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TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

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TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

1.1 INTRODUCTION:
Temporary structures are defined as buildings intended to be used for short periods of time.
Such structures may be used at special events or displays such as weddings, functions, music
festivals, market days, etc.
True characteristics of a temporary structure are it is de- and re-mountable, low mass
construction technique ,temporary doesnt mean a short life, unlimited possibilities of form,
future use ,translucency.
A temporary structure is "Any piece of work that is readily movable and used or intended to
be used for a period not to exceed 90 consecutive days. Such structure shall be subject to all
applicable property development standards for the district in which it is located." (Scottsdale,
Ariz.)
Or "A structure without any foundation or footing and removed when the designated time
period, activity, or use for which the temporary structure was erected has ceased." (Santa
Monica, Calif.)

1.2 AIM:
To study about cost effective construction techniques and building materials used in the
construction of temporary structures.

1.3 OBJECTIVES:
The objectives of the study are,

Study terminologies used in temporary structures.


Study different parts of a temporary structure.
Different types of temporary structures and the occasions in which they are used.
To study about the choice of appropriate design and materials.
To study construction techniques of temporary structures.
To study proper planning and control of work practices.
To study correct positioning on the site including ground conditions and foundations.

1.4 SCOPE:
Temporary structures have evolved considerably over the years, bringing a wide range of
marquee hire options for anyone organising a festival, exhibition, product launch, wedding or
private party because of their comparatively low cost, versatility and unique designs. And
nowadays architects, engineers are choosing innovative , fast finishing and cost effective
methods of construction. The study will be helpful to promote the usage of temporary
structures among people who depends on permanent structure for exhibition and other
purposes because of expense issues, as my study is to identify cost effective construction
techniques and materials.

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TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

1.5 LIMITATIONS:
The study is limited to the following due to time constraints and availability of case studies:

Details of temporary structures used only for exhibition purposes( its design, planning,
construction, dismantling and risk assessment).
Details of modular and custom designs
Fixing and construction details.
Time required for construction and dismantling of temporary structures, cost, climatic
suitability, foundation requirements, height and risk of construction of aluminium
alloy framed structures, light gauge steel framed structures and wooden framed
structures.

1.6 EXPECTED OUTCOME:


Identifying Cost effective construction techniques and choice of material used for the
construction of temporary exhibition structures for different climatic conditions.

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TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 DATA COLLECTION :

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TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

Temporary structures are structures capable of large configuration changes in an autonomous


way. It can change shape so as to significantly change its size. They are sometimes known
under the names like transportable, expandable, extendible, portable, developable structures.

2.1.1 DIFFERENT PARTS AND TERMINOLOGIES :


a) Column base plate: connects the portal frame to the soil. It normally consists of 4 screw
holes, and some even have 3 extra holes to join bracings and columns. (fig 2.2)
b) Intermediate column: supports and joins intermediate rafters (fig 2.1)
c)Apex bracket: Joins the opposing rafters and together and is the highest point of the shed
portal frame. (fig 2.1)
d) Haunch plate/knee plate: Joins the roof opposing side rafters to opposing side columns to
complete portal frame (fig 2.1)
e) Wall girt: This connects the wall sheets to the portal frames. Wall girt run along the length
of the structure and are fixed to the frame (fig2.1)

(Figure 2.1 : Different parts of a temporary structure)


f) End Wall Girt: This connects the wall sheets to the wall columns. End wall girt run across
the width of the structure fixed to the frame (fig 2.1)
g) PA Door: is the terminology for a personnel access door (fig 2.1)
h) Diagonal Bracing: Generally provided to upgrade the lateral stability for the structural
frame (fig 2.1)
i) End wall columns: Used to support the end wall rafters and end wall girts.(fig 2.1)
j) Roof purlin: This connects the roof sheeting to the portal frame. They run along the entire
length of the structure fixed to the frame.(fig 2.1)

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TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

(Figure 2.2 : Column with base plate)

2.1.2 TYPES OF TEMPORARY STRUCTURES:


2.1.2.1 CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO DURATION
1.Long term Temporary structures:
Not just a Short-term solution, temporary building structures can be used as long term
solution. This category includes structures which are used for duration of months. The
temporary buildings will last for as long as you need them. They can also stand alone, or be
attached to extend a pre-existing building with sizes ranging from 7.00m to 32.00m and if
necessary, modules can be produced to a specific size.
2.Short term Temporary structures:
Structures which is used for a duration of some days to weeks. such structures will be easy to
erect and dismantle.
2.1.2.2 CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO SHAPE OF THE ROOF
1.Gable roof temporary structures:
The gable roof has two sloping sides that meet at the top to form a gable at each end. A gable
is the triangular wall enclosed by the sloping ends of the roof. The gable roof is the most
common type of roof. The clear span width is 5 to 80 metres. The side height is 3 to 10 metres
and varies depending on specific models. Shown in Figure 2.3.

(Figure 2.3 Gable roof temporary structure)

2.Barrel roof temporary structures:

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TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

It's high strength Temporary structure. Along the length of the semi-cylinder, these roofs are
capable large spans. The ancient Romans first used the semicircular arch which was then
extended into vault for tunnelled aqueducts etc. Shown in figure 2.4.

(Figure 2.4 : Barrel roof temporary structure)


3.Saddle roof temporary structures:
Saddle roof has two meanings, one modern and one historical. The modern meaning is a roof
form which follows a convex curve about one axis and a concave curve about the other.
The hyperbolic paraboloid form has been used for roofs at various times since it is easily
constructed from straight sections of lumber, steel, or other conventional materials. The term
is used because the form resembles the shape of a saddle.

(Figure 2.5 : Shape of a Saddle roof)

4. A-Frame roof temporary structures:

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TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

An A-frame is an architectural house style featuring steeply-angled sides (roofline) that


usually begin at or near the foundation line, and meet at the top in the shape of the letter A.
An A-frame ceiling can be open to the top rafters. Usually used for Temporary housing
purposes, vacation houses etc.

(Figure 2.6 : A-Frame roof temporary structure)


5.Gambrel roof structure:
The gambrel roof is a gable with a slight bend on each side. It is a hallmark of Dutch Colonial
style. The best way to describe a gambrel roof is by saying barn roof. The gambrel style roof
is most commonly used on barns. a barn is a large farm building used for storing grain, hay, or
straw or for housing livestock However, it is also used in residential construction. This type of
roof has the benefit of providing a good amount of space in the attic.

