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Indonesia GAS: FSRU and Small LNG Seminar

Presentation pack
Hotel Borobudur Jakarta, 12 December 2013

Working together
for a safer world
Lloyds Register and variants of it are trading names of Lloyds Register Group Limited, its subsidiaries and affiliates.
Copyright Lloyd's Register Asia. 2013.
A member of the Lloyds Register group.

Indonesia GAS: FSRU and Small LNG Seminar


Hotel Borobudur Jakarta, 12 December 2013

Agenda
Time

Presentation

08:30 - 09:00

Registration

09:00 - 09:10

Welcome - Safety and Opening Remarks

09:10 - 09:40

I. Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker


Jose M Navarro, Principal Gas Technology Specialist

09:40 - 10:20

II. FSRU's Technology and Operations - Critical Issues


Thanos Koliopulos, Global Special Projects Manager

10:20 - 10:40

Coffee Break

10:40 - 11:40

III. FSRU Safety and Class Certification


Structural and containment systems - New Build
Jose M Navarro, Principal Gas Technology Specialist
FSRU shallow water moorings system
Ika Prasetyawan, Naval Architect Specialist
FSRU's and Extended Dry-dock Periods
Jose M Navarro, Principal Gas Technology Specialist

11:40 - 12:10

Panel Discussion

12:10 - 13:30

Lunch

13:30 - 14:00

IV. FLNG / FPSO Topside Structure and Interface with Hull


Bahram Amir, Lead Structural Specialist

14:00 - 14:45

V. Gas as Fuel Update


Bunkering at ports
Latest significant projects
Market updates
Luis Benito, Global Strategic Marketing Manager

14:45 - 15:30

Panel Discussion

15:30

Close

Lloyd's Register Seminar

Indonesia GAS: FSRU and Small LNG Seminar


Hotel Borobudur Jakarta, 12 December 2013

Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker


Jose Navarro
Principal Gas Technology Specialist

Lloyd's Register Seminar

Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker


Jose Navarro Principal Gas Technology Specialist
12 December 2013

Working together
for a safer world

Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

Lloyds Register Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

Lloyds Register Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

Topics:

International Gas Code and Classification Notations

Mini LNG Ships - Existing fleet and New Designs

Mini LNG Supply Chain - Challenges and LR Solutions

Lloyds Register Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

International Gas Code

General Arrangements requirements

Double Hull Structure

Containment design

Construction Materials

Vapour Control

Safety Requirements

Gas Detection

Water Spray

Dry Powder

Coastal waters LNG Ships


may not require to comply with IGC.
Lloyds Register Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

Lloyds Register - Classification Notations


Conventional and Large LNG Vessel

Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

|100A1 Liquefied Gas Tanker, Ship Type 2G

|100A1 Liquefied Gas Carrier, Ship Type 2G

Methane (LNG) in Membrane Tanks,

Methane in Independent Tanks Type C,

Maximum Vapour Pressure 0.25 Bar,


Minimum Temperature minus 163 degrees C,

Maximum Vapour Pressure 18.0 bar,


Minimum Temperature minus 163 degrees C,

ShipRight (SDA, ACS), *IWS, LI, ECO

ShipRight (SDA, ACS) *IWS, LI, ECO

|LMC, UMS, NAV1-IBS

|LMC, UMS, NAV1-IBS

|Lloyds Register RMC(LG)

|Lloyds Register RMC(LG)

Descriptive Notations:

Descriptive Notations:

ShipRight (FDA plus, CM, BWMP(S), IHM,


SERS, SCM), GF

ShipRight (FDA plus, CM, BWMP(S), IHM,


SERS, SCM), GF

Lloyds Register Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

Lloyds Register - Classification Notations


Conventional and Large LNG Vessel

Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

|100A1 Liquefied Gas Tanker, Ship Type 2G

|100A1 Liquefied Gas Carrier, Ship Type 2G

Methane (LNG) in Membrane Tanks,

Methane in Independent Tanks Type C,

Maximum Vapour Pressure 0.25 Bar, Minimum Maximum Vapour Pressure 18.0 bar, Minimum
Temperature minus 163 degrees C,
Temperature minus 163 degrees C,
ShipRight (SDA, ACS), *IWS, LI, ECO

ShipRight (SDA, ACS) *IWS, LI, ECO

|LMC, UMS, NAV1-IBS

|LMC, UMS, NAV1-IBS

|Lloyds Register RMC(LG)

|Lloyds Register RMC(LG)

Descriptive Notations:

Descriptive Notations:

ShipRight (FDA plus, CM, BWMP(S), IHM,


SERS, SCM), GF

ShipRight (FDA plus, CM, BWMP(S), IHM,


SERS, SCM), GF

Lloyds Register Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

Lloyds Register - Classification Notations


Conventional and Large LNG Vessel

Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

|100A1 Liquefied Gas Tanker, Ship Type 2G

|100A1 Liquefied Gas Carrier, Ship Type 2G

Methane (LNG) in Membrane Tanks,

Methane in Independent Tanks Type C,

Maximum Vapour Pressure 0.25 Bar,


Minimum Temperature minus 163 degrees C,

Maximum Vapour Pressure 18.0 bar,


Minimum Temperature minus 163 degrees C,

ShipRight (SDA, ACS), *IWS, LI, ECO

ShipRight (SDA, ACS) *IWS, LI, ECO

|LMC, UMS, NAV1-IBS

|LMC, UMS, NAV1-IBS

|Lloyds Register RMC(LG)

|Lloyds Register RMC(LG)

Descriptive Notations:

Descriptive Notations:

ShipRight (FDA plus, CM, BWMP(S), IHM,


SERS, SCM), GF

ShipRight (FDA plus, CM, BWMP(S), IHM,


SERS, SCM), GF

Lloyds Register Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

Mini Small Existing LNG Fleet

LR/IMO_Shi
p_No.

Name_of_Ship

Gas_Capacity

Length

Breadth_M
oulded

Depth

Total_KW_
Main_Eng

9275074

PIONEER KNUTSEN

1078

68.87

11.8

5.5

3080

Bijlsma Shipyard BV

9317200

NORTH PIONEER

Shipbuilder

Group_Owner
Knutsen OAS Shipping AS

Country_of_Build
Netherlands

2005-11

Japan

2512

89.23

15.3

7.2

2206

Shin Kurushima Imabari

9433884 SHINJU MARU NO. 2

2536

86.29

15.1

1912

Higaki

Chuo Kaiun KK

2008-10

Japan

9469235

2536

86.29

15.1

2059

Higaki

Tsurumi Sunmarine Co Ltd

2008-11

Japan

9260603 SHINJU MARU NO. 1

2538

86.25

15.1

1912

Higaki

Kono Kaiun

2003-07

Japan

9554729

AKEBONO MARU

3556

99.37

17.2

7.8

2942

Higaki

Chuo Kaiun KK

2011-10

Japan

9404584

CORAL METHANE

7550

117.8

18.6

10.6

13300

Polnocna Stocznia SA Northern

Veder Rederijzaken BV

2009-04

Poland

KAKUREI MARU

Unknown

Built
2004-03

9378278 NORGAS INNOVATION

10000

137.1

19.8

11.5

7000

Taizhou Wuzhou Shipbuilding

Skaugen SE

2010-01

China, People's Republic Of

9378280

NORGAS CREATION

10000

137.06

19.8

11.5

7000

Taizhou Wuzhou Shipbuilding

Skaugen SE

2010-07

China, People's Republic Of

9378292 NORGAS INVENTION

10000

137.1

19.8

11.5

7000

Taizhou Wuzhou Shipbuilding

Skaugen SE

2011-01

China, People's Republic Of

9378307 NORGAS CONCEPTION

10000

137.1

19.8

11.5

7000

Taizhou Wuzhou Shipbuilding

Skaugen SE

2011-11

China, People's Republic Of

9468437

NORGAS UNIKUM

12000

152.16

19.8

11.5

8280

Dingheng Jiangsu Shipbuilding

Teekay Corp

2011-06

China, People's Republic Of

9468449

BAHRAIN VISION

12000

152.3

19.8

11.5

8280

Dingheng Jiangsu Shipbuilding

Teekay Corp

2011-10

China, People's Republic Of

9617698

CORAL ENERGY

15600

155

22.7

14.95

8000

Neptun Werft GmbH

Veder Rederijzaken BV

2012-12

Germany

9016492

AMAN BINTULU

18927

130

25.7

16.6

5516

NKK Corp - Tsu

PETRONAS

1993-10

Japan

9134323

AMAN SENDAI

18928

130

25.7

16.6

5517

NKK Corp - Tsu

PETRONAS

1997-05

Japan

9161510

AMAN HAKATA

18928

130

25.7

16.6

5517

NKK Corp - Tsu

PETRONAS

1998-11

Japan

9349942

SUN ARROWS

19531

151

28

16

8830

Kawasaki Shipbuilding - Sak'de

Mitsui OSK Lines Ltd

2007-11

Japan

Lloyds
Register
Mini LNG19538
and Gas151
Bunker28Tanker 16
9060534
SURYAAKI

8827

Kawasaki HI - Sakaide earl

Humpuss Trans Inc

1996-02

Japan

Principal Particulars Small LNG Carrier


10,000 CBM Design by Hyundai Mipo Dockyard

PRINCIPAL DIMENSIONS
LOA
LBP
B(mld.)
D(mld.)
Td/Ts

ABT.

CARGO TANK
139 M

CAPACITY(100% FULL)

130.0 M

DESIGN

20.2 M

SEGREGATION

11.8 M

DECK TANK

10,000 M
-163, 500kg/m3, 4.2 bar g
-

CARGO PUMP
7,200 / 8,200 MT

5,220 kW X 167.0 RPM

DMCR

4,520 kW X 156.0 RPM

NCR

4,068 kW X 150.6 RPM

SERVICE SPEED
CARGO SYSTEM

at Td/Ts

6S35ME-B9.2 (TIER II)

NOMINAL RATING

DIESEL GENERATOR

6.6 / 7.0 M

DEADWEIGHT

MAIN ENGINE

RELIQUEFACTION
PLANT

D.F.O.C. / EEDI
500 m3/h X 2 SETS
-

CRUISING
RANGE
COMPLEMENT

850 kW x 2 SETS
15.0 KNOTS
16.7 MT/DAY / -4.45%
9,300 N.M.

18+4 PERSONS

Principal Particulars Small LNG Carrier


15,000 CBM Design by Hyundai Mipo Dockyard

PRINCIPAL DIMENSIONS
LOA
LBP
B(mld.)
D(mld.)
Td/Ts

ABT.

