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SRI LANKA INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION

TECHNOLOGY

ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS EC101

STUDENT NUMBER:

EN 14522116

NAME:

Mohamed Althaf

GROUP:

04

LABORATORY:

AC NETWORKS

LABORATORY SUPERVISOR:
LABORATORY PARTNERS:

DATE PERFORMED:

9th of April

DATE DUE:

2nd of May

DATE SUBMITTED:

2nd of May 2014

I hereby declare that the calculation, results, discussion and conclusions submitted in this
report is entirely my own work and have not copied from any other student or past student.
Student Signature: ________________________________________

Laboratory No 3

Electrical System EC-101

AC Laboratory Equipment &


Circuits
Introduction
This experiment concentrates on AC network analysis and comparisons between
theoretical and practical results. Mostly, the theorems used in DC analysis, like
Mesh analysis, noodle Analysis, super position are applicable here.
The phasor diagrams for the practical values & theoretical values are attached
with this report for comparison reasons.
The aim of this lab is to understand the AC circuit analysis & handling the
measuring devices in practical way.

Methodology
Oscilloscope was switched ON, probes were connected & Default Setup
key in the front panel was pressed.
Required frequency was selected by the keys in Function Generator &
Oscilloscopes Channel 1 is connected with function generators
terminals.
A fine form of wave is gained by adjusting Press to zoom
(time/division) knob & Push for fine (volt/division) nob and then
required peak to peak voltage is tuned by adjusting Amplitude knob in
Function generator.
Measure function was used to set the peak to peak voltage.
The given circuit were designed using breadboard.
Oscilloscopes Channel 1, Channel 2 were connected and, the
volt/division of Channel-2 was selected equivalent to Cannel-1s using
Push for fine knob.
The measurements were taken using Measure & Cursor functions.
EN 14522116 M.F.M. ALTHAF