(Figure 2.7 : Gambrel roof structure)

6.Shed roof temporary structures:

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TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

A shed roof is basically a flat roof but has more pitch. This type of roof only slopes down in
one direction. It is sometimes used on a lower porch roof and ties into a wall or upper steeper
roof. It is also used on smaller temporary buildings where one wall is built taller than the
opposite one to create the pitch, hence the term "shed roof".

(Figure 2.8 : Shed roof structure)

7. Flat roof structures:


Flat roofs are definitely the most simple roof to build because they have little to no pitch. The
most common types of roofing systems used with flat roofs are rubber roofing systems. They
are easy to build and require lesser materials and labour than most other type of roofs.

(Figure 2.9 : Flat roof temporary structure)

8. Saltbox roof structures:

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TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

This type of roof is just a gable built on two different height walls. Sometimes this style of
roof is used to gain space to create a loft area.

(Figure 2.10 : Saltbox roof)


9.Tented or Pavilion roof:
A tented roof is a type of polygonal hipped roof with steeply pitched slopes rising to a peak.
Tented roofs, a hallmark of medieval religious architecture, were widely used to cover
churches with steep, conical roof structures.

(Figure 2.11 : Pavilion roof structure)

2.1.2.3 Classification According To Structural Frame Materials

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TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

1.Aluminium Alloy frame :


It is High strength, rustproof, lightweight, Waterproof, fireproof, UV resistant, Factory good
price, fast delivery. Structural frame is High-strength aluminium alloy with PADF coating.
Connector is made of zinc powder-coated steel. The frame is strong, durable, light in weight,
not easy to rust and distort. No pole inside, space can be 100% utilized. Easy to set up and
take down. Convenient to transport and store. Installation on any grounds with Expansion
screw/Steel nail/Loading system. Optional accessories: Transparent cover, PVC-clear
windows, glass door, slide door, folding door, tent, floor system, weight plate, lining and
curtain, lighting, rain gutter, pins , carpet, tables, stage, and chairs, air-conditioner. Solid
walls, Glass walls, Sandwich walls. spanned up to 40 meters. Height can be up to 5m. Use:
party, event, wedding, ceremony, exhibition.

(Figure 2.12 : aluminium alloy frame temporary structure)


2.Timber frame or Wooden frame:
Light wood framed construction is one of the most popular types of buildings method for
temporary as well as permanent structures. It is light, and allows quick construction with no
heavy tools or equipments. Every components can easily be carried by hand. The main tool
used in wooden frame construction is a Handheld nail gun. It is able to adapt itself to any
geometric shape, and can be clad with a variety of materials. There are a huge variety of
products and systems tailored to this type of construction.

(Figure 2.13 : Timber frame temporary structure)

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TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

It has these negative characteristics: It is not highly fireproof, as it is made of wood. It is not
strong enough to resist major wind events such as tornadoes and hurricanes.
Every timber frame structures are made of a few basic components: Studs are vertical wooden
members within the walls. Joists are the horizontal wooden beams that support the floors.
Rafters are the sloping wooden beams that support the roof. Sheathing are the sheets that are
nailed over the studs to connect them securely and form the wall surfaces. Sliding is the
exterior cladding that covers the walls from the outside. Timber frame structures can be again
classified in to:
a) Platform framed structures:
It is also called "western" framing. Joists, studs, rafters, and plates are the members that are
used to construct platform framing. Each floor is constructed as its own unit, helping to
prevent fire from spreading between floors. Wall sections for each floor are also constructed
as one-story units. Settling does occur after a house is framed, but most shrinkage occurs
uniformly over a structure. Generally this type of structures are used for semi permanent and
permanent structures . Typical construction methods for platform framing are shown below.
Platform Framing and Foundation Platform frames are started with a sill plate attached to
the foundation, and joists run perpendicular from the sill plate. A joist header attaches to the
end of each joist. The studs are then attached to the joists, running the ceiling height of the
floor. The subflooring is installed on top of the joists. A sole plate is then installed on top of
the subflooring material.

(Figure 2.14 : Platform framing for ground floor)


Platform Framing and Upper Floors
The details in upper floor framing are similar to the ground floor. No fire stopping is required,
as the construction method provides a joist hanger, which is a built-in fire stopping and
structural system. The height of the studs for each floor are determined by the desired ceiling
height for that particular floor.

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(Figure 2.15 : Platform framing for upper floors)


b) Balloon frame structures:
Balloon framing is no longer a popular framing system. Balloon framing uses the same type
of members as platform framing, but with more substantial sized material for studs. Studs in a
balloon frame run continuously from the sill all the way to the rafter. The second floor joists
are supported on a ribbon instead of a joist header. Fire stopping is added to the spaces
between the studs, which provides a space for mechanical system installation. Generally this
type of structures are used for semi permanent and permanent structures. Typical construction
methods for balloon framing are shown below.
Balloon Frame and Foundation The foundation for a balloon frame is constructed the same
as in the platform framing method, shown above. There is a sill plate attached to the
foundation, and joists run perpendicular from the sill plate. The studs are then attached to the
joists, and run the entire height of the house. The subflooring is installed on top of the joists.

(figure 2.16 Balloon framing for ground floor)


Balloon Framing and Upper Floors
The details of upper floor construction are different in balloon framing. Each floor's joists are
run off of the same stud members that continue through the height of the house. In order to
hang the joists, ribbon members are installed to the studs. This type of construction provides
great stability. Fire stopping is included in the stud bays.

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(Figure 2.17 : Balloon framing for upper floors)


c) Cruck frame structures:
Usually build this using round wood (eg. bamboo) so the natural form of the trees can still be
appreciated. a variety of roofing and walling options are available.

(Figure 2.18 : Cruck frame structure)


d) Creek town structures:
This form is a native American structure from the Alabama, Mississippi area. The roof can be
Thatched , felted or shingled.

(Figure 2.19 : Creek frame structure)

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TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

e)Tent structure:
This structure mark the early evolution of green timber frames. This structures can be built
with a mix of round and square timber. The roof can be covered with shingles, tarps, felt or
thatch. This structure can be closed in or left open ended.

(Figure 2.20 : Tent structure)


f) Round frame structures:
Large trees are used to create this beautiful circular space. The reciprocal frame can support a
living turf roof with no centre pole. The structure is often left open sided for transparency. A
variety of different wall types can be fitted on any number of the sides.

(Figure 2.21 : Round frame structure)


g)Byre:
This is a traditional type of building form that can be extended to any number of bays. It is
held together with wooden pegs and cut from large trees.

