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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/cma

Carreau uid constitutive model

D. Schmicker , K. Naumenko, J. Strackeljan

Institute for Mechanics, Otto-von-Guericke University of Magdeburg, 39106 Magdeburg, Germany

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 14 April 2013

Accepted 19 June 2013

Available online 13 July 2013

Keywords:

Welding simulation

Rotary Friction Welding

Non-Newtonian uid modeling

Carreau uid

a b s t r a c t

The subject of this paper is the presentation of a holistic, fully-temperature-coupled simulation of Direct

Drive Friction Welding (DDFW) based on the modied Carreau uid model. The main motivation therein is

the consistent and stable prediction of suitable process parameters, which is still the major problem in

adopting Rotary Friction Welding (RFW) processes to new pairs of weld partners at industrial applications.

The Carreau type uid constitutive equation is derived from a NortonBailey law wherein the temperature dependency is accounted for by a JohnsonCook power approach. Its main benet is the stable and

robust simulation of the process and the physical palpability of the utilized material parameters. Using a

special element formulation on the general axisymmetric frame in conjunction with an Augmented

Lagrange bulk viscosity term, a purely displacement based form of the numerical solution procedure is

applicable. A penalty contact approach together with a regularized friction law allow for an efcient determination of the interface pressure and friction forces. The models performance is demonstrated by means

of a test problem highlighting the potential of adopting it to industrial applications later on.

2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

The process of Rotary Friction Welding (RFW) is a solid-state

fusing process allowing for combining a wide range of dissimilar

materials. Due to the fact that during the welding procedure the

materials melt temperature is not reached [18], the heat affected

zone of the weld is smaller than at conventional fusion welding.

Moreover, neither ller material nor any inert gas is needed for

joining providing a very efcient and uncontaminated fuse of the

weld. Benets are the high quality and symmetry of the joint, the

good potential for process automation and the short cycle times.

In contrasts to all these virtues the main problem is the identication of stable and suitable process parameters and effective feedback control algorithms. A perseverative problem, for instance, is

the identication of an optimal control of a position based friction

welding process, where for reasons of nish worked parent parts a

nal axial shortening during welding has to be achieved. Basic

necessity therefor is the revelation of the physical phenomena during the process. Hence, the demand of predictive tools in modeling

the transactions during RFW being able to understand and optimize the process is of crucial interest for industrial applications.

The main process parameters are illustrated in Fig. 1 being the

axial force F A , the torque T, the rotary speed n and the axial feed sf .

Therein the shaft A is the static part and shaft B is the rotating one

Corresponding author. Tel.: +49 391 67 12679; fax: +49 391 67 11379.

E-mail address: david.schmicker@ovgu.de (D. Schmicker).

0045-7825/$ - see front matter 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cma.2013.06.007

kinds of drives are used in RFW machines, either a y wheel serves

as an energy storage being referred to as Inertia Friction Welding

(IFW) or a continuously driven engine generates the power of

welding being known as Direct Drive Friction Welding (DDFW).

Concerning DDFW usually the rotary speed time line is given while

the axial force is feedback controlled in order to achieve the abovementioned nal shortening of the shafts lengths. In Fig. 2 qualitative runs of the process parameters are displayed [8]. The three

stages therein are the rubbing stage (I), the breaking stage (II)

and the forging stage (III).

Already in the 1970s the main driving physical phenomena of

this process have been identied being the heat generation, heat

conduction, plastic deformation, abrasion of the friction surfaces

and the diffusion of the weld partners, for instance [18]. In developing simulation models to cover all these effects rst attempts

can be dated back to the mid 90s.

