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STATIC VAR COMPENSATOR FOR REDUCTION

OF WIND POWER OUTAGES


Diploma Thesis

Institute of Electric Power Systems


Graz University of Technology
Head of Department
Univ.-Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr.techn. Lothar Fickert
A - 8010 Graz, Inffeldgasse 18-I
Phone: (+43 316) 873 7551
Fax: (+43 316) 873 7553
http://www.ifea.tugraz.at
http://www.tugraz.at

Supervisor
Ao.Univ.-Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr.techn. Herwig Renner

Dietmar Holzer
Graz / June 2006

Graz University of Technology

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

- Danksagung -

Graz, Juni 2006

Im Rahmen dieser Diplomarbeit mchte ich die Mglichkeit nutzen, an dieser Stelle
meinen Dank zum Ausdruck zu bringen.
Zuerst danke ich fr die Mglichkeit der Diplomarbeitsdurchfhrung am Institut fr
Elektrische Anlagen unter der Leitung von Univ.-Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr.techn. Lothar Fickert.
Das Arbeitsumfeld und die mir gebotenen Mglichkeiten haben wesentlich zu der
planmigen Gestaltung meiner Arbeit beigetragen.
Im Besonderen gilt der Dank meinem Betreuer am Institut fr Elektrische Anlagen,
Ao.Univ.-Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr.techn. Herwig Renner, der mich whrend der Planung,
Durchfhrung und Fertigstellung dieser Diplomarbeit immer untersttzt hat und stets fr
beratende Gesprche zur Verfgung stand.
Ganz besonderer Dank gilt natrlich auch meiner Familie. Ihre Untersttzung und Ihr
Mitwirken hat es mir ermglicht, diese Ausbildung zu absolvieren.

Auf diesem Wege nochmals herzlichen Dank,

Dietmar Holzer

ABSTRACT

KURZFASSUNG
Title: STATIC VAR COMPENSATOR FOR REDUCTION OF WIND POWER OUTAGES
Die enorme Entwicklung von Windenergiekapazitten hat die ursprngliche
Energieversorgungstruktur vielerorts stark verndert. Dadurch erlangt die Frage der
Systemstabilitt und Versorgungssicherheit von elektrischen Energieversorgungssystemen
zustzlich an Bedeutung. Besonders die Gewhrleistung eines sicheren Netzbetriebes fr
eventuell auftretende Fehlerflle erscheint hchst wichtig, da die Vergangenheit kritische
Aspekte aufzeigte. In Netzen mit hoher Durchdringungsdichte von Windenergieanlagen
knnen Serienausflle aufgrund von Netzfehlern zu einem bedrohlichen Zustand fr die
Systemstabilitt

fhren.

Blindleistungskompensators

Aus

diesem

(SVC)

Grund

untersucht.

wird

der

Einsatz

des

Angestrebt

werden

vor

statischen
allem

die

Stabilisierung von kritischen Netzknotenspannungen whrend dynamischer Vorgnge im


Netz und eine damit verbundene Ausfallsminimierung von Windanlagen. Eine passende
Strategie zur optimalen SVC-Einsatzortbestimmung, vorteilhafter Elementeanzahl und
entsprechender Dimensionierungsgre soll entwickelt und anhand unterschiedlichster
Varianten simuliert werden. Das transiente Verhalten des SVC bedarf dabei einer
entsprechenden dynamischen Modellnachbildung.
Schlsselwrter: Windkraftanlagen, Static Var Compensator (SVC), NetzanschlussBedingungen, Spannungsstabilitt
ABSTRACT
Titel: STATIC VAR COMPENSATOR FOR REDUCTION OF WIND POWER OUTAGES
The ongoing expansion of installed wind power capacity has greatly changed the
structure of the power supply industry. More than ever, stability and reliability in electric
power systems are the main focus. In the past wind turbines have shown a tendency to
disconnect from the grid even for occurring faults that do not affecting the wind parks directly.
This refers to the need for a concept to improve the sustainability of wind turbines and
reduce steady power outages. For this reason, it will be investigated to what extend the
Static Var Compensator, an element based on FACTS technology, constitutes an
appropriate solution. It may prove to be a helpful tool to prevent wind turbines from
disconnection and hence reduce serial power outages by stabilizing the critical voltage buses
during faults. Therefore, this investigation comprises the optimal allocation, quantity and
rating of SVC devices in a number of different scenarios. A dynamic SVC model represents
the performance for dynamic events in power grids.
Key Words:

Wind Turbines, Static Var Compensator (SVC), Grid Connection


Guidelines, Voltage Stability

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
List of Acronyms, Abbreviations and Symbols ..................................................................... 2

Introduction.........................................................................................................4
1.1

Background and Relevance of this Work .................................................................. 4

1.2

Problems and Motivation........................................................................................... 4

1.3

Scope ........................................................................................................................ 5

1.4

Applied Methods........................................................................................................ 5

Static Var Compensator .....................................................................................5


2.1

General Introduction.................................................................................................. 5

2.2

Modeling of SVC in Power System Studies .............................................................. 8

2.2.1

Reactive Power Regulation Mode ................................................................................... 9

2.2.2

Voltage Regulation Mode ................................................................................................ 9

2.3

Steady State Operation ........................................................................................... 10

2.4

Transient Performance............................................................................................ 11

2.5

Costs of SVC Elements........................................................................................... 13

Wind Power in Electric Energy Systems ........................................................15


3.1

Development of Wind Energy in Germany .............................................................. 15

3.2

Observances for the Integration of Increasing Wind Power Capacities .................. 16

3.2.1

Availability of Wind Power ............................................................................................. 16

3.2.2

Location of Wind Resources and Associated Transmission Grid Extensions............... 16

3.2.3

Regulation and Reserve Power Requirements ............................................................. 17

3.2.4

Wind Power and Its Implications for Cross-border Electricity Transits ......................... 17

3.3

Wind Generators and Grid Connection ................................................................... 17

3.3.1

Overview of Utilized Technologies ................................................................................ 17

3.3.2

Asynchronous Machines (ASM) in Direct Grid Connection........................................... 19

3.3.3

Synchronous Machines (SM) Connected via Power Converters .................................. 19

3.3.4

Double-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG)....................................................................... 20

3.4

Wind Power Impacts on Power Systems ................................................................ 20

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Diploma Thesis

TABLE OF CONTENTS

3.4.1

Power System Dynamics and Stability.......................................................................... 20

3.4.2

Voltage and Reactive Power Control ............................................................................ 22

3.4.3

Power Frequency Control.............................................................................................. 24

3.5

Protection Systems - Selective and Unselective Decoupling .................................. 24

Simulation Software .........................................................................................27


4.1

MATLAB 7.0 ............................................................................................................ 27

4.2

Transient Stability in NEPLAN 5.0........................................................................... 27

4.2.1

Simulation Method......................................................................................................... 27

4.2.2

Terms, Definitions and Program Control ....................................................................... 28

4.2.3

Control Circuits and Function Blocks ............................................................................ 28

Modeling ............................................................................................................30
5.1

Model Adaptation .................................................................................................... 30

5.1.1

Basic Network Model..................................................................................................... 30

5.1.2

Network Reduction ........................................................................................................ 31

5.1.3

Dynamic Datasets ......................................................................................................... 32

5.2

Integration of Wind Energy...................................................................................... 32

5.2.1

Control Areas................................................................................................................. 32

5.2.2

Allocation of Wind Power per Region............................................................................ 32

5.2.3

Back-up Capacities and Reserve Power Capacities..................................................... 34

5.2.4

Modeling of Wind Parks................................................................................................. 34

5.2.5

Over- and Undervoltage Protection of Wind Parks ....................................................... 36

5.3

Synchronous Generators in Electric Power Systems.............................................. 37

5.3.1

Parameters of Synchronous Machines ......................................................................... 37

5.3.2

Excitation Systems and Tasks ...................................................................................... 38

5.3.3

Voltage Control of Synchronous Machines ................................................................... 39

5.4

Modeling of SVC ..................................................................................................... 40

5.4.1

Dynamic Admittance Model........................................................................................... 40

5.4.2

SVC Structure and Control Circuit................................................................................. 41

5.4.3

Rating of SVC Elements................................................................................................ 43

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

5.5

Optimal Allocation of SVC Devices ......................................................................... 45

5.5.1

Optimal Placement Procedure for Single SVC Devices................................................ 45

5.5.2

Optimal Placement Procedure for Two SVC Devices in Combination.......................... 50

5.5.3

Results for Optimal SVC Locations ............................................................................... 52

Dynamic Simulations .......................................................................................55


6.1

General Considerations........................................................................................... 55

6.2

Connection Technologies and Protection Systems of Wind Parks ......................... 58

6.2.1

Modeling the Total Capacity According Revised Connection Guidelines ..................... 58

6.2.2

Modeling a Combination of Former and Revised Connection Guidelines .................... 59

6.3

Cost Comparison for Utilized SVC Assemblies....................................................... 60

6.4

Simulation A - Single Operating SVC Assembly ..................................................... 61

6.4.1

Modeling of Simulation A............................................................................................... 61

6.4.2

Visualization of Parameters for Simulation A1 (D7WTHU21) ....................................... 63

6.4.3

Visualization of Parameters for Simulation A2 (D7ARPE11) ........................................ 66

6.4.4

Simulation A3 (D8WOL11), A4 (D2WAHL11) and A5 (D3MIT11) ................................ 68

6.4.5

Analysis of Wind Power Outages .................................................................................. 68

6.4.6

Visualization of Power Outages for Selected Simulations ............................................ 69

6.4.7

Validations and Conclusions for Single SVC Assemblies ............................................. 70

6.5

Simulation B - Two SVC Devices Operating Simultaneously.................................. 72

6.5.1

Modeling of Simulation B............................................................................................... 72

6.5.2

Visualization of Parameters for Simulation B1 (D7WTHU21) ....................................... 73

6.5.3

Visualization of Parameters of Simulation B2 (D7ARPE11) ......................................... 76

6.5.4

Simulation B3 (D8WOL11), B4 (D2WAHL11) and B5 (D3MIT11) ................................ 79

6.5.5

Analysis of Wind Power Outages .................................................................................. 79

6.5.6

Visualization of Power Outages for Selected Simulations ............................................ 80

6.5.7

Validations and Conclusions for Two SVCs Operating Simultaneously ....................... 82

6.6

Simulation C - Multiple SVC Devices Operating Simultaneously ............................ 83

6.6.1

Modeling of Simulation C .............................................................................................. 83

6.6.2

Simulation C1 (D7WTHU11), C2 (D7ARPE11) and C3 (D8WOL11)............................ 84

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

6.6.3

Visualization of Simulation C4 (D3MIT11)..................................................................... 84

6.6.4

Visualization of Simulation C5 (D2WAHL11) ................................................................ 85

6.6.5

Analysis of Wind Power Outages .................................................................................. 86

6.6.6

Visualization of Power Outages for Selected Simulations ............................................ 87

6.6.7

Validations and Conclusions for Multiple SVC Assemblies........................................... 88

Results and Conclusions .................................................................................91


7.1

Simulation of Dynamic SVC Performance in Power Grids ...................................... 91

7.2

Attributes of Dynamic SVC Performance ................................................................ 91

7.3

Positioning, Rating and Quantity of Applied SVC Arrangements ............................ 91

7.4

Wind Power Outages .............................................................................................. 92

7.5

Final Statements, Comments and Perspectives ..................................................... 92

Appendix ...........................................................................................................93
List of Realized Wind Parks .......................................................................................................... 93
Typical Parameters of Synchronous Machines............................................................................. 93
Protection Settings for Voltage Relays.......................................................................................... 94
Control Areas and Back-Up-Capacities ........................................................................................ 94

Bibliography......................................................................................................95

Dietmar Holzer

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Diploma Thesis

LIST OF ACRONYMS, ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS

List of Acronyms, Abbreviations and Symbols


The following list shows all signs and symbols used within this paper in alphabetic order:
aP, aQ .. Voltage dependent parameter for stationary load consumption of active and reactive power
BC .. Susceptance of capacity
BL .. Susceptance of inductance
Bres() .. Resulting susceptance of SVC
BSVC .. Susceptance of SVC
BTCR .. Susceptance of TCR
C .. Investment costs of SVC devices
c(Qr) .. Specific investment costs of SVC devices
cos() .. Power factor
D .. Damping constant
fN .. Nominal frequency
H .. Inertia time constant
i .. Program run variable
Id, Iq .. Stator current
Ifield .. Field current
Ikd, Ikq .. Current in damper winding
IN .. Nominal current
J .. Moment of inertia of turbine and generator
kimprove .. Mean voltage improvement
KP, KQ .. Parameter for frequency deviation of load consumption of active and reactive power
Lhd, Lhq .. Main inductance
Ls .. Leakage reactance of stator winding
Lsfd .. Leakage reactance of excitor winding
Lskd, Lskq .. Leakage reactance of damper winding
m .. Quantity of network nodes
MG .. Driving moment of generator (electrical)
MT .. Driving moment of turbine (mechanical)
MT,n .. Nominal driving moment of turbine (mechanical)
n .. Network buses with wind power plants
p .. Number of pole pairs
P(U,f), Q(U,f) .. Load dependent active and reactive power
Pnom,Qnom .. Nominal active and reactive power
POper,QOper .. Operational point of active and reactive power
Poutage .. Mean wind power outage(steady state)
PSVC .. Active power of SVC
Ptransient .. Transient power decrease
PWind,QWind .. Active and reactive power of wind park
QSVC .. Reactive power of SVC
Ra .. Resistance of stator winding
Rfd .. Resistance of excitor winding
Rkd, Rkq .. Resistance of damper winding
Slope .. Incline of SVC characteristic
Snom .. Nominal complex power
Td0 .. Direct axis transient open circuit time constant
Tq0 .. Quadrature axis transient open circuit time constant
UBUS .. Bus voltage
Dietmar Holzer

Diploma Thesis

LIST OF ACRONYMS, ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS


Ud, Uq .. Stator voltage in direct axis and quadrature axis
Ufd .. Excitation voltage
Ui .. Bus voltage at SVC installation site
Ukd, Ukq .. Voltage in damper winding
umean .. Mean voltage sag related to all wind parks
un .. Voltage sag at wind park
Unom .. Nominal voltage
URef .. Reference voltage
urelated .. Mean voltage difference
xc .. Characteristic reactance
xd .. Direct axis synchronous reactance
xd' .. Direct axis transient reactance
xl .. Stator leakage reactance
xq .. Quadrature axis synchronous reactance
xq .. Quadrature axis transient reactance
XSLOPE .. SVC slope reactance
Y .. Admittance matrix
Yfd .. Excitation flux
Yhd, Yhq .. Main flux, linked to all windings
Yi0 .. Coupling admittance between the node i and related node 0
Yii .. Self-admittance of node i
Yij .. Coupling admittance between the node i and j
Ykd, Ykq .. Flux in damper coil
Z .. Impedance matrix
Zii ..

Self-resistance of node i

Zij .. Coupling admittance between the node i and j


.. Firing angle
f .. Frequency deviation
I2SVC .. Current vector representing current injection for two SVC's operating
ISVC .. Current vector representing current injection for a single SVC operating simultaneously
Poutage .. Difference in mean power outage
U .. Voltage change in network nodes
UWIND .. Voltage changes in wind nodes
.. Electrical angular velocity (=m*p)
m .. Mechanical angular velocity

Dietmar Holzer

Diploma Thesis

INTRODUCTION

1
1.1

Introduction
Background and Relevance of this Work
The ongoing expansion of the electric utility industry, including deregulation in many

countries, has changed the traditional concepts and practices of power systems. Nowadays,
transmissions systems are pushed closer to their stability and thermal limits while the focus
on the quality of power delivered is greater than ever.
In some regions, generation from wind power already plays a significant role in
meeting the electricity demand. This enormous development of wind energy mainly results
from special funding and the attractive commitment guaranties for wind power generation.
Nevertheless, great challenges of wind power such as limited predictability and high
fluctuations in production levels still remain.
Today the demand for a more optimal and profitable operation of power systems
increases steadily with respect to generation, transmission, and distribution. Now, more than
ever, better utilization of the existing power system through advanced technologies to
increase power transfer capability becomes imperative. Power electronics based equipment,
or Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS), allow the control of a number of different grid
parameter in a fast and effective way. Thus, the benefits brought about by FACTS include
improvement of system dynamic behaviour and thus enhancement of system reliability.
These aspects play an increasingly significant role in the operation and control of the
deregulated electricity market [16].

1.2

Problems and Motivation


In the past wind turbines have shown a tendency to disconnect from grid during short

voltage sags caused by faults in power grids. This unselective decoupling of generation sites,
which are not directly affected by the occurring grid disturbance, infringes against guidelines
for interconnected network operation of power grids. As the share of wind power capacity
increases steadily, this automatic decoupling action or so called run through effect could
endanger system stability of mains operation in whole.
Thus, an investigation into the transmission system, focussing on sustainability of
wind parks to grid, voltage stability and sufficient robustness is necessary.

Dietmar Holzer

Diploma Thesis

INTRODUCTION

1.3

Scope
The suitability of Static Var Compensators (SVC) in the role of a dynamic voltage

stabilizer as a solution for the previously mentioned problems is questionable. Thus, the
basis of this work focuses on the problems arising in transmission grids due to high shares of
wind power as well as fault-caused wind power outages during disturbances in connection
with the dynamic performance of SVC devices.
Provided that these SVCs are placed at optimal locations, they may be capable of
preventing serial wind power outages, as well as and supporting other voltage regulating
elements in the system. This report comprises an investigation of SVCs dynamic
performance as well as monitoring the improvement on bus voltage levels for prevention of
wide area shutdowns. The main objectives are voltage improvement of wind park buses by
SVC application and associated wind power outage prevention, as well as a cost-saving
investment.

1.4

Applied Methods
The investigations carried out within this paper comprise the accurate modeling of

wind power capacity in a high voltage power grid. After modeling and optimization of the
network model for steady state conditions, strategies for the right allocation of SVC devices
using an appropriate algorithm have to be found. After optimal positioning of SVC, an
appropriate

controller

module

reflecting

the

dynamic

performance

of

Static

Var

Compensators is incorporated to the network model. Once implementations, completions


and updates of the network model are obtained, simulations for emerging fault cases can be
carried out. Next steps are the simulation of different scenarios with various ratings and
quantities of SVC devices. The main focus in these simulations is on the performance of
SVC assemblies during faults. Finally, a validation of results determines the efficiency of
SVC applications regarding dynamic voltage improvements, and the prevention of steady
wind power outages, set against investment costs.
The simulation itself uses an appropriate simulation tool, which allows the modeling of
scenarios with parameter variations and different dynamic actions also.

Dietmar Holzer

Diploma Thesis

STATIC VAR COMPENSATOR

2
2.1

Static Var Compensator


General Introduction
With the rapid development of power electronics, Flexible AC Transmission Systems

(FACTS) devices have been proposed for utilization in power systems. There is an
increasing interest in using FACTS devices to control power flow and enhance system
stability in power systems. Power transfer limitations of the transmission system can take
many

forms

and

may

include

one

Steady-state power transfer

Voltage stability

Transient stability

Power system oscillation

Short-circuit power

or

more

of

the

following

characteristics:

Technically, limitations on power transfer can always be removed by adding new


transmission and/or generation capacities. Through the implementation of appropriate
FACTS elements, such limitations could be removed and meet operators goals without
having to undertake major system additions. Given the nature of power electronics
equipment, FACTS solutions will be justified wherever the application requires one or more
of the attributes of rapid response, frequent output variation and a smoothly adjustable output
[3].
The term FACTS covers all of the power electronics based systems used in AC
power transmission. In general, FACTS devices can be divided into four categories [2]:

Figure 2-1: FACTS categories [2]


Dietmar Holzer

Diploma Thesis

STATIC VAR COMPENSATOR

Static Var Compensators (SVC) can be allocated to the category of Shunt FACTS
devices (Figure 2-1, Figure 2-3). That means, linked to an AC transmission line it generates
or absorbs reactive power at the point of connection. The main task of SVCs is therefore to
allow exact voltage control in power transmission systems but also to maximize the power
transfer over transmissions lines.
Over the years, many different designs of SVC have been developed. Nevertheless,
the majority of them have similar controllable elements [1, 2, 17].

Figure 2-2: Principles of SVC


Thyristor-Controlled Reactor (TCR):

Inductance controlled by a thyristor valve

Thyristor-Switched Capacitor (TSC):

Comprises a thyristor valve in series with a capacitor

Thyristor-Switched Reactor (TSR):

Represents a reactor without current phase control

Mechanically Switched Capacitor (MSC):

Fixed capacitor switched by circuit breakers

Figure 2-3: Picture of an SVC assembly

A TCR (Figure 2-2) comprises a linear reactor L connected in series with a


bidirectional thyristor valve. The current is controlled by delaying the ignition of the valve with
Dietmar Holzer

Diploma Thesis

STATIC VAR COMPENSATOR

respect to the natural zero crossing. Assuming the voltage and current sinusoidal the RMSvalue of the apparent susceptance results in the following equation [1]:

BTCR ( ) = BL (

2 2 sin 2

(2-1)

Therefore, the susceptance of a TCR can be varied continuously from maximum ( = 90 ,

BTCR=BL) to minimum ( = 180 , BTCR=0).


Susceptance BTCR=f (Firing angle)

1
0.9
0.8

BTCR/BL [p.u.]