(Figure 2.22 : Byre structure)

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3.Light Gauge steel framed buildings:


Light gauge steel construction is very similar to wood framed construction in principle. The
wooden framing members are replaced with thin steel sections. The steel sections used here
are called cold formed sections, meaning that the sections are formed, or given shape at room
temperature. This is in contrast to thicker hot rolled sections, that are shaped while the steel is
molten hot. Cold framed steel is shaped by guiding thin sheets of steel through a series of
rollers each roller changing the shape very slightly, with the net result of converting a flat
sheet of steel into a C or S shaped section.
The steel used here is coated with zinc (called galvanized)or a mixture of zinc and aluminium
(called zincalume or galvalume by some) to protect it from corrosion. The thickness of this
coating can be varied to suit a range of environments. Typically Humid environments require
the most protection, and dry, arid regions the least.
The thickness of steel used here range from about 1 to 3mm for structural sections and 1 to 2
mm for non-structural sections. The members are sized to roughly correspond to wood
members. 2"x4" and 2"x6" are common sizes.
Like in wooden framed construction, a frame of steel members is first constructed and then
clad with dry sheeting on both sides to form a load bearing wall. Construction with steel
follows the platform frame system of building. Connections between members are made with
self tapping self drilling screws.
Some advantages of light gauge steel framed buildings over wooden framed buildings are:
They are light and allow quick building without heavy tools or equipment. Every component
can easily be carried by hand. The main tool is a light , handheld screw gun. since steel is
strong, LGS structures are lighter than wood framed structures of equivalent strength.
Their higher strength allows greater spacing between members when compared to wood
frame construction. It is able to shape itself to any form, and can be clad and insulated with a
wide range of materials. It is non-combustible. They do not rot, shrink, warp or decompose
like wood structures.

(Figure 2.23: Light gauge steel framed structure)

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2.1.2.4 Classification According To Roofing Material:


1.Membrane roofed Temporary structures or fabric structures:
Tensile fabric structures is architecture of new generation as well as possibility to supplement
Traditional architectural solutions. Tensioned membrane material is considered to be the fifth
construction element after metal, stone, glass, and concrete. Solutions of architecture textile
have been applied just recently not only in Europe, but also in the whole world especially
Middle East, therefore lately the popularity of them is growing. Such structures provide a
greater flexibility. Some of the membrane materials are give in the section 2.1.3. Such
structures are fast to erect and dismantle, they are low cost. Modular and custom designs are
available and they can be easily transported.

(Figure 2.24 : Membrane roofed temporary structure)


Table 2.1 Advantages And Disadvantages Of Membrane Roofed Temporary Structure:

Advantages
Ideal as an instant temporary fix.
Fast to erect.
Fast to dismantle.
Will fix to any hard standing
surface( whether it is bolts or spikes)
Will stand on sloping or uneven ground.

Disadvantages
Not as secure as steel roof building due to
PVC fabric used for the roof.
Depreciate and deteriorate over time with
maximum 10 years life span.
Not classed as an asset because they are demountable.
Require regular maintenance.
Low fire retardancy values because of the
PVC and Aluminum.

2. Steel clad roof structures:


They are still relatively fast to erect and fast to dismantle. The combination of steel roof and
wall cladding adds to the overall stability. The steel roof cladding provides improved security.
No Footings are required. This type of temporary structures can be also called as semipermanent structures.

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(Figure 2.25 :Steel clad roof structure)


Table 2.2 Advantages And Disadvantages Of Steel Clad Roof Structure:
Advantages
Very low capital cost compared to a
conventional building.
Supplied in variety of cladding colours
to match existing (if extending)
secure as any other conventional
buildings.
100% water tight.
Parts and cladding warranties up to 50
years.
Totally maintenance free.
Fabricated to your exact size
requirements.

Disadvantages
May require concrete base if it is to
be for a long term use.

2.1.3 MEMBRANE MATERIALS


a) Polyester
Among the most widely used materials are polyester and laminated or coated with poly vinyl
chloride (PVC).polyester is frequently used because of its strength, durability, cost and
stretch. it costs Rs.210/sq ft

(Figure 2.26 : Polyester)

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b)Fibreglass
Another widely used membrane structure, coated with Teflon or silicone. The fibreglass has a
high ultimate tensile strength, behaves elastically and does not undergo significant stress
relaxation and creep. The Teflon coating is chemically inert, withstands temperature from
-100F to 450F , is immune to UV radiation and can be cleaned with water. It costs Rs.179/sq
ft.

(Figure 2.27 : Fibreglass)

c)Nylon
Nylon which may be laminated with vinyl films, is stronger and more durable than polyester.
But has a higher cost and more stretch . It may a good choice for some small jobs, but it
stretches too much for use in large buildings. It cots Rs.334/sq ft.

(Figure 2.28 : Nylon)


d) Kevlar
Kevlar is an excellent light weight material used for construction, but it is very expensive and
therefore not used for large structures. It costs Rs.815/sq ft.

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(Figure 2.29 : Kevlar)


e)Tarpaulin
A tarpaulin or tarp is a large sheet of strong, flexible, water resistant material they have
grommets at the corners and along the sides to form attachment points for rope, allowing them
to be tied down or suspended. It costs Rs.30/sq ft.

(Figure 2.30 : Tarpaulin)

2.1.4 STEPS INVOLVED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF TEMPORARY


STRUCTURES:
a) Site preparation:

The site should be levelled if not


The layout must be clearly defined using profile pegs and string lines.
The position for the base plates are marked using chalk or pegs.

(Figure 2.31 : Setting of layout)

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b) Portal frame assembly:

Base plate is fixed to the ground using 20mm thick , 80cm long cast iron rod such that
50cm is below the ground. The depth of the drill hole should be the screw bolt length
+2times the screw bolt diameter. The spacing between each base plate should be 3 to
6m.
Fix the column in any of the following ways.

(Figure 2.32 : Fixing of base plate)

(Figure 2.33 : Depth of drill hole)


1) Method with base plate
All columns are fixed to the base plates simply by bolting.

(Figure 2.34 : Column bolted to base plate)

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2) Methods without base plate


a)The column will have 2 parts: one with holes at 15cm interval and the other with a rotatable
screw with a handle. The latter will have slightly larger diameter than former. The lower
portion is fixed simply in to the ground to a depth 60cm and the upper portion is adjusted to
required height and bolted. Lift inner tube as near as possible to the required height. Outer
tube is kept steady by placing it into the ground. Insert pin through the slot in the outer tube
passing through the nearest hole in the inner tube. Turn handle for final adjustment. the
process is shown in figure.
b)A U-beam (2cm thick) is fixed into the ground using U-shaped steel clamp of 70cm length
with pointed ends, of which 60 cm will be below the ground. Column (I-section 2cm thick) is
bolted to the U beam.