CARGO TANK
154 M
144.0 M

15,000 M

CAPACITY(100% FULL)
DESIGN

23.0 M

SEGREGATION

15.1 M

DECK TANK

5,370 kW X 142.0 RPM

NCR

4,833 kW X 137.1 RPM

DIESEL GENERATOR

SERVICE SPEED

CARGO PUMP
9,300 / 10,400 MT

6,810 kW X 146.0 RPM

MCR

CARGO SYSTEM

at Td/Ts

6S40ME-B9.2 (TIER II)

NOMINAL RATING

-163, 500kg/m3, 4.2 bar g

7.0 / 7.4 M

DEADWEIGHT

MAIN ENGINE

D.F.O.C. / EEDI
270 m3/h X 6 SETS

RELIQUEFACTION
PLANT

CRUISING
RANGE
COMPLEMENT

1,000 kW x 2 SETS
15.5 KNOTS
19.5 MT/DAY / -5.35%
11,500 N.M.

18+4 PERSONS

Principal Particulars Small LNG Carrier


6,000 CBM Design by Kawasaki Aluminum LNG tanks

Lloyds Register Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

Principal Particulars Small LNG Carrier


6,000 CBM Design by Kawasaki Aluminum LNG tanks

Lloyds Register Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

Principal Particulars Small LNG Carrier


5,000 CBM Design by STX

Lloyds Register Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

Principal Particulars Small LNG Carrier


7,500 CBM Design by STX

Lloyds Register Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

Principal Particulars Small LNG Carrier

Design by AVIC Dingheng

Lloyds Register Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

Principal Particulars Small LNG Carrier

Design by GTT

Lloyds Register Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

Mini LNG Solutions for Indonesia

From Indonesian News (Pertamina) :

PT Pertamina Gas, is collaborating with PT Indonesia Power, a subsidiary of


PT PLN (Persero), to form a joint-venture PT Pertadaya Gas that will conduct
several (7) Small Scale LNG projects in East Indonesia.

The total capacity of Small Scale LNG in East Indonesia will reach around 1
million tons per year

the use of LNG for power plant would save up to US$ 5.4 billion per year

1 MM
Tons per
year

7 Small
LNG
Terminals

150 K
Tons per
year

25,000
cbm
month x
terminal

6k 8k
Ship /week
x Terminal

Saving US$ 5.4 billion per year


Lloyds Register Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

Mini LNG Supply Chain Challenges

Pre Design

Uncertainty to secure USD 5.4 billions saving on time as


planned

Design &
Construction

Difficulty in design for optimum design performance


Difficulty in securing best suitable shipbuilder

Operations &
Maintenance

Difficulty in securing operational performance safely


Managing Bunkering Safety Compliance

Human
Factor

LNG and Bunkering Crew Competency

Lloyds Register Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

What Containment System to guarantee and maximise


operational returns?
Cargo Containment System

Is Type C the only option for small LNG Solution?

Presently, Type C is dominant for up to 10K, however with significant


design restrictions above this capacity

There is a Grey Zone between 5k and 10k where it is debatable


whether Type C or Membrane is optimum solution.

GTT recently presented LNG Bunker tanker design with 2,000 cbm for the
US market.

LR can provide technical and


commercial evaluation on
Containment Systems Solutions

Lloyds Register Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

10

What cargo tank design pressure for best operation


performance?
Type C cargo tanks What design pressure?

Increase of Design Pressure

Increase the operational range

Increase of Design Pressure

Increase limitations for transfer

Increase of Design Pressure

Increase cargo tank weight and cost

Critical to obtain good balance. Alternatives:

Hyundai Mipo: 4 to 5 barg (Operation)

Kawasaki: 4 to 6 barg (Operation)

TGE: 6 to 8 barg (operation); 8 to 10 barg (design)

Lloyds Register Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

Where to build a Mini LNG ship?

New Building Shipyard

The construction of a Mini LNG is more than just Cargo Containment

The vessel is to comply with IGC and Gas Rules

Large Shipbuilders with experience on LNG may not be interested in such


small ships.

Unexperienced Shipbuilders in Gas ship construction will need a robust and


experienced Class. Well define ship design and support during construction

LR has the capability to audit Yards and determine their suitability or gaps
to build successfully Mini LNG ships and to provide assistance to close the
gaps.

Lloyds Register Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

11

Difficulty in securing operational performance safely

Propulsion System and Machinery Arrangements

Utilize LNG as Fuel but with dual fuel flexibility

Handling of BOG

Low fuel/gas consumption

Selection on Electric or Mechanical Propulsion

Machinery arrangements for Gas Valves, GCU, Inerting System (CO2, N2)

Electric load will be higher than conventional HFO Bunker Tankers

LR has the capability to deliver technical and operational advice

Lloyds Register Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

Difficulty in securing operational performance safely

Compatibilities with Loading and Unloading Terminals

Location of Terminals

Water Depth considering possible shallow drafts

Full manoeuvrability, including self berth without tug assistance

Distance between terminals (days, nautical miles, speed)

Dedicated pier for small LNG at the Loading Terminal

Fenders

ESD Alternatives

Manifold arrangements (SIGTTO Standards)

LNG Receiving Terminals, Ship to Ship, Ship to Truck

LR is capable of delivering early technical, operational and safety advice so


compliance is not an obstacle on the way of achieving operational performance
Lloyds Register Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

12

Difficulty in securing operational performance safely

Gas Combustion Unit


Loading Terminal
(-163C, P3 Tank)

BOG Management

Ship Propulsion Engines

Re-Liquefaction Plant

BOG Compressor

Vaporiser

SMALL LNG Vessel

Unloading Terminal LNG Tank

LNG Cargo tank (-163C, P1 Tank)

Ship LNG Bunker Tank


(-163C, P2 Tank)

Lloyds Register Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

Difficulty in securing operational performance safely

During Normal Sea Going

Using Gas as fuel

Re-liquefaction, as required.

During anchoring or idle condition

BOG Management

Using pressure increase limited by


maximum allowable working
pressure.

Pressure on Type C tanks may


collapse by spraying cold LNG prior
to transfer.

Lloyds Register Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

13

Difficulty in securing operational performance safely

During Transfer Mini LNG takes role as Loading Terminal

BOG Management

Calculations of Return Gas Flow Rate during LNG Transfer

Transfer Rate

Heat ingress

Design Pressure of receiving LNG tanks

Design capacity of BOG Compressor

Design capacity of Re-liquefaction plant, if fitted.

Design capacity of Oxidiser (GCU)

Can the Client [receiving ship or terminal] manage some of the BOG excess?
Unloading Rate

Vapour Generated

Re-liquefaction capacity

1,200 m3/h

9200 kg/h

2 x 3.2 Tons/h
3 x 2.2 Tons/h

Lloyds Register Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

Difficulty in securing operational performance safely

During Transfer, Normal Sea Going or In Idle condition

BOG Management

LR is capable to advice on all possible technical solutions that allow client to


take their investment decision with regards to the choice of BOG management
that will fit their intended commercial operation.

Lloyds Register Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

14

Difficulty in securing operational performance safely

Operation

Aerating, Inerting, Gas Up, Cool down, Stripping, Warm Up, Internal LNG
Transferring

Flag Requirements
Dry Dock and Maintenance in Indonesia Service providers

Lloyds Register Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

Managing Bunkering Safety Compliance

Bunkering is transfer of gas in more different modes than just "cargo


transfer"

And to more different interfaces (STS, STJ, S to Truck,...);

Managing Bunkering Safety Compliance (with Class, with Port Authority, with
Flag), Bunkering System Design and Bunker Station Design and the
Operational Procedures of Bunkering is the main challenge
LR has been capable of writing first Standards and Operational Procedures
for Gas Bunkering (for MPA Singapore) and is able to support clients
globally

Lloyds Register Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

15

Managing Bunkering Safety Compliance

Mooring with Receiving Vessel for STS Transfer (Emergency Shutdown


Functionality)

STS Transferring compatible with SIGTTO / OCIMF / ISO guidance

LNG Transfer Rate, Amount of Return Gas from Receiving Vessel, HFO/MGO
Bunkering, etc.

Volume of Receiving Vessel, Amount of Required LNG

Working Time, Environment Condition

Custody Transfer System compatible with GIIGNL Guidance (Gas Composition,


Mass Flow, etc.)

Hot Line Link (Ship to Ship Communication, ESD)

Pressure / Temperature at Receiving Vessel

Lloyds Register Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

Managing Bunkering Safety Compliance

LNG Bunkering Arm

Size and Arrangement of Manifold Connection Lines


(ISO28460, EN1474-1/2/3 compatible)

More Fast(QDQC), More Safe(ESDV),


Remote Operation Possible, Safe Releasing

Variation of Manifold Position


(Height Difference, Ships Movement during STS Transfer)

Flexible hoses

Lloyds Register Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

16

Making People Aware and Competent

Main Specific Gaps:

Lack of Complete Competency


Standards for Gas Bunkering for

Bunker Tankers Crew

Receiving Ships Crew

Bunker Terminals Personnel

Specific Solution by LR:

Creation of Competence Standards to


cover the gaps Creating a Syllabus for
Complete Training Manual for Gas
Bunkering

New Continuous Competency


Management System LR CCMS

Lack of Standards for Gas


Bunkering Suppliers and its
Personnel

Lloyds Register Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

Systematic Approach: Competence Standards


Cat A: Basic Safety; Cat B: Deck Officers & Ratings; Cat C: Engineer Officers & Ratings

Specific Competence
Each Area of
Competence translated into
Specific Competence
Requirements

Areas of Competence

Training Manual / Material


In accordance with:
Areas of Competence
Specific Competence

Technology
Operational Procedures
Regulations
Incidents / Risk

Performance Criterion
Each Specific Competence
Requirement to be
developed into Performance
Criterion

Lloyds Register Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker


48

17

Mini LNG Supply Chain Solutions

Pre Design

LR provide technical and commercial evaluation on Containment Systems


Solutions

Design &
Construction

LR has the capability to audit Yards and determine their suitability or gaps to build
successfully Mini LNG ships and to provide assistance to close the gaps.

Operations &
Maintenance

LR has the capability to deliver technical and operational advice


LR first Standards and Operational Procedures for Gas Bunkering (for MPA
Singapore) and is able to support clients globally

Human
Factor

LR Competence Standards to cover the gaps


Creating a Syllabus for Complete Training Manual for Gas Bunkering

Lloyds Register Mini LNG and Gas Bunker Tanker

Jose Navarro
Principal Gas Technology Specialist
T +82 (0)51 640 5079 E jose.navarro@lr.org
Lloyds Register Asia
11th Floor, CJ Korea Express Bldg, 119, Daegyo-ro, Jung-Gu
Busan 600-700, Republic of Korea

Working together
for a safer world

Lloyds Register and variants of it are trading names of Lloyds Register Group Limited, its subsidiaries and affiliates.
Copyright Lloyds Register Asia. 2013. A member of the Lloyds Register group.