0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
90

100

110

120

130

140

150

160

170

180

Firing angle []

Figure 2-4 TCR susceptance as function of the firing angle

The basic circuit for SVC applications comprises a TCR coil and a FC in parallel
(Figure 2-2) [7]. For an SVC, this circuit is shunt connected over an appropriate transformer
system to a selected bus. The module itself corresponds to a continuously variable
susceptance BRes(). The firing angle of the thyristors determines the value of the resulting
susceptance BRes(). It is defined as the delay angle measured from the peak of the capacitor
voltage to the firing instant [7]. This resulting SVC susceptance is defined as

BRe s ( ) = BC + BTCR
BC = XC1 = C

(2-2)

BL = X L1 = 1 L

(2-3)

With equation 2-2 and 2-3 we get

BRe s ( ) = BC + BL (

2 2 sin 2

(2-4)

Depending on the accurate setting of firing angle different operating modes are identified:

Bypass mode ( = 90 ):
The thyristor valves are triggered continuously and BL reaches full conductance.

Dietmar Holzer

Diploma Thesis

STATIC VAR COMPENSATOR

Thus, the module performance is like a parallel arrangement of the capacitor and the
inductor.

Blocking mode ( = 180 ):


For this case, the thyristors are completely in the non-conducting state. The fixed
capacitor simply represents the total module behaviour.

The total operational range of SVCs reactive power feeding allows inductive as well as
capacitive operation mode, whereas the supplied active power is zero (losses of SVC
neglected). Therefore, the magnitude of the inductive susceptance BL must be rated larger
than the fixed value of BC to cover both operation modes.

QSVC = Ui2 BSVC ( )

(2-5)

PSVC = O
For the injected reactive power QSVC we get the function

QSVC = Ui2 BSVC = Ui2 ( BC + BL (

2 2 sin 2

(2-6)

))

The supply of reactive power therefore is variable in the range of

Ui2 BSVC ( = 90 )

inductive mode

Ui2 BSVC ( = 180 )

capacitive mode

(2-7)

The disadvantages of this arrangement become clear by observing the dependency of the
reactive power upon the voltage in square. Consequently, the SVC is not able to support its
total rated power capacity during occurring faults when the voltage level is depressed
heavily.

2.2

Modeling of SVC in Power System Studies


In literature, several ways of modeling SVC devices are proposed, where the

suitability of chosen methods always depend upon the specific problem. SVC studies require
appropriate power system models and study methods covering the particular problems to be
solved by the SVC application [4]. The following characteristics are normally required for an
SVC application from the early planning stage until operation [5].

Load flow

Small and large disturbances

Power quality

Dietmar Holzer

Diploma Thesis

STATIC VAR COMPENSATOR

Harmonics

Electromagnetic transients

Models for large & small disturbance studies should represent the SVC system behaviour
including the control actions. The objectives of small signal analyses related to SVC
applications include the determination of:

SVC rating

Appropriate control parameters for adequate transient performance

For this investigation, the modeling of an SVC model comprising features for voltage stability
simulations during transient actions (e.g. faults) is fundamental. An approach to reach this
objective is the use of the injection method. Therefore, the modeling of the SVC module is
realized as an element, which feeds a certain amount of reactive power QSVC to a previously
selected network bus i (Figure 2-5). The SVC operation range correspondingly is situated
between a lower bound QSVC and a higher bound QSVC , so that the SVC works between

QSVC < QSVC < QSVC .

Figure 2-5: Injection model of SVC

Depending on the selected control mode, the SVC can be described as PV-node, a PQ-load
or a shunt element with defined susceptance BSVC().

2.2.1 Reactive Power Regulation Mode


A PQ-regulated SVC (P=0) acts like a reactive load connected to a bus i with a
defined reactive power exchange. The control range is limited to the maximum reactive
power capacity Qsvc, because of the module limits.

2.2.2 Voltage Regulation Mode


This operational mode includes the active control of the connected bus voltage Ui.
Hence, the SVC has to act like a PV-regulated generator (with P=0) varying the amount of

Dietmar Holzer

Diploma Thesis

STATIC VAR COMPENSATOR

reactive power feeding Qsvc. Therefore, the SVC susceptance varies permanently to follow
the requirements of the bus i to be controlled.
For voltages below the reference voltage URef, the SVC works in capacitive mode.
Thus, the maximal capacitive limit appears for non-controlled thyristor valves ( = 180 ). If
the voltage reaches levels above the reference voltage URef, the fire angle is decreased to
raise the TCR current in the coil until the maximum inductive operation limit ( = 90 ).

2.3

Steady State Operation


Beside an ideal SVC location, considerations for the appropriate rating of SVC

assemblies are essential for the optimal operation of SVCs. The application of SVC
arrangements as terminal voltage regulator shows the characteristic that the compensating
SVC current varies in proportion with the deviation of the bus voltage Ui related to the
reference voltage URe f . The arising regulation slope is defined as:

SlopeSVC =

UCap max UInd max


=
ICap max
IInd max

(2-8)

Theoretically, the regulation slope allows [5]:

Extension of linear voltage operating range

Stability improvement to the voltage regulating loop

Enforcement of automatic load sharing between Static Var Compensators as well


as other voltage regulating sources (e.g. synchronous machines)

Figure 2-6 : U-I characteristic and control ranges of SVC


Dietmar Holzer

10

Diploma Thesis

STATIC VAR COMPENSATOR

Figure 2-6 shows the U-I characteristic of a SVC. At the reference voltage URe f the
Static Var Compensator neither absorbs nor generates reactive power. In practice, this
reference voltage URe f can be set within the typical range of 10% of URe f . The slope of the
characteristics represents a change in voltage with the emerging compensator current.
Therefore, it can be considered as a slope reactance Xslope. The response of the SVC to any
voltage variation is then determined by:

Ui = URe f X Slope ISVC

(2-9)

Slope control characteristics of Static Var Compensators guarantee a controlled


injection of reactive power on the one hand and a stable parallel operation of compensators
on the other hand. Both, target voltage URe f and slope reactance XSlope, can be set within the
controller. To achieve larger operational ranges of SVCs, further serial and parallel
compensators are switched on or off (MSC, TSC), which arises in a controlled displacement
of the SVC characteristic. A set of parallel U-I characteristics for a range of target voltage
settings with constant slope is shown in Figure 2-6 [2].

2.4

Transient Performance
For transient analyses, the response of an SVC to system voltage changes is

essential. Therefore, the control system of an SVC can produce any desired Voltage-Current
characteristic within the overall envelope [Icapmax, Ucapmax] [0, 0] [IIndmax, UIndmax]. At reduced
voltages, the SVC leading Icapmax or lagging IIndmax current limits for conventional SVC are
proportional to the voltage.
The intersection of network and control characteristic lead to the steady state
operational point QOper , whereas the selection of this operational point is defined by SVC
rating parameters (1). Thus, in Figure 2-7, with a system voltage slightly lower than the target
voltage URe f of the SVC steady state characteristic, the SVC already draws a small
capacitive current

. This point can be considered as the selected stationary operational

point QOper .
If the system voltage is now depressed slightly, due to a fault or intense load change, the
new point of intersection (2) of the system characteristic and the SVC control characteristic
demands a new current value. In the first moment, the susceptance of the SVC is unchanged
and the voltage stabilizing capacitive current output is decreased exacerbating the voltage
depression on the system. The SVC controller reacts with controller defined time delays and
varies its reactive power supply through a change in apparent susceptance BSVC() to the
new point of intersection (3) .
Dietmar Holzer

11

Diploma Thesis

STATIC VAR COMPENSATOR


Network characteristic
(steady state)

Usvc

QOper

UCapmax

URef

SVC characteristic

UIndmax

Network characteristic
(during fault)

ICapmax

IIndmax

Isvc

Figure 2-7: U-I characteristic for a fault action leading to slight voltage sag

A more intensive fault in Figure 2-8 causes a deep voltage sag (12). The SVC
exacerbates the voltage depression again (2). At the point of intersection of the network
characteristic (during fault) with the SVC curve (3), we now obtain a new operating range for
the SVC defined by constant values for C, L and the voltage level during the fault. The SVC
attempts to return to the pre-fault system voltage level, but the occurring voltage level during
the fault restricts the full capacitive current ICapmax. Hence, the SVC will feed in its maximal
possible reactive power capacity QCapmax available at this voltage level. This reactive power
capacity of SVC is limited in square to the linked bus voltage Ui. Thus, the SVC operates at
its capacitive operational limit (2.1).

Usvc
Network characteristic
(steady state)

QOper
1

UCapmax

URef

UIndmax
2

Network characteristic
(during fault)

ICapmax

Isvc

IIndmax

Figure 2-8: U-I characteristic for a fault action leading to intense voltage sag
Dietmar Holzer

12

Diploma Thesis

STATIC VAR COMPENSATOR

2.5

Costs of SVC Elements


The aspect of arising investment costs for the realization of SVC devices plays an

increasingly significant role in the operation and control of the deregulated electricity market.
Thus, the main objective is to find optimal ratings for SVC devices to minimize the arising
investment costs one the one hand and achieve acceptable performance on system
parameters on the other hand.
Factors determining the optimal application of SVC technology are:

Optimal SVC installation site

Performance on grid parameter

Rating of SVC devices

Investment costs

The following function describes the specific costs of SVC devices [16]:

cSVC (Qr ) = 0.0003 Qr 2 0.3 Qr + 127

[ in US$]

cSVC (Qr )= cSVC (Qr )* ER

(2-10)

[in ]

ERExchange ratio /US= 1 US Dollar (USD) = 0.78 Euro (EUR) (May 10, 2006_Brse Wien)

Here CSVC(Qr) represents the specific costs per kVAr and Qr the operating range in MVAr.
Figure 2-9 shows the equation as graph:

Specific costs of SVC devices


105
Original Curve

95

Linear Extrapolation

Specific costs [/kVAr]

85
75
65
55
45
35
25
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

Operating range [MVAr]

Figure 2-9: Specific costs of SVC devices [16]

Dietmar Holzer

13

Diploma Thesis

STATIC VAR COMPENSATOR

For an operation range of CSVC(r) up to QSVC=450 MVAr the cost function (Figure 2-9)
arises out of equation 2-10. The specific costs for values beyond 450 MVAr are extrapolated
linearly.
The arising investment costs for SVC assemblies depending on the selected rating
are depictured in Figure 2-10.

SVC Investment Cost


35

Investment costs [Million ]

30

25

20

15

10
Original

From extrapolated curve


0
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

Operating range [MVAr]

Figure 2-10: Investment costs of SVC devices

Dietmar Holzer

14

Diploma Thesis

WIND POWER IN ELECTRIC SYSTEMS

3
3.1

Wind Power in Electric Energy Systems


Development of Wind Energy in Germany
The European wind energy market has shown a considerable growth rate during the

last decade. A precise observation of Germanys market shows a growing share of the total
power generation obtained from wind. This can be attributed to promising local
characteristics for wind power production and to attractive refunds promoted through existing
renewable energy guidelines (updated EEG standards, published first of August 2004).
By the end of 2005, 17.584 wind turbines with a total rated power of 18.427 MW have
been in operation [25]. This fact demonstrates that around 7% [15] of Germanys total net
power consumption is generated from wind energy resources (Figure 3-1). Most of this
generating capacity is spread out over Germany and can be assigned to the control areas of
E.ON and Vattenfall Europe.
Wind power capacity in Germany
20,000
18,000

3,000

16,000
2,500

14,000
12,000

2,000

10,000
1,500

8,000
6,000

1,000

4,000
500

Accumulated installed wind power


capacity [MW]

Installed wind power capacity per year


[MW]

3,500

2,000

0
91

92

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

00

01

02

03

04

05

Time [Years]
Installed wind power capacity per year

Accumulated wind power capacity

Figure 3-1: Accumulated wind power capacity data [25]

Dietmar Holzer

15

Diploma Thesis

WIND POWER IN ELECTRIC SYSTEMS


Germany's wind power distribution per region
Baden-Wrttemberg,
1.45%
Bayern, 1.3%
Thringen, 2.9%
Brandenburg, 13.5%

Schleswig-Holstein,
12.8%

Bremen, 0.3%
Hamburg, 0.2%

Sachsen-Anhalt, 11.3%

Hessen, 2.4%

Sachsen, 3.9%

Mecklenburg
Vorpommern, 6.10%

Saarland, 0.4%
Rheinland-Pfalz, 4.47%
NordrheinWestfalen,12.34%

Niedersachsen, 26.7%

Baden-Wrttemb.

Bayern

Brandenburg

Bremen

Hamburg

Hessen

Mecklenb.-Vorp.

Niedersachsen

Nordrhein-Westfalen

Rheinland-Pfalz

Saarland

Sachsen

Sachsen-Anhalt

Schleswig-Holstein

Thringen

Figure 3-2: Germany's regional distribution of wind energy utilization [11]

3.2

Observances for the Integration of Increasing Wind Power Capacities

3.2.1 Availability of Wind Power


The limited predictability and high stochastic fluctuations in production levels make
wind power difficult to control and need to be considered in development strategies. The
guarantied capacity of wind power describes how much of the total installed capacity can be
considered as statistically guarantied. This capacity of wind energy clearly changes with the
seasons, since wind conditions vary over the year. Based on operational experiences, the
specific average wind power production can be found at values between 5 and 20% of the
total wind power installed [14, 20].

3.2.2 Location of Wind Resources and Associated Transmission Grid


Extensions
The location of resources, whether onshore or offshore, poses additional logistic
problems. Many wind power resources are often located in remote areas, in regions with low
or average power demand. Large parts of the energy produced from wind have to be
transported over long distances to the load centres. A need for transmission network
extensions to strengthen the current power system for the integration of wind power is
essential. The disadvantages arise in the form of cost increases caused by additional
construction costs for grid connections and reinforcements in existing grid systems.

Dietmar Holzer

16

Diploma Thesis

WIND POWER IN ELECTRIC SYSTEMS

The term Generation Management of wind parks should represent a temporary


solution for this congestion. Otherwise, the discrepancy between injected wind power and
available grid back-up capacities will increase.

3.2.3 Regulation and Reserve Power Requirements


Forecasting the electricity production from wind power is only possible to a limited
extent. In view of the growing number and capacity of wind power plants, these will play a
significant role for a safe and reliable power system operation. The need for control reserve
depends directly on the quality of short-term wind power prediction and the resulting
difference between the predicted and effective values of wind power production. Back-up
capacities from other power plants have to be kept in reserve for cases of total generation
outages of wind parks (e.g. summer heat waves) as well as to compensate variations in wind
energy injections. The determination of the amount of power plant control reserves required
in order to maintain system stability is not based on the yearly average, but on the individual
occurring maximum. These unforeseen variations in wind power generation have to be
balanced immediately. Therefore, minutely and hourly reserves must be provided through
positive and negative regulation capacities, and these capacities must be maintained in
operational readiness [21].

3.2.4 Wind Power and Its Implications for Cross-border Electricity Transits
The injection of wind power not only affects the individual national power systems but
also the cross-border electricity transits between neighbouring countries. In the case of
Germany, this refers to transports from Denmark to Germany and from Germany to the
Netherlands. In certain situations (strong wind and low load), huge power flows to
neighboured countries can be observed. Demand site management and enhanced control of
wind power output through connection via converters should allow the handling of these
problems in the future.

3.3

Wind Generators and Grid Connection

3.3.1 Overview of Utilized Technologies


The increasing requirements for better power quality standards within grids and better
support of system stability through variable active and reactive power supplies have forced
wind turbine manufacturers to strive for new concepts. In recent years, the focus was on the
development of double fed induction generators (DFIG) and synchronous machines coupled
via power converters. Figure 3-3 shows an assimilation of used technologies (related to the

Dietmar Holzer

17

Diploma Thesis

WIND POWER IN ELECTRIC SYSTEMS

total installed power capacity) exemplary for wind energy generators in Germany based on
statistics from 2003 [11].
Wind power utilization technologies
DFIG
20%

ASM
46%

SM
34%
Double feed asynchronous machines (DFIG)
Synchronous machines with full power converter (SM)
Asynchronous machines (ASM)

Figure 3-3: Wind technologies in Germany related to the total installed wind power capacity (100%) [11]

Short Circuit
Power Ratio

Type

Ik'' INom

Reactive Power
Supply
Q

Shows steady
6

consumption of

n = (1 s )

f
p

(inductive)
reactive power

Figure 3-4: Asynchronous machine in direct grid


connection [19]

Speed
Range
n

with s 00.8

Reactive power
control possible,
1...1.1

but limited to

n 0.5...1.2

f
p

utilized type and


dimension of

infinitely variable

converter

Figure 3-5: SM with pulse width-modulated inverter and


DC intermediate circuit [19]

Reactive power
control possible,
2.55

but limited to

n 0.8...1.2

utilized type and


dimension of

infinitely variable

converter
Figure 3-6: Double fed induction generator (DFIG) [19]
Table 3-1: Most common utilized wind energy technologies [28, 26, 19]

Dietmar Holzer

18

f
p

Diploma Thesis

WIND POWER IN ELECTRIC SYSTEMS

3.3.2 Asynchronous Machines (ASM) in Direct Grid Connection


Since the mid 1990s the wind facilities in Germany were mainly based on the
concept of asynchronous machines (ASM), coupled directly to the grid at a fixed speed
(Figure 3-4). The main reasons for this are simplicity, robust assembly and very economical
prices. The problem of speed control arises because wind turbines must be able to convert
wind energy into electric energy for an extensive range of wind speeds. The rotational speed
of the asynchronous generator depends on the current stress, resulting in a relatively small
difference between the stator and rotor-revolving fields (slip). Hence, the speed
characteristics can be seen as stiff and problems arise for direct grid connection as changes
in power and speed are transferred directly to the grid. In newer assemblies, many
manufactures either equip their wind turbines with two generators or utilize pole-convertible
generators. An ASM operating in generator mode needs reactive power from the grid in order
to build up and maintain the magnetic field, where the amount of reactive power depends on
the current loading. Intense reactive power consumption may implicate interferences
regarding the voltage levels [19, 26].

3.3.3 Synchronous Machines (SM) Connected via Power Converters


Synchronous machines (SM) rotate at constant speed (synchronous speed)
independent of their loading. In fact, in connection with fluctuations in wind power generation
they are not applicable for direct grid connection without special control functions. The stiff
speed characteristic transfers changes in wind speed to the grid in the form of power
imbalances. For this reason, synchronous machines are connected via converters to the
electric power grid (Figure 3-5).
The converter allows control of generator parameters, so that the frequency of the
alternating current in the stator may be varied. The electrical grid cannot handle the resulting
variable frequency AC current. The current is therefore converted to AC with fixed frequency

fn directly, or by using an intermediate circuit converter (AC-DC-AC) [19, 26].


The utilization of a DC intermediate circuit allows the SM to run at variable rotational
speed. Thus, the SM generator can be operated at variable frequencies, at an optimal
speed, independent from current wind ratios. This enables high efficiency operation and
power injection over a large operational range.
Another advantage of indirect grid connection is that modern power electronics can
control reactive power (e.g. by phase shifting current relative to voltage in the AC grid), to
improve system and voltage stability and decrease reactive power transmission losses. This
may be very useful, particularly if a wind turbine is connected to a weak electrical grid.

Dietmar Holzer

19

Diploma Thesis

WIND POWER IN ELECTRIC SYSTEMS

3.3.4 Double-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG)


Double fed induction generators (DFIG) comprise a wound rotor connected to the grid
with a backtoback voltage source converter (Figure 3-6). The separate control of the rotor
system through the converter allows decoupling of electrical and mechanical rotor frequency
and, in addition, to match the frequency of the rotor to the grid. However, the stator is directly
connected to the grid with fixed frequency and voltage. During operation, it is therefore
possible to adjust frequency and voltage continuously in the rotor winding independent from
current turbine speed. The ability to vary rotor voltage for reactive power control makes this
concept very popular [19, 26].

3.4

Wind Power Impacts on Power Systems


Wind power characteristics are reflected in different interactions with power systems.

In general, we can distinguish between:

Local impacts (local vicinity through wind turbines)

Branch flows and node voltages

Protection schemes, fault currents and switchgear ratings

Power quality

System-wide impacts (effect on whole system behaviour)

Power system dynamics and stability

Reactive power and voltage control

Frequency control

3.4.1 Power System Dynamics and Stability


Power systems stability and dynamics are mainly affected by wind power because
wind turbines do not operate like conventional synchronous generators. The specific
characteristics of wind parks are reflected in their response to changes in terminal voltage
and frequency, which differ from those of a grid-coupled synchronous generator. The impacts
of the main wind turbine types on power system dynamics and stability can be by analysed
as follows [20]:

Generators directly connected to the grid, rotating with constant speed can lead to
voltage instability within the grid. During a fault, they accelerate due to the imbalance
between mechanical power extracted from wind and electrical power supplied to grid
resulting in a rotor-speed deviation. While the voltage restores, they consume a large amount
of reactive power, impeding voltage restoration. As long as the voltage cannot reach the pre-

Dietmar Holzer

20

Diploma Thesis

WIND POWER IN ELECTRIC SYSTEMS

fault level, the wind turbines continue to accelerate and to consume increasing amounts of
reactive power. Eventually, this could lead to voltage and rotor-speed instability.

Variable-speed turbines despite all of their favourable features have the disadvantage
of strong overcurrent restrictions because of the power electronics equipment utilized in the
converters. In power systems with high concentrations of variable-speed turbines, this may
have problematic consequences for system stability. For a voltage drop that depresses the
system voltage, variable-speed turbines would disconnect even in cases of for relatively
small voltage sags. If the disconnections affect a large geographic area, this could lead to a
large generation deficit. To prevent this, some mains operators facing a high contribution of
wind power in their control area, are currently proposing more demanding connection
requirements. They lay down that wind turbines must be able to withstand voltage drops of
certain magnitudes and durations, in order to prevent the disconnection of a large amount of
wind power during a disturbance. In order to meet these requirements, manufacturers of
variable-speed wind turbines are implementing solutions to reduce the sensitivity to voltage
drops [20].