(Figure 2.35: U beam and Column arrangement)

The rafter beams are fixed separately by aligning them with the corresponding holes of
the apex plate and bolting them.

(Figure 2.36 : Rafter and Apex plate)


The already fixed rafter and apex plate is brought using a chain pulley arrangement
and bolted to the column along with a haunch plate by aligning them with their
corresponding holes.

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(Figure 2.37 : Fixing of Rafter to columns)


Purlins are fixed to the columns to hold all the adjacent rafters. All the bolts may be
hand tightened or pneumatic torque wrench may be used.
repeat the above procedures until all the portal frames are assembled.
Relying on column base plates without using construction bracing could result with
the frame collapsing. For spanning up to 20m bracing may be provided at a column
interval of 25m, whereas for a span more than 20m, bracing may be provided each 910 m.

(Figure 2.38 : Pneumatic Torque wrench)

2.1.5 CONNECTION DETAILS OF MEMBRANE MATERIALS:

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There are various methods through which the membrane materials can be connected with the
frame of the structure. some of the commonly used methods are described below:

Connections by creating pocket on fabric material for inserting metal rods into it as
shown in figure 2.39
Connections by bolting fabric membrane material to the end plates as shown in figure
2.40
Connections by tying fabric and structural materials to an external support using metal
ties as shown in figure 2.41

(Figure 2.39 : Connection by creating pocket on fabric material)

(Figure 2.40 : Connection by bolting)

(Figure 2.41 : Connection by tying fabric to an external support)

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TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

2.1.6 SERVICES:
2.1.6.1 AIR CONDITIONING:
Air conditioning is the process of altering the properties of air (primarily temperature
and humidity) to more comfortable conditions, typically with the aim of distributing the
conditioned air to an occupied space to improve thermal comfort and indoor air quality.
Portable air conditioners are used to condition the occupied spaces inside temporary event
structures. They can be easily transported inside the buildings. They are currently available
with capacities of about 5,00060,000 BTU /h (1,80018,000 W output) and with or without
electric-resistance heaters. Portable air conditioners are either evaporative or refrigerative.
The compressor-based refrigerant systems are air-cooled, meaning they use air to exchange
heat, in the same way as a car or typical household air conditioner does. Such a system
dehumidifies the air as it cools it. It collects water condensed from the cooled air and
produces hot air which must be vented outside the cooled area; doing so transfers heat from
the air in the cooled area to the outside air.
Portable split system
A portable split system has an indoor unit on wheels connected to an outdoor unit via flexible
pipes, similar to a permanently fixed installed unit.

(Figure 2.42 : Portable split A/c)


Portable hose system
Hose systems, which can be monoblock or air-to-air, are vented to the outside via air ducts.
The monoblock type collects the water in a bucket or tray and stops when full. The air-toair type re-evaporates the water and discharges it through the ducted hose and can run
continuously.

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A single-hose unit uses air from within the room to cool its condenser, and then vents it
outside. This air is replaced by hot air from outside or other rooms (due to the negative
pressure inside the room), thus reducing the unit's effectiveness.

(Figure 2.43 : Portable hose system)


Portable evaporative system
Evaporative coolers, sometimes called "swamp coolers", do not have a compressor or
condenser. Liquid water is evaporated on the cooling fins, releasing the vapour into the cooled
area. Evaporating water absorbs a significant amount of heat, the latent heat of vaporisation,
cooling the air. Humans and animals use the same mechanism to cool themselves by sweating.
Evaporative coolers have the advantage of needing no hoses to vent heat outside the cooled
area, making them truly portable. They are also very cheap to install and use less energy than
refrigerative air conditioners.

(Figure 2.44 : Portable evaporative system)

2.1.6.2 LIGHTING:
Lighting or illumination is the deliberate use of light to achieve a practical or aesthetic effect.
Lighting includes the use of both artificial light sources like lamps and light fixtures, as well
as natural illumination by capturing daylight. Day lighting (using windows, skylights, or light
shelves) is sometimes used as the main source of light during daytime in buildings. This can
save energy in place of using artificial lighting, which represents a major component of

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TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

energy consumption in buildings. Proper lighting can enhance task performance, improve the
appearance of an area, or have positive psychological effects on occupants.

(Figure 2.45 : Lighting inside a temporary structure)


a)Natural lighting through roof or wall systems:
Usage of transparent materials as wall or roof envelop provides natural lighting inside the
building. materials such as clear vinyl fabric, poly carbonate sheets, PVC roofs etc provides
high degree of natural light.
Translucent fabrics permit a large amount of natural light to pass through them, which helps
to trap and retain heat in the winter period, but can promote extremely high temperatures in
the summer, which need to be controlled.

(Figure 2.46 : Natural Lighting using transparent membrane materials)


b) Artificial lighting:
Lighting fixtures come in a wide variety of styles for various functions. The most important
functions are as a holder for the light source, to provide directed light and to avoid visual
glare. Some are very plain and functional, while some are pieces of art in themselves. Nearly
any material can be used, so long as it can tolerate the excess heat and is in keeping with
safety codes. Lamp types include:

Fluorescent light: A tube coated with phosphor containing low


pressure mercury vapor that produces white light.

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TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

(Figure 2.47 : Fluorescent light)

Halogen: Incandescent lamps containing halogen gases such as iodine or bromine,


increasing the efficacy of the lamp versus a plain incandescent lamp.

(Figure 2.48 : Halogen lamps)

Neon: A low pressure gas contained within a glass tube; the color emitted depends on
the gas.

(Figure 2.49 : Neon lamp)

Light emitting diodes: Light emitting diodes (LED) are solid state devices that emit
light by dint of the movement of electrons in a Semi conductor material.

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TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

(Figure 2.50 : LED Lamp)

Compact fluorescent lamps: CFLs are designed to replace incandescent lamps in


existing and new installations.

(Figure 2.51 : Compact fluorescent lamps)

2.1.6.2.1 METHODS OF LIGHTING:

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Down lighting is most common, with fixtures on or recessed in the ceiling casting
light downward. This tends to be the most used method, used in both offices and homes.
Although it is easy to design it has dramatic problems with glare and excess energy
consumption due to large number of fittings. The introduction of LED lighting has greatly
improved this by approx. 90% when compared to a halogen down light or spotlight. LED
lamps or bulbs are now available to retro fit in place of high energy consumption lamps.