18

Indonesia GAS: FSRU and Small LNG Seminar


Hotel Borobudur Jakarta, 12 December 2013

FSRU's Technology and Operations - Critical Issues


Thanos Koliopulos
Global Special Projects Manager

Lloyd's Register Seminar

FSRUs Technology and Operations Critical Issues


Thanos Koliopulos Global Special Projects Manager
12 December 2013

Working together
for a safer world

Contents

World Firsts

Evolution of FSRU Design & Operations

Real Case Projects Critical Issues

Overview

Lloyds Register FSRUs Technology and Operations Critical Issues

LR Track Record Regas Projects in Operation

EE Boston Neptune - Regas/ LNG STS 1st Regas offshore via APL

EE STS Offshore LNG cargo transfer 1st STS Operations Manual

EE Teesside GasPort - Regas/ LNG STS 1st double banked via hoses

EE/KNPC Mina Al-Ahmadi Regas/LNG STS 1st tandem jetty via pipelines

Petrobras Guanabara - Regas/LNG STS Terminal 1st on artificial island

EE/PREPA Aguire CCPP Puerto Rico 1st on double island

DSME/Petrobras VT3 FSRU Regas/LNG STS 1st FSRU over 170k m3

YPF Escobar - Regas/LNG STS Terminal 1st Regas Certification in S. America

YPF Bahia Blanca - Regas/LNG STS Terminal Regas Certification in S.A

QatarGas/STASCO Nigg LNG STS Terminal 1st STS with Qmax

Shell Prelude Classification Worlds 1st FLNG Terminal

REGAS EVOLUTION

Lloyds Register FSRUs Technology and Operations Critical Issues

Regas Offshore Terminal - STS

FMEA APL system

RAM Study for Critical Spares

STS HAZIDs using two FSRUs

STS HAZOPs with spools for 8 LNG hoses

STS with 8 Gutelling hoses dry run in


international waters

Input in EIA and DWP submission

Draft Operations Manual/ safety reviews

STS HAZOPs with marine couplings/ERS

LR Full Operations Manual update

First STS LNG cargo transfer in Scapa Flow


Scotland

Lloyds Register FSRUs Technology and Operations Critical Issues

Regas System Risk Assessment

Hazard Identification (HAZID)

Fire Explosion Risk Analysis

Lay-out Optimisation

Fire Protection System Optimisation

Hazard & Operability Study (HAZOP)

ESD, ERS, Blow-down Configuration

STS, STJ Offloading System Assessment

RAM for critical spares assessment

Lloyds Register FSRUs Technology and Operations Critical Issues

Regas Jetty Terminal Operations Teesside U.K.

Lloyds Register FSRUs Technology and Operations Critical Issues

Regas Jetty Terminal Assessment of HP NG Export

HAZID Optimise lay-out for new Regas


manifold forward

HAZID safety lay-out at jetty (proximity to


gangway)

Identify hazards related to HP gas release


forward FSRU

Evaluate HP arm design and operations / gas


release

HAZOP regas export system up to ESDV


connection to gas grid

HAZOP combined operations STS cargo


loading/regas export

HAZOP Cause & Effects as part of


Emergency Disconnection /ESD system

Lloyds Register FSRUs Technology and Operations Critical Issues

Jetty Tandem STS LNG Transfer Mina Al-Ahmadi

First regas operation within existing


plant KNPC

Benefits from standard LNG Chiksan


arm /pipeline cargo transfer

Drawbacks from large LNG inventory


on Jetty

Benefits from vapour relief operations


through plant vent

Drawbacks from applying NFPA 59A


compliance within jetty

Lloyds Register FSRUs Technology and Operations Critical Issues

Guanabara Regas Terminal - Brazil

Lloyds Register FSRUs Technology and Operations Critical Issues

Near Shore Island Terminal Critical Issues

Emergency drainage requirements will


require the provision of cold drains sumps.
These need to be positioned in a way to
avoid impact on the FSRU or LNGC

Emergency relief via the common vent


needs to be carefully controlled as the
plume generation will have a direct impact
on the installation

Position of drains vessel to be carefully


considered and effects on hazardous area
classification minimized

Heating requirements for the gas export


need to be very carefully addressed as it
has direct impact on vaporizer design
Lloyds Register FSRUs Technology and Operations Critical Issues

Vapour management STS Critical issues

Potential large quantity of vapour due to:


State of the tank (temperature, heat capacity)
Method used to transfer (velocity of liquid)
Mechanical energy input (pump, piping)
For non-pressurised tank operation:
Steam dumping
Vapour return to LNGC
Utility users
Pressure rise can seriously limit the transfer rate
(LNGC STS 6000 m3/hr to 1000 m3/hr @ 2 bar
pressure)

Lloyds Register FSRUs Technology and Operations Critical Issues

Nigg Terminal STS Operations Qmax Critical Issues

Suitability of jetty construction for Q Max


double banked operation, mooring
dolphins, size, position of mooring hooks in
order to address safe double banked
operations with QMax/138k m3 LNGC and
other combinations with Q Max/smaller
vessel

Specific Spool offset design

Vapour management system

Issues with reliquefaction system

Issues with GCU operations

LR HAZOP with participation of Port


Authority and SIGTTO representatives

Lloyds Register FSRUs Technology and Operations Critical Issues

Escobar Terminal Site Operations

FSRU HP gas export


LNG carriers STS LNG transfer
Area dredging
Mooring pier/dolphins
Regas export arm installation
Regulation, filtration, metering
Control Room (TGN link)
Tie in facilities in TGN pipeline
Auxiliary systems / utilities / safety

Lloyds Register FSRUs Technology and Operations Critical Issues

Terminal QRA - Scope


Task 1

Identify Hazards (HAZID/HAZOP/ Simulations)

Task 2

Establish accidental releases (set scenarios)

Task 3

Model release consequence (impact to Terminal)

Task 4

Estimate the likelihood of occurrence of releases

Task 5

Determine the potential on-site and off-site risks

Task 6

Determine the tolerability of the calculated risks


against International/National Standards

Task 7

Present results to the Authorities

Lloyds Register FSRUs Technology and Operations Critical Issues

Port Qasim - Proposed Regas Terminal Sites

Lloyds Register FSRUs Technology and Operations Critical Issues

Navigation Simulations - Objectives

The maximum size of shuttle LNGCs at three LNG


terminal sites,

The maximum size of FSRU at three LNG terminal


sites,

Number and size of tugs required for transit and


berthing operations

Consequences of the typical failure event scenarios

Two LNG ship sizes


-148k MOSS (the least manoeuvrable)
- QFlex (the biggest size )

A total of 36 real time navigation simulation runs


were carried out

LR Presentation of Findings to PQA and Ministry of


Energy in support of EIA

Lloyds Register FSRUs Technology and Operations Critical Issues

Navigation / Manoeuvrability Punta Sayago Critical

Analyse LNGC ship motions in order to finalise common criteria


which will apply to all operating vessels. Issues to be addressed
are basic speed of approach/speed at passage of critical areas on
the river and potential squat while maintaining 1m keel
clearance.

Address potential of sloshing loads impact on containment


system due to partial cargo loads after emergency
disconnection ops. Based on LNGC 138k DSME design) data, safe
operation is Hs <2.0 meters and Tp < 8 sec, roll angle max 2 deg,
is the limit to prevent sloshing.

Provision escort towage that is capable of indirect towage shortly after the pilot boards as the
width of the entrance channel. Provision of a standby tug at berth

Analyse real time critical crossing at channel, berthing/turning manoeuvre define tug
size/number requirement

Address emergency response scenarios impact on passing traffic as a part of the marine HAZID
and QRA study
Lloyds Register FSRUs Technology and Operations Critical Issues

Bahia Blanca Regas Terminal MEGA Plant

Upgraded jetty within MEGA Plant

HAZID/HAZOPs

Impact collision assessment

QRA study compliance with

Emergency Response Procedures

FSRU/Terminal Safety/Control
system compatibility (Cause &
Effects)

Full Certification Approval of


Regas Terminal

Lloyds Register FSRUs Technology and Operations Critical Issues

Overall Terminal Risk Analysis - Conclusions

Marine Ops HAZID, Terminal Lay-out HAZID


Design HAZOP, Operations HAZOP
Navigation Simulations (real time)
QRA Study based on Actual Operating Parameters
Risk Levels off-site to very low
Risks Levels on-site are tolerable/ALARP

Further Risk Reduction achieved by :


Ship Class design /construction/ installation
integrity
Compliance to National Legislation Port /Coast
Guard requirements with study presentations
Marine Operations Manual critical review and
Class approval
Pipeline Design Integrity Certification approval
Lloyds Register FSRUs Technology and Operations Critical Issues

Shell Prelude LR Classification

Topside systems dry


weight 77,000 tonnes /
Operating 90,000
tonnes

Lloyds Register FSRUs Technology and Operations Critical Issues

10

THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION


ANY QUESTIONS ?

Lloyds Register FLNG / FPSO Topside Structure and Interface with Hull

Thanos Koliopulos
Global Special Projects Manager
T +44 (0)23 2345 5432 E Thanos.Koliopulos@lr.org
Lloyds Register EMEA
71 Fenchurch Street, London EC3M 4BS

Working together
for a safer world

Lloyds Register and variants of it are trading names of Lloyds Register Group Limited, its subsidiaries and affiliates.
Copyright Lloyds Register EMEA. 2013. A member of the Lloyds Register group.

11

Indonesia GAS: FSRU and Small LNG Seminar


Hotel Borobudur Jakarta, 12 December 2013

FSRU Safety and Class Certification


- Structural and containment systems - New Build
Jose Navarro
Principal Gas Technology Specialist

Lloyd's Register Seminar

FSRU safety and class certification


Structural and containment systems New Build
Jose Navarro Principal Gas Technology Specialist
12 December 2013

Working together
for a safer world

FSRU safety and class certification


Structural and containment systems New Build
Topics:

Introduction and Class Notations

Ship types and Cargo Containment alternatives

Regasification Plant types

Regasification Safety Critical considerations

LR Regasification Rules

Lloyds Register Structural and containment systems New Build

Why ship-borne LNG regasification?

Ability to provide high pressure gas directly from the ship into land-based gas
distribution networks

Reception terminal and the land-based gasification & distribution facility not
required. Ability to provide Gas/Clean energy to small and remote locations

Circumnavigates facility planning constraints and allows gas to be provided in


locations where safety and environmental considerations apply

Energy / Gas needs but NIMBY (Not in my back yard)

Possibility to deploy the unit rapidly where needed (Summer/Winter)

Lloyds Register Structural and containment systems New Build

Concepts of LNG regasification ships / units

1.