3.4.1.1 Sustainability of Generation Units


The points discussed above clarify that the behaviour of wind parks during and after
fault cases is essential for the stability in electric power systems. During a fault, short circuit
power current has to be provided to ensure the functionality of protection systems and to limit
the emerging voltage funnels locally. The magnitude and/or their angle of short circuits differ
noticeable from load currents and therefore allows safe operation of protection systems.
In contrast to conventional power plants, wind power plants have not taken a
significant part of grid control tasks until today. In the case of Germanys installed capacity
until 2003, no compulsory requirements regarding the behaviour during dynamic
disturbances existed. In transmission grids with high shares of decentralized generation and
hence reduced conventional power plant capacities, voltage sags lead to more intense
voltage depressions. Voltages below 80% of Unom cause disconnections of wind turbines.
The eventual transgression of the UCTE (Union for the Coordination of Transmission of
Electricity) control reserve (3000 MW), which is provided for occurring disturbances in
networks, has to be taken into account. Thus, for safe and reliable grid operation it is
necessary to keep total wind power outage below this 3000 MW limit.
Today, the applied coupling systems of modern wind parks have to follow guidelines,
which regulate the ability to contribute to power system stability. As well as existing
guidelines, additional requirements for dynamic stability, voltage/reactive power control and
power frequency control have to be considered [22, 23].

Dietmar Holzer

21

Diploma Thesis

WIND POWER IN ELECTRIC SYSTEMS

3.4.1.2 Disconnection and Resynchronization


The publication of new grid codes in 2003 in cooperation with large wind park
manufacturers should help to counteract the unintentional disconnection of wind power
plants during disturbances. This code declares that new wind turbine installations have to
remain connected during disturbances to guarantee mains operation (3.5).
If wind turbines do not follow the dynamic requirements and disconnect from the grid,
fast resynchronization should be guarantied. Thermal power stations for example, require
several hours to get back online again after a shutdown, whereas wind facilities are able to
synchronize to the grid and operate within reference power values within a few seconds after
disconnection.
Once the units are resynchronized, the generation units have to provide active power
again as fast as possible. Therefore active power supply has to start immediately after fault
clearing with a gradient of 20% of Pnom per second. The reactive power consumption of the
wind generator during a fault has to be limited to a maximum of 25% of nominal power Pnom.
If this is not possible, reactive power consumption above this level is allowed for a period of

400 ms, but this then turns into a reactive power exchange for voltage stabilization [12].
However, wind parks that follow the codes for frequency and voltage control and remain
connected for grid faults are certainly preferred.

3.4.1.3 Short Circuit Power


While the rotating masses of conventional power plants allow a contribution to the
short circuit power for stability and functionality of grid protection systems, the short circuit
power ratio of wind turbines is limited due to the type of grid connection.
As mentioned above, during an occurring grid disturbance, wind parks should not
disconnect from the grid, but should support system stability. That means, for voltage levels
above the voltage characteristic in Figure 3-10 (curve a) disconnection from the grid is
prohibited. Furthermore, wind parks that follow valid connection requirements should be able
to support a certain ratio of short circuit power IK'' / In . (Typical values for short circuit power
ratios of different wind generator technologies are listed in Table 3-1).

3.4.2 Voltage and Reactive Power Control


The impact of wind power on reactive power generation and voltage control originates
first from the fact that not all wind turbines are capable of varying their reactive power output.
Wind parks, which have this ability, should therefore take a share in voltage and frequency
control similar to conventional power plants. Additional requirements for Repowering
measures and refitting arrangements will further contribute to voltage stability. Apart from
Dietmar Holzer

22

Diploma Thesis

WIND POWER IN ELECTRIC SYSTEMS

this, two other issues determine the impact of wind power on reactive power generation and
voltage control:
First, wind power cannot be very flexibly located when compared to conventional
generation. It can only be constructed at locations with good wind resources. The locations
that meet the conditions are not necessarily locations that are favourable from the
perspective of grid voltage control.
Second, wind turbines are relative weakly coupled to the system because they are
often erected at distant locations. This further reduces their contribution toward voltage
control. When wind turbines replace conventional synchronous generators on a large scale,
the voltage control aspect must therefore be taken into account in detail.
Today the growth of wind parks with high generation capacity requires adequate
arrangements to prevent a deficit in the supply of reactive power. For the regular operation of
wind turbines, it is therefore necessary that installed wind generators contribute to system
stability enhancement [23]. Generally, there is the need for local reactive power
compensation since excessive reactive power transportation leads to extensive stress of
transmission lines. If a reactive power deficit occurs, bus voltage levels would significantly
decrease which could lead to a voltage collapse in a worst-case scenario.
The adjustable reactive power operation range for wind parks is based on the grid
codes given in [13]. Figure 3-7 shows the change in reactive power demand for changing
power factors set by grid operators and the compulsory standards for voltage levels in power
grids.
220kV

380kV

UGrid

253

440

245

400

220

380

166

320

under excited

0,95

0,975

1,0

0,975

0,95

0,925

over excited

cosGrid
Figure 3-7: Basic demand for reactive power supply by wind parks

Dietmar Holzer

23

Diploma Thesis

WIND POWER IN ELECTRIC SYSTEMS

The control of reactive power is adjustable within certain given limitations.


Independent of the operational point assigned to the current active power of the wind park,
the reactive power supply has to be as pictured in Figure 3-8 (for wind parks rated to nominal

power PNom 1.000 MW [14]). The reactive power generation by wind parks is therefore
determined by a Q-U characteristic including hysteresis with a defined slope to control power
output values for the voltage levels shown (Figure 3-9).

Figure 3-9: Q-U Characteristic [14]

Figure 3-8: P-Q Characteristic [14]

3.4.3 Power Frequency Control


The impact of wind power on frequency control becomes more severe the higher the
shares of wind power are. Wind power is uncontrollable and difficult to predict which explains
why wind power hardly ever contributes to primary frequency regulation and heavily affects
the dispatch of conventional generators [20]. Thus, requirements on the reserve capabilities
of conventional power plants must be strict in order to match the remaining fluctuations in
system frequency within acceptable limits.

3.5

Protection Systems - Selective and Unselective Decoupling


Grid protection is the basis for safe and reliable operation of grid systems and

connected generation units. The utilized protection equipment protects network devices by
automatically disconnecting them in case of emerging disturbances. In connection with an
increasing amount of decentralized energy facilities, new calibrations of protection systems
have to be created. On the one hand, this can be attributed to a need for short circuit power
contribution in connection with power system stability during disturbances, and on the other
hand, the need to achieve selectivity for grid protection systems [14].

Dietmar Holzer

24

Diploma Thesis

WIND POWER IN ELECTRIC SYSTEMS

At the grid connection point, wind parks require protection systems to disconnect the
unit automatically from the grid in case of voltages that are out of the allowed ranges.
Normally two redundant protection systems have to be arranged in high voltage levels. One
possible solution is voltage increase/decrease control with defined levels according to given
network parameters [12]. In addition, the application of frequency relays enables the
monitoring of frequency deviations (Figure 3-10).
Bus i,Ui

Voltage increase protection


Voltage control

Umin

Umax

Voltage decrease protection


Frequency increase protection

fmin

fmax

Frequency decrease protection

GEN
3~
Figure 3-10: Voltage and frequency protection of wind turbines [14, 12]

The decoupling of generation units usually depends on the type for grid connection
used. Generally, a distinction between selective and unselective decoupling (disconnection)
is possible. Additionally, settings and properties of protection systems differ remarkably. If
the protection systems record parameter deviations from the reference values, the
associated protection equipment has the task to disconnect the generation unit from the grid
[14].
Therefore, for example, a short circuit in a transmission grid leads to a voltage sag,
where the height of this sag varies according to the network topology and the fault location.
Thus, the voltage protection relays start to disconnect generation from the grid. However, this
immediate unselective decoupling of generation units for grid disturbances (Figure 3-11,

curve-b), is only acceptable for relatively small generation capacities in medium voltage
levels. To prevent serial outages and guarantee system stability, appropriate techniques for
reliable connection of wind parks have to be implemented.
Dietmar Holzer

25

Diploma Thesis

WIND POWER IN ELECTRIC SYSTEMS

In view of the increasing rates of installed wind power capacity in power systems, the
sensitivity for decoupling of generation units increases significantly. Thus, automatic
disconnection from the grid for generating units in high voltage grids is generally prohibited.
Furthermore, voltage sags may only lead to disconnection of these installations, when the
voltage level falls below the protection system settings according to the selective coupling

guidelines (Figure 3-11, curve a).


In some cases, mains operators may allow further exceptions. These exceptions
allowing unselective decoupling are accepted during Repowering or also for usual
maintenance and upgrade operations. The parameter and disconnection times for selective

and unselective decoupling (tripping delays for breakers included) and for high voltage
systems are recommended in [12, 13, 14].

Figure 3-11: Release functions for unselective and selective connection of wind power plants

Dietmar Holzer

26

Diploma Thesis

SIMULATION SOFTWARE

Simulation Software

4.1

MATLAB 7.0
MATLAB is a powerful simulation tool applicable for technical calculations. Especially

for calculations based on vectors and matrices, it allows easy and convenient handling.
Therefore, following project steps within this paper have been accomplished in MATLAB 7.0

4.2

Determination of optimal SVC location

Rating considerations of SVC devices

Cost comparison of SVC assemblies

Transient Stability in NEPLAN 5.0


Transient

Stability

is

simulation

module

within

NEPLAN

for

computing

electromechanical transient phenomena in electricity networks. For calculating the network


behaviour, all network elements are simulated by mathematical models. Synchronous
machines e.g. and their control circuits are described by their system equations, which contain
algebraic and differential equations. In conjunction with the algebraic equations of the network,
thus an equation system representing a mathematical model of the entire network is obtained.
The Transient Stability Module also provides an option for simulating secondary
elements (protective equipment) in addition to the depiction of primary elements. During the
simulation process, the measured values of the protective relays are determined and the trip
conditions are continuously monitored. The program performs releases and associated
switching operations then automatically.

4.2.1 Simulation Method


The starting point for each simulation is a steady-state operating condition, which is
determined by a load flow calculation beforehand.
The whole network topology is reflected by the systems admittance matrix, containing
all individual model equations of the individual quasi-steady-state elements put together. The
network admittance matrix is a complex, square matrix with the order of the matrix
corresponding to the number of nodes in the network. The matrix equation of the electricity
network is thus obtained as U = I Y

, whereas the unknown node voltages U can be

calculated when the node currents I are known. During simulation, the network admittance
matrix is constant for as long as there are no changes in the network topology. The matrix is

Dietmar Holzer

27

Diploma Thesis

SIMULATION SOFTWARE

altered only by switching operations, tripping events through occurring faults or if control
circuits are incorporated into the power grid. The incoming node currents I are the output
variables of the system equations of the dynamic elements and mostly voltage-dependent.

4.2.2 Terms, Definitions and Program Control

Dynamic actions

Initial integration step length

Simulation duration
Name of a synchronous
machine for reference rotor
angle

Changes in the state of a network element during the simulation are defined as
a dynamic action. The user directly adjusts these operations over a predefined
mask (Figure 4-2) or automatically activation is given (e.g. protective devices
as voltage relay in form of trigger function).
The simulation starts with the initial step length and then alters the step length
automatically. If the step length control is switched off, then the entire
simulation will be executed with the integration step length.
The initial step length is set to 0.01 seconds to obtain same quantity of sample
points for all simulations.
The simulation duration is identical for all simulations and is set to a value of 20
seconds.
The amount of recordable simulation data points for validation results through
variations in simulation duration and initial step length.
The rotor angle of the synchronous machine constitutes the reference variable
for all other rotor angles of synchronous machines. All rotor angles present the
appearing difference from the current rotor angle to the reference synchronous
machine.
Table 4-1: Table of program control parameter

Figure 4-1: Program control and simulation parameters

Figure 4-2: Mask for input of dynamic actions

4.2.3 Control Circuits and Function Blocks


Generally, control circuits (CCT) are made up of several function blocks containing one
or more input and output variables. Therefore, inputs can be any analog or binary variables,
whereas output variables allow the control of parameter of network elements (e.g. exciter
voltage of synchronous machines, susceptance of controlled admittances...). For visualization
and validation, controller signals can also be used for screen outputs, in a list or in a file.

Dietmar Holzer

28

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SIMULATION SOFTWARE

CCTs in NEPLAN are arranged either in a separate diagram layer or directly at the
controlled element. For this study, separate diagrams should offer a better overview for reason
of multiple control circuits utilized. Parameter adjustments are performed for each block
separately, direct within in the different function blocks.
During initialization, the starting values of control circuits are determined and assigned
to the individual function blocks.
Implemented control circuits are switchable by adjusting the output variable between

TEST MODE (CCT simulated, but controller output not applied to the network element) and
NORMAL MODE (CCT simulated and applied to the network element).
Utilized Function Blocks
Block
Input/
Output

Symbol
u1

y1

Sum

Gain

Limit

ymax

u2
u1
u3

K0
ymin

LAG

y1

Description

Transfer
function

The input/output variables


are connections between the
network and the controller.

y1 => u1

The sum block adds the


incoming
signals
independently from their sign

y1 = K1 u1 + K 2 u2 + u0

Gain multiplies the incoming


controller signal with the
constant factor K0.

y1 = K0 u1

The input variable u1 is


limited to a maximum or
minimum value, which may
also depend on other input
variables. Deactivation of the
limitation function is possible
when Ymax and Ymin are set
equal 0.
The LAG function block
represents a 1st order timedelay block with time delay t
and controller gain K.

Initial
value
u1 ,
y1

u1 ,
u2 ,

Iterative
Initialization
possible

possible

y1

u1 ,

y1 = min(u1 + u2 y max )

u1 ,

y1 = max(u1 + u3 y min )

y1

y1 =

1
u1
1 + s TN1

possible

y1

u1 ,

possible

possible

y1

Table 4-2: Function block overview [24]

Dietmar Holzer

29

Diploma Thesis

MODELING

5
5.1

Modeling
Model Adaptation

5.1.1 Basic Network Model


All measurements and simulations accomplished within this study are based on a
network model similar to an existing high voltage system, which is embedded in a large
synchronous area (UCTE). Thus, the utilized network model shows a detailed network
topology of high-voltage overhead lines, power plants, network connection nodes and
transformers. Only the high voltage levels with a nominal voltage Unom of 380 kV and 220 kV
are represented. Some exceptions are given for certain network areas, where also the 110 kV
voltage standard is included.

Figure 5-1: Basic network model in NEPLAN

Dietmar Holzer

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Diploma Thesis

MODELING

5.1.2 Network Reduction


The necessity of enhanced calculation capacity for extensive networks initiates
comprehension of power grids by a network reduction process [1]. Especially in dynamic
analyses, which implicate very intensive calculations, the surrounding network model is
reduced to a form where only most relevant information is kept for further investigations. The
principle depictures Figure 5-2:
Observed power grid

Observed power grid

NETWORK
REDUCTION

Remaining feedings inside observed power grid


Feedings on border of observed power grid
Outside feedings in surrounding area (need to be reduced)
Feedings representing outer power grid
Transmission lines
Series load flow elements

Figure 5-2: Network reduction process

Applied on the network model, this concept includes the placement of nodes as
substitution for surrounding power grids. In addition, generators represent the rest of
surrounding network areas feeding into these network junction points. An equivalent
substitution of power generation capacity from outside generators is determined within the
network reduction process [1]. The substituted power feedings and loads represent a certain
load condition of the reduced network.
Furthermore, the modeling of existing power line interconnections between all utilized
nodes with series load flow elements is necessary. The impedance values implemented to
these series load flow devices (represent removed transmission line connections outside the
model) have to be selected based on the ratios of occurring voltage standards in the model.
Finally, the network structure needs a balanced condition of active and reactive power
generation and consumption. This comprises cross-border power transits to outer regions as
well as meeting the requirements for standardized voltage levels. Therefore, the voltage levels
need to be adapted according requirements given in corresponding guidelines [12]. Main
objective is the modeling of realistic conditions best possible.

Dietmar Holzer

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MODELING

5.1.3 Dynamic Datasets


Dynamic simulations in power grids of course require a network model including
components with appropriate transient behaviour. Thus, missing variables and parameter,
which represent the dynamic performance of applied elements, have to be determined or
completed. The reactance values and time constants of synchronous machines are of main
importance.

5.2

Integration of Wind Energy

5.2.1 Control Areas


The network model is divided up into four regions, the control areas (Figure 5-3).
Furthermore, the installed wind power capacities are assigned to the corresponding control
areas, utilized components and devices also. For the investigation, this now allows an
observation of power transfers between different control areas and of cross-border power
transfers also.

Figure 5-3: Control areas

5.2.2 Allocation of Wind Power per Region


Generally, the representation of wind power refers to a dispatch of total installed power
capacity [25] according its geographic location. A high concentration (~80%) of wind turbines
can be allocated in northern geographical parts of the network model. A strategy to remodel
wind power generation reflecting its geographical distribution in a more or less compressed
and partly decentralized way was developed.

Dietmar Holzer

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MODELING

Therefore, the installed wind power capacity of 17.132 MW is assigned according


geographical regions. Within these regions, the disposition of wind energy bases on updated
data from wind power studies [25, 11]. In total, three equally rated wind generation units (wind
parks-WP) per region should depicture the present system relative accurately. For
simplification and because of sufficient accuracy, only the seven regions wind high-capacity
generation values (represent 87% of total wind power capacity) have been taken into account
(Table 5-1). The remaining sum of other regions and has no relevant impact within this study.
Region
BWB
BAY
BER
BBG
BRE
HAM
HES
MVP
NSA
NRW
RPF
SAL
SAC
SAH
SWH
TH
Total
generation
capacity

Installed
capacity
[MW]

Share of
capacity
[%]

249.0
229.2
0.0
2308.2
51.7
33.7
411.2
1044.9
4567.9
2114.3
765.7
61.4
666.5
1943.2
2188.0
497.5
17132.3

1.5%
1.3%
0.0%
13.5%
0.3%
0.2%
2.4%
6.1%
26.7%
12.3%
4.5%
0.4%
3.9%
11.3%
12.8%
2.9%
100.0%

Modeled
Capacity
[MW]
[%]
~
~
~
2308.2
~
~
~
1044.9
4567.9
2114.3
765.7
~
~
1943.2
2188.0
~
14932.2

~
~
~
13.5%
~
~
~
6.1%
26.7%
12.3%
4.5%
~
~
11.3%
12.8%
~
87.2%

Table 5-1: List of real and modelled wind power capacities [Source [25] June 2005]

WIND PARKS

Figure 5-4: Modeling of wind parks per region and according associated control areas

Dietmar Holzer

33

Diploma Thesis

MODELING

5.2.3 Back-up Capacities and Reserve Power Capacities


The appropriate integration of the increasing wind generation capacity is important.
Maintaining the nature given balance between generated and consumed power and keeping
the basic load flow level means that the current wind power feeding has to be reduced
simultaneously in other power plants (back-up capacities). For reasons of limited predictability
of wind energy, a reserve of other back-up capacities rated equally to installed wind power
capacities from other (conventional) power plants has to be maintained for cases of total wind
generation outages. In the model, load and generation scaling factors were developed which
work complementary for wind parks and conventional power plants. This allows simulating
different wind power scenarios by changing the power factors for P and Q. The applied power
factors and the association of wind power capacity to control areas are shown in the
attachment (Control Areas and Back-Up-Capacities).

5.2.4 Modeling of Wind Parks


Steady state load flow calculations generally represent loads on buses independently
from occurring voltage and frequency with constant power. During dynamic actions in power
systems, the bus voltage levels vary heavily. Hence, variations in active and reactive power
occur, which can influence power grids considerably in terms of voltage and frequency
stability. For this reason, different load models adapted to the dynamic behaviour of loads
represent the voltage and frequency dependence of load power consumption [1].
Finding a good analogue to model the wind generators in the model is of high
importance. Consequently, wind parks are modeled in form of dynamic load equivalents with
incorporated control of power injection. The used negative load models for representation of
wind parks do not consume rather than inject power at the point of connection.
The load models representing wind parks are connected directly to the bus systems of

220/380 kV. The wind power feeding is voltage dependent and therefore related to the voltage
level at the connection bus Ui. For upcoming disturbances, the operational point of a wind park
varies with occurring changes in voltage levels. Thus, a composite model [24] models the
behaviour of wind power plants during fault-caused voltage changes. The equations below
show the corresponding voltage dependency of active and reactive power of wind generators:

P( f ,U ) = Pn ( csp + cip

U
U2
f
+ czp 2 ) (1 +
Fp )
Un
fn
Un

(5-1)

Q( f ,U ) = Qn ( csq + ciq

Q
Q2
f
+ czq 2 ) (1 +
Fp )
Qn
fn
Qn

(5-2)

Dietmar Holzer

34

Diploma Thesis

MODELING

The network model includes scaling factors of constant impedance, constant current
and constant power components. The coefficients csp, cip, czp and csq, ciq, czq, define the
proportion of each component. Furthermore, frequency dependency of the load characteristics
is represented by multiplying the composite model by a factor FP where f is the frequency
deviation.