Up lighting is less common, often used to bounce indirect light off the ceiling and back

down. It is commonly used in lighting applications that require minimal glare and uniform
general illuminance levels. Uplighting (indirect) uses a diffuse surface to reflect light in a
space and can minimize disabling glare on computer displays and other dark glossy
surfaces. It gives a more uniform presentation of the light output in operation. However
indirect lighting is completely reliant upon the reflectance value of the surface. While
indirect lighting can create a diffused and shadow free light effect it can be regarded as an
uneconomical lighting principle.

Front lighting is also quite common, but tends to make the subject look flat as its casts
almost no visible shadows. Lighting from the side is the less common, as it tends to
produce glare near eye level. Backlighting either around or through an object is mainly for
accent.

2.2 LITERATURE CASE STUDY:

31
TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

2.2.1 IBM TRAVELING PAVILION (1983-1986) BY RENZO PIANO:


Architect : Renzo Piano
Purpose : Travelling pavilion for exhibition of computers

2.2.1.1 Introduction:
In 1983, IBM (International Business Machines Corporation), a leading company in the
computer industry, decided to promote the knowledge of technology, especially among young
people, by creating a travelling exhibit that would bet set up, for one month at a time, in the
parks of twenty different European cities. The architectural structure used for this exhibit had
to ensure precise microclimate control for the interior space in which the sophisticated
electronic equipment would be exhibited to the public, and had to be able to be set up in
various different settings.
The building, which was 48 metres long, 12 metres wide and 7 metres high, was comprised
of an entirely disassemblable transparent tunnel, equipped with the various support systems
for the computerized instrumentation that would be put on display. Each time the exhibition
was moved, a specific project had to be developed in order to allow it to be inserted within the
new context, while the functionality of the building itself only required a connection to a main
electrical power source.

(Figure 2.52 : IBM Travelling pavilion

32
TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

(Figure 2.53 :Model Of IBM Travelling Pavilion)


The arch elements, being the modular structure of the building itself, were assembled upon an
appropriately-outfitted and raised platform that housed all of the necessary systems. The 34
arches, each with three hinges, were comprised of 68 semi-arches. These semi-arches were
made up of three-dimensional beams in which a polycarbonate material served as both an
external covering as well as the lattice structure between the inner and outer arches. Each
individual arch was made up of 12 polycarbonate pyramids. The internal structure was mainly
made out of three primary materials: wood, which was employed in the laminated beech wood
uprights, cast aluminium, which was used for the joints, and transparent polycarbonate, which
was used to construct the thermoformed pyramids that served as the structural and roof
cladding elements. Wood was also used for the flooring and the walls, and as a base for the
objects that were put on display. The pavilion has not been reassembled since it was
permanently dismantled following the completion of the exhibition in 1986.
Materials:
The structure is composed of a sequence of 3 hinged arched units, forming a cylindrical vault
which can be easily assembled and dissembled. It stands on a framed floor. Each unit is made
of three basic materials

33
TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

cast aluminium

laminated wood

poly carbonate pyramids

(Figure 2.54 :Section of the pavilion)

2.2.1.2 CONNECTIONS AND ASSEMBLY

The construction consist of a raised steel framed floor enclosed with 34 self supporting
arches, 1.4m in width spanning 10.2m

The outer laminated timber spar which joins the top of each pyramid with two similar
spars forms the double internal chords of the arch. The structure formed by the
pyramids and the spars behave as a triangular cross-section truss.

The spars made from laminated wood in short sections, are glued to cast aluminium
nodes to which the pyramids are stiffened with metal plates and stainless steel blocks,
bonded with special glues to the polycarbonate

34
TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

For the assembly, two halves of the arched truss units are pinned at the base to the
framed floor and then lifted in to arch position. pin connections join the arch tops, and
the floor seams are attached as additional units to complete the cylindrical vault.

(Figure 2.55 : Site layout of IBM Travelling pavilion)

35
TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

2.3 LIVE CASE STUDY:


2.3.1

MANORAMA FIESTA 2014 HELD AT JAWAHAR LAL NEHRU STADIUM,

KOCHIN.
Malayala manorama conducted their annual shopping exhibition 'manorama fiesta' on august
28 up to September 14 at jawahar lal nehru stadium, kochin.
Features:

Barrel roof

without any intermediate column supports

Materials used:

Aluminium fabricated Purlin pipes of 2inches diameter

tarpaulin sheets and polyester sheets as the membrane material

Runner wood pieces, Wooden boards and carpets for plat form

Arch units of 150 cm height, 120 cm height and a central arch unit

36
TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

(Figure 2.56 : Views of the Pavilion)

(Figure 2.57 :Layout of the site)

37
TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

(Figure 2.58 : Plan of the exhibition pavilion)


2.3.1.1 CONSTRUCTION:
1.Site preparation

The site was already a level land

The required area and the Position of the base plates are marked with pegs and threads

The size of the pavilion was 80x25m

2. Portal frame assembly

Each base plates are aligned along the thread and 150 cm arch units are then brought
over the corresponding holes of the base plate and bolted using 1.2 m screws in to the
ground as shown in figure below

(Figure 2.59 Fixing of portal frame)

On either side of the central unit, five 120cm units are bolted one by one(intermediate
arch units can be added according to the span of the pavilion. For a dome structure the

38
TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

maximum span can be up to 25m). This whole system is bought over the already fixed
150 cm units using a chain and pulley arrangement with scaffolding. similarly all the
arches are assembled.

Purlins are then bolted. One end of the purlin is bolted to first neck of the first unit and
the other end to the corresponding neck of the adjacent unit. similarly all purlins are
bolted as given in the figure below.

(Figure 2.60 : Process of joining purlin and units)


3. Flooring:

Wooden planks of 12cmx6cm are evenly placed along the width. Similarly, another set
of planks are placed perpendicular to the previous to form a grid like pattern. 8"x4"
plywood sheets of 12mm thickness are placed above it. over which the carpet is
spread.

(Figure 2.61 : arrangement of first two sets of wooden planks)

39
TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

(Figure 2.62 : Floor detail)


4.Fixing Of Membrane:

Fabric used is tarpaulin sheets. Each sheet is 6m in width. One end of the rope is tied
to one of the grommets of the sheet and the other end on the purlin. similarly, ropes are
tied on to all the grommets which are thereby tied on to the purlins in each interval of
the arches. polyester sheets of the same dimensions are fixed in the same way in the
interior part of the pavilion in order to hide the tarpaulin sheets.

