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# MA1102R CALCULUS

Lesson 20
Wang Fei

matwf@nus.edu.sg

Department of Mathematics
Office: S14-02-09
Tel: 6516-2937

## Chapter 6: Inverse Functions and Techniques of Integration 2

Rational Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Rational Trigonometric Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

## Chapter 7: Applications of Integration 11

Area Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Volume Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

1
Chapter 6: Inverse Functions and Techniques of Integration
2 / 18

Partial Fraction
4x
■ Example. .
x3 x2
− −x+1
◆ Factorize x3 − x2 − x + 1 = (x + 1)(x − 1)2 .
◆ Then the partial fraction has the form
A B C
■ + + .
x + 1 x − 1 (x − 1)2
(A + B)x2 + (−2A + C)x + (A − B + C)
■ .
(x + 1)(x − 1)2
◆ Compare the coefficients, 

 0 = A + B A = −1

4 = −2A + C ⇒ B=1 .
 
0= A−B+C C=2
 

−1 1 2
∴ + + .
x + 1 x − 1 (x − 1)2

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## Integration of Rational Functions

■ The integration is now reduced to integrating:
1
◆ .
(x + a)k 
Z
1  ln |x + a| + K, if k = 1,
dx = 1−k .
(x + a)
(x + a)k  + K, if k ≥ 2
1−k
Bx + C
◆ , b2 < 4c.
(x2 + bx + c)r
2
Note that x2 + bx + c = (x + 2b )2 + (c − b4 ).
q
2
■ Let u = x + 2b and d = c − b4 .

Bx + C B(u − 2b ) + C
=
(x2 + bx + c)r (u2 + d2 )r
Bu C − Bb
2
= 2 2
+ .
(u + d ) r (u + d2 )r
2

4 / 18

2
Integration of Rational Functions
◆ Let’s consider the two subcases:
u
(a) .
(u + d2 )r
2
u 1 d(u2 + d2 )
Z Z
du =
(u2 + d2 )r 2 (u2 + d2 )r
 1
 2 ln(u2 + d2 ), if r = 1,
= (u2 + d2 )1−r
, if r ≥ 2.
2(1 − r)

1 u du
(b) 2 2 r
. Let t = . Then = d.
(u + d ) d dt
1
1
Z Z
d2r
du = ir du
(u2 + d2 )r
h 
u 2
d
+ 1
1 1
Z
= 2r−1 2
dt.
d (t + 1)r

5 / 18

Examples
2x2 − x + 4
Z
■ dx.
x3 + 4x
1. Factorize x3 + 4x = x(x2 + 4).
A Bx + C (A + B)x2 + Cx + 4A
2. + 2 = .
x x +4 x(x2 + 4)
 
 2=A+B  A=1
−1 = C ⇒ B=1
4 = 4A C = −1.
 

2x2 − x + 4 1 x 1
Z Z Z Z
3. 3
dx = dx + 2
dx − 2
dx.
x + 4x x x + 4 x +4
1 1  x
= ln |x| + ln(x2 + 4) − tan−1 + C.
2 2 2
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3
Examples
x4 − 2x2 + 4x + 1
Z
■ dx.
x3 − x2 − x + 1
x4 − 2x2 + 4x + 1 4x
1. 3 2
= (x + 1) + 3 2
.
x −x −x+1 x −x −x+1
2. Factorize x3 − x2 − x + 1 = (x + 1)(x − 1)2 .
4x A B C
3. 2
= + + .
(x + 1)(x − 1) x + 1 x − 1 (x − 1)2
 
 0=A+B  A = −1
4 = −2A + C ⇒ B=1
0 =A−B+C C = 2.
 
Z 4
x − 2x2 + 4x + 1 x2 2
4. 3 2
= + x − ln |x + 1| + ln |x − 1| − + C.
x −x −x+1 2 x−1
7 / 18

Examples
x2 + 2x − 1
Z
■ dx.
2x3 + 3x2 − 2x
1. Factorize 2x3 + 3x2 − 2x = x(x + 2)(2x − 1).
x2 + 2x − 1 A B C
2. = + + .
2x3 + 3x2 − 2x x x + 2 2x − 1
 
 1 = 2A + 2B + C  A = 1/2
2 = 3A − B + 2C ⇒ B = −1/10
−1 = −2A C = 1/5.
 