(1 +

f
fn

Fp ) with

f = f fn

(5-3)

A reduction factor R(u) downsizes the supply of current, if the appearing voltage level is
too high or too low. This reduction includes multiplication of R(u) with the constant current cip,

ciq and the constant power factors csp, csq. That means that for voltages U > Ua1 or U < Ub1 , the
reduction factor R(u) is downsized from one to zero using a continuous function. Hence, this
reduces the output power PWIND and QWIND. For value ranges where wind parks supply their
nominal power Pnom and Qnom, R(u) is set to one. Mathematically, R(u) is represented by [24]:

U < Ub1

U U 2
R( u ) = MAX 1 b1
; 0
Ub1 U b2

(5-4)

U b1 Ub Ua1

R( u ) = 1

(5-5)

U > Ua1

R( u )

U U 2
= MAX 1 a1
; 0
Ua1 Ua2

(5-6)

For the active and reactive power functions, following equations emerge:

P = Pn ( R( u ) csp + R( u ) cip

U
U2
f
+ czp 2 ) (1 +
Fp )
Un
fn
Un

Q = Qn ( R( u ) csq + R( u ) ciq

(5-7)

U
U2
f
+ czq 2 ) (1 +
Fp )
Un
fn
Un

(5-8)

The parameter Ua1, Ua2, Ub1, Ub2, determine the reduction factor R(u) .Thus, with below applied
values for these parameters and the coefficients csp, cip, czp, csq, ciq, czq the according
performance of PWIND and QWIND is illustrated in Figure 5-5:

Ua1 = 1.2p.u., Ua2 = 1.3 p.u.


Ub1 = 0.7 p.u, Ub2 = 0.1p.u
czq = 0%

czp = 0%
1 = cip + csp + czp

cip = 0%

1 = ciq + csq + czq

(5-9)

csq = 100%

csp = 100%

Dietmar Holzer

ciq = 0%

35

Diploma Thesis

MODELING
QWIND,PWIND

PNom,QNom

Ub2

Ub1

Ua1

Ua2

Bus voltage Ui

UNom

Figure 5-5: Modeled P,Q-performance of wind power plants dependent on the bus voltage level

5.2.5 Over- and Undervoltage Protection of Wind Parks


According to EEG in [12], protection systems of wind generators have to meet specific
guidelines. The main concern is the reliability of wind power grid connections during dynamic
voltage sags as well as for frequency deviations in the power system.
Maximum-minimum relays, monitoring a measured variable for exceeding or
undershooting a preset value, enable a real-time supervision of the voltage levels respectively
the frequency level at the point of connection.
Voltage release functions
1.25
Limit for overvoltage tripping

Fault action ,t=0


1
Voltage [p.u.]

Limits for undervoltage tripping


0.75

0.5

0.25

0
-0.5

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

Time [sec]
Voltage increase protection
Selective decoupling (revised connection guidelines)
Unselective decoupling (former connection guidelines)

Figure 5-6: Voltage increase and decrease ranges [12]

Figure 5-6 shows the bus voltage UBus of a wind generator with voltage values and
tripping delays corresponding to voltage protection guidelines in [12]. A list of parameter
values can be found in the attachment (Protection Settings for Voltage Relays).
Dietmar Holzer

36

Diploma Thesis

MODELING

During voltage changes, the monitored terminal voltage UBus of a voltage relay exceeds
the predefined threshold value. Hence, a time counter starts which defines a pre-selected time
interval representing the associated tripping function of the protective equipment. If the
measured variable remains outside the threshold value during this time interval, then a trip
command to a protective breaker is associated at the interval end. The simulation software
NEPLAN allows operating up to four relay stages by one measured variable. If the measured
variable falls back below the threshold value before preset tripping time, the time counter
resets without a trip command.

5.3

Synchronous Generators in Electric Power Systems


For the generation of electric power synchronous machines are dominant.

Synchronous machines are general electrically characterized by their subtransient, transient


and synchronous reactances and their time constants. Normally, all time constants applied for
transient stability investigations are throughout larger than subtransient time constants. Out of
the subtransient relations [1], it is possible to describe the voltage arising in direct axis Ud and
quadrature axis Uq as follows:

Ud = R Id + Lq Iq
Uq =

(5-10)

(1 + sTd )
1
Uf Ld
I R Iq
(1 + sTd0 )
(1 + sTd0 ) d
1 + s Td'
1 + s Td' 0

IRe al ( t )

IIm ag ( t )

Re Im

d q

Id ( t )

(5-11)

Ld

Iq( t )

Uq( t )

Ld

d q
Re Im

URe al ( t )

UIm ag( t )

Uf ( t )

Ud ( t )

1
1 + s Td' 0

Figure 5-7: Transient model of synchronous machine [1]

5.3.1 Parameters of Synchronous Machines


Out of the network model, existing parameter values UNom , SNom , POper , QOper of
synchronous generators incorporated in the network could be extracted. These parameters
allow a rough determination of missing transient and subtransient parameters for utilized

Dietmar Holzer

37

Diploma Thesis

MODELING

synchronous generators and allow to simulate dynamic actions in power grids. Below is a list
of the compiled parameter for synchronous generators:

Td ,Td',Tq'

Td0',Tq0'

X d , X d'

X q , X q'

H,D
For the simulations in NEPLAN 5.0, the transient model of SM is selected to represent
the performance of the SM within the power system. In addition, all generators are salient pole

machines adjusted with an amortisseur winding. A detailed table with usual parameter of SM is
listed in the attachments (Typical Parameters of Synchronous Machines).

5.3.2 Excitation Systems and Tasks


The excitation system is responsible for the supply and control of excitation voltage

Ufield and therefore varies the level of voltage applied to the exciter winding. Thus, excitation
systems should guarantee a reliable energy support to prevent de-excitation. Furthermore,
generators in voltage control mode should try to regulate terminal voltage to a consistent level
for steady state operation [18].
Further important tasks of excitation systems during dynamic actions are:

Limitation of bus voltage changes

Adaptation of reactive power supply to appearing voltage levels

Maintaining dynamic stability during disturbances (by forced excitation)

The voltage controller parameters in today applied excitation systems vary regarding their
internal time constants and control behaviour. Generally, it can be distinguished between:

Static excitation system

Excitation energy from self- or separated excitation is applied directly to the generator
rotor (Figure 5-8). The control of the exciter voltage is based on converters. They have
the advantage of very short time constants but effort an auxiliary, reliable voltage
source (grid).

Excitation by exciter

3-phase-excitors with rotating converters feed in the necessary excitation voltage to the
excitation coil (Figure 5-9). Brushes to transmit the energy can be omitted and
excitation energy is directly obtained from turbine shaft power PT. Time constants of the
main excitation machine define the dynamic control behaviour mainly.

Dietmar Holzer

38

Diploma Thesis

MODELING
Unit Transformer

Unit Transformer

Generator

Generator

Rotating rectifier

Exciter

Main Excitation

Auxiallary machine
permanent magnet

Uref

Uref

Voltage Controller

Voltage Controller

Figure 5-8: Static excitation system [1]

Figure 5-9: Excitation by exciter [1]

5.3.3 Voltage Control of Synchronous Machines


The main task of voltage controller systems in generators is to regulate the terminal
voltage best possible according to the reference value URef selected. Superior functions are
the default supply of reactive power or the operation with a predefined power factor cos( ) .
Generally, a voltage controller acts like a proportional action controller. Consequently,
a steady control deviation characterised through the applied controller gain KA and the incline
of the controller characteristic arises.
The simulation model shows more than 120 synchronous generators in total. Thus,
only selected generators are equipped with a voltage controller. Rather the selection of power
plants for voltage task control bases on a regular geographical location. The main objective is
the modeling of a stabile system condition with realistic voltage-regulating functions of
generators and appropriate voltage responses for grid disturbances. Figure 5-10 shows the
control circuit of the realized voltage controller for synchronous machines:

URef
(iterative)

Controller

Input
Uactual

Actuator

max

Terminal

max

1
1 + s TE

KA
1 + s TA

Synchronous
machine

U field

Output
UField

min

min

Stabilization
max

KF
1 + s TF
min

Figure 5-10: Voltage controller for SM in the network model

Dietmar Holzer

39

Diploma Thesis

MODELING

Principle of operation:
The actual terminal voltage Uactual of the SM compared to the iterative determined reference
voltage URef acts as input for the controller. Furthermore, the arising difference is amplified and
limited within the controller, and afterwards directly applied for the regulation of the field
voltage Ufield or respectively the field current Ifield of the synchronous machine. The time
constants inside the controller and the actuator block depend on the utilized excitation system.
The value range of the controller output Ufield has to follow restrictions for upper and lower
limitation (positive and negative ceiling voltage). Typical parameters of the applied controller
and the selected values are listed in Table 5-2.
Function block
Controller

Actuator

Stabilization

Parameter range

Parameter value

KC = 20200
TC = 00.15 sec [1]
TE= 0.002 sec (for converter-based excitation) up to 1.5 sec (for auxiliary
excitation generator)
Ufmax =Ufnom I
(1,4...2 )

KC= 20
TC= 0.1 sec

nenn

(Positive ceiling voltage of the excitation system)


Ufmin =0 -1 p.u.
(Negative ceiling voltage; adjusted value depends on converter type) [1,27]
KS = 00,1
TS = 0.51 [1]

TE= variable
Ufmax= 3 p.u.
Ufmin= -1 p.u.
KC= 0.1
TC= 0.5

Table 5-2: Parameter for applied voltage controller

5.4

Modeling of SVC

5.4.1 Dynamic Admittance Model


Dynamic simulations require a SVC model to reflect the dynamic properties of Static
Var Compensators well adapted to real conditions. Key facts are SVCs static operational
point, the voltage response on dynamic grid actions and the ability for reactive power control to
compensate arising reactive power deficits during changes in grid conditions.
As SVC controls the voltage by injecting reactive power, the corresponding model
represents a parallel-connected shunt device with variable susceptance BRes(). The best way
for realization within the simulation software NEPLAN 5.0 is the use of a controlled admittance
element. In combination with appropriate control circuits, this gives complete freedom
regarding the controller structure.
For load flow calculations, this admittance element is set to a constant admittance
value permanently incorporated within the network admittance matrix. However, investigations
with dynamic actions require a dynamic model with controllable parameters. Therefore, the
admittance element, positioned exactly according optimal SVC allocation (5.5.1), varies in

Dietmar Holzer

40

Diploma Thesis

MODELING

value during the simulation, very independent of the value obtained for the initial load flow
calculation beforehand.

5.4.2 SVC Structure and Control Circuit


The SVC arrangement can be realized in various structures. One opportunity
comprises the parallel operation of a fixed compensator FC with reactive power QFC and a
TCR coil representing a variable reactive power component QTCR ( ) . The sum depends on
the actual firing angle and determines the value for the reactive power of the SVC

QSVC ( ) (2.1).
In the model, the reactive power injection of SVC assemblies is varied by control of the
imaginary part of admittance and respectively the resulting susceptance BRe s ( ) . Real and
imaginary part are controlled independently of each other, where the real part is always zero
and consequently negligible. Thus, control is only required for the imaginary component.
Figure 5-11 shows the principle of the controlled TCR module of the realized SVC
assembly in NEPLAN. The actual bus voltage UBus(t) is time-delayed according to a
measurement time delay. The comparison of UBus(t) with SVCs reference voltage URef adjusted
in the controlled admittance element leads to the current voltage difference UDiff(t). The
following voltage limitation block prevents the controller block from overmodulation. The actual
value of the TCR susceptance BTCR(t) is then calculated in proportion related to the occurring
difference voltage after the limitation UDiff(t)-Limit. Furthermore, the output of the controller
directly represents the value of the imaginary part of susceptance BTCR_imag. The TCR
susceptance value needs to be limited after the controller block according to the selected
rating capacity of the TCR.

Kc
1 + s Tc

BTCR _ imag

Figure 5-11: TCR control circuit for susceptance control

The proportional relation between controller gain, selected controller slope and the
arising susceptance value BTCR(t) depictures Figure 5-12. Different inclines for the controller

Dietmar Holzer

41

Diploma Thesis

MODELING

characteristic BTCR(t)=f(U) can be achieved by changing the SVC operation range (slope).
Furthermore, for a certain voltage difference U(t1) the associated values of the TCR
susceptance BTCR(t)=f(U) depending on the selected controller slope are pictured. BTCR(t) in
addition with the fixed susceptance of the capacitor BFC determines the actual reactive power

QSVC of the SVC. The selection of TCR susceptance is double size the susceptance of the FC
what allows inductive as well capacitive operational mode. The operation mode is then only
dependent on the actual sign of the voltage difference U(t1). The SVC performance is

Capacitive
Operation Mode

Inductive
Operation Mode

linearized within its operation range.

Figure 5-12: Controller characteristics of the TCR controller

Variables and Parameters of the Controller


All applied parameters in the SVC control circuit (Figure 5-11) are selected according to
defined rating and performance criteria which take into account typical data and time delays of
SVC controllers (Table 5-3):
Module

Parameter

Definition

Parameter value set

Measuring

Tmeas

Measuring circuit time delay

0.002 sec

Thyristor Control

TC

Controller delay

0.002 sec

Voltage Regulator

KC

Controller gain

Variable

Slope

XSlope

Steady-state characteristic slope

Variable

Table: 5-3: TCR controller parameter

Dietmar Holzer

42

Diploma Thesis

MODELING

5.4.3 Rating of SVC Elements


Before a SVC is implemented to a network bus, parameters of the installation site are
required to adapt the SVC with respect to steady state and dynamic operations also.
An initial load flow calculation determines the voltage level URef directly at the
installation site and provides additionally the relevant grid parameters without impact of the
SVC element. The reference voltage level URef, the selected SVC operation range
SlopeSVC and the reactive power range QSVC are shiftable inside the rating procedure shown

in Figure 5-13. This procedure calculates the appropriate controller factors and parameter
values for the modeling of the SVC and gives complete freedom for representation of SVCs
performance.
Start

Set SVC Parameter


QFC ,QTCR,URef, XSlope
Determine SVC-Characteristic &
SVC Controller Parameter
BTCR=f(Uactual-URef)
BTCRmax,BTCRmin
(MATLAB)
Implement SVC Parameter Values

Dynamic Simulations (NEPLAN)

Documentation of Results

Figure 5-13: Rating principle of SVC devices

As explained, the SVC in the model constitutes a combination of a FC and a TCR, both
connected directly to the high-voltage bus system. The system voltage varies within
U = URe f U [%] , depending on the operation range of the SVC. With the given parameters of

QTCR , QFC , QSVC and SlopeSVC the other SVC parameter for defined operation points are
determined.
For the rated line-to-line voltage URef , the parameters of SVC are calculated as follows:

QTCR = 2 QFC

Dietmar Holzer

(5-12)

43

Diploma Thesis

MODELING

QFC Re f = 3 URe f ICap Re f => ICap Re f =

QFC
3 URe f

(5-13)

QTCR
QTCR Re f = 3 URe f ITCR Re f => ITCR Re f =

BFC =

2
3 URe f

QFC
= const
2
URe
f
QTCR

(5-14)

(5-15)

2 = B
FC

(5-16)

BSVC = BTCR BFC = 0

(5-17)

ISVC = ITCR IFC = 0

(5-18)

QSVC = QTCR QFC = 0

(5-19)

BTCR =

2
Re f

For the minimum line-to-line voltage UCap max the relations are:

UCap max = URe f UCap max ICap max

(5-20)

BTCR min = 0

(5-21)

( = 180 )

BSVC = BTCR min BFC = BFC

(5-22)

QSVC = QTCR QFC = QFC

(5-23)

ICap max =

QSVC
QFC
=
UCap max 3 UCap max 3

(5-24)

Moreover, for the maximum line-to-line voltage UIndmax the relations are:
UInd max = URe f + UInd max IInd max

BTCR =

QTCR
2
UInd
max

(5-25)

( = 90 )

(5-26)

BSVC = BTCR max BFC = BTCR max 2

(5-27)

QSVC = QTCR QFC = QTCR 2

(5-28)

IInd max =

Dietmar Holzer

QSVC
QTCR
=
UInd max 3 UInd max 3

(5-29)

44

Diploma Thesis

MODELING

5.5

Optimal Allocation of SVC Devices


An optimal disposition of FACTS devices constitutes the fundamental base for

maximization of the impact on grid parameter for static applications and during dynamic
actions. Therefore, FACTS types and the installation sites should be reasonably chosen
according to their contribution to the general objective of power system economic generation
and dispatch [15].
In this research, the locations of the SVC device, its parameter and quantity are
optimized. The SVC placement is coordinated by criteria for best dynamic and static efficiency
as well as optimal economic considerations also. An individual algorithm determines the
resulting impact owing to the SVC element implemented to the network model. The applied
concept for determination of optimal location for a Static Var Compensator in shunt connection
will be explained in 5.5.1 and 5.5.2.
Normally, calculations in electric networks are accomplished by quasi steady state
linear circumstances. By using complex effective values, the relation between voltage U and
current I is represented by the system admittance matrix Y of the grid or its inverse Z
(impedance matrix). The coupling admittances Y ij and self-admittances Elements Y ii built up
the system admittance matrix Y.

Y 11

Y = Y i1

Y
n1

Y 1i
Y ii
Y nj

Y 1n

Y ij

Y nn

Y =Z

Z11

Z = Z i1

Z
n1

Z1i
Z ii
Z nj

Z1n

Z ij

Z nn

(5-30)

5.5.1 Optimal Placement Procedure for Single SVC Devices


The essential idea for this method is based on the fact that an additional current feeds
to a certain network node. In connection with the admittance matrix Y of the grid, reflecting the
network topology, this results in voltage changes throughout all network nodes of the power
system. The analysis of emerging changes in node voltage levels therefore possesses
valuable information for validation.
The injected current I SVC shows reactive character only and represents the SVC as a
reactive power source QSVC (Ploss of SVC neglected). A single element I i within I SVC has
the form I i = 0 + j1 . This single element I i feeds to each network node separately. That
means that only one reactive power source is activated at any time (exemplary in Figure 5-14).
All possible injection sites (column 1m) are then combined in a single matrix I SVC . The

Dietmar Holzer

45

Diploma Thesis

MODELING

injection of the current I SVC in combination with the admittance matrix shows voltage
changes for all network nodes U .

I SVC

I1

0
=
0

I2 0
0
0

0 0 + j 1
0
0
0

0 0
0 + j 1 0
0
=
0 0
0
0

Im 0
0
0 0 + j 1

(5-31)

m .. Number of network nodes

Figure 5-14: Network with SVC current injection

U = Y 1 I SVC = Z I SVC

(5-32)

U11 U1m Z11 Z1m I1 0



U =
=

U
Z
0

U
Z
I

mm
mm
m
m1
m1

(5-33)

The emphasis within this paper is the analysis of node voltages from installed wind
parks (refers to 21 wind park buses in total). Additionally, we investigate the impact of SVC
devices on wind park terminal voltages. The n rows in the matrix U WIND describe every single
wind park node and the m columns represent all existing network nodes within the whole
power system. Further validations only consider the voltage changes in magnitude U Wind at
the common point of connection.

U Wind

UWind11 UWind1m

U
Windnm
Windn1

(5-34)

1st index Wind park index, 1n (refers to number of network nodes with wind power plants, n=21)
2nd index Injection nodes, 1m

Dietmar Holzer

46

Diploma Thesis

MODELING

Figure 5-15 shows the occurring voltage deviations in magnitude at the n wind power plants
resulting from reactive power injection by SVC in all m possible network nodes.
2.5

1.5

0.5

0
25

20

700
600

15
500
400

10
300
200

5
100

Figure 5-15: Absolute voltage deviations in network nodes

The resulting voltage deviations are investigated in detail. This analysis should detect
valuable information for the determination of an optimal SVC location. Therefore, the validation
of U Wind includes different criteria, explained as follows:

MAXIMUM CRITERIA:

This criterion includes the determination of maximum occurring voltage changes in


node voltages for different SVC injection sites. The values of voltage changes
differ remarkably and reflect the effect of SVC power injection.

Maximumwind = max( U Wind

UWind 11 UWind 1m

) = max

U
Wind nm
Wind n1

=>Maximumwind = ( UWind max1 , UWind max 2 ,

=>Maximumranking = sort( Maximumwind )

, UWind max m )

(5-35)

(5-36)
(5-37)

MEAN CRITERIA:

This includes the calculation of mean voltage lifting in observed network buses and
allows the validation of medium voltage increase.

Dietmar Holzer

47

Diploma Thesis

MODELING

Meanwind = m ean( U Wind

UWind 11 UWind 1m

) = m ean

U
UWind nm
Wind n1

=> Meanwind = ( UWind mean1 , UWind mean2 ,

(5-38)

, UWind mean m )

(5-39)

=>Meanranking = sort( Meanwind )

(5-40)

MEDIAN CRITERIA:

Statistic outliers as extraordinary high or low voltage changes have to be


eliminated or at least minimized due to eventual misrepresentation of arising
results. Therefore, the determination of median voltage deviations should
guarantee the elimination of statistic outliers in emerging node voltage values.

Medianwind = m edian( U Wind

UWind 11 UWind 1m

) = m edian

U
UWind nm
Wind n1

=> Medianwind = ( UWind med1 , UWind med 2 ,


=>Medianranking = sort( Medianwind )

, UWind med m )

(5-41)

(5-42)
(5-43)

The functions max( U Wind ) , mean( U Wind ) and median( U Wind ) validate the
occurring voltage changes for each column of U Wind according to the used criteria. In the
meanwhile the associated results are stored in the row vectors Maximumwind , Meanwind
and Medianwind . These three vectors are the base for the following sorting algorithm,
because all results stored inside these vectors are listed according to the values from separate
criteria validation. The maximum value of each criterion is equal to the best installation site
and gets the first place. After accomplishing ranking and sorting of all single criteria, the sorted
results are assigned to separate vectors representing the single criteria results.
( Maximumranking , Meanranking , Medianranking ).
The discrete application of the three criteria mentioned is not satisfying for the
determination of an optimal SVC placement. Consequently, a combination of criteria is
preferable. Thus, the ranked single criteria results are combined, sorted and ranked again.
This includes an activity, where for each network node an average ranking value (ranking

according mean positions in all three criteria) is determined from single results

Dietmar Holzer

48

Diploma Thesis

MODELING

( Maximumranking , Meanranking , Medianranking ). Figure 5-16 shows this average ranking


exemplary for the network node i :
Network Node i

Maximum Ranking
Result for Node i

Medium Ranking
Result for Node i

Median Ranking
Result for Node i

Combined Mean Ranking Result for


Network Node i

Figure 5-16: Mean ranking determination exemplary for the network node i

Finally, the mean rankings of network nodes are compared and listed. This provides a
final ranking list ( Sumranking ), which includes all existing network nodes and their average
ranking positions. Of course, the node with first place in Sumranking shows the best average
properties for all three criteria in combination and is therefore preferred as SVC installation
site. Figure 5-17 shows the total principle for determination of an optimal SVC location.