(Figure 2.63 : fixing of membrane material)


5. Dismantling:

Tarpaulin sheets and hylum sheets are untied and removed

Purlins are unbolted from both of its sides and is tied on to a rope so that it could be
bought down slowly. Similarly all the purlins are removed.

40
TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

The central unit is the one which is then unbolted. Being heavy it is bought down
slowly with the help of scaffolding and chain pulley arrangement.

The rest of the units are unbolted and bought down one by one using rope.

(Figure 2.64 : dismantling process (removing purlins) )

2.3.2 VANITHA MAX EXHIBITION 2014 HELD AT SAROVARAM PARK, CALICUT

(Figure 2.65 : Views of the pavilion)

41
TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

(Figure 2.66 : Layout of the site)


Purpose : Shopping exhibition for 3 weeks
Time taken to assemble : 10 days
No. of workmen : 30
Shape of the roof: Pitched roof (gable structure)
Materials used :

Aluminium fabricated columns

Fire proof Nylon cloth as membrane material

8 grooved aluminium pillars to support partition panels

42
TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

(Figure 2.67 : Plan of the pavilion)

(Figure 2.68 : Section of the pavilion)

43
TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

2.3.2.1 CONSTRUCTION:
1. Site preparation:
The site was already a level land as exhibitions are continuously conducted in the stadium
The required area and the position of base plates are marked with pegs and threads.
The total area of the exhibition pavilion is 60x20m
2. Portal frame assembly:
The base plate is fixed to the ground at an interval 5m , using nail of length 1m, such that 60
cm of it is below the ground. Only two of the diagonally placed holes are nailed here. The
base of the column is connected to the base plate. Similarly all the columns on either side are
fixed on to the base plates.

(Figure 2.69 : Bolting of column to base plate)


The two rafter beams (12m four 3 m rafter units joined together) are fixed together using an
apex plate. This unit is then bought using a chain pulley arrangement and fixed on to the
columns on either side along with haunch plates by bolting.

44
TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

(Figur
e 2.70 : fixing of rafter and apex plate)

(Figure 2.71 : Haunch plate)

Purlins are then bolted to the rafters at an interval of 2.5m. Bracing is provided at an interval
of 25m.
3. Fixing of membrane materials:
The ends of the sheets are folded to hold a steel rod of 3m length, for each interval of columns
to support the nylon covering on top
The side covering of the structure is also nylon sheet( light weight) which is fixed in to the
grooves of the beam. Sheets in between the intermediate columns are interconnected using
threads.

(Figure 2.72 : Nylon sheet covering)


4. Dismantling:

45
TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

The dismantling process is just the reverse process of assembling. The side covering is
removed first after the interconnecting threads are untied. The steel rods are taken out of the
gap formed by the ends of the sheet and the covering is removed.
All the purlins are then unbolted and stacked on one side of the site for loading. The rafter
beams along with the apex plate are taken away using chain pulley arrangement after the
haunch plates are unbolted. The apex plate is unbolted from the rafters and both are kept aside
for loading.
All the columns are unbolted from the base plates.
All the base plates are removed after the thick cast-iron rod are taken away.

CHAPTER 3

46
TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

METHODOLOGY

3.1 METHODOLOGY

47
TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

(Graphical representation of Methodology )


This research is intended to arrive at the inferences through the following methodology of
study:
Secondary data collection on:
Terminologies used in temporary structures, Types of temporary structures, advantages
and disadvantages of various types of temporary structures, Materials used to
construct temporary structures, construction of temporary structures, cost of
membrane materials

48
TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

Literature case study on:


IBM Travelling pavilion by Renzo Piano
IBM Travelling pavilion comes under the category of temporary exhibition structure, which is
made of cast aluminium and wooden frames and transparent polycarbonate sheets as the
membrane material.
Primary data collection
Live case study on
1. Vanitha max 2014 held at calicut sarovaram park
(Conventional type of temporary structure, gable roof structure, purpose: shopping exhibition)
2. Manorama Fiesta 2014 held at jawaharlal nehru stadium at ernakulam.
(conventional type of temporary structure, barrel roof structure, purpose: shopping exhibition)
The above mentioned two live case studies comes under the category of temporary fabric
temporary exhibition structures.
Collected Primary and Secondary data are analyzing on the basis of cost, time required for
construction, time required for dismantling, foundation requirements, span, height, risk of
construction and dismantling and climatic suitability.
Inferences drawn from the aforesaid studies and Framing guidelines for Cost effective,
Functional, Strong and aesthetically appealing Choice of temporary building designs and
materials

49
TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

CHAPTER 4
RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

50
TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

4.1 ANALYSIS
Table 4.1 : Comparative Analysis Of Barrel Roofed And Gable Roofed Structure

Cost
Time Of Construction

Time Of Dismantling

Barrel Roofed Structure

Gable Roofed Structure

52 Rupees Per Sq Ft

35 Rupees Per Sq ft

More time is taking for the

Comparatively lesser time of

construction

construction

Taking more time as the arch

Taking lesser time for dismantlin

elements are heavy


Foundation Requirement

Span
Height

Base plates of more size and

Base plates of lesser size and

strength are required

strength are required

25 m span

20 m span

Height and span are proportional.

Can have more height than the

i.e. the height is restricted

dome structure as the height doe

according to the span of the

not depending on the span

structure
Risk

Construction and dismantling are


more risky

Comparatively riskless

51
TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

Table 4.1 shows comparative analysis between Barrel roofed temporary structure and Gable
roofed temporary structure on the basis of Cost of construction, Time required for
construction and dismantling of the structure, Span of the structure, Height of the temporary
structure and Risk of construction. All the above mentioned data are collected through Live
case studies on Vanitha max shopping exhibition 2014 and Manorama fiesta shopping
exhibition 2014 held at Calicut and Ernakulam respectively. Both the temporary structures are
Aluminium alloy framed , fabric membrane temporary structure. After analyzing these two
types of membrane roofed temporary structures, Arrived at conclusions that Barrel roofed
temporary structures are more suitable for long span temporary structures, Gable roofed
temporary structures are less costly than barrel roofed temporary structures, Barrel roofed
temporary structures are taking more time for construction and dismantling, Gable roofed
temporary structures are comparatively riskless as the structural frame members are light
weight. Height of the barrel roofed structures are proportional to the span of the structure.
Table 4.2 Comparative Analysis Of Flat Roof And Shed Roof Temporary Structures