In 1995, Stokes modeled the molten lm of friction welded

polymers by introducing a temperature and shear dependent viscosity [20]. Bendzsak tried to capture the ow regime of friction

welds by solving the NavierStokes equation directly [2]. Therein

the focus has been set on the ow traces within aluminium friction

welds. Moal et al. proposed a fully coupled viscoplastic model [14]

for the simulation of Inertia Friction Welding (IFW). While a Norton power law was used for the deviator stress calculation, a purely

velocity dependent friction law was implemented for contact force

and heat generation prediction. In order to map the isochoric,

D. Schmicker et al. / Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 265 (2013) 186194

187

used and the elements were formulated in the r2 -z space. Extensive

remeshing of the Lagrangian mesh allowed for a complete simulation of the process yielding plausible results of the ash evolution

and the process parameters. DAlvise et al. presented simulation

results of dissimilar weld parts [7]. The implemented friction law

has been adopted by Moal with the slight change, that a certain

temperature is introduced at which the friction law turns from a

classical Coulomb law into a thermo-dependent viscous one. In

2002 Ulysse suggested a Non-Newtonian uid law linked with a

SheppardWright viscosity approach1 for the simulation of Friction

Stir Welding (FSW) [21]. While the simulated temperature elds

tend to be over predicted, parametric studies like the inuence of

the tools speed on its forces have been successfully conducted with

this model. Wang made further suggestions for estimating the heat

input at IFW, one of which is known as Energy-Input-Based method

[22]. Here, the modeling of a frictional law is circumvented by

neglecting the twist deformation and implementing a thermodynamically consistent heat-source being ruled by the energy decay

of the y-wheel. The disadvantage of this approach is that the heat

source is rather an input than an output quantity of the model,

which means that it is not predictive. Another member of this class

of model has been pursuit by Grant [11]. Also here the process

are able to be calculated which has been shown to be in good agreement with measurement results. In 2010 Hamilton published a

framework for mapping the FSW process [12] wherein a classic

plasticity law incorporating elastic deformations has been implemented as constitutive equation. In this context the temperature

dependency has been taken into account by a JohnsonCook power

approach [13]. More recently, Chiumenti proposed a model for the

simulation of FSW incorporating an Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Formulation

(ALE) in order to resolve the large plastic distortions [5]. A mixed

velocitypressure formulation being stabilized by the Orthogonal

Subgrid Scale (OSS) technique accounts for non-volumetric locking

while using lower order nite elements. A classical Norton

Hoff law and a SheppardWright model have been suggested as

the constitutive relation.

Basic ambition of our approach in modeling DDFW is to increase

the robustness and efciency of the simulation, and to express the

material parameters in a more palpable way. We believe that for

the sake of a robustness increase the material law needs to incorporate a steady transition from the Non-Newtonian solid to the

Newtonian liquid phase, which is not accounted for in prior models. Moreover, due to the lack of experimental data for the inelastic

material behavior in wide strain-rate and temperature ranges, the

simulation should predict the welding process parameters with

coarse values of material properties. Therefore, the constitutive

equation, the response functions of stress and temperature as well

as material parameters have to be formulated in an easy understandable and accessible way.

Our constitutive model is based upon a Carreau uid law featuring the solidliquid phase transition by means of a constant, Newtonian viscosity of the materials cast. It is derived from Nortons

power law [5,1416] and formulated in terms of the materials

yield limit. The temperature dependency of this measure is linked

to a JohnsonCook power law [12,13], enabling the pursued possibility of assessment of the plastic ow behavior even if hardly any

experimental data is at hand. A distinct time integration scheme

with adaptive step size regulation, in conjunction with remeshing

procedures of the Lagrangian formulated nite elements ensure a

very robust and smooth simulation of the DDFW process.

The structure of the paper is as follows: We start with the formulation of the constitutive model that reects the non-linear uid

behavior for a wide stress and temperature range. Then we present

the local and the weak forms of governing equations. Spatial discretization techniques including the nite element formulation

and the remeshing procedure are discussed. After outlining the utilized contact approach, the time marching scheme is depicted. A

benchmark example is introduced, demonstrating the performance

and capacities of the model. Finally the conclusions are drawn with

regard to efciency and accuracy of the proposed approaches.