Figure 5-17: Validation, sorting and ranking algorithm for optimal SVC location

Dietmar Holzer

49

Diploma Thesis

MODELING

5.5.2 Optimal Placement Procedure for Two SVC Devices in Combination


This process uses the same principle as for the determination of optimal single SVC
location, but now the investigation focuses on optimal positioning of two SVC elements
operating simultaneously. With these two elements working in parallel, the number of possible
combinations C increases in square with the number of network buses m in the power system.
Valid combinations:
m

C = m2

(5-44)

number of network nodes

i.. program step variable

Furthermore, a strategy to model all valid SVC combinations has to be found. The
principle is explained in detail for a single program step. Within this first program run (i=1), a
vector I 2SVC

i =1

arises, which contains the combination of network node 1 (row vector I Ak ,

with k=1m, first run k=1) combined separately with all other existing network nodes. This
leads to m possible combinations per program run.

I 2SVC

i =1

I A1 + IB1

=
0

I A1
IB2

I A1

I A1

0
IB3

0
0

0
IBm i =1

(5-45)

IA. Injection in site A


IB. Injection in site B

U 2SVC i = Y 1 I 2SVC

(5-46)

Multiplying the current vector I 2SVC

i =1

with the inverted admittance matrix Y

taking the absolute values provides the occurring voltage changes in magnitude U 2SVC

and
i =1

As before, the focus is on the n buses with wind power plants (21 wind parks). Thus, the
vector U Wind

i =1

arises. Every column in U Wind

i =1

represents a possible SVC combination

(e.g. bus number 1(A1) and bus number 3(B3)). The rows of U Wind

i =1

(21 rows in total) lists

the voltage changes by different SVC combinations for selected wind park nodes (n=21).

Dietmar Holzer

50

Diploma Thesis

MODELING

U Wind 2SVC

i =1

U WindA1B11

U WindA1B1 2
= U WindA1B1 3

U WindA1B1 n

U WindA1B2 1
U WindA1B2 2
U WindA1B2 3

U WindA1B3 1
U WindA1B3 2
U WindA1B3 3

U WindA1B2 n

U WindA1B3 n

U WindA1Bm 1
U WindA1Bm 2
U WindA1Bm 3

U WindA1Bm n
i =1

(5-47)

Afterwards the same validation criteria are applied, which have already been used for
the determination of best single SVC locations. Thus, three row vectors ( Maximumwind ,

Meanwind , and Medianwind ) containing the column results of U Wind 2SVC

i =1

arise. After

sorting, the results are assigned to vectors representing the single criteria results.
( Maximumranking , Meanranking , and Medianranking ).

max( U Wind 2SVC

i =1

=> Maximumwind = ( UWind max1 , UWind max 2 ,

, UWind max m )

(5-48)
i =1

=>Maximumranking = sort( Maximumwind )


m edian( U Wind 2SVC

i =1

(5-49)

=> Medianwind = ( UWind med1 , UWind med 2 ,

, UWind med m )

(5-50)
i =1

=>Medianranking = sort( Medianwind )


m ean( U Wind 2SVC

i =1

(5-51)

=> Mediumwind = ( UWind mean1 , UWind mean2 ,

, UWind mean m )

(5-52)
i =1

=>Mediumranking = sort( Mediumwind )

(5-53)

Once the single criteria results are calculated, a combination of all criteria is applied
(Figure 5-16) and an average validation result for each node emerges. The results for this first
program run are stored in a temporary result vector U Wind R ES

U Wind R ES

i =1

= ( U WindA1B1 _ i =1 , U WindA1B2 _ i =1 ,

i =1

, U WindA1Bm _ i =1 )

i =1

(5-54)

Exemplary, for the second program run the index of row vector I Ak is increased
(k=2). Therefore, m new combinations for different injection possibilities in form of I 2SVC
emerge. Furthermore, the same procedure is repeated for I 2SVC

Dietmar Holzer

51

i =2

i =2

Diploma Thesis

MODELING

IB1
I A2
I 2SVC

i =2

I A2 + IB2

I A2

= 0

I A2
IB3

0
0

(5-55)

IBm i =2

Depending on the quantity m of power system network nodes, this procedure is


repeated m times until all possible combinations have successfully been calculated,
determined and validated. After all program runs are accomplished (i=m), this leads to a final
result matrix U Wind Result .

U Wind Result

(e.g.

Wind RES i =1

U Wind A1B1 _1


U Wind RES i =2 U Wind A2B1 _ 2


= U
= U Wind A3B1 _ 3
Wind RES i =3

U Wind AmB1 _ m
U Wind RES

i =m

U Wind A1B2 _1

U Wind A1Bm _1

U Wind A2B2 _ 2

U Wind A2Bm _ 2

U Wind A3Bm _ 3

U Wind A3B2 _ 3
U Wind AmB2 _ m

(5-56)

U Wind AmBm _ m

U WindA3B2 _ 3 =Represents the validated results of injection at network bus 3 and 2)

The m 2 validated mean ranking results out of matrix U Wind Re sult

represent each

individual a combination of possible SVC injections. In a final step, these results are sorted
and ranked in a final ranking list (Figure 5-17). A control for correct calculation is given, when
the final result list shows each SVC combination (e.g. I A4 , I B6 ) and its reverse combination
( I A6 , I B4 ) listed directly one behind the other.

5.5.3 Results for Optimal SVC Locations


The following tables show an extraction of the results for optimal SVC locations. The Table 5-4
includes the best sites for single SVC assemblies, and Table 5-5 lists the best results for two
SVCs operating simultaneously.
Furthermore, Figure 5-18 and Figure 5-19 visualize an extraction of the best single
SVC locations and for two SVCs operating in parallel.

Dietmar Holzer

52

Diploma Thesis

MODELING

Characteristics of single installation sites:


The observation of Figure 5-18 demonstrates some remarkable characteristics for
single SVC locations. Generally, the single results are situated at locations with low grid
density and a high concentration of wind parks in surrounding areas. On the one hand, this
can be ascribed to the more intense impact of SVC installations in low-density grids, on the
other hand on the high concentration of wind power installations in remote areas. Furthermore,
the calculated SVC locations also prefer important net connection points within the power grid.
Maximum Criteria
Ranking
SAH-D8KLM 11
MVP-D8GOE 11
MVP-D8LUB 11
D8GOE 12
D4NEUR22
D3MIT 11
D7ARPE11
BBG-D8PE 11
D8BW 11
D8GUE 11

Medium Criteria
Ranking

Median Criteria
Ranking

MVP-D8GOE 11
D8GOE 12
D3MAZ 11
BBG-D8PE 11
D2GKRO21
D8BW 11
RPF-D7DIEF21
MVP-D8GUE 12
D3MIT 11
BBG-D3TEU 11

D2DIPP11
D2GIEN12
D2DILL11
D2MECK12
D7ROKI22
D2ASSL11
D2RED 21
D2GIEN11
D2BORK12
D2BORK11

Node
Mean
Number Ranking
570
451
489
458
556
442
309
491
486
527

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Combined
Results
NRW-D7NEHD11
RPF-D7WTHU11
SAH-D8KLM 11
NRW-D7SECH11
D2DOLL11
D3MIT 11
MVP-D8GUE 12
BBG-D3TEU 11
D7ARPE11
NSA-D2ALGE11

Table: 5-4: Extract from results for best locations of single SVC assembly

MVP-D8GUE 12
D2DOLL11
BBG-D3TEU 11
NSA-D2ALGE11

D3MIT 11
SAH-D8KLM 11

NRW-D7NEHD11
NRW-D7SECH11

D7ARPE11

RPF-D7WTHU11

Figure 5-18: Determined optimal locations for single SVC devices

Dietmar Holzer

53

Diploma Thesis

MODELING

Characteristics of installation sites for two SVCs in combination:


The acquired characteristics for single SVC locations are identical to the characteristics
determined for the combination of two SVC devices (Figure 5-19). In addition to the single
location feature, it can be observed that the elements all SVC combinations are situated at
certain distance each to another. This can be attributed that the combinations cover extensive
geographical areas as much as possible. In this way, they maximize their impact on existing
wind park installations.
Mean Ranking

SVC Installation Site A

Node Number

SVC Installation Site B Node Number

1
1

SAH-D8KLM11
RPF-D7WTHU11

265
395

RPF-D7WTHU11
SAH-D8KLM11

395
265

2
2

SAH-D8KLM 11
D2DIPP11

265
488

D2DIPP11
SAH-D8KLM 11

488
265

3
3

MVP-D8GUE 12
RPF-D7WTHU11

167
395

RPF-D7WTHU11
MVP-D8GUE 12

395
167

4
4

SAH-D8WOL 12
D2DOLL11

423
556

D2DOLL11
SAH-D8WOL 12

556
423

45
46

NRW-D7NEHD11
D3MIT 11

570
120

D3MIT 11
NRW-D7NEHD11

120
570

Table 5-5: Extract from results for two SVC elements working simultaneously

Figure 5-19: Determined optimal locations for two SVC devices operating in parallel

Dietmar Holzer

54

Diploma Thesis

DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

Dynamic Simulations

6.1

General Considerations
Generally, a consistent measurement procedure for all applied investigations

constitutes a fundamental base to fulfil the necessary requirements regarding comparability


and accuracy. Furthermore, equal identification and validation of simulation parameter and
quantities allows the comparison of diverse scenarios afterwards.
Start

Variation of Wind Power Feeding


Adopt Power Generation
Scaling Factors
Basic Loadflow Simulation
Calculaton Results
Add SVC Control Circuit
Network Model &
Implement SVC Steady
State Parameter
Uref,Qsvc,Xslope

Determine SVC
Controller Parameter
(Rating)

Dynamic Simulation

Results
Documentation

Figure 6-1: Flow chart of simulation procedure

Simulation overview
Connection
settings of
wind parks

Fault

Simulation A -Single SVC Element


Reactive Power [MVAr]
*1

Simulation B - Two SVC Elements


Reactive Power [MVAr]
*1

*1

*1

100

300

500

1000

2x150

2x250

2x500

D8WHTU21
Combination of D7ARPE11
connection D8WOL11
guidelines
D3MIT
D2WAHL11

A1
A2
A3

A1
A2
A3

A1
A2
A3

A1
A2
A3

A1
A2
A3
A4
A5

B1
B2
B3

B1
B2
B3

B1
B2
B3

B1
B2
B3
B4
B5

B1
B2
B3

C1
C2
C3
C4
C5

C1
C2
C3
C4
C5

D8WHTU21
D7ARPE11
D8WOL11
D3MIT
D2WAHL11

A1
A2
A3

A1
A2
A3

A1
A2
A3

A1
A2
A3

A1
A2
A3
A4
A5

B1
B2
B3

B1
B2
B3

B1
B2
B3

B1
B2
B3
B4
B5

B1
B2
B3

C1
C2
C3
C4
C5

C1
C2
C3
C4
C5

Revised
connection
guidelides
(EEG 2004)

1000

2x500 2x1000

Simulation C - Multiple SVC Elements


Reactive Power [MVAr]
5x200

5x500

Figure 6-2: Simulation overview

Dietmar Holzer

55

Diploma Thesis

DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

Figure 6-2 shows an overview for the applied simulations within this paper. The
*1

Qsvc=1000 MVAr,

validations of parameters (6.4.7, 6.5.7, 6.6.7) for the SVC variants of


*1

Qsvc=2x500 MVAr,

*1

Qsvc=5x200 MVAr,

*1

Qsvc=5x500 MVAr include also the results of

simulation 4 (D3MIT11) and 5 (D2WAHL11), where all other validations only include the
simulations 1 (D8WTHU21), 2 (D7ARPE11) and 3 (D8WOL11).
Selected dynamic action for the simulations
For several reasons the investigation of short circuits due to atmospheric influences or
through emerging faults in high voltage power grids is essential. In case, a 3-phase
symmetrical short circuit takes place within the power grid, the utilized network elements have
to withstand most stress. Within this investigation, emerging short circuits are simulated for
randomly selected network buses. As a guideline, protection systems should remove short
circuits in high voltage systems in less than 1 second. The selected short circuit time in the
simulations is set to a medium level of 0.5 seconds.
Wind power feeding
Under consideration of the coincidence factor, wind power generation was set to a
mean value of 50% related to the total installed capacity (Figure 6-3). In numbers, this refers to
an actual wind feeding of around 7,500 MW, with an operational power factor set to one
( cos( ) = 1 ). This value represents rather a strong wind case considering the statistic power
fluctuations of wind energy [11]. The wind power supply assigned to the associated control
areas results then in following distribution:

CONTROL AREA 2

Region

Installed Capacity
per Region

50%

MW

CONTROL AREA 3

Present active
wind power
injection

MW

MW

SWH
NSA

2,188.0
3,045.3

-5503.9

1094.0
1522.6

Total

5,233.3

5233.3

2616.6

Back-up
power plant
capacity

Present active
wind power
injection

Region

Installed Capacity
per Region

50%

MW

CONTROL AREA 4

Back-up
power plant
capacity

MW

MW

-4557.9

1057.2
382.8
761.3

NRW
RPF
NSA

2,114.3
765.7
1,522.6

Total

4,402.7

2201.3

2201.3

Installed Capacity
per Region

Back-up
power plant
capacity

Present active
wind power
injection

Region

MW
BBG
MVP

50%

MW

2,308.2
1,044.9

SAH

1,943.2

Total

5,296.2

MW
1154.1
522.5

-5379.8
5296.2

971.6
2648.1

MW
7466.1

Wind power
generation

Figure 6-3: Mask for wind power feeding assigned to appropriate control areas

Dietmar Holzer

56

Diploma Thesis

DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

Visualization of investigated parameters


The main objective constitutes the validation of all bus voltages with wind power plants.
Thus, the parameters below are visualized and validated:

Ui.. Bus voltages of buses with wind parks

PWIND, QWINDActive wind power, reactive wind power

Qsvc.Reactive power SVC

U-I characteristic. Voltage - current characteristic of SVC

PSM, QSM.Active and reactive power of selected synchronous generators

Ifield...Field current of selected synchronous generators

Validation of voltage levels of wind power plants


Disturbances in high voltage grids possibly lead to a voltage funnel with arising voltage
levels below the nominal voltage Unom in ambient fault areas. The activation of protective
equipment for under- or overvoltage disconnects wind parks from grid. In a worst-case
scenario, this possibly leads to a sudden high share of wind power outages. The extension of
the voltage funnel is characterized by the actual load case and by the density of the grid.
Suitable parameters to qualify the monitored results have to be derived from the
occurring terminal voltages of wind parks. The changes in voltage magnitudes during fault
actions are calculated and validated for every network bus featuring a wind power plant. Table
6-1 shows the according parameters:
Parameter

Voltage sag.....

Equation

un =

Unit

Un

during fault

Un

...

pre fault

n. number of wind park nodes

Mean voltage sag .....

umean =

..

umean with Qsvc

Mean voltage improvement .

kimprove =

Mean voltage difference ...

urelated = umean

umean without Qsvc


without Qsvc

...

umean with Qsvc

Table 6-1: Validation parameter for bus voltages occurring during the disturbance

Dietmar Holzer

57

Diploma Thesis

DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

Validation of wind power outages


In addition to voltage parameters, also changes in active power feeding of wind parks
are monitored. This includes the transient power decrease related to the pre-fault power
generation value as well as the steady power outages caused through protection relays. The
wind power outages therefore offer a significant parameter valuable for validating the SVC
performance. Table 6-2 shows the associated parameters:
Parameter

Equation

Unit

Mean wind power outage (steady state)

Poutage =

Difference in mean power outage...

Poutage = Poutage

Power decrease (during fault event)...

PTransient =

Pn
Pn

without SVC

during fault

Poutage

with SVC

MW
MW

MW

pre fault

Table 6-2: Validation parameter for wind power hand-over during disturbances

6.2

Connection Technologies and Protection Systems of Wind Parks

6.2.1 Modeling the Total Capacity According Revised Connection Guidelines


In this version, the total wind power capacity is modelled according to revised EEG
guidelines specified in 2004. The characteristic of WP for reliable connection to grid during
disturbances and the effect of voltage improvement through applied SVC technology are
analysed.
Voltage release functions
1.25
Limit for overvoltage tripping

Fault action ,t=0

Voltage [p.u.]

1
Limit for undervoltage tripping
0.75
0.5
0.25
0
-0.5

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

Time [sec]
Voltage increase protection

Selective decoupling (revised guidelines)

Figure 6-4: Voltage protection for selective decoupling (revised connection guidelines)

Dietmar Holzer

58

Diploma Thesis

DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

The voltage levels at connection points of wind parks vary more or less during
emerging faults. The tripping actions associated to protection systems of WP caused through
appearing changes in voltage levels will be analysed and validated. The voltage release
functions belonging to present connection guidelines (EEG 2004) are depictured in Figure 6-4.
The protection relays of WP are adjusted according the release times out of Figure 6-4 (5.2.5
and 3.5).

6.2.2 Modeling a Combination of Former and Revised Connection Guidelines


Within this part, the simulated wind power capacity represents the present system
status of utilized connection technologies. All wind parks, attached to the transmission grid
before December 2003, are connected to grid as pretended in former (old) connection
guidelines [11]. Figure 6-5 shows the according settings for under- and overvoltage relays
monitoring the system voltage at the connection point. For voltages sagging below 80% of
nominal voltage Unom, voltage relays trip and disconnect WP from grid. This could lead to serial
wind power outages and endanger system stability of the whole power system.
Voltage release functions
1.25
Limit for overvoltage tripping

Fault action ,t=0

Voltage [p.u.]

1
Limit for undervoltage tripping
0.75
0.5
0.25
0
-0.5

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

Time [sec]
Voltage increase protection

Unselective decoupling

Figure 6-5: Voltage protection for unselective decoupling (former connection guidelines)

The total installed wind power capacity until the year 2005 surveys that around 80% of
todays existing capacity had already been installed in 2003 also [11]. In the model, three wind
parks depicture the installation capacity per region. For appropriate modeling of appearing
shares of protection systems, two of these three WP (66.6% of total installation capacity) are
equipped with unselective voltage tripping settings (Table 6-3). The rest (33.3%) is adjusted
with selective settings (according revised guidelines, EEG 2004).
For identification within the model, selective coupled wind parks show the name ending
as xxx.1. A list of all realized wind power plants within the network model can be found in

Dietmar Holzer

59

Diploma Thesis

DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

the attachment (List of Realized Wind Parks). For reasons of comparability, again the same
percentage of wind power feeding (50% of total capacity, equal to around 7500 MW) is
selected (Table 6-3).
Selective coupling of wind parks

Unselective coupling of wind parks

2,488.69 MW
(33.3%)
Total wind park feeding capacity

4,977.38 MW
(66.6%)
7,466.07MW

Table 6-3: Selected share for wind power feeding capacity

The validation of this scenario is based on the network nodes with wind power plants
as before. The bus voltages and protection systems are monitored during emerging faults. The
mixture of selective and unselective coupling guidelines should bring remarkable differences in
wind power outages through the associated tripping of protective systems.

6.3

Cost Comparison for Utilized SVC Assemblies


The specific cost function in Figure 2-9 allows calculating the investment costs for

diverse SVC arrangements.


SVC Assembly
QSVC

Simulation

[MVAr]

Specific costs

Investment costs

c(Qr)

[ / kVAr]

[Million ]

100
300
500
1000

A
A
A
A

79
51
41
32

7.9
15.2
20.4
30.9

2x150
2x250
2x500
2x1000

B
B
B
B

70
56
41
32

21.0
28.0
41.0
64.0

5x200
5x500

C
C

62
41

62.0
102.5

Table 6-4: Cost for different SVC assemblies

A visual comparison of the investment costs for installed SVC arrangements is shown
in Figure 6-6 and Figure 6-7. Obviously, with increasing capacity a small difference between
single SVC and double SVC installations arises, slightly to the disadvantage of two operating
SVC elements (Figure 6-6).
In Figure 6-7 the comparison takes place for SVC assemblies of same overall rating,
but in different quantities. It shows that multiple SVC installations more than double the
necessary investment costs against single operating SVC devices. Adding an exponential

Dietmar Holzer

60

Diploma Thesis

DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

trend function depictures the performance of costs increase for raising SVC quantity more
detailed.
Cost comparison of SVC assemblies
45
41
Investment costs [Million ]

40
35
31
30

28

25
21

20

20
15

15

10
Qsvc=300 MVAr
Qsvc=2X150 MVAr

Qsvc=500MVAr
Qsvc=2X250MVAr

Single operating SVC device

Qsvc=1000MVAr
Qsvc=2X500 MVAr

Two SVC devices operating simultaneously

Figure 6-6: Cost comparison for one and two SVC devices with same overall rating
Cost comparison for diverse SVC assemblies
80

Investment costs [Million ]

70
62
60
50
41
40
31
30
20
10
0
Qsvc=1000 MVAr

Qsvc=2X500 MVAr

Investment costs

Qsvc=5X200 MVAr

Exponentiell (Investment costs)

Figure 6-7: Investment costs for SVCs with equal rating but different quantity specifications

6.4

Simulation A - Single Operating SVC Assembly

6.4.1 Modeling of Simulation A


This first investigation shows the implementation of a single SVC element according to
the determined optimal installation sites (5.5.1). This scenario should detect the impact on
voltage stability during faults by various rated single SVC devices installed at the network bus

NRW-D7NEHD11 (Figure 6-8).