LNG Ships with Regasification units

2.

LNG Barges (not propulsion) with Regasification units

3.

Barges with Regasification units (not able to store LNG)

FSRU Floating Storage Regasification Unit usually considered under 2


Other aspects:

Is Turret fitted to send out gas?

Is Tower Flare fitted to avoid overpressure?

Mooring arrangements:

Regasification unit and

LNGC delivering LNG

Lloyds Register Structural and containment systems New Build

FSRU Class Notation New Building

100A1 Liquefied Gas Tanker, Ship Type 2G, Methane (LNG) in


Membrane Tanks, Maximum SG 0.5, Maximum Vapour Pressure 0.7 bar,
Minimum Temperature Minus 163 deg. C, APBU, ShipRight (SDA, FDA
plus (40, ww), CM, ACS(B)), *IWS, LI, ECO (BWT, IHM)
LMC, UMS, NAV1
Lloyds RGP
Descriptive Notes:
ShipRight (BWMP(T), SERS, SCM)

Lloyds Register Structural and containment systems New Build

FSRU Class Notation New Building

What that means?

The FSRU is built using traditional Ships Rules (No Floating Offshore
Installation)

Highest structural design for 40 Years World Wide operations

How many more years operating at benign locations?

Increased allowable pressure within cargo tanks to 0.7 bar

Regasification Class Notation

Technical safety assurance for you and your clients on regas design
integrity and operation

Lloyds Register Structural and containment systems New Build

Outline description of containment systems for Large FSRU


Comparing Moss, Membrane & SPB Tanks
Moss

Membrane

SPB

Less chance of damage by

cool-down rate limit

Same as Moss, plus

Better visibility from

Good visibility from

mis-operation
Primary barrier fully gas-

tight
Visible secondary barrier
No barred fill ranges

bridge
Ships are smaller

Flat deck area

Flat deck area

In-service experience

Design company

Easier access for repair

available for in-service


advice

Expensive build facilities at

shipyard

bridge

limited to two smaller


aluminium tank ships
Higher CAPEX

Integrity of

containment system
depends on subcontractors quality
Lloyds Register Structural and containment systems New Build

MOSS independent tank flat deck

Conventional Cargo tank covers

Do not contribute structurally

Added light weight

Difficult to maintain

Connection to deck is prone to fatigue


defects

Deck arrangement constrains

New designs have been developed in Japan


(MHI), Korea (HHI) and Europe (AKER)

Continuous cargo tank cover From aft


to forward

Is being applied to a ship under


construction at MHI and HHI to LR Class

LNG Akwa Ibom

Lloyds Register Structural and containment systems New Build

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) design:


SAYAENDO

Increased cargo capacity via


stretched tanks

Reduced hull weight and compact


design

Lower fuel consumption

Low boil-off rate (BOR)

Lower maintenance costs

Highly versatile cargo capacity

Compact design, comparable to a


typical 147,000m3 carrier

Environmental performance

Unrestricted operation on cargo


tank filling limits

Lloyds Register Structural and containment systems New Build

Gaz Transport & Technigaz NO96 L03

This system is a development of NO96 with some modifications to achieve


reduced BOR 0.1%

To reduce the BOR, the insulation properties are increased by introducing


Reinforced Polyurethane Foam for use in regions of the tank where
unreinforced and the first grade reinforced insulation boxes are used in the
standard NO96 system

Secondary Insulation component is form by:

A Secondary Box fabricated with plywood and filled with perlite. The box
height is reduced from 300 mm to about 100 mm

The secondary box is supplemented with an insulation panel fabricated


with reinforced foam R-PUF with top and bottom plywood plates. The
thickness is about 200 mm.

Other minor modifications are introduced


to accommodate the R-PUF panel installation

Lloyds Register Structural and containment systems New Build

Gaz Transport & Technigaz Mark III Flex

Why Mark III Flex


Two alternative options:

Flexibility in partial filling conditions

To reinforce as much as possible the CCS strength regarding sloshing


without downgrading safety conditions for other functional loads

Various Boil Off Rate (BOR)

0.2% 0.1% BOR range

Both options are covered by LRs Approval.

R-PUF Foam Range of densities and thickness

from 130 to 210 kg/m3 and from 270 to 400 mm

Lloyds Register Structural and containment systems New Build

Gaz Transport & Technigaz Mark III Flex for low boil off

MARK III FLEX

MARK III

Lloyds Register Structural and containment systems New Build

Gaz Transport & Technigaz Mark III Flex

Lloyds Register Structural and containment systems New Build

Schematic of typical prismatic type B tank arrangement

Tank
Tank dome
Dome
Walkway
Walkway
Swash Bulkhead
bulkhead
Swash
Insulation
Insulation
Inner Hull
hull
Inner

Centreline Bulkhead
bulkhead
Centreline
Insulation
Insulation
Walkway

Access Space
space
Access
Bearing Seat
seat
Bearing
Anti-roll chock
Anti-Roll
Chock

Lloyds Register Structural and containment systems New Build

Comment on type B concept applied to prismatic tanks

Viability of prismatic tanks for liquefied gas can


be established based on service experience of
LPGC using low temperature carbon steel
Low temperature carbon steel is not suitable
for LNG temperatures, and aluminium is used
instead, but it requires special consideration to
ensure integrity, especially fatigue strength

Yield stress of aluminium is approximately half


that of low temperature steel

Fatigue strength of aluminium is less than half


that of low temperature steel

Steel
LT-FH27/32

Aluminium
5083-O

Yield stress
(N/mm2)
@ Room temp

235 / 325

125

Illustrative SN
class for plate
bending

FAT 100

FAT 40

Illustrative SN
FAT 50
class for stiffener
connections

FAT 18

0.2% proof stress

Considerations to reduce stress concentrations and construction quality such as


welding and alignment control are essential components of the design
A stringent quality control procedure to verify and record this during construction
is essential
Lloyds Register Structural and containment systems New Build

Concept view of FSRU with SPB tanks

Source: SENER

Lloyds Register Structural and containment systems New Build

Types of LNG regasification systems

Studies of different type of systems for FSRUs & SRVs with vaporizers of
different types:

Shell & Tube type system using Seawater, Steam & Glycol or
Intermediate media heated by steam or cascade system

Open rack vaporizer (ORV)

Submerged combustion vaporizer (SCV)

Type dependant on available space and type of gas supply required

SCV for ship applications, where space is limited.

Regasification systems may included; blending facilities, dew point


correction/dehumidification, odorizing as well as control and monitoring
functions (send out system).

Lloyds Register Structural and containment systems New Build

Typical regasification

Two stage heating system

Capacity of one skid: 50-210 tons LNG per hour

Length, width, height: 11 x 4 x 8 meters

Operating pressure: 40 to 130 bara

Locked-in volume approximately 1 ton

Initial liquid inventory, varied from 0 to 100%

No insulation

Lloyds Register Structural and containment systems New Build

Typical cascade vaporizer design using propane

Closed Propane loop


1st stage
Booster pump pressurize the
LNG before it is heated
against propane
(From -163C to -10C)

Lloyds Register Structural and containment systems New Build

Typical cascade vaporizer design using propane

Closed Propane loop


2nd stage
Seawater used for final
vaporization
In cases with low seawater
temperature, steam to be
used

Lloyds Register Structural and containment systems New Build

10

Typical regasification using cascade system

LNG capacity

ton/h

140
4 x 140
(one unit) (four units)

LNG flow
NG outlet pressure
LNG inlet temperature
NG outlet temperature

m /h
bara
C
C

300
81
-160
0

1200
81
-160
0

Propane
Propane
Propane
Propane
Propane

flow
liquid flow through pump
gas flow to PCHE
temperature liquid
temperature gas

ton/h
m3/h
m3/h
C
C

232
431
22 480
-10
0

930
1725
90 000
-10
0

Seawater flow, total


Seawater inlet/outlet temperature

m /h
C

3200
14 / 7

12 800
14 / 7

Power LNG pump


Power propane pump
Power seawater pump
Total Duty

kW
kW
kW

25
450
27,5

100
1800
110

Lloyds Register Structural and containment systems New Build

LNG regasification systems safety aspects: Vapour return

Large quantity of boil off to be dealt with

Galveston receiving vessel was fitted with larger boiler to deal with vapour
(9000 m3 / hour)

To reduce boil off the receiving vessel has high pressure in cargo tanks. The
discharge ship has low pressure. Possible danger of off-spec gas (high pressure
and temperature)

Vapour return can limit the transfer rate to 1000 m3/hour @ 2 bar pressure
(normally 9 bar)

For a typical 135,000 m3 tanker 24 hours cargo transfer & 40 hours total
transfer operation time

Lloyds Register Structural and containment systems New Build

11

LNG regasification systems safety aspects: ship to ship

Quick release coupling on receiver ship. May need to be prevented from


freezing by circulating oil around the valves

Hoses supported by a wire from manifold crane, or other arrangement, so


that, on breakaway, the hose will not drop in the sea or hit the ship side

Electrical and pneumatic ESD systems use

Pneumatic joined by plastic hose which breaks in an emergency

Programmable ESD may help

Emergency departure procedures including manoeuvrability

Lloyds Register Structural and containment systems New Build

LRs involvement, rule requirements and approval


procedure

LR Published Guidance notes on regasification systems on 2004

LR carried out HAZID and HAZOP on First Regasification vessels for Excelerate
Energy

LR Concept Design Evaluation and Approval in Principle (AiP)

Initial HAZID on GA

HAZOP Regas and Offloading system FEED and AFC stages

FERA on Regas and STL system

Fire Protection System optimisation study

FMEA STL system

Reliability & Availability Study (regas / STL) and onboard maintenance


spares review

HAZOP ship-to-ship (STS) LNG transfer system and operations

HAZOP Gas High Pressure (HP) Arm export system design and operations

Lloyds Register Structural and containment systems New Build

12

LRs involvement, rule requirements and approval procedure

LR Rules for Regasification vessels are available

Two Class Notations are available:

RGP Regasification Plant

RGP Plus Regasification Plant Plus Provides 100% redundancy on


the operational aspects

The Rules incorporate details of:

Submission of documentation and Plans

Safety Reliability and Analysis

System design

Materials, Piping and electrical Installation

Commissioning and Testing

Lloyds Register Structural and containment systems New Build

FSRU safety and class certification New Build

What will be the benefits of Classing the new building under Lloyds
Register?