Flat roofed temporary

Shed roof temporary

structures

structures

Comparatively lesser costly than

Comparatively more costly than

sloping roof structures as they

flat roof structures as they

require lesser quantity of

require more quantity of

membrane materials

membrane materials

Time of fixing and

Comparatively lesser time is

Comparatively more time is

dismantling

taking for flat roof structures

taking than the flat roof

Cost

structures
Foundation

Heavy foundations are not

Heavy foundations are not

requirement

required

required

Span

Requires intermediate support for

Requires intermediate support

structures of span exceeding 9m

for structures of span exceeding


12 m

52
TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

Height

Height varies from 3m to 5 m

Height varies from 3 m to 7 m

Risk of construction

Riskless as most types of flat roof

Riskless as most types of

and dismantling

structures are small span

sloping roof structures are small

structures, and they do not

span structures, and they do not

requires strong structural support

requires strong structural


support

Table 4.2 shows comparative analysis of flat roofed and shed roofed temporary structures
based on cost, Time of construction and dismantling , foundation requirements, span , height
and risk of construction of the structure. It found from the table that both the flat roof and
shed roof structures are useful for small span structures only. flat roof structures are
comparatively less costly than shed roof structures as shed roof structures requires more
quantity of membrane materials than the flat roof structures.
Table 4.3 : Comparative Analysis Of Cost Of Commonly Used Membrane Materials

No.

Membrane

Cost in

materials

rupees

Size of sheets

Climatic

Method of

suitability

connection

per sq ft
1

Polyester

Fibre glass

Nylon

210

179

334

Available in various

Not suitable in

Connected

sizes

monsoon climate

using ropes

3050x1520 mm

Not suitable in

Connected

hot climate

using bolts

Thickness ranges from

Suitable in any

Connected

0.5 to 100mm. size is

climate

using ropes

Available in

Suitable in any

Connected

customized sizes

climate

using bolts

Ranges from 1200 to

Suitable in any

Connected

2000x1000 mm
4

Kevlar

Tarpaulin

815

30

53
TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

Polycarbonat

153

7300 mm

climate

using ropes

1100x4270 mm

Suitable in any

Connected

climate

using bolts

e sheet

Table 4.2 shows comparative analysis of cost of Commonly used Membrane materials such as
Polyester, Fibre glass, Nylon, Kevlar, Tarpaulin. These are the commonly used Membrane
materials used in Aluminium alloy framed, Timber framed and light gauge steel framed
structures. This comparative analysis shows that Polyester , Fibre glass, Nylon, Polycarbonate
and Tarpaulin are Suitable for cost effective temporary structures. But Fibre glass is not
suitable for Hot climate as it will increase heat inside the structure. Tarpaulin sheets are very
cheap but it may require covering sheets inside the pavilion as the tarpaulin sheets are not
well pleasing aesthetically. Generally polyester sheets are used as the interior covering in
structures which are covered using tarpaulin sheets. It is found that Nylon sheets are suitable
for any climatic conditions , Cost effective and aesthetically pleasing.

Table 4.4 : comparative analysis of methods of fixing with and without base plate

With base plate

Without base plate


Height adjustable

U- Beam method

method
Time of

Time depends on the size Time depends on the Comparatively this type

erection and

of

the

structure. size of the structure. It of foundations will take

dismantling

Comparatively very less will take 10 days for more time. It will take
time is taking than that of 30

workmen

to 12

days

for

30

u beam method. It will assemble a pavilion of workmen to assemble a


take

10

days

for

30 1200 sq m area.

workmen to assemble a
pavilion of 1200 sq m area

pavilion of 1200 sq m
area.

54
TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

Type of
structure

Can be used for both small This type of fixing can Used
span

and

large

in

large

span

span be used only for small structures as this type is

structures.

span structures.

more stronger than the


rest.

Cost

Comparatively less costly. Comparatively

less Expensive than that of

The cost of such structures costly than U beam methods with base plate
will

depends on the method.

selection

of

The

cost and height adjustable

membrane depends on membrane method as this type of

materials also.

materials

fixing

requires

excavation on the soil.

Table 4.3 shows comparative analysis of fixing of temporary structures. Methods of fixing
namely method with base plate, height adjustable method and U- Beam method are
compared on the basis of time of erection and dismantling, Types of structure and cost
of structure. It is found from the comparative analysis is that method with base plate is
less costly, can be used in both small and large span structures and time of erection
and dismantling is very less compared to height adjustable and U Beam method.
Method using U -Beam is suitable for large span structures. Height adjustable method
is not suitable for large span structures.
Table 4.5 : Comparative analysis of different types of temporary structures

Cost

Span

Aluminium alloy

Varies according

Gabled

framed temporary

to requirements.

structures can

structure

Lower than steel

be spanned up

(Galvanized)

framed structure.

to 20 m. barrel

52 Rs/sqft with

roof structures

A/c, 15Rs/sqft

up to 25 m

without A/c
(Rental cost)

Climatic

Time Of Erection

Suitability

And Dismantling

Suitable for

Varies according

Warm-humid,

to size

Hot-arid

requirements. A

climatic

regular size of

conditions

10x10m requires 4
days for 10
workmen.

55
TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

Timber/ wooden

Lower than steel

Intermediate

Less durable

Varies according

framed temporary

framed

columns are

when rain water

to the size

structures

temporary

required

falls on it

requirements. It

structure.9Rs/sqf

according to

constantly,

will take 3 days

t without

Increase in size

requires regular

for 10 people to

maintenance.

construct 10x10m

A/c(Rental cost)
Light gauge steel

Costly than

Can have any

Suitable for all

Takes more time

framed structures

aluminium and

required span.

climatic

than aluminium

timber framed

Intermediate

conditions as the and timber framed

structures.

columns are

steel is

Construction cost required


is 80 Rs/ sq ft.

structures

galvalume steel

according to
increase in span

Table 4.3 shows comparative analysis of various types of temporary structures. Temporary
structures are classified under 3 categories such as Aluminium alloy frame temporary
structures, Timber frame temporary structure and Light gauge steel framed temporary
structures based on the data acquired Through Secondary and Primary data collection. In table
4.3 These Three Structures are compared on the basis of Cost, Span, Climatic Suitability and
Time required for construction and dismantling. This comparative analysis shows that
Aluminium alloy framed structures and Light gauge steel framed structures are suitable for all
climatic conditions, Timber framed structures are less costly but they are not suitable for all
conditions as it requires regular maintenance and it may fail when used constantly in rainy
seasons.