1.1. A remark on notation

a Garofalo uid law [9], with the difference that the material parameters therein are

dened in a slight different way.

r; J 2D and n, for instance. Tensorial expressions of higher order than

188

D. Schmicker et al. / Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 265 (2013) 186194

components according to a vectorial basis as well as nodal values

and scalars being arranged to matrices are denoted by blackboard

bold symbols as in M; v; O and Acap . Domains are marked by calligraphic letters like Bt or B0 , for instance.

2. Constitutive modeling

2.1. Viscoplastic material model

The constitutive law is based on a NortonBailey potential of

the form

n1

r0 e_ 0 rv M

n 1 r0

where r0 is the materials yield limit, e_ 0 the plastic strain rate corresponding to the yield limit r0 and n the Norton-exponent [15,16].

The law is a classic J2 -material law since the potential only depends

on the second invariant of the deviatoric part of the stress tensor,

that is to say on the von-Mises equivalent stresses

r

p

3

rv M

s s 3J 2D

2

@W 3

e_ 0

@r

2

rv M

r0

n

rv M

and 1 the second rank unit tensor. Inversion of (3) gives the more

common stressstrain relation

2 r0

3 e_ 0

e_ v M

e_ 0

1n

n

e_ v M

r

2

devD devD

3

r lB trD 1 2l devD:

r0 H e_ v M

3 e_ 0

e_ 0

r0 H

0;R

: 0;

1

e_ v M

e_ 0

!2 31n

2n

5 l l l

0

1

1

m i

; H < HM

yield limit at room temperature r0;R and the JohnsonCook exponent [13]. Alternatively also tabulated data gained from experiments could be used. The material parameters introduced so far

11

along the tensile axis. In Fig. 4 Eq. (11) is visualized. It is nicely

seen that the stressstrain rate relations is conned by the limit

functions r 3l0 e_ and r 3l1 e_ , respectively. Moreover, the

points marked within the plot visualize that the material

behavior is basically described by the reference point r0;R ; e_ 0 ,

the slope of the graphs matching the Norton exponent n, the

limit viscosities l0 and l1 , and the yield-limit temperature

dependency.

In solving the equilibrium equations later on it is advantageous

to utilize the analytic expression of the tangential stiffness which

according to Eq. (7) is

H P HM

10

these singularities are resolved by means of some saturation viscosities l0 and l1 . While the rst one is rather a numerical measure,

the latter can be physically interpreted as the viscosity of the liquid

phase of the material. Even though in general they can be temperature dependent, to this end constant values l0 and l1 will be

assumed. In Fig. 3 the range of admissible viscosity values regarding

a concrete set of material parameters is displayed being bounded by

the viscosity-strain rate functions at room temperature and for the

liquid phase. Evaluating the material law at a one-dimensional

stress state yields the relation

1n

n

HHR

HM HR

n

1n

r0 H

3e_ 0 l0

@r

1

4 1 @l

l B 1 1 2l I 1 1

devD devD

3

3 e_ v M @ e_ v M

@D

which in our model is assessed by an Augmented Lagrange method

involving a bulk viscosity lB . The choice of this measure is basically

a trade-off between the strictness of keeping the volume constraint

and the condition corruption in solving the system of equations later on. The temperature dependency in Eq. (8) is now incorporated

by linking the yield limit r0 to a JohnsonCook power ansatz of the

form

8

<r

le_ v M ; H 41

le_ v M ; H

r 3le_ ; H e_

1

s devr r trr1

3

are not all independent, meaning that the plastic strain rate e_ 0 is

rather a measure of dening the yield limits reference point.