Lloyds Register Structural and containment systems New Build

13

FSRU safety and class certification New Build

A FSRU is not only regasification


It is large LNG ship with regasification capability requiring to safely fulfil specific
operability requirements

Critical issues of FSRU design are directly related to classification integrity as


follows:

Proven Structural design with increased scantling to withstand 0.7 bar

Proven CCS particularly on Sloshing related issues

Experience engineering design for complex projects such as Prelude

Technical dedicate specialised surveyors coverage.

Class Notation Lloyds RGP

Risk Analysis today is an integral part of LR prescriptive Gas Ships Class rules
and revised IGC requirements.

Lloyds Register Structural and containment systems New Build

Jose Navarro
Principal Gas Technology Specialist
T +82 (0)51 640 5079 E jose.navarro@lr.org
Lloyds Register Asia
11th Floor, CJ Korea Express Bldg, 119, Daegyo-ro, Jung-Gu
Busan 600-700, Republic of Korea

Working together
for a safer world

Lloyds Register and variants of it are trading names of Lloyds Register Group Limited, its subsidiaries and affiliates.
Copyright Lloyds Register Asia. 2013. A member of the Lloyds Register group.

14

Indonesia GAS: FSRU and Small LNG Seminar


Hotel Borobudur Jakarta, 12 December 2013

FSRU Safety and Class Certification


- FSRU 1F?JJMU5?RCPMooring System
Ika Prasetyawan
Naval Architect Specialist

Lloyd's Register Seminar

FSRU Shallow Water Mooring System


Ika Prasetyawan Naval Architect
12 December 2013

Working together
for a safer world

Key Points

Introduction

Classification of Station Keeping

Shallow Water Mooring

Design Consideration

Class Requirements

Lloyds Register FSRU Shallow Water Mooring System

Mooring System of a Floating Unit/FSRU

FSRUs and floating offshore units,


tethered with mooring lines to the
sea bed by anchors, will experience
forces and moments from combined
intensities of swell, wave, wind and
current.

For station keeping purpose, the


mooring system must have sufficient
restoring forces to balance such
loads to avoid excessive tension on
the line and unwanted excursion of
the unit (e.g. to prevent damage to
risers or offloading hoses).

Lloyds Register FSRU Shallow Water Mooring System

Motion of Floating Units + Mooring System

Moored floating unit under pre-tension


forces Initial mean position

Moored floating unit under mean wave


drift forces
Acquiring new mean position

C;D

Moored floating unit under oscillating


forces
Moving (surging) w.r.t. new mean position

Lloyds Register FSRU Shallow Water Mooring System

Mooring System of Floating Units

Spread Mooring

Single Point Mooring

Turret Mooring

CALM (Catenary Anchor Leg Mooring)

SALM (Single Anchor Leg Mooring)

Dynamic Positioning

Lloyds Register FSRU Shallow Water Mooring System

Mooring System in Different Water Depth

Catenary system as spring


effect.
As the water depth get
shallower, the spring effect
is higher.
The spring effect = mooring
stiffness
Lloyds Register FSRU Shallow Water Mooring System

..continued.

Comparison of mooring stiffness against various water depth.

Lloyds Register FSRU Shallow Water Mooring System

Very Shallow Water Mooring (water depth < 50m)

The mooring system provides higher


stiffness which restraint the motion of
vessel

Shallow water causes large current


force and wave drift excitation force
at low frequency

The two above will lead to higher


mooring force

Need to find a system with good


compliant to shallow water effects
(drop the catenary system!?)

Lloyds Register FSRU Shallow Water Mooring System

FSRU Fleet in the World

FSRU Golar Spirit, Brazil

Moored at existing
upgraded jetty

Receiving gas via loading


arms fixed on the jetty

Lloyds Register FSRU Shallow Water Mooring System

FSRU Fleet in the World

FSRU Golar Freeze, Dubai

Lloyds Register FSRU Shallow Water Mooring System

Moored at jetty & mooring


dolphin

Receiving gas via ship-to-ship


(STS) double banked. LNG
carrier utilizing transfer arms
from the FSRU

FSRU Fleet in the World

FSRU Toscana, Italy

Turret Mooring System.


Six anchor lines

Receiving gas via STS


double banked by LNG
carrier

Lloyds Register FSRU Shallow Water Mooring System

Current FSRU in Indonesia

FSRU Nusantara Regas Satu,


Indonesia

Mooring dolphin & breasting


dolphin

Receiving gas STS double


banked by LNG carrier

Lloyds Register FSRU Shallow Water Mooring System

Future FSRU in Indonesia

FSRU Lampung

20 km offshore, south east


Sumatra

23 m water depth

Soft Yoke Mooring System;


including swivel stack

Import gas via STS moored


LNG

Lloyds Register FSRU Shallow Water Mooring System

General Arrangement of Soft Yoke System

Efficient / cost effective for very


shallow water depth

Vessel connected to tower system


through yoke arm with pitch and roll
joints

Weathervaning capability to adapt


with weather directionality

The yoke include ballast tank to


provide necessary restoring force,
providing more compliant system.

Lloyds Register FSRU Shallow Water Mooring System

Sea Eagle FPSO - Nigeria

Lloyds Register FSRU Shallow Water Mooring System

LR Rules Application for FSRU

LR Rules cover the following :

Hull and marine systems (mandatory)

Mooring systems (mandatory)

Process plant (optional)

Choice of two clear Classification paths to follow:


A) FSRU Permanently Moored at location

B) FSRU Disconectable at location

Floating Offshore Installation Rules (FOIFL


2013) apply :
Typical FSRU class notation;
OI 100 AT Floating Oil Storage
Installation for service at the Banyu Urip
Field, Offshore Indonesia LI, OIWS,
ShipRight FOI (SDA, FDA,CM)

Gas Ship Rules (2012) incorporating IGC apply:


Typical FSRU trading ship class notation:
100A1 Liquefied Gas Tanker, Ship Type 2G,
Methane (LNG) in Membrane Tanks, Maximum
SG 0.5, Maximum Vapour Pressure 0.7 bar,
Minimum Temperature Minus 163 deg. C, APBU,
ShipRight (SDA, FDA plus (40, ww), CM, ACS(B)),
*IWS, LI, ECO, Lloyds RGP

Lloyds Register FSRU Shallow Water Mooring System

Summary - Key Aspects

Response of FSRU in shallow water dictates key element for selecting


its mooring system. Catenary system is somehow not favourable due
to higher stiffness.

Mooring and breasting dolphin system are suitable for most benign
waters with low environment directionality.

Alternatively for higher directionality, use soft yoke mooring tower


with weathervaning ability.

Design of FSRU typically require understanding of hydrodynamic


properties in shallow water. Unfortunately this is not a problem, to a
large extent, amenable to numerical solution. To address complex
environment model test validation may required.

Lloyds Register FSRU Shallow Water Mooring System

Ika Prasetyawan
Naval Architect
Energy Compliance Service
T +603 2034 9060 E Ika.Prasetyawan@lr.org
Lloyds Register of Shipping (M) Bhd.
Suite 21-04, Level 21 Menara Tan & Tan, 207 Jalan Tun Razak
50400 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Working together
for a safer world

Lloyds Register and variants of it are trading names of Lloyds Register Group Limited, its subsidiaries and affiliates.
Copyright Lloyds Register Asia. 2013. A member of the Lloyds Register group.

Indonesia GAS: FSRU and Small LNG Seminar


Hotel Borobudur Jakarta, 12 December 2013

FSRU Safety and Class Certification


- FSRU's and Extended Dry-dock Periods
Jose Navarro
Principal Gas Technology Specialist

Lloyd's Register Seminar

FSRUs and Extended Dry-dock Periods


Jose Navarro Principal Gas Technology Specialist
12 December 2013

Working together
for a safer world

FSRUs In Service and Extended Dry Dock

What will be the benefits of maintaining Lloyds Register Class during in


service?

Lloyds Register FSRUs and Extended Dry-dock Periods

Docking Intervals

To achieve a 20+ years docking interval:


In water surveys equivalent to a docking are to be held every 2.5 years

Lloyds Register FSRUs and Extended Dry-dock Periods

The Investigation of 20 year (non) docking

Classification and Regulatory Framework

Class Notation change from Ship to Floating Offshore Installation (FOI) when
operation at site

Approval from Flag

IWS required every 2.5 years

Docking equivalent surveys are to be carried out

Lloyds Register FSRUs and Extended Dry-dock Periods

Docking Intervals

Up to 20 Years, as a moored storage tanker in-water surveys (IWS) may


take place, at 2.5 yearly intervals, up to 20 years, subject to satisfactory In
Water Survey results

Beyond 25 years, in-water surveys (IWS) may continue, and will be assessed
on a case-by-case basis, and depending on the results dry docking may be
required at 27.5 years.

30 Years and beyond. Irrespective of the result at 27.5 years, the moored
storage tanker will be required to dry dock at 30 years, and at every 10
years thereafter, subject to continuing to remaining in a satisfactory
condition.

Any transit voyage, from storage location to dry dock, can be added on as
regards allowable time, as long as the transit is a single voyage, unloaded.

Lloyds Register FSRUs and Extended Dry-dock Periods

Docking Intervals

FSRU Mode into LNGC Mode. If a change takes place from operations in
FSRU mode to LNGc mode, for either a single cargo or for trade over a
more prolonged period, the moored storage tanker reverts to being a
ship, and has to dry dock prior to trading as an LNGc.
Flag Matters - docking scenarios discussed with proposed Flags and they
are agreeable in principle subject to compliance with Classification
requirements as outlined.
Reference: Guidelines for Moored storage vessels that will be incorporated
into Lloyds Registers Rules and Regulations for the Classification of Ships in
2014 with a suitable Class notation.

Lloyds Register FSRUs and Extended Dry-dock Periods

The Challenges

Technical Challenges

Increase of corrosion margins for under water parts?

Increase of corrosion resistance by Increasing Coating specification and DFT?

Automatic Controlled impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) system

Valves generally below the waterline must be maintainable in all conditions


without dry docking and without operation interruption, by divers
assistance, (possible duplicated seachests and lines)

Lloyds Register FSRUs and Extended Dry-dock Periods

Solutions and LR Capabilities


Increase of corrosion resistance by Increasing Coating specification and DFT
Option 1:

Glass flake vinyl ester (GFPE) 2x500,


Total DFT1000

Option 2:

Jotacote Universal 2 x 200


Safeguard Plus 1 x 100
Sea Quantum Ultra SPL 2 x 150
Sea Quantum Static 1 x 150
Total DFT 950

Option 3:

Aluminum pigmented abrasion resistant pure epoxy 2 x 150


Epoxy tie coat 1 x 100
Tin free SPC A/F 1 x 100 or Fluoropolymer A/F DFT 350
Total DFT 750

Lloyds Register FSRUs and Extended Dry-dock Periods

Solutions and LR Capabilities

Regas Plant Periodic surveys are to be carried out in order to maintain


Classification and Statutory certification

A Risk Based Inspection (RBI) and survey regime can be developed in


collaboration with Owner to reduce intervention as required by the current
periodic survey regimes

Challenge:

To maintain same level of compliance with minimum disruption to operations

Lloyds Register FSRUs and Extended Dry-dock Periods

Solutions and LR Capabilities

FSRU Commissioning during normal in service operation

Cargo tanks

Entering into the tanks may not be required subject to:

No gas concentrations noted at the IBS

No requirements for maintenance cargo pumps and other equipment


inside cargo tank

Satisfactory results of the global tests required by GTT.