Table 4.6 : Comparative analysis of different types of temporary structures


Foundation

Height

Requirements

Risk Of
Construction

Aluminium alloy

No heavy

Height varies

Riskiness is very low

framed temporary

foundations are

according to the

as compared with the

56
TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

structure

required

(Galvanized)

span. Can have a

steel framed

maximum height of 7

temporary structures.

meters for a span of


20 m
Timber/ wooden

No heavy concrete

Height varies

framed temporary

foundations are

according to

structures

required. Only a hand requirements.

Riskiness is very low.

held nail gun is


required as a
machinery
Light gauge steel

Concrete foundations

Can have any height

Riskiness is high

framed structures

are required if the

as the structural

when comparing with

structure is to be used members are very


for a long time.

the other two

strong to withstand
loads

Table 4.4 shows comparative analysis between Aluminium alloy framed temporary structures,
Timber framed temporary structures and Light gauge steel framed structures on the basis of
Foundation requirement, Height and Risk of Construction. It is found from this Comparative
study that Steel framed structures requires Deep and Heavy foundations, and Concrete
foundations if the structure is to be used for a long time. This heavy foundation requirements
makes the steel framed structures costly. Riskiness is high in steel framed structures when
comparing with the other two types, as the aluminium alloy framed structure and timber
framed structures are riskless.

57
TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

CHAPTER 5
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

58
TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

5.1 SUMMARY:
The research was to study about temporary exhibition structures. As a first step all the
terminologies related to such structures, different parts of a temporary structure , different
types of temporary structures, their advantages and disadvantages, different types of
membrane materials, construction of temporary structure, Air conditioning and lighting inside
a temporary structure were studied. Using the secondary data 3 main types of temporary
structures are listed , and comparing these three types on the basis of cost , riskiness of
construction ,span, climatic suitability, time of erection and dismantling, Foundation
requirements and height , it was found that temporary structure made with aluminium
structural members and fabric membrane materials such as tarpaulin, nylon and polyester is
more preferable.

5.2 INFERENCE:
The Live case study shows that the temporary fabric structures can be constructed in two
ways conventionally, namely barrel roofed structure and gable roof structure. only these two
types of structures are found economical in our context.
Table 4.1 shows that barrel structure are more expensive than the gable structure. And the
barrel roofed structure can have more span approximately 25m while the gable roofed
structure will not be strong to withstand wind loads and other loads when the span exceeds
20m .
When comparing the barrel and gable structure in terms of time taking for the construction,
dismantling and the riskiness of construction, the gable roofed structure is more preferable as
its taking lesser time to erect and dismantle. And the riskiness is comparatively very lesser

59
TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

than the barrel structures because the arch units used for the construction of barrel roofed
structures are more heavy than the rafters and purlins used for the gable roofed structure.
Table 4.2 shows the cost comparison of Membrane materials used for the temporary
structures. From the data collected through literature review , it is clear that the more
expensive membrane material is Kevlar and which is rarely used for the short term temporary
structures. Nylon sheets, tarpaulin and polyesters are preferred as membrane structures for
temporary pavilions
The studies shows that even though the fibre glass is lesser expensive than the Kevlar sheets
,it can increase the heat inside the structure. Which leads to the need of air conditioners more
capacity and thereby increasing the cost.
It is found from the literature studies that other than the conventional methods of assembling
and designs it is possible to design structural components and joints of different shapes and
make a modular temporary structure.
From the above studies it is found that gable roofed structures are preferred to reduce the cost
of construction and the time of erection and dismantling, and semicircular or barrel roofed
structures are preferred for long span structures.

5.3 CONCLUSION:
From the studies it is found that fabric roofed structures are preferable as it is cost effective
and the time of erection and dismantling is very less. polyester , nylon and tarpaulin are
preferred structures. poly carbonate sheets and steel clad roof structures are not preferred as
these types of structures are found very costly from the literature studies. it is found from the
literature studies that other than conventional technique of construction, temporary structures
can be constructed as modular structures, which can be carried from one site to the other.
Terminologies used in temporary structures, different parts of a temporary structure, Different
types of temporary structures and the occasions in which they are used, the choice of
appropriate design and materials , construction techniques of temporary structures, proper
planning and control of work practices, positioning on the site including ground conditions
and foundations etc. are studied.

60
TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

REFERENCE:
Websites:

http://www.vikonvaliant.co.za/category/products/
http://www.attwoollsmarquees.co.uk/temporary-structures.aspx
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_roof_shapes
http://www.tentsandtensilestructures.com/exhibition-hanger-structure.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_commercially_available_roofing_material
http://www.omegastructures.com/en-us/contenidos/26/steel-framed-structuresdescription.aspx
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_commercially_available_roofing_material
www.planning.nsw.gov.au/exemptandcomplying

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TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

http://www.neptunus.co.uk/events
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http://tensilemembranestructureinuae.blogspot.in/2013/01/tensile-membranestructures-in-uae.html
http://fabricarchitecturemag.com/articles/0714_f1_under_fabricroof.html
http://blog.procore.com/blog/bid/378649/balloon-framing-a-flash-in-the-past-orglimpse-into-the-future
http://nlfabric.wordpress.com/page/2/
http://www.haltec.co.uk/en/products/halls/temporary-buildings-and-storagemarquees.html
http://artsites.ucsc.edu/ems/music/tech_background/te-02/teces_02.html
http://artsites.ucsc.edu/ems/music/tech_background/te-02/modes/modes.html
http://awnings-canopies-tensile-structures.com/temporary_structure_design
http://www.quickspaceltd.co.uk/
http://www.tentsandtensilestructures.com/exhibition-hanger-structure.html
http://www.itftennis.com/technical/facilities/facilities-guide/indoor-structures.aspx
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lighting#Methods
http://fabricarchitecturemag.com/articles/0714_f1_under_fabricroof.html
Books / Published papers:
Portable architecture by Wang Shahonkiag
Temporary structures by John Koyler
Events management: an international approach by Paul Kitchin
Hand book of temporary structures by Robert T Ratay
Small Structures: Compact Dwellings, Temporary Structures, Room Modules by
Christian Schittich

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TEMPORARY EXHIBITION STRUCTURES

Computing in Civil Engineering (2007) by Lucio Soibelman, Burcu Akinci


Wood frame buildings , the shakeout scenario by William Graf
Fire resistance and sound transmission in wood frame buildings by forestry innovation
investment ltd.
Design for code acceptance, post frame buildings, American wood council,
www.awc.org