Henceforth, it is assessed to e_ 0 1s1 . The main advantage of the

combination of a JohnsonCook ansatz with a NortonBailey law

is that for a coarse prediction of the material behavior only the yield

limit r0;R at room temperature HR and the melt temperature HM are

actually needed to be known, since the exponents m and n do not

vary in such big ranges from material to material. Usually the JohnsonCook exponent is assessed to m 0:5 . . . 1:5 [13] while the Norton exponent maybe temperature dependent ranging in between

n 3 . . . 10 [5]. The use of the shear viscosity dened by Eq. (8)

for the simulation involves some difculties at the limit cases

e_ v M ! 0; e_ v M ! 1 and H P HM . With the Carreau uid constitutive

assumption [4,10,17]

12

The motion of the continua is governed by the balance of linear

momentum

qx q

D2 x

Dt2

qb divr

13

where x

body forces and r is the Cauchy stress tensor. The boundary of the

body B is subdivided into a dynamic part @Bt , where the stresses are

prescribed and a geometric part @Bv with given displacements.

Therewith the weak form, also known as principle of virtual power

[3], yields to

with

14

189

D. Schmicker et al. / Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 265 (2013) 186194

Fig. 3. The range of admissible viscosity values of the Carreau uid law being

e_ 0 1 s1 ; n 10; m 1:3; Hmelt 1420 C, Hroom 20 C, l0 108 MPas, l1 102 MPas).

conned

by

the

limit

viscosities

Fig. 4. Uniaxial tensile test stresses in dependence of the strain rate and temperature (r0;R 235 MPa, e_ 0 1 s1 ; n 10; m 1:3; Hmelt 1420 C, Hroom 20 C,

l0 108 MPas, l1 102 MPas).

Z

q dV

dPmass

dv x

ZB

Z

dPext

dv b q dV

dv t dA and

@Bt

ZB

dPint

dD r dV

15

states the abbreviation

dD symgraddv

16

18

@Bq is governed by convection and frictional heat r q to

19

convective heat transport and thermal radiation by

The heat conduction is ruled by the rst law of thermodynamics

being

q c H_ qr divq r D

problem involves the division of the boundary in a part with prescribed temperatures @BH and a part with given heat ux @Bq .

The inner body heat ow is ruled by Fouriers heat conduction

law for isotropic continua

17

mass specic heat source term, q the heat ux per unit area and

r D the dissipated energy of inner stresses [3]. The stated

20

emission factors, rS the Boltzmann constant and aconv the convection coefcient. The weak form of Eqn. (17) conforms to

with

21

190

D. Schmicker et al. / Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 265 (2013) 186194

@BH and using the abbreviations

O, the heat conduction matrix Acon , the internal heat source qint and

the external heat source due to heat ux across the boundary qext . In

calculating the introduced matrix and vector expressions the spatial

integration over the body is performed numerically by conducting a

six Gauss-point rule tabulated in [6]. The integration can be

considered as full integration, which in conjunction of the

proposed element formulation gives very good results even for

nearly incompressible materials [24]. The integration over the

boundaries of one element is performed by a standard two point

Gauss-quadrature rule. Further details in derivation of the system

matrices can be found in standard textbooks like [1,23,25].

dAcap

_ q dV

dH cH H

dAcon

dAint

dAext

ZB

jc H dg g dV

dH r q dV

ZB

22

dH r D dV and

B

dH aH1 H r q dA

@Bq

23

4. Spatial discretization

4.1. Formulation in cylindrical coordinates

So far all quantities have been dened in symbolical form

without introducing a vectorial basis. Since the process of DDFW

involves a general axial symmetry,2 cylindrical coordinates will be

employed, enabling to make use of the problems symmetry by

cutting down the spatial dependency of the eld variables to a

two-dimensional domain. For reasons of being able to apply lower

order quadrature formulas for integrating the element matrices, instead of conventional cylindrical coordinates a r z coordinate system is employed being discussed by Yu [24] and used by Moal [14],

for instance.3 In reference with cartesian coordinates, they are dened as

p

r cos u

p

y r sin u

x

24

zz

The large plastic deformations can even for very simple friction

welds not be handled with one static mesh. It is rather observed

that material at the contact interface is transported into the ash,

which results in complex ow situations in the work pieces. The

procedures meshing is based on a Delaunay-triangulation. The

middle-points of the triangles are placed such, that the elements

are non-distorted in the r-z space. The mesh distortion is monitored by calculating the largest eigenvalue of the mass matrix