Can global test of the secondary barrier be carried out in cold condition?

GTT involved on the design of the survey RBI regime, together with Owner
and LR.

Lloyds Register FSRUs and Extended Dry-dock Periods

Solutions and LR Capabilities


FSRU Cargo and IBS/IS safety valves:

Provisions should be made to maintain the safety valves without interrupting


operations. If so, the IGC Requirements are to be taken into consideration:

8.2.8. Stop valves or other means of blanking off pipes between tanks and pressure
relief valves to facilitate maintenance should not be fitted unless all the following
arrangements are provided:

.1. suitable arrangements to prevent more than one pressure relief valve being out of
service at the same time;

.2. a device which automatically and in a clearly visible way indicates which one of
the pressure relief valves is out of service; and

.3. pressure relief valve capacities such that if one valve is out of service the remaining
valves have the combined relieving capacity required by 8.5. However, this capacity
may be provided by the combined capacity of all valves, if a suitably maintained spare
valve is carried on board

Lloyds Register FSRUs and Extended Dry-dock Periods

Solutions and LR Capabilities

Commissioning during normal in service operation

When needed cargo tanks entering:

A defined operational procedure will have to be developed

It is very important to define GCU Capacity and functional requirements

The FSRU shall be capable of purging / warming-up / gas freeing two


(2) cargo tanks by means of the GCU in lieu of venting at the jetty
and this within a reasonable time (of about 10 hours)

Lloyds Register FSRUs and Extended Dry-dock Periods

Solutions and LR Capabilities

FSRU Hull structure Entering into WBT and other spaces

This can be either on a five year cycle, two and half years cycles or in
continuous bases.

For entering into the WBT during the time that the unit is gas up, there is a
risk of having hazardous atmosphere inside of the water ballast tanks.

A procedure shall be established line up with the normal operation of the


unit to permit safe entry into the spaces.

Lloyds Register FSRUs and Extended Dry-dock Periods

Solutions and LR Capabilities

FSRU Machinery Equipment

What will be the operational policy for the unit?

Laid Up Plan and maintenance plan for:

Propulsion system, including shaft

Steering Gear and rudder system

Certain deck machinery equipment such as windlass

Bridge navigation equipment

Lloyds Register FSRUs and Extended Dry-dock Periods

Solutions and LR Capabilities

Regas Plant
Maintenance of each Regas Unit shall be possible while any other Regas Units
are operating.
It must be possible to positively isolate any Regas train by a valved solution,
applying a set of two (2) Double Isolation & Bleed valves.
HP LNG Pumps rotating elements subject to higher failure/incident rate.

Lloyds Register FSRUs and Extended Dry-dock Periods

Solutions and LR Capabilities

Regas Plant - Safety Systems

Gas Detection

Dry Powder

Spray System

ESD, PSD, Blowdown

N2 System

CO2 System

Traditionally commissioned during Dry Dock.

Lloyds Register FSRUs and Extended Dry-dock Periods

Solutions and LR Capabilities

Commissioning during normal in service operation

Cargo tanks

Hull structure Entering into WBT and other spaces

Machinery Equipment

Re Gas Plant

Other statutory requirements

Lifeboats, Liferafts

Lloyds Register FSRUs and Extended Dry-dock Periods

Solutions and LR Capabilities

In Conclusion:

RBI Regime based in best knowledge and experience

Specific LR Class Notation for Extended Dry Dock EDD

Lloyds Register FSRUs and Extended Dry-dock Periods

Jose Navarro
Principal Gas Technology Specialist
T +82 (0)51 640 5079 E jose.navarro@lr.org
Lloyds Register Asia
11th Floor, CJ Korea Express Bldg, 119, Daegyo-ro, Jung-Gu
Busan 600-700, Republic of Korea

Working together
for a safer world

Lloyds Register and variants of it are trading names of Lloyds Register Group Limited, its subsidiaries and affiliates.
Copyright Lloyds Register Asia. 2013. A member of the Lloyds Register group.

10

Indonesia GAS: FSRU and Small LNG Seminar


Hotel Borobudur Jakarta, 12 December 2013

FLNG/FPSO Topside Structures and Interface with Hull


Bahram Amir
Lead Structural Specialist

Lloyd's Register Seminar

FLNG/FPSO Topside Structures and Interface with Hull


Bahram Amir Lead Structural Specialist
12 December 2013

Working together
for a safer world

Introduction

It is the intention of this presentation to provide background knowledge and


understanding of the design considerations and processes involved in structural
design of Topside Modules on Floating Offshore installations such as FPSOs,
FSRUs, FSOs etc.

Information on Sub-Sea structures and their interface with FOI hull structure plus
Turret Structure and associated structures such as the Bogie support, Swivel stack
, Gantry and the Manifold platform which are classed as major primary structures
on FPSOs are not included in this course material and will be the addressed
separately.

Lloyds Register Gas As Fuel UPDATE

Familiarization with ship structure

Ships / tankers hull structure is normally built in


stiffened panels and to CLASS RULES (LR RULES).

The construction is made of series of one two or


three longitudinal bulkheads running the length
of the vessel

Usually about 16m apart with intermediate


longitudinal frames usually at 900mm centres. The
transverse bulkheads are placed at around 30m all
along the vessel with transverse frames at 900mm
centres.

Lloyds Register FLNG / FPSO Topside Structure and Interface with Hull

List of key items

Familiarization with ship structure.


FPSOs and Different Types of Mooring systems.
General design Rules.
Loading conditions particular to Floating Offshore Installations.
Typical Layout
Topsides Module supports / interface with Hull structure.
Typical restraints for Module Supports
Vessel Motion induced forces on Topside structures.
Fatigue life assessment
Buckling check _ Module supports and Hull structure.
Structural Design Appraisal - Checklist for FOI topside structures.

Lloyds Register FLNG / FPSO Topside Structure and Interface with Hull

FOIs and Different Types of Mooring Systems


3 different types of mooring system are used

Lloyds Register FLNG / FPSO Topside Structure and Interface with Hull

FSRU and FPSO Different Types of Mooring Systems

Schematic of internal and external turret/swivel system are shown here, with
some sub sea interface

Lloyds Register FLNG / FPSO Topside Structure and Interface with Hull

General Design Rules -1

Generally dimensions of a typical FPSO / FSRU vessel is around 260 to 340 m


long. Topside module weights range from a few hundred metric tonnes up to
6000+ mt, although the higher weights relate to FLNG topside facilities.

Topside module supports are generally located in line with the vessels
transverse frames and bulk heads. The main frames are generally around 6 m
apart with bulk heads around 30 m apart.

The aft and fore part of the vessel are normally heavily stiffened. The
accommodation module / Helideck are located close to the aft. Flare towers
are located towards the fore end of the vessel. The lighter modules are
usually placed towards the middle of the vessel, however, the layout of
topside modules is driven by the process requirements.

Lloyds Register FLNG / FPSO Topside Structure and Interface with Hull

General Design Rules -2

The above diagram shows the required process packages for full FLNG installation.

The pink and blue boxes (plus one or two of the yellow boxes, for example power
generation) represent minimum requirement for Liquefaction only. Total topside
weight for an average (say Peregrine / Vincent) VLCC conversion or new built of
similar size is around 40,000 t depending on facilities, and by comparison for
liquefaction alone we should consider 25 to 30,000 t.

Flare towers can be up to 120 m high. They have wind induced vortex issues.
Weights approx. 200 to 250 tonnes and is usually in the worst location for
accelerations due to vessel motions.

Accommodation modules for conversion vessel are usually classed items. For new
built it is considered under verification.

Lloyds Register FLNG / FPSO Topside Structure and Interface with Hull

General Design Rules -3

The main crane pedestals are usually integrated into the vessel at convenient
deck levels.

In general the shear is transferred through hull side shells and the bending
moments are transferred between top deck and bottom plates.

Pipe racks are generally fixed to vessel deck directly. The pipe rack do not
contribute to vessel hull stiffness as the are generally designed in small
modules with generous expansion ( relative movement) allowance, however,
pipe-racks are open to relatively higher fatigue damage.

The topside and local interface structural detailed design are normally to AISC
or agreed equivalent codes and standards.

Corrosion allowance is specified in LR and CSR (Common Structural Rules for


Double Hull Oil Tankers) Rules.

Lloyds Register FLNG / FPSO Topside Structure and Interface with Hull

FLNG / FSRU Process System -1

The FSRU units would contain substantially less topsides facilities than FLNG
installation as depicted in the following sketch

Lloyds Register FLNG / FPSO Topside Structure and Interface with Hull

FLNG / FSRU Process System -2

It should be possible to support this load on available topside deck area of VLCC with
single row configuration.

The hull structure should normally be separate from the LNG membrane tank
structure with isolation gap. This will provide ample space for local reinforcement if
required.

Lloyds Register FLNG / FPSO Topside Structure and Interface with Hull

Loading Conditions Particular to Floating Offshore Installations -1

Operating loading considered in the design

Dead Loads, Live Loads

Environmental - Wind Loads


Environmental Return Period considered in the design
1 years for operating and Accidental
100 years for Storm, extreme conditions
10000 years for abnormal conditions

Vessel motion induced inertial load

Support miss alignment

Loads from green water

Lloyds Register FLNG / FPSO Topside Structure and Interface with Hull

Loading Conditions Particular to Floating Offshore Installations -2

Accidental load cases include:

Blast

Hull Damage

Ship impact

Dropped objects

Acceptance Criteria Under Extreme or Accidental Load Case:- No operation


& No escalation of damage is assumed

Lloyds Register FLNG / FPSO Topside Structure and Interface with Hull

Typical Layout

Lloyds Register FLNG / FPSO Topside Structure and Interface with Hull

Topsides Modules Supports / Interface with Hull Structure - 1

A topside process module is shown here

This module weights around 4500 mt and is supported on four


points

Lloyds Register FLNG / FPSO Topside Structure and Interface with Hull

Topsides Module Supports / Interface with Hull Structure - 2

Finite Element Representation of interface details

Lloyds Register FLNG / FPSO Topside Structure and Interface with Hull

Typical Restraints for Modules Support Details


FEM representation of sliding pad

Lloyds Register FLNG / FPSO Topside Structure and Interface with Hull

Vessel Motion Induced Forces on Topside Structure - 1

Usually roll, pitch and heave are governing the design

Normal operating condition for FPSO of 300m by 50m by 30m depth:-

Roll is 5 deg period is 12 sec

Pitch is 1.5 deg and period is 12 sec

Heave is 2 m period is 10 to 12 sec

These if converted to acceleration will be approximately Roll 0.2 m/s2 Pitch


0.06 m/s2 and Heave is 0.2 m/s2

Lloyds Register FLNG / FPSO Topside Structure and Interface with Hull

Vessel Motion Induced Forces on Topside Structure -2

Generally transportation is the governing case, with typical acceleration of


Roll 0.65 g, Pitch 0.3 g and Heave is 0.2 g.