Dietmar Holzer

61

Diploma Thesis

DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

Figure 6-8: Network topology with SVC assembly and fault locations

Parameters and variables


Node Number

Ranking

Installation Site

570

NRW-D7NEHD11

Table 6-5: Installation site for a single SVC device

SVC parameters within simulation A are set as follows:


SlopeSVC = 1%
URe f = 1,0265 p.u.

The reactive power operating range for the SVC assembly varies:
QSVC =100 MVAr, QSVC =300 MVAr, QSVC =500 MVAr, QSVC =1000 MVAr

The wind power feeding rated according to the total wind power capacity installed is set to a
mean value:
PWind = 50% QWind = 0%

Dietmar Holzer

62

Diploma Thesis

DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

6.4.2 Visualization of Parameters for Simulation A1 (D7WTHU21)


Bus Voltage NRW_D7NEHD11

Reactive Power Qsvc

1.10
1.08

100
-100 2

10

1.04
Qsvc [MVAr]

Bus Voltage [p.u.]

1.06

1.02
1.00
0.98

-300
-500
-700

0.96
-900

0.94
2

10

Time [sec]
Qsvc=100MVAr

Qsvc=300MVAr

Qsvc=500MVAr

Qsvc=1000MVAr

-1100

without SVC

Qsvc=100MVAr

Figure 6-9: A1-Bus voltage in NRW_D7NEHD11-Wind2

Time [sec]
Qsvc=300MVAr
Qsvc=500MVAr

Qsvc=1000MVAr

Figure 6-10: A1-Reactive power SVC

SVC U-I Characteristic


1.09

1.07

Voltage [p.u.]

1.05

1.03

1.01

0.99

0.97

0.95

-1600

-1400

-1200

-1000

Qsvc=100MVAr

-800

-600
Current [A]

Qsvc=300MVAr

-400

-200

Qsvc=500MVAr

200

Qsvc=1000MVAr

Figure 6-11: A1-SVC U-I Characteristic


Wind Active Power

-335 2

Active Power QSYN D2WALD11-G


7

230

10

228
226

-345
P_SM [MW]

PWIND [MW]

224

-355
-365

222
220
218
216

-375

214
212

-385

210

Time [sec]
PWind_NRW-D7NEHD11_Qsvc=300MVAr
PWind_NRW-D7NEHD11_Qsvc=500MVAr
PWind_NRW-D7NEHD11_without SVC

PWind_NRW-D7NEHD11_Qsvc=100MVAr
PWind_NRW-D7NEHD11_Qsvc=1000MVAr

P SYN D2WALD11-G Qsvc=100MVAr


P SYN D2WALD11-G Qsvc=500MVAr
P SYN D2WALD11-G without svc

6
Time [sec]

Figure 6-12: A1-Active wind power in

Figure 6-13: A1-Active power of

NRW_D7NEHD11-Wind2

SM_D2WALD11-G

Dietmar Holzer

63

P SYN D2WALD11-G Qsvc=300MVAr


P SYN D2WALD11-G Qsvc=1000MVAr

Diploma Thesis

10

DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS
Reactive power QSYN D2WALD11-G

Field current ISYN-D2WALD11G


1.20

150
130

1.15
IField direct [p.u.]

110

Q_SM [MVAr]

90
70
50
30

1.05
1.00
0.95

10
-10 2

1.10

10

0.90

-30

Time [sec]

-50

Time [sec]
Q SYN D2WALD11-G Qsvc=100MVAr
Q SYN D2WALD11-G Qsvc=500MVAr
Q SYN D2WALD11-G without svc

Ifield_d D2-WALD11G Q=100MVAr


Ifield_d D2-WALD11G Q=500MVAr
Ifield_d D2-WALD11G without SVC

Q SYN D2WALD11-G Qsvc=300MVAr


Q SYN D2WALD11-G Qsvc=1000MVAr

Figure 6-14: A1-Reactive power SM D2WALD11-G

Ifield_d D2-WALD11G Q=300MVAr


Ifield_d D2-WALD11G Q=1000MVAr

Figure 6-15: A1-Field current SM D2WALD11-G

Analysis
For a voltage sag in Figure 6-9 the SVC responses by varying its reactive power for
voltage stabilization and raises the voltage level in bus NRW_D7NEHD11-Wind2. Since SVCs
rated power is increased to its maximum capacity (Qsvc=1000 MVAr), the voltage level during
fault improves from 0.96 p.u. (without SVC) up to 1.02 p.u. Figure 6-10 and Figure 6-11 show
the performance of SVC reactive power supply and the associated SVC characteristic in detail.
The injected reactive power Qsvc during fault is in direct relation with the level of
voltage depression at the installation site. As long as the emerging fault does not depress the
voltage level too heavily, SVC is able to contribute most of its capacitive power capacity.
Nevertheless, for low voltages, the quadratic relation of SVCs reactive power output to the
occurring bus voltage predominates ( QSVC = Ui2 BSVC ( ) with = 180 ). All SVC variants
with different ratings are operating at their operational capacitive limit depictured in the
characteristics of Figure 6-11.
Significant in Figure 6-9 is the high voltage spike arising after fault clearing for a SVC
with high reactive power capacity. This spike can be ascribed to the time delay of the TCR
controller. While the fault has already been removed, the SVC still supplies its maximal
capacitive power. After it, the TCR controller reacts immediately and starts to compensate

Qcap as fast as possible (Figure 6-10). Nevertheless, a short-time capacitive power peak arises
after fault clearing and causes the voltage spike discussed earlier.
The analysis of the situation after fault clearing, the SVC shows a regulating function
for the bus voltage level. Thus, the voltage recovery time can be reduced significantly with
installed SVC assemblies. By observing Figure 6-10 again, it can be seen that for Qsvc=100

MVAr and Qsvc=300 MVAr the SVC reaches its operational limits concerning voltage
regulation. It is not able to return the voltage to the pre-fault level. For Qsvc=500 MVAr and

Qsvc=1000 MVAr the voltage returns to the reference value after fault clearing.

Dietmar Holzer

64

Diploma Thesis

10

DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

Figure 6-12 portrays the behaviour of the wind park connected to the bus

NRW_D7NEHD11. The power decrease due voltage sag is obviously, but disconnection of the
wind park is not given. In Figure 6-13, the active power swings of the observed synchronous
machine SM D2WALD-11 during the fault are depictured.
As synchronous machines (SM) are the main actor for a reliable voltage control in
power grids, the performance of the excitation system and the reactive power supply from SM
during the fault is important (Figure 6-14). During a disturbance, the voltage controller
increases the exciter voltage (time delay depends on excitation system of SM) leading the
resulting field current Ifield to step up significantly (Figure 6-15). This forced excitation leads to
an enormous step in Ifield. Thus, reactive power feeding of SM increases to secure voltage
stability. Additionally, the installed SVC device is able to support synchronous machines for
voltage control slightly and therefore discharge generators in immediate surrounding areas.
The depression of bus voltages levels during an emerging short circuit varies in
strength due to fault intensity and relative distance to the fault location. Figure 6-16 shows the
occurring voltage changes (during a short circuit) for monitored buses with wind power plants.
A remarkable improvement on voltage levels is detected in NRW_D7NEHD11. This is simply
because this bus represents the single SVC installation site. As additional advice, the pictured
voltage levels are not the residual bus voltages, moreover the value of the voltage sags.
Voltage sags
40%
35%

Voltage sags [%]

30%
25%

without SVC
Qsvc=100 MVAr
Qsvc=300 MVAr
Qsvc=500 MVAr
Qsvc=1000 MVAr

20%
15%
10%
5%

B
B

G
-D
3
B
B TEU
G
11
D
B
8
B
G PE W i n
-D
d
11
M
8
VP P R - W 1
in
L
-D
d2
8 G 12
M
VP
O -W
in
-D E
d
11
8
M
3
VP GU -W
E
in
N
d1
R D8L 12
W
-D UB Win
7G
N
d
11
R
R
-W 2
W
-D ON
in
N
R 7N E 1 2 - d 3
W
W
- D HD
i
1 nd
7
N
SA SE 1-W 1
- D CH
in
d2
N 2A L 11SA
G Wi
E1 nd
-D
N
3
S A 2D
1-D IE WI
nd
7W L 1
2
1
R
PF EH - W
in
R
-D
4P 11- d 2
R
PF
W
H
i
I
R -D7 L12 nd3
PF
D
-D IE Win
F
7
SA W 21- d1
H THU Wi
-D
11 nd2
SA 8K
-W
H LM
in
d
S A - D 8 11
-W 3
M
H
A
in
D
SW 8
d1
11
H WO -W
SW D2A L 1 ind
U 2-W 2
H
D
SW D5B O1 ind
R 1- W 3
H
-D UN
in
5N
1
d
O 1-W 1
R
in
D
d
13
-W 2
in
d3

0%

Figure 6-16: A1-Voltage sags at buses with wind parks during fault

Dietmar Holzer

65

Diploma Thesis

DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

6.4.3 Visualization of Parameters for Simulation A2 (D7ARPE11)


Bus Voltage NRW_D7NEHD11

Reactive Power Qsvc

1,15
350

1,05

-50

0,85

Qsvc [MVAr]

Bus Voltage [p.u.]

150

0,95

0,75
0,65

10

-250
-450
-650
-850

0,55

-1050

0,45
2

10

-1250

Time [sec]
Qsvc=100MVAr

Qsvc=300MVAr

Qsvc=500MVAr

Qsvc=1000MVAr

Qsvc=100MVAr

without SVC

Time [sec]
Qsvc=300MVAr
Qsvc=500MVAr

Qsvc=1000MVAr

Figure 6-18: A2-SVC Reactive power

Figure 6-17: A2-Bus voltage in NRW_D7NEHD11-Wind1

SVC U-I Characteristic


1.15

1.05

Voltage [p.u.]

0.95

0.85

0.75

0.65

0.55

0.45

-1900

-1400

-900

-400

100

600

Current [A]
Qsvc=100MVAr

Qsvc=300MVAr

Qsvc=500MVAr

Qsvc=1000MVAr

Figure 6-19: A2-SVC U-I Characteristic


Active Power QSYN D2WALD11-G

Wind Active Power


260
-150

10

250
240
230
P_SM [MW]

PWIND [MW]

-200
-250
-300

220
210
200
190

-350

180
-400

170

Time [sec]
PWind_NRW-D7NEHD11_Qsvc=300MVAr
PWind_NRW-D7NEHD11_Qsvc=500MVAr
PWind_NRW-D7NEHD11_without SVC

PWind_NRW-D7NEHD11_Qsvc=100MVAr
PWind_NRW-D7NEHD11_Qsvc=1000MVAr

P SYN D2WALD11-G Qsvc=100MVAr


P SYN D2WALD11-G Qsvc=500MVAr
P SYN D2WALD11-G without svc

6
Time [sec]

P SYN D2WALD11-G Qsvc=300MVAr


P SYN D2WALD11-G Qsvc=1000MVAr

Figure 6-20: A2-Active wind power in

Figure 6-21: A2-Active power of

NRW_D7NEHD11-Wind1

SM_D2WALD11-G

Dietmar Holzer

66

Diploma Thesis

10

DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS
Field current ISYN-D2WALD11G

Reactive power QSYN D2WALD11-G


1,8
450

1,7

400

1,6
IField direct [p.u.]

350

Q_SM [MVAr]

300
250
200
150

1,5
1,4
1,3
1,2
1,1

100

50

0,9
2

0
-50

10

Q SYN D2WALD11-G Qsvc=100MVAr


Q SYN D2WALD11-G Qsvc=500MVAr
Q SYN D2WALD11-G without svc

10

Time [sec]

Time [sec]

Ifield_d D2-WALD11G Q=100MVAr


Ifield_d D2-WALD11G Q=500MVAr
Ifield_d D2-WALD11G without SVC

Q SYN D2WALD11-G Qsvc=300MVAr


Q SYN D2WALD11-G Qsvc=1000MVAr

Ifield_d D2-WALD11G Q=300MVAr


Ifield_d D2-WALD11G Q=1000MVAr

Figure 6-23: A2-Field current SM_D2WALD11-G

Figure 6-22: A2-Reactive power SM_D2WALD11-G

Analysis
The fault location is near to the monitored bus (NRW_D7NEHD11). Thus, the voltage is
depressed heavily to around 0.5 of Unom (Figure 6-17). The SVC characteristic (Figure 6-19)
and the reactive power curves (Figure 6-18) show the response of the SVC to the low bus
voltage by maximizing its capacitive power output. The SVC characteristic Figure 6-19 also
depictures that all different SVC assemblies reach their operational limits for capacitive mode,
but for inductive mode only variant Qsvc=100 MVAr and Qsvc=300 MVAr operate at the limit.
The slight voltage improvement in Figure 6-17 from 0.49 p.u. (without SVC) to 0.52 p.u.
can be ascribed to the low voltage level and the relation between voltage depression and
reactive power supply. Not even increasing the SVC rating brings a remarkable difference.
After the fault, the SVC still supplies Qcapmax due to controller time delay (small step in Figure
6-18). A high voltage spike arises, which possibly activates overvoltage protection equipments.
Voltage sags
55%
50%
45%

Voltage sags [%]

40%
35%

without SVC
Qsvc=100 MVAr
Qsvc=300 MVAr
Qsvc=500 MVAr
Qsvc=1000 MVAr

30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%

B
G

-D
3
B
B TE
G
U
11
D
B
8
B
G PE -Wi
-D
1 nd
M
VP 8PR 1-W 1
-D
L
i
1 nd
8
M
VP GO 2-W 2
-D E
in
1
d
8
M
VP GU 1-W 3
in
-D E
N
1
d
R
W 8LU 2-W 1
N D7G B 1 ind
R
R 1-W 2
W
O
N D7 N1 ind
R
N
W
EH 2-W 3
-D
in
7 D
N
SA SE 11- d1
-D CH Win
N 2A 11- d2
SA LG W
in
E
N
SA D2D 11 d3
-D IE -WI
nd
7W L1
R
PF EH 2-W 1
in
R
-D
1
d
4
R
PF PH 1-W 2
R -D7 IL1 ind
PF
3
D 2
-D IE -Wi
F
nd
SA 7W 21
1
H TH -W
-D
in
U
SA 8K 11- d2
H LM Wi
SA -D8 11 nd3
M
H
A Wi
SW -D8
11 nd1
W
H
O -W
SW D2 L 1 ind
A
U 2-W 2
H
D
in
O
SW D5
1
d3
B
R 1
H
-D UN -Wi
n
5N
1
d
O 1- W 1
R
i
D
13 nd2
-W
in
d3

0%

Figure 6-24: A2-Voltage sags at buses with wind parks during fault

Dietmar Holzer

67

Diploma Thesis

DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

The analysis of arising bus voltage levels in Figure 6-24 shows slight deviances for
different SVC variants. In general, the obtainable impact by single SVC arrangements is
negligible small, also for major rated SVC devices.

6.4.4 Simulation A3 (D8WOL11), A4 (D2WAHL11) and A5 (D3MIT11)


In the simulation A3 (D8WOL11), A4 (D2WAHL11) and A5 (D3MIT11) no relevant
improvements on voltage levels of observed bus voltages are detectable. In addition, the
reduction of steady power outages in connection with single SVC assemblies is not sufficient.
Because of this reason and due to parameter analogy to previous simulation A1 and A2, the
descriptions for SVC operating characteristics are neglected.

6.4.5 Analysis of Wind Power Outages


In the following, the fault-caused steady wind power outages for selected buses are
analysed. Within this investigation, the performance of a single operating SVC assembly in
different ratings is observed. Depending on applied coupling and protection systems of wind
parks, the value of steady power outages varies significantly. All power outages through relay
tripping are summarized in the compilations following.

6.4.5.1 Wind Park Connections According Revised Guidelines


A comparison of steady power outages for all applied fault simulations shows Table
6-6. The wind parks are connected according revised guidelines. For the simulations A1
(D7WTHU21), A2 (D7ARPE11) and A5 (D2WAHL11) no tripping action is detectable. The
summarization in Table 6-6 highlights that SVC installations operating in single mode even
placed to optimal positions and irrespective of rating size obviously do not reduce permanent
power outages.
Fault location

Simulation

D8WHTU21
D7ARPE11

A1
A2

D8WOL11

A3

D3MIT 11
D2WAHL11

A4
A5

Steady Wind Power Outages


without SVC
no tripping action
no tripping action
BBG-D3TEU 11-Wind1
BBG-D8PE 11-Wind2
SAH-D8KLM 11-Wind1
SAH-D8MA 11-Wind2
Total
BBG-D3TEU 11-Wind1
no tripping action

MW
0,0
0,0

Steady Wind Power Outages


1x1000MVAR
no tripping action
no tripping action

421,9
420,0
350,1
350,1
1.542,2
421,9
0,0

BBG-D3TEU 11-Wind1
BBG-D8PE 11-Wind2
SAH-D8KLM 11-Wind1
SAH-D8MA 11-Wind2
Total
BBG-D3TEU 11-Wind1
no tripping action

MW
0,0
0,0
421,9
420,0
350,1
350,1
1.542,2
421,9
0,0

Table 6-6: A- Steady wind power outages for grid connection according revised guidelines

6.4.5.2 Wind Parks Connections with Combination of Different Guidelines


Considering a high share (around 67% of total wind power capacity) coupled
unselective to grid, the comparison of the tripping by voltage relays shows remarkable

Dietmar Holzer

68

Diploma Thesis

DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

differences. The three fault cases within simulation A3 (D8WOL11), A4 (D3MIT11) and A5
(D2WAHL11) cause serial wind power outages. In contrast, short circuits in simulation A1
(D7WHTU21) and simulation A2 (D7ARPE11) have negligible effects for serial wind power
outages. In both cases, there is only one tripping action. Especially remarkable is that the fault
within simulation A5 transgresses the UCTE control reserve capacity of 3000 MW. For
simulation A5, a reduction or replacement of conventional power plant capacities through
increasing wind power capacity could perhaps lead to a concerned power system condition.
It has shown that also for combined connection guidelines the installation of SVC
arrangements operating in single mode placed to optimal positions and irrespective of rating
size obviously does not avoid disconnections of wind power plants (Table 6-7).
Fault location

Simulation

D8WHTU21
D7ARPE11

A1
A2

D8WOL11

A3

D3MIT 11

A4

D2WAHL11

A5

Steady Wind Power Outages


without SVC
MVP-D8GUE 12-Wind2
RPF-D7WTHU11-Wind3
BBG-D3TEU 11-Wind1
BBG-D8PE 11-Wind2
BBG-D8RAG 12-Wind3
MVP-D8GUE 12-Wind2
MVP-D8LUB 11-Wind3
SAH-D8KLM 11-Wind1
SAH-D8MA 11-Wind2
SAH-D8WOL 12-Wind3
Total
BBG-D3TEU 11-Wind1
BBG-D8PE 11-Wind2
MVP-D8GUE 12-Wind2
MVP-D8LUB 11-Wind3
SAH-D8MA 11-Wind2
SAH-D8WOL 12-Wind3
Total
BBG-D8PE 11-Wind2
BBG-D8PRL 12-Wind3
MVP-D8GUE 12-Wind2
MVP-D8LUB 11-Wind3
NSA-D7WEHR11-Wind3
SAH-D8MA 11-Wind2
SAH-D8WOL 12-Wind3
SWH-D5BRUN11-Wind2
SWH-D5NORD13-Wind3
Total

MW
189,5
129,5
421,9
420,0
410,1
189,5
192,5
350,1
342,0
350,1
2.676,3
421,9
420,0
189,5
192,5
350,1
342,0
1.916,1
420,0
410,1
189,5
192,5
774,0
350,1
342,0
378,1
373,9
3.430,3

Steady Wind Power Outages


1x1000MVAR
MVP-D8GUE 12-Wind2
RPF-D7WTHU11-Wind3
BBG-D3TEU 11-Wind1
BBG-D8PE 11-Wind2
BBG-D8RAG 12-Wind3
MVP-D8GUE 12-Wind2
MVP-D8LUB 11-Wind3
SAH-D8KLM 11-Wind1
SAH-D8MA 11-Wind2
SAH-D8WOL 12-Wind3
Total
BBG-D3TEU 11-Wind1
BBG-D8PE 11-Wind2
MVP-D8GUE 12-Wind2
MVP-D8LUB 11-Wind3
SAH-D8WOL 12-Wind3
SAH-D8WOL 12-Wind3
Total
BBG-D8PE 11-Wind2
BBG-D8PRL 12-Wind3
MVP-D8GUE 12-Wind2
MVP-D8LUB 11-Wind3
NSA-D7WEHR11-Wind3
SAH-D8MA 11-Wind2
SAH-D8WOL 12-Wind3
SWH-D5BRUN11-Wind2
SWH-D5NORD13-Wind3
Total

MW
189,5
129,5
421,9
420,0
410,1
189,5
192,5
350,1
342,0
350,1
2.676,3
421,9
420,0
189,5
192,5
350,1
342,0
1.916,1
420,0
410,1
189,5
192,5
774,0
350,1
342,0
378,1
373,9
3.430,3

Table 6-7: A - Steady wind power outages with combination of different connection guidelines

6.4.6 Visualization of Power Outages for Selected Simulations


The following visualization (Figure 6-25) compares the wind power outages for different
connection scenarios exemplary for the simulation A3 (D8WOL11). Furthermore, it pictures
also the system behaviour with and without SVC assembly. As the picture shows, also an
installed SVC assembly cant prevent any disconnection of a generation unit. However, the
value of total outage power arising for combined connection technology is significantly higher.
This declares why mains operators force generators to replace older technologies with
updated connection technologies and protection equipments.