Mv kI v 0

27

the one of the reference mesh kmax;ref , the function

kkmax kmax;ref k

>e

kkmax;ref k

28

value e. In our simulation the threshold value was chosen to be

e 0:5, yielding reasonable results on the remeshing time instances. In transferring the state variables from one mesh to the

other the element shape functions are used for interpolation.

p

r er u z ez

25

coordinates n and g refer to a material point in the r -z frame indicating the implemented Lagrangian-description of motion. Moreover, the general axis-symmetry is imposed by assuming that the

functions r; z and u do not depend on an angular coordinate f, for

instance.

4.2. Finite element formulation

on the implementation of the contact and friction model. For the

sake of reasonable computation times a simple penalty contact

approach has been utilized in our model, being illustrated in

Fig. 5. Therein the two weld partners as well as the self-contact

of the ash with the workpiece are allowed to penetrate each

other. Hence, the pressure p at the surface Gauss-points is

governed by the intersection depth s according to the function

The nite element being employed for the current model has

originally been proposed by Yu in [24]. It is a 6-noded, quadratic,

triangular element. In general axisymmetric analysis using r-z

coordinate systems it is able to map nearly incompressible material deformation. With the approximation of the eld quantities

by interpolation of the nodal parameters and the stepwise variation of the likewise approximated test function elds dv and dH

the spatially discretized forms of (13) and (17) derive to

_ ffic v; v

_ fint v;

_ O

v fext t; v; v

0 M

_

_ O qext v; v;

_ O

0 Acap O Acon O qint v;

5. Contact modeling

0;

s<0

ap s2 ; s P 0

29

26

with the mass matrix M, the position parameter vector v, the external force vector fext , the ctitious forces ffic , the internal stress forces

fint , the heat capacity matrix Acap , the temperature parameter vector

2

General axisymmetry is also often referred to as 2.5D model, since the domain of

denition is two-dimensional while the function values possess three dimensions.

3

The transformation to conventional cylindrical coordinates is performed by

r r 2 .

191

D. Schmicker et al. / Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 265 (2013) 186194

the workpiece and the to be expected contact pressures. For

instance when saying that a penetration of 0:1 mm is acceptable

and typical contact pressures are about 60 MPa, then a good choice

for ap is 6000 MPa=mm2 . The tangential stresses szu obey an

Coulomb friction law of the form

szu

gp

Dv u > 0

< gp Dv u 0

30

where Dv u is the relative velocity difference of the contact interfaces of the two workpieces and g is a temperature dependent friction coefcient. Since, Eq. (30) involves a strong singularity at the

transition from slipping to sticking condition the regularized

approach

Dv u

2gp

arctan

p

areg

szu

31

involving a regularization factor areg is used instead. In fact, the simulation results reveal that during the friction phase the sticking condition is basically never met, hence the regularization is more of

formal nature, not really entering the model. The heat source at

the contact interface of workpiece A and B is then given by

aA

szu Dv u aAB HB HA and

aA aB

aB

szu Dv u aAB HA HB

aA aB

rq;A

rq;B

32

jc;A

jc;B

and aB

qA cA

qB cB

step t t 1 is calculated by a forward Euler difference

v1 v_ 0 Dt v0

36

involving the time step size Dt t 1 t 0 . Secondly, the thermodynamic subproblem is solved implicitly by a backward Euler strategy.

Thus, with putting

v_

v1 v0

;

Dt

_ O1 O 0 ;

O

Dt

v v1

and O O1

33

welding process of a forge part being illustrated in Figs. 6 and 7.