Laboratory No 3

Electrical System EC-101

Laboratory Tabulated Results


Circuit 4.1

R1
820 Ohm

C ha nne l 1

C1
56nF

C ha nne l 2

E1
13.44 PP/ 2 KHz

Quantities
Vpp
Vrms
Period

R2

C2

1K Ohm

47nF

Channel 2
4.3V
1.52V
500 s

24 s
14

Phase Angle

VC2 = VR2 = 1.52 14 v

iC2 =

iR2 =

V R2
R2

V c2
Z c2

1.52 14
1693.14 90

1.52 14
820 0

= 1.85

= 0.897
14

104

mA

mA

Circuit 4.2

EN 14522116 M.F.M. ALTHAF

Laboratory No 3

R2

Quantities
Vpp
Vrms
Period
T

Electrical System EC-101

Channel 2 1K Ohm
4.38V
C ha nne l 1
1.55V
C2
500 s
47nF

C1
56nF

74 s

E1

C ha nne l 2

R1
820 Ohm

51

Phase Angle

13.44 PP/ 2KHz

VR1 = 1.55 51 v

iR1 =

V R1
R1

1.55 51
1000 0

= 1.55 51 mA

Circuit 4.3
EN 14522116 M.F.M. ALTHAF

Laboratory No 3

Quantities
Vpp
Vrms
Period

Electrical System EC-101

Channel 2R2
7.73V 1K Ohm
2.73V
C ha nne l 1
500 s
C2

52 s

R1
820 Ohm

C ha nne l 2
C1

47nF

56nF

-37

Phase Angle
E1

VC
1 =

13.44 PP/ 2KHz

2.73 37 v

iC1 =

V c1
ZC 1

2.73 37
1421.03 90

= 1.92 53 mA

Calculations
ZR1 = 820 0

EN 14522116 M.F.M. ALTHAF

Laboratory No 3

Electrical System EC-101

ZR2 = 1000
R1
820

C1

ZC1 = 1421.03 90

-j1421.03

ZC2 = 1693.13
E1

C2

R2

4.75

ZR2//ZC2 =

-j1693.14

1000

i1

90

1000 0 1693.1390
1000 j 1693.13

i2

1.693 10 90
1966.38 59.43

= 860.97 30.57

ZT = 820 j1421.02 + 741.61 j438.09

=1561.30 j1858.91
= 2427.59

49.97

By Kirchhoffs voltage law


Loop 1

Loop 2

4.750 - (820 j1421.02)i1 1000(i1 i2) = 0


(1820 j1421.03)i 1000i = 4.750

-(-j1693.14)i2 + 1000(i2 i1) = 0

2309.05-37.98 i1 - 10000 i2 = 4.750


1966.3659.43 i = 0

-1000i1 + (1000 + j1693.14)i2 = 0


-10000 i +
1

In Matrix

2309.0537.9 8 1000 0 |i 1|
1 000 0 1966. 36 59.43 |i 2|

|4.750 0 |

By Crammers rule
EN 14522116 M.F.M. ALTHAF

Laboratory No 3

Electrical System EC-101

0 1 000 0
| 4.75
0 1966.36 59.43 |

i1 =

2309.0537.9 8 1000 0
1 000 0 1966.36 59.43

i1 =

8 4.75 0
|2309.05137.9
|
000 0 0
1 000 0
|2309.0537.98
1 000 0 1966.36 59.43 |

= 2.6337.98 mA
V = i R1
R1
1

= 1.34 59.43 mA
VR2 = (i1 i2) R2

= 2.6337.98

10-3 820

= (2.6337.98 1.34 59.43 10-3

1000
= 2.16V

= (1.39 + j0.45) V
= 1.4617.94

VC1 = i1 Zc1

= 2.6337.98 10-3 1421.03 90

VC2 = i2 Zc2
= 1.34 59.43

10-3 1693.13

90
= 3.7452.02

= 2.27 30.57

Discussion
In this practical, Channel 1 is used to indicate the (Input) reference wave
and channel 2 is to measure the voltage drop across the elements parallel
to Channel 2 probe.
Calculated and the measured values are compared & it has some
variations between them in magnitude and the phase angle. Tolerance of
the testing equipment, surrounding disturbance, improper connection and
visual errors are some practical issues which may cause these variations
between theoretical & practical results.
The total impedance of the circuit can be determined by simply

EN 14522116 M.F.M. ALTHAF

Laboratory No 3

ZT =

Electrical System EC-101

VT
iC 1

4.75 0
1.92 53 103

= 2473.96

53

But theoretically calculated value is 2427.59 49.97 .


In circuit 4.1, the components have to be rearranged each time before
measuring voltage of it. So the connection errors in this practical could be
high.
Voltage has to be measured with reference to the ground. As the
component is not before the ground but next to the other component, its
not possible to measure the voltage drop across it directly. The output
wave indicates only the voltage difference. So, to measure the voltage of
the component, it should be shifted to the ground.
To measure the component voltage without shifting to ground. Two
channels of the oscilloscope have to place across that component to
measure those point voltages. After that have to subtract channel 2
voltage from channel 1 voltage to determine that component voltage. By
this the component voltage magnitude and the phase angle can be
measured without shifting it to the ground.

Conclusion

Most of the theorems applying in DC analysis are applicable in AC


analysis too.
To measure the voltage across the components in circuit 4.1, the
components have to be rearranged each time like in circuit 4.2 and circuit
4.3.
AC calculations are in complex form as it has a magnitude and a phase
angle.
Components have to be shifted to ground to get the voltage of it directly
through the measurement, but phase angle can be measured without
shifting the components to the ground.

EN 14522116 M.F.M. ALTHAF

Laboratory No 3

Electrical System EC-101

Practical results and the theoretically calculated one are not equal because
of practical issues like tolerance of the testing equipment, surrounding
disturbance, improper connection and visual errors.
Phasor diagram can be used to show that the sum of the voltage drop
across the components is equal to the input voltage.
Reference

User Manuel of DSO 1052B


User Manual of TENMA 72-1016
User Manual of SFG-2110 Digital Function Generator
Boylestad Introductory Circuit Analysis 11th Edition

EN 14522116 M.F.M. ALTHAF