The change in period can have significant impact on acceleration. e.g. if the
period is changed from 12.0 sec to 10 sec the acceleration will be doubled
from 0.2 to 0.4m/s.

The ship acceleration at the centre of rotation should be translated to centre


of gravity of the topside module.

Reference can also be made to LR cargo fastening rules which includes


examples to show how normal accelerations are calculated.

Lloyds Register FLNG / FPSO Topside Structure and Interface with Hull

Vessel Motion Induced Forces on Topside Structure -3

EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS can be found in:Lloyds Register RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR THE CLASSIFICATION OF SHIPS
July 2010. Cargo Securing Arrangements Part 3, Chapter 14, Sections 8 & 9

MOTION INDUCED ACCELERATIONS is based on vessel characteristics

Lloyds Register FLNG / FPSO Topside Structure and Interface with Hull

10

Fatigue Life Assessment -1

Procedure:

Strength Analysis. [FEA]


- Fine mesh model to evaluate
maximum and minimum principal stresses.

Identify areas of concern [Member and / or connection detail]

Calculate Stress concentration factors (SCF) and adjust maximum stress's


accordingly

Apply appropriate Design Fatigue Factor (DFF)

Lloyds Register FLNG / FPSO Topside Structure and Interface with Hull

Fatigue Life Assessment -2

Derive transfer function. Transfer function relates a motion state to a


stress level at a location

Combine with Response Amplitude Operator (RAO) and Use maximum


stress's and Weibull distribution to calculate fatigue life.

RAO gives relationship between unit loading (1 deg roll, 1 deg pitch etc)
and corresponding stresses for each wave direction.

Lloyds Register FLNG / FPSO Topside Structure and Interface with Hull

11

Buckling Check Module Supports and Hull Structure -1

BUCKLING check on module support and vessel hull structure


directly in line with the module support

The FEM is sorted into PANEL sizes bound by stiffeners

Base model
geometry

Stress and deformation


punch file for Max fill
case

LR SDA
Free edge panel
buckling check

Panels within
20% of critical
buckling

LR Buckle final
panel buckling
check including
edge stiffener
details

Lloyds Register SDA Buckling

Lloyds Register FLNG / FPSO Topside Structure and Interface with Hull

Buckling Check Module Supports and Hull Structure -2

All local and global loads are extracted from the FEA

Applicable buckling analysis based on projects work


instruction is applied

The results are tabulated with recommendations for


strengthening if necessary

Lloyds Register FLNG / FPSO Topside Structure and Interface with Hull

12

Closing Statement

This intended aim of this presentation was to highlight the following to the
audience:a)

What is involved in designing a FOI, FSRU or FPSO

b)

How Lloyds Register can support your projects not only in terms of
providing Certification and Classification services but also providing full
technical support when needed.

Lloyds Register FLNG / FPSO Topside Structure and Interface with Hull

Bahram Amir
Lead Structural Specialist
Energy Compliance Service
T +603 2034 9036 E Bahram.Amir@lr.org
Lloyds Register of Shipping (M) Bhd.
Suite 21-04, Level 21 Menara Tan & Tan, 207 Jalan Tun Razak
50400 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Working together
for a safer world

Lloyds Register and variants of it are trading names of Lloyds Register Group Limited, its subsidiaries and affiliates.
Copyright Lloyds Register Asia. 2013. A member of the Lloyds Register group.

13

Indonesia GAS: FSRU and Small LNG Seminar


Hotel Borobudur Jakarta, 12 December 2013

Gas as Fuel Update


Luis Benito
Global Strategic Marketing Manager

Lloyd's Register Seminar

Gas As Fuel UPDATE


Luis Benito Global Strategic Marketing Manager
12 December 2013

Working together
for a safer world

SOx 2015 / 2020/25 are you ready?

Designated Emission Control Areas (ECA)


North Sea Baltic; North America

Game
changer?

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

Agenda

Gas Fuelled Shipping:

A Safe Reality on the water

More Gas As a Fuel: Non-LNG Solutions

Some New Gas Fuelled Ships planned

Some Feasibility Studies and New Designs

Large Infrastructure Reality

Large Infrastructure Future

Gas Bunkering Standards and Operational Procedures Update

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

Agenda

Gas Fuelled Shipping:

A Safe Reality on the water

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

GAS FUELLED SHIPPING with LR A Safe Reality on the water


FIRST Gas Fuelled Oil Tanker - ARGONON

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

GAS FUELLED SHIPPING with LR A Safe Reality on the water


Gas Propulsion Type C Oil Tankers for SHELL

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

GAS FUELLED SHIPPING with LR A Safe Reality on the water


Dual Fuel Dry Cargo / Container Ship for Danser of Netherlands

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

GAS FUELLED SHIPPING with LR A Safe Reality on the water


VIKING GRACE FIRST LARGE Gas Fuelled Passenger Ferry

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

Agenda

Gas Fuelled Shipping:

More Gas As a Fuel: Non-LNG Solutions

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

MORE GAS AS a FUEL: NonLNG SOLUTIONS

LNG

ETHANE

LPG

Methanol

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

LPG as a marine fuel

Interesting and possible

LPG is by product of LNG production and also about 2% of Crude


productionso abundantand with some infrastructure already.

Currently about 15% cheaper than MGO.

Some Anthony Veder LPG ships now to run on LNG seems counter
intuitive

Probably suits specific niches

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

LPG as a marine fuel

Probably competes with Methanol as an alternative to LNG

Direct Injection into combustion chamber requires 500 bar pressures (as
compared to 300 bar for LNG)

Heavier than air

Needs pilot fuel or spark ignition.

Containment and associated systems potentially simpler (not cryogenic) and


lower cost.

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

Lloyds Register LPG as a marine fuel project

Joint Industry Project and


risk assessment workshop on
the use of LPG cargo as a
fuel with leading shipyard,
vessel owners and industrial
partners

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

Methanol / DME as a marine fuel

In a full scale pilot project, test the alternative non-oil-based fuels methanol and
DME(OBATE) in order to contribute to finding the best environmental and
economical alternative for a sustainable and successful maritime transport
industry

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

MR Tankers on Methanolfuelled order

BUNKERWORLD.COM
9th December 2014
Six new tankers are to be given engines that have the option
to use methanol as a marine fuel
The six 50,000 dwt ships on order will be equipped with MAN
ME-LGI flex fuel engines
Waterfront Shipping says the ships being built will be owned
by Mitsui O.S.K. Lines (MOL), Marinvest/ Skagerrak Invest and
Westfal-Larsen & Co A/S. Waterfront Shipping will charter the
vessels to replace older ships in its fleet

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

Methanol / DME as a marine fuel

Expected Benefits

Drawbacks

Methanol envisaged to be cost competitive


with regular marine fuels in the long run
due emissions regulations

Methanol is a toxic liquid requiring


safety handling considerations
compared to HFO/MGO

Single molecular structure (engine can be


much more tuned c/w distillates/RFO)

Inert systems required for fuel


tanks

Methanol contains zero sulphur

Reduction in NOX and PMs

2 X volume of MGO for same


equivalent energy output

No cryogenic risks associated with volume


expansion into gas compared to LNG

Not enough methanol to fuel


global fleet, as of today!

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

Methanol / DME as a marine fuel


STENA Ro-Ro to be the FIRST Methanol-fuelled Ship in the water,
LR Class
Lloyds Register Rules for
Methanol Fuelled Ships Submission to Technical
Committees in 2014

First Methanol-fuelled Ferry Ship in Europe


it is hoped to enter into service in 2014

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

Ethane as a marine fuel

Lloyds Register Approval In Principle


(AiP) was provided for the

Forecast for US NGL and Ethane Output

MAN ME-LGI Engines

operating on LPG early in 2013; and,


most recently,

for operation on ETHANE as well

Source: MSI Marine Strategies International Ltd.

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

Agenda

Gas Fuelled Shipping:

Some New Gas Fuelled Ships planned

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

SOME NEW GAS FUELLED SHIPS PLANNED


Push Boat by Kooiman Yard for Veerhaven Thyssen Group
PUSH BOAT

L 40 m; B 18 m; D 2.8 m; T
1.6 m

4 x Wartsila 6LDF 1060 kW

95% LNG + 5% gasoil

150 m3 LNG tank + 80 m3 gasoil

Shipyard Kooiman, The


Netherlands

Owner Veerhaven Thyssen


Krupp

Delivery estimated 2014

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

10

SOME NEW GAS FUELLED SHIPS PLANNED


Gas Bunker Tanker by Veka / Deen of Netherlands

GAS BUNKER TANKER

3 x LNG tanks of 750m3 each

2 x Caterpillar Dual Fuel 500kW Engines

Delivery estimated 2015

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

SOME OTHER NEW GAS FUELLED SHIPS PLANNED

LNG-Fuelled Cargo / Small Container Ship

LNG-Fuelled / Electric Propulsion Type G Oil and Gas Bunkering Tanker

135 x 11.45 x 5.1 m, 4000 tons

2 x Dual Fuel LNG / HFO Type C Oil Tankers

1300 m3 LNG + 1200 m3 gas-oil

LNG-Fuelled / Electric Propulsion Dry Cargo Ship

2 x 40m3 LNG tanks; 2 x Engine Rooms; 4 x Gas Engines

110 x 11.45 x 5.2 m, 3200 tons

Dual fuel CNG / HFO Car / Passenger Ferry

1,750 passengers + 340 cars

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

11

Some New Gas Fuelled Ships Planned


STQ Ferries soon in the water, FIRST Gas Fuelled Ships in Canada
Societe des travesiers
STQ Ferries
Built at Chantier Davie
and FIincantieri to LR
Class

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

Agenda

Gas Fuelled Shipping:

Some Feasibility Studies and New Designs

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

12

Some Feasibility Studies - 2012


GREEN SHIP OF THE FUTURE PROJECT (2012) -- % at ECA
dependant

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

Some Feasibility Studies August 2012


Lloyds Register LNG-fuelled deep sea shipping bunkering study
High Case Scenario
Over 2,000 Deep Sea Gas Fuelled Ships by 2025

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

13

Some New Feasibility Studies WEST COAST CANADA forecast Gas


Fuelled Ships calling at their Ports: 150 Ships by 2025
Transport Canada, Lloyds Register and Partners Joint Industry Project Forecast
Short Sea and Deep Sea Shipping calling at West Canada
WEST COAST CANADA -- LNG adoption by vessel type Medium adoption rate
2015

2020

2025

Vessel Type

Fleet Quantity

LNG
Vessels

Annual LNG
consumption (MT)

LNG
Vessels

Annual LNG
consumption (MT)

LNG
Vessels

Annual LNG
consumption (MT)

Tankers

99

5,000

50,000

20

110,000

Bulk

829

69,000

73

213,000

Container

178

78,000

17

168,000

Cruise

27

135,000

330,000

General Cargo

20

1,000

Vehicle/ RoRo

4,000

4,000

0
Ferry

45

2,000

13

73,000

26

146,000

Tug

35

0.0

3,000

5,000

7,000

42

412,000

150

977,000

Total

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

Some New Approved Concept and Basic Designs

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

14

LRs Assessment of Risk Based Designs:

All Novel Technology possibilities considered


START

Stage 1

Stage 2

Scoping
Study

Conceptual
Design HAZID

Acceptance
criteria
satisfied

NO

Stage 3

Stage 4

Detailed
Study(s)

Detailed
Design HAZOP

END

YES

Stage 1 Scoping Study


Stage 2 Conceptual Design Hazard Identification Study (HAZID)
Stage 3 Detailed Study(s)
Stage 4 Detailed Design Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP)
Stages 1, 2 and 4

simple designs with few/minor safety implications

Stages 1, 2, 3 and 4

complex designs and/or significant safety implications

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

Project: 14000 teu ULCS Gas Fuelled Design (2011)


Main Objective: Approve the Concept Design In Principle
57 Recommendations made: main concerns were related to:

Hydrocarbons Leak/Rupture/Failure of LNG/NG Pipes/Flanges/Pump Seals and Tanks resulting in Fire and
Explosion etc

Ventilation Failure

External Fire

Cold Surface LNG Handling Equipment

Operational issues (HAZOP Issues)

Drop Objects

Collision by Other Vessel (Bunkering Vessel)

Wild Sea State (Green water, Sloshing etc)

Corrosion Sea water, Salty Air

Layout and others

Utility Failure or Shortage Hazards from Utility Shortage on Gas Fuelled System, Instrument air, Water, Hydraulic

Others

Design details under confidentiality agreement


Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

15

Project: Bulk Carrier Gas Fuelled Design (2012)


Main Objective: Approve the Concept and Basic Design
LR, COSCO Yard and GOLDEN UNION
of Greece develop LNG-fuelled
Bulk Carrier Design

LR Approved Technology Solution

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

Project: MPV Gas Fuelled Design (2013)


Main Objective: Approve the Concept and Basic Design
LR and COSCO KHI (NACKS)
to develop LNG fuelled MPV
28,000 deadweight multipurpose vessel (MPV)* will
be designed to meet current
and future environmental
and efficiency targets

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

16

Agenda

Gas Fuelled Shipping:

Large Infrastructure Reality

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

Gas Fuelled Shipping Large Infrastructure Reality

ROTTERDAM PORT 2011


GATE Terminal = Gas Access To Europe

Three storage tanks 180,000 cbm each

Two jetties and gasification plants.

Throughput capacity of the terminal is 12 bn


cbm LNG / year

This can be expanded in the future to 16 bn


cbm LNG / year

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

17

Gas Fuelled Shipping Large Infrastructure Reality

SINGAPORE PORT 2013


SLNG Terminal

Singapore first LNG terminal operational 7th May


2013!

Three tanks, total capacity of 6Mtpa

Secondary jetty also for LPG

Tertiary jetty for gas bunkering (10k to 40k cbm


ships)

Oct 2012 Decision to build a fourth LNG tank and


reach up to 9Mtpa

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

Agenda

Gas Fuelled Shipping:

Large Infrastructure Future

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

18

Large Infrastructure Future


EU addressing the chicken and egg issue

The lack of sufficient infrastructure network (bunkering facilities along


shipping routes) is considered as the main obstacle to the development and
use of LNG as marine fuel. An EU co-financed study as well as the impact
assessment which accompanies the legislative proposal on the deployment of
alternative fuels infrastructure conclude on the need to quickly establish a
minimal infrastructure for LNG bunkering in order to kick-start the
development, increase demand by ships and further decrease prices for
technology and LNG fuel

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

Large Infrastructure Future


EU addressing the chicken and egg issue

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

19

Large Infrastructure Future


EU addressing the chicken and egg issue

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

Large Infrastructure Future - COMMON MINIMUM STANDARDS

To avoid competition between ports on higher safety and environmental


protection requirements while bunkering, a common minimum standard is
necessary. Such a standard should also facilitate LNG fuelled vessels to bunker
in different ports without having to face different bunkering operations and
requirements in different ports.
a specific EU LNG bunkering standard may seem useful to safeguard a level
playing field
Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

20

Large Infrastructure Future - COMMON MINIMUM STANDARDS

International regulatory initiatives addressing outstanding gaps related to the


use of LNG as an alternative shipping fuel, notably :
IMO (development of the IGF Code) (LR involved)
ISO (development of Technical Specifications for LNG bunkering), (LR involved)
IAPH (International Association of Ports and Harbours development of bunkering
checklists), (LR involved)
outcomes of various TEN-T co-financed projects on LNG (the EU has so far cofinanced over 20M to LNG related TEN-T projects).

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

Large Infrastructure Future - COMMON MINIMUM STANDARDS

The harmonization of Canadian


regulations with international
standards has been identified in
the Government of Canadas
Cabinet Directive on Regulatory
Management as a key approach
to establishing an effective and
appropriate regulatory
framework

Three Infrastructure phases:


Phase 1: West Coast Canada
Phase 2: Great Lakes and St. Lawrence
Phase 3: East Coast Canada

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

21

Large Infrastructure Future - COMMON MINIMUM STANDARDS

Indonesia gains support for the adoption of LNG as marine fuel


Singapore News Desk, 11th December 2013 04:45 GMT

The government has welcomed plans by energy giant Royal Dutch Shell to conduct retrofitting
works on Indonesian ships to run on LNG, according to local news provider Jakarta Globe.
To convert diesel into gas for thousands of ships will really help Indonesia," Energy and Mineral
Resources Minister Jero Wacik, was quoted
The country is looking to develop renewable energy technologies to reduce its dependency on
imported fuel.
Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

Large Infrastructure Future & COMMON MINIMUM STANDARDS

Creating Safety Standards and Operational


Procedures for Gas Bunkering at Ports
Lloyds Register working with MPA Singapore and
three International bodies, looking at harmonisation
of Standards with:
IMO (IGF), ISO (TC) and IAPH
Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

22

Agenda

Gas Fuelled Shipping:

Gas Bunkering Standards and Operational Procedures Update

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

Gas Bunkering Standards and Operational Procedures


Risk-Assessing todays Challenges in LNG Bunkering

Risks that needs Assessing:

Vessels

Location

Personnel

Equipment

Environment

Emergency Planning

Regulations

GOAL:
Create Standards that address the entire gas bunkering
supply chain needs
Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

23

Gas Bunkering Standards and Operational Procedures


Todays Challenges in LNG Bunkering, addressed by LR

STANDARDS Challenge

Incomplete Safety Standards for Gas Bunkering /


Gaps

Lack of Awareness and Training of all Personnel


involved

PROCEDURES Challenge

Lack of standard safety for LNG Bunkering


Operational Procedures

No Quality and Quantity Procedures for LNG as


shipping fuel

Other COMMERCIAL VIABILITY Challenges


Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

Lloyds Registers
Standards and Operational Procedures for Safe GAS BUNKERING
Lloyds Register working in 5 Critical Areas with
Clients:

New Gas Bunkering Standards

New Gas Bunkering Operational Procedures

Technical Solutions for Bunkering Equipment


(Transfer and Off-loading) at Port

Safety and Compatibility of Gas Bunkering Ships


and Gas Receiving Ships

Safety at Exclusion Zones anywhere Gas Bunkering


is performed

Emergency Procedures at Bunkering Location / Port

Competency Standards for Personnel

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

24

Other COMMERCIAL VIABILITY Challenges for Port Authorities

In order to ensure commercial viability, Port Authorities and Gas Suppliers


may need to consider other issues, like:

Have an Accreditation Procedure and Standard to the Gas Supplier

Different Ship Types required different Bunkering location

Different Bunkering location requires a variety of Bunkering solutions


and flexibility on Bunker Tanker (connections, freeboard, mooring,)

Time to bunker gas cannot exceed time to bunker fuel oil

Custody Transfer System for when there is vapour return (bigger ships
/ ships without C-Type Bunker Tanks, other solutions,)

Land Regulations may apply to some bunkering locations

Too prescriptive requirements from Port Authorities / Land


Authorities may constraint gas fuelled ships traffic into Port

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

Todays Challenges in LNG Bunkering solved by Lloyds Register

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

25

SAFETY of GAS AS MARINE FUEL

Lloyds Register GAS as Fuel UPDATE

Luis Benito
Global Strategic Marketing Manager
Business Development and Innovation
T +65 6891 7328 E luis.benito@lr.org
Lloyds Register
460 Alexandra Road, #28-01, PSA Building, Singapore 119963

Working together
for a safer world

Lloyds Register and variants of it are trading names of Lloyds Register Group Limited, its subsidiaries and affiliates.
Copyright Lloyds Register Asia. 2013. A member of the Lloyds Register group.

26

Indonesia GAS: FSRU and Small LNG Seminar


Hotel Borobudur Jakarta, 12 December 2013

Feedback and keep in touch


Thank you for attending this workshop. We hope you found it interesting and informative.
1. If you have any feedback for the workshop, please contact our speakers or
Ms Carmen Chia
Lloyd's Register Asia
T: +603 2034 9012
E: carmen.chia@lr.org
2. For further information about Lloyd's Register Marine Business in South Asia, please contact
Mr N. Irfani Fahmi
Lloyd's Register Asia
T: +62 (0) 21 576 0968
M: +62 (0) 812 101 3193
E: irfani.fahmi@lr.org

Lloyd's Register Seminar