Therein, the focus lies on the qualitative demonstration of the

6. Temporal discretization

Since elastic wave propagation phenomena are of subordinate

nature at the process of RFW, inertia effects can be neglected.

Hence, the problem will be treated in a quasi static way. Fictitious

forces, following from the formulation of the governing equation

using cylindrical coordinates, are able to be accounted for nevertheless. The coupled to be solved differential equation takes the

form

"

_ ffic v; v

_ fint v;

_ O

fext t; v; v

_ Acon O qint v;

_ O qext v; v;

_ O

Acap O

37

at the end of the time step are obtained. The time step size Dt of this

procedure is adaptively controlled by a standard step size regulation algorithm being described in [19], resulting in a very robust

and stable temporal discretization scheme for the simulation of

the process.

are used for portioning the frictional heat onto the two weld partners following the suggestions of Chiumenti [5]. The heat ux between the two surfaces is incorporated by the heat transmission

coefcient aAB .

ft; z; z_ 0

35

7. Simulation results

aA

the state variables at the proceeding time step both equations can be

handled separately according to their individual best suiting time

marching scheme, without the necessity of implementing a loop

between the two subproblems (cf. [5]). Let us assume that at a

certain time t 0 the conguration is given by the state variables v0

and O0 . Then rstly, the mechanic subproblem is integrated explicitly. Therefore the nodal force balance evaluated at t 0

34

involving the state vector z v; O , consisting of the nodal location and temperature values. The system is solved by dividing problem (34) into its mechanic and thermodynamic subproblem. Since,

the sensitivity of the temperatures on the nodal force balance is

comparatively low, a decoupled treatment of the two subproblems

on the time step level is conductible.4 That is to say, that for gaining

4

The temperatures enter the linear momentum balance only due to the temperature-dependent viscosity of the viscoplastic material law. Since for usual materials

this dependency is of very steady nature exhibiting no singularities (see Eq. (9) for

instance), the impact of the extent of temperature change during one time step on the

solution of the mechanic subproblem is rather marginal. Hence, an isothermal

treatment of the nodal force balance is employable. When the velocities and

displacements at the end of the time step can be determined only by means of the

rst sub problem at constant temperature, they can be regarded as given when

solving the thermodynamic subproblem. Hence, at the time step stage both

subproblems can be treated separately.

192

D. Schmicker et al. / Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 265 (2013) 186194

quantitative exactness of the material properties and boundary

conditions. The simulation is performed on basis of a self-written

nite element code within MATLAB. The employed material constants are comprehended in Table 1. The considered process consists of only one rubbing stage at p 40N/mm2 and

n 800 min1 for a friction time tr 7 s. The weld partners are

similar, offering the possibility of cutting the computational effort

to the half by modeling only one side. However, one has to keep in

mind that this step is only admissible if inertia forces including the

ctitious ones are neglected and the heat transport coefcient asurf

is assumed to be independent of the rotary speed. The present

computation example conforms these requirements, hence the

behavior of the rotary side is mapped by a symmetry boundary

Table 1

Utilized parameters of the simulation example.

Parameter

Value

Parameter

Value

r0;R

e_ 0

235 N/mm2

1 s1

1.5

5

HM

1420 C

7.85 g/cm3

460 J/kgK

50 W/mK

100 W/m2K

l0

l1

HR

q

c

k

asurf

g

108 MPas

102 MPas

20 C

0.3

1200 C 1300 C

1100 C

16

14

1000 C

12

z [mm]

m

n

average element size of de 0.4 mm at the contact surface. The

augmented Lagrange bulk viscosity is assessed to 1:175 106 Ns/

mm2 being a suited compromise between satisfying the volume

constraint and keeping the system of equations well conditioned.