x2 + 2x − 1 1 1 1
Z
3. 3 2
dx = ln |x| − ln |x + 2| + ln |2x − 1| + C.
2x + 3x − 2x 2 10 10
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4
Rational Trigonometric Functions
dx
Z
■ Evaluate .
sin x + 2 cos x + 3
Recall the “double-angle” formulas:
2 sin x2 cos x2 2 tan x2
◆ sin x = = ;
cos2 x2 + sin2 x2 1 + tan2 x2

cos2 x2 − sin2 x
2
1 − tan2 x2
◆ cos x = = .
cos2 x2 + sin2 x
2
1 + tan2 x2
These give the motivation to set t = tan x2 .
◆ Let t = tan x2 , x ∈ (−π, π).
dx 2
■ x = 2 tan−1 t, = .
dt 1 + t2
2t 1 − t2
■ sin x = , cos x = .
1 + t2 1 + t2
9 / 18

## Rational Trigonometric Functions

dx
Z
■ Evaluate .
sin x + 2 cosZx + 3
dx 1 2 dt
Z
= 2) ·
sin x + 2 cos x + 3 2t
1+t2
+ 1+t2 + 3 1 + t2
2(1−t

2 dt
Z
=
2t + 2(1 − t2 ) + 3(1 + t2 ) 
2 dt d t+1
Z Z
= = 2
t+1 2
(t + 1)2 + 22 +1
  2
t + 1
= tan−1 +C
 2 
1 x 1
= tan −1
tan + + C.
2 2 2
x
■ We can use the universal trigonometric substitution t = tan , x ∈ (−π, π) for any
2
rational expression in sin x and cos x.

10 / 18

5
Chapter 7: Applications of Integration 11 / 18

## The Area Problem

■ Recall the geometric meaning of definite integral:
◆ Let f be a continuous function on [a, b]. Then the (net) area under the curve y = f (x)
Z b
from a to b is A = f (x) dx.
a y

f (x)
∆A

O x x + ∆x x

dA ∆A
◆ ∆A = f (x) ∆x. Then = lim = f (x).
dx ∆x→0 ∆x
Z b
■ Therefore, A = f (x) dx.
a

12 / 18

## The Area Problem

■ In general, suppose f and g are continuous functions such that f (x) ≥ g(x) for all
x ∈ [a, b].
◆ What is the area of the region bounded by y = f (x) and y = g(x) from a to b?
y

y = f (x)

A
f (x) − g(x)

y = g(x)

O a b x
Z b
◆ Answer: A = (f (x) − g(x)) dx.
a

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6
Examples
■ Find the are of the region bounded above by y = x2 + 1 and bounded below by y = x from
x = 0 to x = 1.
y

2 y = x2 + 1

1
y=x

O 1 x

Z 1 Z 1
2
◆ A= [(x + 1) − x] dx = (x2 + 1 − x) dx.
0 0
 3 2
x=1
x x 5 5
■ A= +x− = −0 = .
3 2 x=0 6 6

14 / 18

Examples
■ Find the area of the region enclosed by y = x2 and y = 2x − x2 .
y
y = 2x − x2

y = x2

O 1 x

## ◆ Find intersection: Let x2 = 2x − x2 . Then x = 0 or x = 1.

■ So the integral is from 0 to 1.  x=1
Z 1
2 2 2 2 3 1
■ A= [(2x − x ) − x ] dx = x − x = .
0 3 x=0 3

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7
The Volume Problem
■ We now move from 2D to 3D. How to find the volume of a solid?
◆ In particular, consider the following:

S S

h
h

V = Sh.

16 / 18

## The Volume of the Unit Sphere

■ What is the volume of the unit sphere? y ∆x

x2 + y 2 = 1 √
f (x) = 1 − x2

−1 O 1 x

◆ ∆V = S ∆x = π(1 − x2 ) ∆x.
dV ∆V
◆ = lim = π(1 − x2 ).
dx ∆x→0 ∆x
Z 1 x=1
x3

2 4π
■ V = π(1 − x ) dx = π x − = .
−1 3 x=−1 3

17 / 18

8
The Volume Problem
■ In general, suppose a solid is put along the x-axis from a to b.
y

a
O

x
b

◆ Let A(x) be the area of the cross-section perpendicular to the x-axis and passing
through the point x. Z b
◆ Then the volume of the solid is V = A(x) dx.
a

18 / 18