Dietmar Holzer

69

Diploma Thesis

DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS
Wind power decrease and steady outages
500
Revised Connection
Guidelines without SVC

PWIND [MW]

450
400

Revised Connection
Guidelines Qsvc=1000 MVAr

350

Combined Connection
Guidelines without SVC

300

Combined Connection
Guidelines Qsvc=1000 MVAr

250

Tripping
-Revised Guidelines-

200

Tripping
-Combined Guidelines-

150
Tripping avoided

100
50

B
G

-D
3T
B
EU
B
G
-D
1
B
8P 1-W
B
E
G
in
-D
d1
1
1
8
M
VP P R - W
in
L
-D
d
12
2
8
M
VP GO -W
-D E 1 ind
3
8
1
M
VP GU -Wi
-D E 1 nd
N
1
28L
R
W
W
-D UB
in
d2
7G
11
N
R
R
W
W
O
in
-D
N
d3
7N 12
N
R
-W
E
W
in
-D HD
d1
1
7
N
SA SE 1-W
in
-D CH
d2
2A 11
N
SA LG -Wi
E1 n d
D
N
3
1SA 2D
W
-D IEL
I
7W 12 nd1
R
PF EH -Wi
nd
R
-D
11
2
4
R
PF PH -Wi
-D IL1 nd
R
2
7
PF
-W 3
D
in
-D IEF
d1
7W 21
SA
TH -W
H
in
U
-D
d2
1
SA 8KL 1-W
M
in
H
d3
-D
1
SA
8M 1-W
H
A
in
d1
11
SW D8
W
-W
H
in
-D OL
d2
2
1
SW
2A
U
W
H
in
-D DO
d3
11
SW 5 B
-W
R
H
in
-D UN
d
5N
11
-W 1
O
R
in
D
d2
13
-W
in
d3

Figure 6-25: A3-Transient power decrease during fault and steady wind power outages for simulation A3

Interesting is that the wind park with the closest position to the fault location does not
disconnect. This is a result of high sustainability to grid also for deep voltage sags (below 80%
of Unom) because of selective connection guidelines.

6.4.7 Validations and Conclusions for Single SVC Assemblies


Main objectives of SVC installations are both, voltage improvement on bus voltages of
wind parks by SVC and associated avoidance of wind power outages. In addition, a cost
saving investment plays a significant role for project realizations.
A comparison and validation of existing results should determine the optimal
application strategy regarding quantity and rating of single SVC devices. Further simulations
will then only consider feasible SVC assemblies. Table 6-8 and Table 6-9 show comparisons
of costs and validated voltage criteria for different single SVCs. Of course, comparison makes
only sense for identical values of SVC reactive power ratings. The two tables differ regarding
the applied connection systems of wind parks. Old connection requirements consequently
cause more power outages in power systems. Additionally, the simulations showed that
serious wind power outages do not force a further decrease of mean voltage levels and can
therefore be neglected. This can be ascribed to the stiff condition of the transmission grid
model.

Dietmar Holzer

70

Diploma Thesis

DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

For each of the SVC ratings of Qsvc=100 MVAr, Qsvc=300 MVAr, Qsvc=500 MVAr and

Qsvc=1000 MVAr separate mean validation parameter values out of the faults in simulation A1
(D7WTHU21), simulation A2 (D7ARPE11) and simulation A3 (D8WOL11) have been
calculated.
For the validation of *1Qsvc=1000 MVAr also the results of simulation A4 (D3MIT11) and
A5 (D2WAHL11) have been taken into account. The different values in mean voltage and
power outage parameter compared to the equal rated SVC version Qsvc=1000 MVAr can be
ascribed to the different quantity of applied simulations (Figure 6-2).
Revised Connection
Guidelines

Validation Parameter
(Mean values)

Parameter

Unit

umean
uimprove
urelated
Poutage
Poutage

%
%
%
MW
MW
Million
Million /%
MW/Million

costs
costs/urelated
Poutage/costs

without SVC

Qsvc=100 MVAr

Qsvc=300 MVAr

Qsvc=500 MVAr

Qsvc=1000 MVAr

17.10%
0.00%
0.00%
514
0
0.0
0
0

17.04%
0.73%
0.06%
514
0
7.9
139.1
0

16.91%
2.20%
0.18%
514
0
15.2
89.0
0

16.79%
3.71%
0.31%
514
0
20.4
74.6
0

16.50%
6.93%
0.60%
514
0
30.9
59.8
0

*1

Qsvc=1000 MVAr
19.07%
5.80%
0.72%
393
0
30.9
59.8
0

Table 6-8: A - Comparison of different single SVC assemblies with WP modeled according revised
connection guidelines
Combination of
connection guidelines

Parameter

Unit

Validation Parameter
(Mean values)

umean
uimprove
urelated
Poutage
Poutage
costs
costs/urelated
Poutage/costs

%
%
%
MW
MW
Million
Million /%
MW/Million

without SVC
17.10%
0.00%
0.00%
998
0
0.0
0.0
0

Qsvc=100 MVAr Qsvc=300 MVAr Qsvc=500 MVAr


17.03%
0.76%
0.06%
998
0
7.9
129.3
0

16.91%
2.27%
0.19%
998
0
15.2
86.8
0

16.78%
3.77%
0.32%
998
0
20.4
74.4
0

Qsvc=1000 MVAr
16.49%
7.01%
0.61%
998
0
30.9
59.4
0

*1

Qsvc=1000 MVAr
19.09%
5.70%
0.69%
1,668
0
30.9
59.4
0

Table 6-9: A - Comparison of different single SVC assemblies with WP modeled according combination of
former and revised connection guidelines

The key figures within this and all further statistics are the relative voltage improvement
urelated , the ratio cos ts mean voltage improvement [Million /%] as well as the Poutage cos ts

[MW/Million ].
While urelated shows the direct differences in voltage lifting through diverse SVC
installations the factor cos ts mean voltage improvement gives a clue for the related investment
costs. Therefore, the SVC installations should show a high mean voltage improvement and a
low factor of cos ts mean voltage improvement . In Table 6-8 and Table 6-9 it can be pointed out
that a SVC with Qsvc=1000 MVAr exhibits best efficiency for cos ts mean voltage improvement ,
where this also counts for the parameters urelated and uimprove .
The analysis of wind power outages for the different SVC variants offers no detectable
changes. The ratio Poutage cos ts allows validating the changes in occurring power outages
related to arising investment costs for SVC installations. The factor is zero for all simulations,
because there is no identified reduction of wind power outages by SVC technology.
Dietmar Holzer

71

Diploma Thesis

DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

However, the observation of SVC characteristics in the simulations points out


significant impact on voltage improvement only for the variant Qsvc=1000 MVAr. Consequently,
for further investigations only this variant will be considered.

6.5

Simulation B - Two SVC Devices Operating Simultaneously

6.5.1 Modeling of Simulation B


In a second scenario, two Static Var Compensators are operating simultaneously at
different installation sites. The simulation approach bases on the locations with first place in
the result list for optimal SVC combinations determined in 5.5.2. Thus, following constellation
of elements in the network emerges:

Figure 6-26: Network topology with SVC assemblies and fault locations

Dietmar Holzer

72

Diploma Thesis

DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

Parameters and variables:


SVC

Ranking SVC Installation Site

Node Number

SVC 1

RPF-D7WTHU11

395

SVC 2

SAH-D8KLM 11

265

Table 6-10: Selected installation site for two SVC devices operating simultaneously

SVC parameters within simulation B are set as follows:


SlopeSVC = 1%
URe f

_ RPF D7WTHU 21

= 1,0146 p.u.,URe f

= 1,0811 p.u.

_ SAH D8WOL12

The reactive power operating ranges for the SVC assembly varies:
QSVC =2X150 MVAr, QSVC = 2X250 MVAr,QSVC =2X500 MVAr,QSVC =2X1000 MVAr

Settings for wind power feeding are same as in simulation B:


PWind = 50% QWind = 0%

6.5.2 Visualization of Parameters for Simulation B1 (D7WTHU21)


Bus Voltage SAH_D8KLM11

Bus Voltage RPF_D7WTHU11


1,11
1,1

1,09

Bus Voltage [p.u.]

Bus Voltage [p.u.]

1,1

0,9

0,8

1,08
1,07
1,06

0,7

1,05

0,6
2

1,04

10

Time [sec]
Qsvc=2X150MVAr

Qsvc=2X250MVAr

Qsvc=2X500MVAr

Qsvc=2X1000MVAr

without SVC

Qsvc=2X150MVAr

Qsvc=2X250MVAr

Qsvc=2X500MVAr

Qsvc=2X1000MVAr

Figure 6-28: B1-Bus voltage in

RPF_D7WTHU11-Wind3

SAH_D8KLM11-Wind3

10

without SVC

Reactive Power Qsvc SAH_D8KLM11

Reactive Power Qsvc RPF_D7WTHU11


200

100

100
3

10

-300

Qsvc [MVAr]

Qsvc [MVAr]

Figure 6-27: B1-Bus voltage in

300

-100 2

6
Time [sec]

-100

-500
-700

-200

-900

-300

-1100
-1300

-400
Qsvc=2X150MVAr

Time [sec]
Qsvc=2X250MVAr
Qsvc=2X500MVAr

Time [sec]

Qsvc=2X1000MVAr

Qsvc=2X150MVAr

Qsvc=2X250MVAr

Qsvc=2X500MVAr

Qsvc=2X1000MVAr

Figure 6-29: B1-Reactive power of

Figure 6-30: B1-Reactive power of

SVC 1-RPF_D7WTHU11

SVC 2-SAH_D8KLM 11

Dietmar Holzer

73

Diploma Thesis

10

DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS
SVC U-I Characteristic RPF_D7WTHU11
1.09
1.04
0.99

Voltage [p.u.]

0.94
0.89
0.84
0.79
0.74
0.69
0.64

-1800

-1300

-800

-300

Current [A]
Qsvc=2X250MVAr
Qsvc=2X500MVAr

Qsvc=2X150MVAr

200

Qsvc=2X1000MVAr

Figure 6-31: B1SVC 1-RPF_D7WTHU11 Characteristic


SVC U-I Characteristic SAH_D8KLM11
1.11

1.1

Voltage [p.u.]

1.09

1.08

1.07

1.06

1.05
-550

-450

-350

-250

-150

-50

50

150

250

Current [A]

Qsvc=2X150MVAr

Qsvc=2X250MVAr

Qsvc=2X500MVAr

Qsvc=2X1000MVAr

Figure 6-32: B1SVC 2-SAH_D8KLM 11 Characteristic


Wind Power PWIND SAH_D8KLM11

Wind Power PWIND RPF_D7WTHU11


-335

-75
2

10

-85

PWIND [MW]

-95
PWIND [MW]

10

-340

-105
-115

-345
-350
-355

-125

-360

-135

-365

-145

Time [sec]

Time [sec]
PWind_RPF_D7WHTU11_without SVC
PWind_RPF_D7WHTU11_Qsvc=2x250MVAr
PWind_RPF_D7WHTU11_Qsvc=2x1000MVAr

PWind_D8WOL12_without SVC
PWind_D8WOL12_Qsvc=2x250MVAr
PWind_D8WOL12_Qsvc=2x1000MVAr

PWind_RPF_D7WHTU11_Qsvc=2x150MVAr
PWind_RPF_D7WHTU11_Qsvc=2x500MVAr

PWind_D8WOL12_Qsvc=2x150MVAr
PWind_D8WOL12_Qsvc=2x500MVAr

Figure 6-33: B1-Active wind power in

Figure 6-34: B1-Active wind power in

RPF_D7WTHU11-Wind3

SAH_D8KLM 11-Wind 1

Dietmar Holzer

74

Diploma Thesis

DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

Analysis
The characteristic SVC performance during the fault is similar to previous simulations
with one SVC element. Because of parameter analogy, the description of SVC parameter is
abbreviated. In further investigations, only significant occurrences will be discussed in detail.
A 3-phase symmetrical short circuit in D7WTHU21 (region RPF) depresses the bus
voltage of RPF_D7WTHU11 heavily to 0.65 of Unom (Figure 6-27). SVC1 responses with
maximum capacitive power supply in Figure 6-29, but again limitation regarding provided
reactive power is given due to the voltage dependency. In the characteristic of SVC1 (Figure
6-31), the curves tangents to the origin for zero voltage if extrapolated. This can be ascribed to
the fact that SVC operates at the capacitive limit and the fixed capacitor value C inside the
controller. Typically for SVCs, the high voltage spike after fault clearing which can be
monitored for both SVC assemblies (Figure 6-27 and Figure 6-28).
The exact observation of the reactive power performance of SVC2 (Figure 6-30, Figure
6-32) shows that the SVC controller is not lined out for capacitive operation mode, with
exception of the lowest SVC rating. The need for maximum capacitive power supply for ratings
of Qsvc=500 MVAr and Qsvc=1000 MVAr is not given. However, due to the modeling of SVC
controller as proportional controller, a steady voltage deviation remains. This effect occurs also
when SVC operates with reactive power reserve far away from capacitive operation limits.
Voltage sags
40%
35%

Voltage sags[%]

30%
25%

without SVC
2X150 MVAr
2X250 MVAr
2X500 MVAr
2X1000 MVAr

20%
15%
10%
5%

B
B
G
-D
3T
B
EU
B
G
11
-D
B
8
PE -Wi
B
G
nd
-D
11
1
8
M
VP PR -Wi
nd
L
-D
12
2
8
M
VP GO -Wi
-D E 1 nd
3
18G
M
W
VP
U
i
-D E 1 nd1
N
28L
R
W
W
in
-D UB
d2
11
7G
N
R
RO
W
W
in
-D
N
d3
7N 12
N
-W
R
E
W
in
-D HD
d
11
1
7
N
SA SEC -W
in
-D
H
d
2
2A 11
N
SA LG Win
E1
d3
D
N
1SA 2D
W
In
-D IEL
d1
7W 12
R
W
PF EH
in
R
-D
d2
11
4
R
PF PHI Win
L
d3
-D
12
R
-W
PF 7D
in
-D IEF
d
2
7
1
SA WT 1-W
H
in
H
U
-D
d
11
2
8
-W
SA KL
in
M
H
d3
-D
11
SA
8M
-W
H
-D A 1 ind
1
SW 8W
1W
O
H
in
-D
L
d2
12
SW 2A
-W
U
H
in
-D DO
d3
11
SW 5B
-W
R
H
U
in
-D
N
d1
11
5N
-W
O
R
i
nd
D
13
2
-W
in
d3

0%

Figure 6-35: B1-Voltage sags at wind parks during fault

Dietmar Holzer

75

Diploma Thesis

DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

The voltage sags resulting at wind parks due to the emerging short circuit are pictured
in Figure 6-35 for different SVC variants. Remarkable improvements through SVC assemblies
are detected at wind park RPF-Wind3 with around 5% of Unom. This node represents one of the
two SVC installation sites. In addition, the second bus with an SVC installation (SAH-

D8KLM11) shows also a lifting in its voltage level. All other wind nodes experience only slight
improvements.

6.5.3 Visualization of Parameters of Simulation B2 (D7ARPE11)


Bus Voltage SAH_D8KLM11

1,1

1,17

1,08

1,15

1,06

1,13
Bus Voltage [p.u.]

Bus Voltage [p.u.]

Bus Voltage RPF_D7WTHU11

1,04
1,02
1
0,98

1,11
1,09
1,07
1,05

0,96

1,03

0,94

1,01

0,92

0,99

10

without SVC

Qsvc=2X150MVAr

Qsvc=2X250MVAr

10

Time [sec]

Time [sec]
Qsvc=2X500MVAr

Qsvc=2X150MVAr

Qsvc=2X1000MVAr

Qsvc=2X250MVAr

Qsvc=2X500MVAr

Qsvc=2X1000MVAr

without SVC

Figure 6-37: B2-Bus voltage in SAH-D8KLM11

Figure 6-36: B2-Bus voltage in NRW-D7WTHU11


Reactive Power Qsvc RPF_D7WTHU11

Reactive Power Qsvc SAH_D8KLM11

200
250

0
2

10

50

-200
Qsvc [MVAr]

Qsvc [MVAr]

-150

-400
-600
-800

10

-350
-550
-750

-1000

-950

-1200

-1150

Qsvc=2X150MVAr

Time [sec]
Qsvc=2X250MVAr
Qsvc=2X500MVAr

Time [sec]

Qsvc=2X150MVAr

Qsvc=2X1000MVAr

Qsvc=2X250MVAr

Qsvc=2X500MVAr

Qsvc=2X1000MVAr

Figure 6-38: B2-Reactive power Qsvc

Figure 6-39: B2-Reactive power Qsvc

RPF-D7WTHU11

SAH-D8KLM11

Dietmar Holzer

76

Diploma Thesis

DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS
SVC U-I Characteristic RPF_D7WTHU11
1.1
1.08
1.06

Voltage [p.u.]

1.04
1.02
1
0.98
0.96
0.94

-1700

-1500

-1300

-1100

-900

-700

-500

Current [A]
Qsvc=2X250MVAr
Qsvc=2X500MVAr

Qsvc=2X150MVAr

0.92
-100

-300

100

300

Qsvc=2X1000MVAr

Figure 6-40: B2-SVC 1 U-I Characteristics


SVC U-I Characteristic SAH_D8KLM11
1.18
1.16
1.14

Voltage [p.u.]

1.12
1.1
1.08
1.06
1.04
1.02
1
0.98
-1700

-1200

-700

-200

300

Current [A]

Qsvc=2X150MVAr

Qsvc=2X250MVAr

Qsvc=2X500MVAr

Qsvc=2X1000MVAr

Figure 6-41: B2-SVC 2 U-I Characteristics


Wind Power PWIND SAH_D8KLM11

Wind Power PWIND RPF_D7WTHU11


-310

-115
2

10

-320
-120

PWIND [MW]

PWIND [MW]

-330
-125

-130

-340
-350
-360

-135

-370
-140

-380
Time [sec]
PWind_RPF_D7WHTU11_without SVC
PWind_RPF_D7WHTU11_Qsvc=2x250MVAr
PWind_RPF_D7WHTU11_Qsvc=2x1000MVAr

Time [sec]

PWind_RPF_D7WHTU11_Qsvc=2x150MVAr
PWind_RPF_D7WHTU11_Qsvc=2x500MVAr

PWind_D8WOL12_without SVC
PWind_D8WOL12_Qsvc=2x250MVAr
PWind_D8WOL12_Qsvc=2x1000MVAr

PWind_D8WOL12_Qsvc=2x150MVAr
PWind_D8WOL12_Qsvc=2x500MVAr

Figure 6-42: B2-Active wind power in

Figure 6-43: B2-Active wind power in

RPF-D7WTHU11-Wind 3

SAH-D8KLM11-Wind1

Dietmar Holzer

77

Diploma Thesis

10

DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

Analysis
In simulation A2 (D7ARPE, region NRW) the short circuit causes similar voltage
depressions for the two buses with SVC assemblies (Figure 6-36, Figure 6-37). In

NRW_D7WTHU11, the residual voltage is 0.94 p.u., in SAH-D8KLM11 it is 1 p.u. In both


cases, the installation of SVC devices with Qsvc=1000 MVAr allows to keep the voltage nearly
at the reference level. On the other hand, extraordinary high voltage spikes arise after fault
clearing. This possibly activates overprotection relays. As Figure 6-40 and Figure 6-41
depicture, SVC1 as well as SVC2 operate at their maximum capacitive limit during the fault.
The U-I characteristic of SVC2 (Figure 6-41) points out an interesting behaviour in
inductive operation mode. Low-rated SVCs are not able to restore voltage immediately after
the fault is removed. This causes a significant voltage uplift in Figure 6-37 and a spike in the
U-I characteristic of SVC2.
The observation of the power output for both wind parks (Figure 6-42 and Figure 6-43)
highlights the stabilization of active power during fault nearly at pre-fault value. Eventually
arising power swings after the fault can be assigned to the direct relation between active
power and appearing bus voltage level, as well as voltage recovery times.
Finally, the bus voltages of wind parks in Figure 6-44 show a notable decrease of
arising voltage drops related to fault conditions without SVC. As a matter of course, this
reduction of voltage sags grows with increasing SVC reactive power capacity.
Voltage sags
55%
50%
45%

Voltage sags [%]

40%
35%

without SVC
Qsvc=2x150MVAr
Qsvc=2x250MVAr
Qsvc=2x500MVAr
Qsvc=2x1000MVAr

30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%

B
B

B
B

G
-D

3T
E

B
U
G
1
-D
8P 1-W
E
in
G
-D
d1
11
8
M
VP PR -Wi
n
L
-D
d2
12
8
M
VP GO -Wi
nd
-D E 1
3
18G
M
W
VP
U
in
E
d
D
N
1
8L 12R
W
W
in
- D UB
d
1
7
N
2
1G
R
R
W
W
in
-D ON
d
1
7
3
N
2N
R
W
E
W
in
- D HD
d1
11
7
N
SA SEC -W
in
-D
H
d2
2A 11
N
SA LG Wi
n
E1
d3
-D
N
1S A 2D
W
In
-D IEL
d1
7W 1 2
-W
R
PF EH
in
R
-D
d2
11
4
-W
R
PF PH
in
-D IL1
d3
R
PF 7D 2-W
in
-D IEF
d
7
2
SA WT 1-W 1
H
H
in
U
-D
d2
11
8
-W
SA KL
in
M
H
d
1
SA D8M 1-W 3
H
-D A 1 ind
S W 8W
1
1W
H
in
-D OL
d
1
2
SW
2
2A
U
W
H
in
-D DO
d3
11
SW 5B
-W
R
H
in
-D UN
d1
11
5N
-W
O
R
i
nd
D
13
2
-W
in
d3

0%

Figure 6-44: B2-Voltage sags at wind parks during fault

Dietmar Holzer

78

Diploma Thesis

DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

6.5.4 Simulation B3 (D8WOL11), B4 (D2WAHL11) and B5 (D3MIT11)


Because of similarity to previous results, for these simulations the diagrams for SVC
parameters and voltage decreases are neglected. However, the occurring power outages are
shown in detail in 6.5.5.

