mapping Technique

for PAPR Reduction of Coded OFDM Signal, IEEE Transactions

on Broadcasting, Vol. 50, No. 3, 2004.

[4] T. Jiang, Y. Yang, Y.H. Song, Exponential Companding Technique for PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems", IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, Vol. 51, No. 2, pp. 244 248, 2005.

[5] E.F. Badran, El-Helw, "A Novel Semi-Blind Selected Mapping

Technique for PAPR Reduction in OFDM," IEEE Signal Processing Letters, Vol. 18, No.9, pp. 493 496, 2011.

[6] S. Shukla, Saurabh Shukla, N. Purohit, PAPR Reduction in SCFDMA Using NCT Technique Proc. Fourth Ann. Allerton Conf.

Circuits and Systems Theory, pp. 8-16, 1994. (Conference proceedings)

[7] Jing Gao, J. Wang, Bin Wang, "PAPR Reduction with Low

Computational Complexity for OFDM Systems", Physics Procedia, Vol. 33, pp. 1401 1407, 2012.

[8] F.H. Juwono, D. Gunawan, Modification of Dummy Subcarriers Method to Reduce PAPR in OFDM System, in the Proceedings of 8th ECTI, pp. 332 335, 2011.

[9] SB Slimanne, Peak-to-Average Power Ration Reduction of

OFDM Signals using Pulse Shaping, IEEE Veh. Tech. Conf,

2000.

[10] Yasir Rahmatallah and Seshadri Mohan, Peak-To-Average

Power Ratio Reduction in OFDM Systems: A Survey And Taxonomy, IEEE COMMUNICATIONS SURVEYS & TUTORIALS,

vol. 15, no. 4, pp: 1567-1592, 2013.

[11] S. B. Slimane, Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction of

OFDM Signals using Broadband Pulse Shaping, IEEE Vehicular

Tech. Conf.2002, 56th, Vol. 2, PP. 889-893, Sept. 2002.

[12] D. Adhikari and C. Bhattacharya, "Eigenvalue Based Selection

of Prolate Spheroidal Wave Functions for Pulse Shape.

orders

13

shapes

=0.25. 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0

c=2

with c = 8

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