The penalty parameter for the calculation of the contact forces is

ap 1000 N/mm4. For regularization of the friction shear stresses

a factor of areg 200 mm/s is taken into account. During the simulation 103 remeshing steps have been performed. Therein, the

average amount of elements was about 600 resulting in approximately 4000 displacement- and 1300 temperature degrees of freedom. In Fig. 8 the deformation shape at the end of the process at

t 8 s is compared with the actual ash formation. A qualitative

agreement between the ashes can be identied. In Fig. 9 the temperature eld at the end of the rubbing stage at t 7 s is displayed.

It is found out that the materials melt temperature is not reached

at no time during the simulation. In fact, it can be easily reasoned

that during the process of RFW the melt temperature is very unlikely to be reached or exceeded neither in simulation nor in practice. The explanation therefor is that in the vicinity of the melt

point the material is owing and not able to transmit shear stresses anymore.5 Hence, once the temperature gets as high as the melt

point the rubbing surfaces will stick and frictional heating will suspend avoiding the temperature to exceed the melt point. Looking

closer at the contact pressure condition in Fig. 10 it can be seen that

at the beginning the axial force is distributed evenly across the cross-

10

950 C

8

700 C

600 C

500 C

2

0

Temperature [C]

35

30

25

20

r [mm]

15

10

193

D. Schmicker et al. / Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 265 (2013) 186194

pressure prole develops reaching its maximum in the middle of

the cross section at r 17 mm. Comparison of this prole with the

temperatures over the contact surface in Fig. 9 reveals that the maxima of temperature and pressure do not coincide. Whereas the pressure is highest near the inner diameter at r 17 mm, the maximum

temperature is reached at r 22 mm. The unsteadiness of the contour lines in Fig. 10 is due to the remeshing time instances during

the simulation which slightly alters the contact force distribution.

Fig. 11 displays the nal twist of the material. It is clearly seen that

the largest plastic deformations during the process do not lie within

be neglected in modeling RFW. In Fig. 12 the power input and output

during the process is contrasted with each other. When the weld

starts twisting an increasing part of heat power is generated by plastic dissipation. The loss of energy due to thermal emission and convection reaches its maximum at the end of the rubbing stage. In

Fig. 13 the process parameter runs are shown. Since at this example

the process is force controlled, the left two diagrams namely the axial force and the rotary speed are input quantities, whereas the right

two diagrams are simulation results. The nal upset of the welded

30

Plastic dissipation work

25

20

P [kW]

15

Friction work

10

5

0

-5

-10

4

t [s]

194

D. Schmicker et al. / Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 265 (2013) 186194

T [Nm]

n [min-1 ]

400

800

600

400

200

0

4

t [s]

200

0

4

t [s]

4

t [s]

s [mm]

FA [kN]

15

60

40

20

0

4

t [s]

10

5

0

sample.

8. Conclusions

In the current paper a holistic model approach based on a Carreau type uid constitutive model for the simulation of Direct

Drive Friction Welding (DDFW) is presented. The advantage of

the proposed material law is the formulation in terms of the yield

limit such that its material parameters can be easily identied.

Having in mind that in practical applications experimental data

are usually available for narrow stress and temperature ranges,

the current model is able to give qualitative predictions by means

of quite fundamental parameters like the melt temperature and

the yield limit at room temperature, for instance. Moreover, the

paper summarizes a framework for a stable, efcient and robust

simulation of the friction welding process, featuring a steady transition from solid to liquid material behavior when passing the melt

temperature. With the implemented time integration and nite

element procedure, the whole process can be simulated in less

than one hour on a usual personal computer as the presented test

problem reveals. As a next step it is planned to extend the model to

dissimilar welds, which broadens the effort in contact mapping.

Moreover, a coupling of the model with the diffusion differential

equation is pursued. Parallel to these model extensions we work

on a quantitative validation of the model and determination guidelines for the involved material constants in the friction welding

process itself. Their results will be communicated in a forthcoming

paper.

References

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1965.

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