6.5.5 Analysis of Wind Power Outages


The steady wind power outages for all applied simulations B1 up to B5 are compared in
following outage summaries. In all simulations are always two SVC devices operating
simultaneously, where the ratings of these elements vary.

6.5.5.1 Wind Park Connections According Revised Guidelines


The comparison of arising wind power outages for a single SVC installation (Table 6-6)
to the application of two SVC elements (Table 6-11) shows an identical power outage statistic
for wind generators, if connected according revised guidelines. The applied SVC technology
obviously allows no avoidance of disconnections from grid.
Fault location

Simulation

D8WHTU21
D7ARPE11

B1
B2

D8WOL11

B3

D3MIT 11
D2WAHL11

B4
B5

Steady Wind Power Outages


without SVC assembly
no tripping action
no tripping action
BBG-D3TEU 11-Wind1
BBG-D8PE 11-Wind2
SAH-D8KLM 11-Wind1
SAH-D8MA 11-Wind2
Total
BBG-D3TEU 11-Wind1
no tripping action

MW
0.0
0.0

Steady Wind Power Outages


2X500MVAr
no tripping action
no tripping action

421.9
420.0
350.1
350.1
1,542.2
421.9
0.0

BBG-D3TEU 11-Wind1
BBG-D8PE 11-Wind2
SAH-D8KLM 11-Wind1
SAH-D8MA 11-Wind2
Total
BBG-D3TEU 11-Wind1
no tripping action

MW
0.0
0.0
421.9
420.0
350.1
350.1
1,542.2
421.9
0.0

Table 6-11: B - Steady wind power outages for grid connection according revised guidelines

6.5.5.2 Wind Parks Connections with Combination of Different Guidelines


The application of two SVC elements in parallel operation mode (Table 6-12) offers a
few interesting aspects. For the simulations B4 (D3MIT) and B5 (D2WAHL11) an installed
SVC assembly of Qsvc=2X500 MVAr avoids decoupling of wind power plants from grid in SAH-

D8MA11-Wind-2 (simulation B4) and BBG-D8PRL12-Wind-3 (simulation B5) respectively. In


numbers, SVC technology allows a total outage reduction of 350 MW for simulation B4 and

410 MW for simulation B5. Nevertheless, for the simulations B1 (D8WHTU21), B2


(D7ARPE11) and B3 (D8WOL11) there is no difference to the variants with a single operating
SVC element.
Table 6-12 highlights possible power outage prevention by SVC installations. However,
it can be seen that this avoidance only counts for isolated wind parks.

Dietmar Holzer

79

Diploma Thesis

DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS
Fault location

Simulation

D8WHTU21
D7ARPE11

B1
B2

D8WOL11

B3

D3MIT 11

B4

D2WAHL11

B5

Steady Wind Power Outages


without SVC assembly
MVP-D8GUE 12-Wind2
RPF-D7WTHU11-Wind3
BBG-D3TEU 11-Wind1
BBG-D8PE 11-Wind2
BBG-D8RAG 12-Wind3
MVP-D8GUE 12-Wind2
MVP-D8LUB 11-Wind3
SAH-D8KLM 11-Wind1
SAH-D8MA 11-Wind2
SAH-D8WOL 12-Wind3
Total
BBG-D3TEU 11-Wind1
BBG-D8PE 11-Wind2
MVP-D8GUE 12-Wind2
MVP-D8LUB 11-Wind3
SAH-D8MA 11-Wind2
SAH-D8WOL 12-Wind3
Total
BBG-D8PE 11-Wind2
BBG-D8PRL 12-Wind3
MVP-D8GUE 12-Wind2
MVP-D8LUB 11-Wind3
NSA-D7WEHR11-Wind3
SAH-D8MA 11-Wind2
SAH-D8WOL 12-Wind3
SWH-D5BRUN11-Wind2
SWH-D5NORD13-Wind3
Total

MW
189.5
129.5
421.9
420.0
410.1
189.5
192.5
350.1
342.0
350.1
2,676.3
421.9
420.0
189.5
192.5
350.1
342.0
1,916.1
420.0
410.1
189.5
192.5
774.0
350.1
342.0
378.1
373.9
3,430.3

Steady Wind Power Outages


2X500MVAr
MVP-D8GUE 12-Wind2
RPF-D7WTHU11-Wind3
BBG-D3TEU 11-Wind1
BBG-D8PE 11-Wind2
BBG-D8RAG 12-Wind3
MVP-D8GUE 12-Wind2
MVP-D8LUB 11-Wind3
SAH-D8KLM 11-Wind1
SAH-D8MA 11-Wind2
SAH-D8WOL 12-Wind3
Total
BBG-D3TEU 11-Wind1
BBG-D8PE 11-Wind2
MVP-D8GUE 12-Wind2
MVP-D8LUB 11-Wind3
tripping of wind park avoided
SAH-D8WOL 12-Wind3
Total
BBG-D8PE 11-Wind2
tripping of wind park avoided
MVP-D8GUE 12-Wind2
MVP-D8LUB 11-Wind3
NSA-D7WEHR11-Wind3
SAH-D8MA 11-Wind2
SAH-D8WOL 12-Wind3
SWH-D5BRUN11-Wind2
SWH-D5NORD13-Wind3
Total

MW
189.5
129.5
421.9
420.0
410.1
189.5
192.5
350.1
342.0
350.1
2,676.3
421.9
420.0
189.5
192.5
0.0
342.0
1,565.9
420.0
0.0
189.5
192.5
774.0
350.1
342.0
378.1
373.9
3,020.2

Table 6-12: B- Steady wind power outages with combination of different connection guidelines

6.5.6 Visualization of Power Outages for Selected Simulations


Exemplary two simulations with significant changes have been selected for
visualization of power outage results. Therefore, Figure 6-45 shows temporary active wind
power decreases during faults (due to voltage dependence of wind power feeding) and
remaining power outages of wind parks. For both cases, with selective as well as unselective
connection settings, the occurring power outages without SVC device are depictured.
Additionally Figure 6-45 shows the achievable effect of an SVC arrangement with

Qsvc=2x500 MVAr for both connection types (revised and combined connection guidelines).

6.5.6.1 Visualization of Power Outages for Simulation B4 (D3MIT11)


Figure 6-45 points out remarkable differences in steady wind power outages for revised
and combined requirements of WP connection (1494 MW in total). The installation of SVC
devices avoids tripping for SAH-D8MA11-Wind2. Furthermore, it shows slight improvements in
output power during fault (transient power decrease) for both connection scenarios.

Dietmar Holzer

80

Diploma Thesis

DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS
Wind power decrease and steady outages
450

Revised Connection
Guidelines without SVC

400

Revised Connection
Guidelines 2X500 MVAr

350

Combined Connection
Guidelines without SVC

PWIND [MW]

300

Combined Connection
Guidelines 2X500 MVAr

250
200

Tripping
-Revised Guidelines-

150

Tripping
-Combined Guidelines-

100

Tripping avoided
2x500MVAr

50

B
B

B
G

-D
3T
EU
11
-D
B
8
PE -Wi
B
G
nd
-D
11
1
8
M
VP PR -Wi
nd
L
-D
1
2
28G
M
W
VP
O
i
-D E 1 nd
3
18G
M
W
VP
U
in
E
d
D
12
N
1
8L
R
-W
W
U
in
B
-D
d2
1
7
N
1G
R
R
W
W
in
-D ON
d3
7N 12
N
R
W
EH
W
in
-D
D
d1
11
7
N
SA SEC -W
i
n
-D
H
d2
2A 11
N
SA LG Wi
n
E
d3
-D
11
N
-W
SA 2D
In
-D IEL
d1
7W 12
-W
R
PF EH
i
n
R
d2
-D
11
4P
-W
R
H
PF
in
I
L
d3
-D
12
R
-W
PF 7D
in
-D IEF
d
2
7
1
SA WT 1-W
H
in
H
U
-D
d2
1
18
SA KL
W
in
M
H
d3
-D
11
SA
8M
-W
H
A
in
-D
d1
SW 8W 11
-W
O
H
in
-D
L
d2
12
SW 2A
-W
U
H
in
- D DO
d3
11
SW 5B
-W
R
H
U
i
-D
nd
N
11
5N
1
-W
O
R
in
D
d2
13
-W
in
d3

Figure 6-45: B4- Transient power decrease during fault and steady wind power outages for simulation B4

6.5.6.2 Visualization of Power Outages for Simulation B5 (D2WAHL11)


Wind power decrease and steady outages
800
Revised Connection
Guidelines without SVC

PWIND[MW]

700

Revised Connection
Guidelines 2X500 MVAr

600

Combined Connection
Guidelines without SVC

500

Combined Connection
Guidelines 2X500 MVAr

400

Tripping
-Revised Guidelines-

300

Tripping
-Combined Guidelines-

200

Tripping avoided
2x500MVAr

100

B
B

B
B
G

-D
3T
EU
1
-D
B
8P 1-W
B
E
in
G
-D
d1
11
8
M
VP PR -Wi
nd
L
-D
12
2
8
M
VP GO -Wi
-D E 1 nd
3
8G
1M
W
VP
U
i
-D E 1 nd
N
1
28L
R
W
W
in
-D UB
d2
11
7G
N
R
-W
R
W
in
-D ON
d3
7N 12
N
R
-W
E
W
in
-D HD
d1
11
7
N
-W
SA SE
in
-D CH
d2
2A 11
N
SA LG Wi
n
E
-D
d3
11
N
SA 2D
-W
In
-D IEL
d1
7W 12
-W
R
PF EH
in
R
-D
d2
11
4
-W
R
PF PH
in
-D IL1
d3
R
PF 7D 2-W
in
-D IEF
d
7
2
SA WT 1-W 1
H
H
in
U
-D
d2
11
8
-W
SA KL
in
M
H
d
1
SA D8M 1-W 3
H
-D A 1 ind
SW 8
1
1W
W
H
in
-D OL
d
1
SW 2A
2
2U
W
H
in
-D DO
d3
11
SW 5B
-W
R
H
in
-D UN
d1
11
5N
-W
O
R
in
D
d2
13
-W
in
d3

Figure 6-46: B5 - Transient power decrease during fault and steady wind power outages for simulation B5

The simulation B5 (D2WAHL11) shows effective application of SVC technology for


outage prevention of wind park BBG-D8PRL12-Wind3. Figure 6-46 shows that modern

Dietmar Holzer

81

Diploma Thesis

DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

connection technology according revised connection guidelines keeps all generators


connected. This advances the interests of mains operators for technology updates in wind
power plants.

6.5.7

Validations and Conclusions for Two SVCs Operating Simultaneously


A validation and comparison of investment costs and voltage criteria for different

arrangements and ratings of SVC are listed in Table 6-13 (revised guidelines) and Table 6-14
(former guidelines). For Qsvc=2x150 MVAr, Qsvc=2x250 MVAr, Qsvc=2x500 MVAr and

Qsvc=2x1000 MVAr the mean parameters are determined out of simulation B1, B2 and B3.
For the validation of *1Qsvc=2x500 MVAr also the results of simulation B4 (D3MIT11)

*1

and B5 (D2WAHL11) have been considered in mean parameter values. The deviances to the
validation parameters of the version Qsvc=2x500 MVAr can only be assigned to the differences
in total power outages for the different applied simulations.
Revised connection
guidelines

Validation Parameter
(Mean values)

Parameter

Unit

umean
uimprove
urelated
Poutage
Poutage

*1

without SVC

Qsvc=2X150 MVAr

Qsvc=2X250 MVAr

Qsvc=2X500 MVAr

Qsvc=2X1000 MVAr

17.10%

16.45%

16.10%

15.71%

15.47%

18.30%

%
%
MW
MW

0.00%
0.00%
514
0

6.47%
0.65%
514
0

10.92%
1.00%
514
0

15.06%
1.39%
514
0

17.97%
1.63%
514
0

11.87%
1.49%
393
0

Qsvc=2X500 MVAr

costs

Million

0.0

21.0

28.0

41.0

64.0

41.0

costs/urelated

Million /%

0.0

34.2

28.2

31.6

44.5

31.6

Poutage/costs

MW/Million

Table 6-13: Comparison of two SVC devices working in parallel with WP modeled according revised
connection guidelines
Combination of
connection guidelines

Validation Parameter
(Mean values)

Parameter

Unit

umean
uimprove
urelated
Poutage
Poutage

%
%
%
MW
MW
Million
Million /%
MW/Million

costs
costs/urelated
Poutage/costs

without SVC

Qsvc=2X150 MVAr

Qsvc=2X250 MVAr

Qsvc=2X500 MVAr

Qsvc=2X1000 MVAr

17.10%
0.00%
0.00%
998
0
0.0
0.0
0

16.60%
5.66%
0.50%
998
0
21.0
43.2
0

16.15%
10.63%
0.95%
998
0
28.0
30.1
0

15.76%
14.43%
1.34%
998
0
41.0
32.8
0

15.52%
16.98%
1.58%
998
0
64.0
45.9
0

*1

Qsvc=2X500 MVAr
18.37%
11.34%
1.42%
1,516
0
41.0
32.8
0

Table 6-14: Comparison of two SVC devices working in parallel with WP modeled according combination of
former and revised connection guidelines

With the utilization of two SVCs with Qsvc=2x500 MVAr remarkable mean voltage
improvements are recordable (1.39% in Table 6-13 and 1.34% in Table 6-14). Observing the
ratio cos ts mean voltage improvement , the assembly Qsvc=2x500 MVAr (31.6 or 32.8 Million

/%) shows advantages compared to the higher-rated Qsvc=2x1000 MVAr version.


Additionally, it is nearly in the same cost range to the lower-rated SVC assembly with

Qsvc=2x250 MVAr. A reactive power increase to a variant with Qsvc=2x1000 MVAr does not
further improve the mean voltage levels significantly. However, it would advance the arising
investment costs very intensively from 41 Million to 64 Million .

Dietmar Holzer

82

Diploma Thesis

DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

Generally, for the simulations B1 up to B3 there are no differences in power outages for
all different SVC variants. The consideration of further simulations B4 and B5 for the SVC
variant

*1

Qsvc=2x500 MVAr highlights a decrease of mean outage power (393 MW in Table

6-13 and 1516 MW in Table 6-14) compared to the in to the single variant of
*1

Qsvc=1x1000 MVAr (393 MW in Table 6-8 and 1668 MW in Table 6-9). Of course, the

investment costs for single SVCs are less than the costs for two SVCs rated half the size.
Because of validation results, future investigations only include the variant Qsvc=2x500 MVAr.

6.6

Simulation C - Multiple SVC Devices Operating Simultaneously

6.6.1 Modeling of Simulation C


Since realizations of SVC assemblies operating in single mode or in pairs did not show
up expected effects, the arrangement of multiple SVC elements is investigated. For this
approach, the optimal location results calculated within the single and double SVC location
procedure (5.5.1, 5.5.2) constitute the base for the selected SVC arrangements. The concept
includes a combination of best SVC location according optimal positioning criteria and a
possibly regular geographical distribution for an even reactive power injection. As Figure 6-47
depictures, the simulation is limited to simultaneous operation of five SVC devices.
Wind park

SWH-Wind 1

-Wind-

Fault location

SM-

Synchronous machine

MVP-Wind 3
SWH-Wind 2

SWH-Wind 3
MVP-Wind 2

D2WAHL11

NSA-Wind 2

SVC 3

MVP-Wind 1

SVC 4

BBG-Wind 1
D8WOL11

D3MIT
BBG-Wind 3
SAH-Wind 3

NSA-Wind 1
NRW-Wind 1
NRW-Wind 2

NSA-Wind 3

BBG-Wind 2
SM-WALD11G

D7ARPE11

SVC 2

SAH-Wind 2
SAH-Wind 1

SVC 5

NRW-Wind 3
RPF-Wind 3

D7WTHU11
SVC 1

RPF-Wind 2

RPF-Wind 1

Figure 6-47: Network topology with multiple SVC assemblies and occurring faults
Dietmar Holzer

83

Diploma Thesis

DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

Parameters and variables:


SVC

Node Number

Single Ranking

Installation Site

SVC 1
SVC 2
SVC 3
SVC 4

451
489
309
556

2
8
7
5

RPF-D7WTHU11
SAH-D8KLM 11
MVP-D8GUE 12
D2DOLL11

SVC 5

570

NRW-D7NEHD11

Table 6-15: Installation sites of multiple SVC assemblies

SVC parameters within simulation C are set as follows:


SlopeSVC = 1%
URe f

_ SVC1

= 1,017 p.u. URe f

_ SVC2

= 1,061 p.u.

URe f

_ SVC3

= 1,052 p.u. URe f

_ SVC4

= 1,023 p.u.

URe f

_ SVC5

= 1,0406 p.u.

The reactive power operating ranges for the SVC assembly varies:
QSVC =5X200 MVAr, QSVC =5X500 MVAr

Settings for wind power feeding are same as in simulation A and B:


PWind = 50% QWind = 0%

The principle operation characteristics for SVC assemblies are shown in detail in
simulation A and B. In further diagrams, understanding of dynamic SVC behaviour is
premised. The simulations following focus on terminal voltages of wind generators during
faults in connection with possibly disconnection from grid.

6.6.2

Simulation C1 (D7WTHU11), C2 (D7ARPE11) and C3 (D8WOL11)


An observation of wind parks in Simulation C1 (D7WTHU11), C2 (D7ARPE11) and C3

(D8WOL11) didnt show changes in mean voltage improvement that would affect the statistics
for steady outage power. Thus, only simulations C4 (D3MIT11) and C5 (D2WAHL11) with
significant changes are observed in detail.

6.6.3

Visualization of Simulation C4 (D3MIT11)


The exact observation of voltage depressions in Figure 6-48 shows highest efficiency

directly at the SVC installation sites. The realization of two SVCs rated to Qsvc=5x200 MVAr
allows respectable voltage lifting in the regions MVP (between 6 to 8% of Unom) and SAH

(between 5 to 7% of Unom). Multiple SVC elements allow voltage lifting in region SWH of
around 5%. An increase of SVC reactive power capacity to the variant Qsvc=5x500 MVAr
remarks improvements at nearly every bus. In NRW-D7NEHD11 a single SVC with

Qsvc=1x1000 MVAr shows best results for reduction of voltage depressions.

Dietmar Holzer

84

Diploma Thesis

-D

Voltage sags [%]

6.6.4

B
G

3T
EU
11
-D
-W
8P
B
B
in
E
G
d1
-D
11
8P
-W
M
VP
R
i
n
L
d2
-D
12
8G
-W
M
O
VP
i
n
d3
-D E 1
18G
W
M
U
VP
in
E
d1
-D
12
N
8L
-W
R
W
U
in
B
-D
d2
11
7G
N
-W
R
R
W
O
in
N
-D
d3
7N 12N
W
R
EH
W
in
D
d
-D
1
7 S 11N
W
EC
SA
in
H
d
-D
2
2A 11W
N
in
SA LG
E
d
-D
3
11
N
-W
SA 2DI
In
EL
-D
d
12
1
7W
EH -Wi
R
PF
nd
R
-D
11
2
4P
-W
R
H
in
PF
IL
d3
-D
12
7D
R
-W
PF
IE
in
-D
F
d1
7W 21
SA
T H - Wi
n
H
U
d2
-D
11
8
-W
SA KL
in
M
d3
H
1
-D
8M 1-W
SA
in
A
H
d1
-D
8W 11SW
W
O
H
in
L
-D
d2
12
SW 2 A
-W
U
D
H
i
nd
O
-D
11
3
SW 5B
-W
R
H
U
i
nd
-D
N
11
1
5N
-W
O
R
in
D
d
13
2
-W
in
d3

B
B
G

-D
3T
B
EU
B
G
11
-D
-W
8P
B
in
B
E
G
d1
11
-D
-W
8P
M
R
in
VP
L
d
-D
2
12
8G
-W
M
O
in
VP
E
d
-D
3
11
8G
-W
M
U
in
VP
E
d
1
12
-D
N
8L
-W
R
U
W
in
B
-D
d
2
11
7G
N
-W
R
R
in
O
W
N
d
-D
3
7N 12N
W
R
EH
in
W
D
d
-D
1
7S 11N
W
EC
SA
in
H
d2
-D
1
12A
W
N
i
SA LG
E1 nd3
-D
1N
2D
W
SA
IE
In
-D
d1
L
7W 12
-W
EH
R
in
PF
R
d2
11
-D
4P
-W
R
H
in
PF
IL
d3
1
-D
7D 2-W
R
PF
IE
in
-D
d1
F
7W 21
-W
SA
TH
i
nd
H
U
-D
2
11
8
-W
SA KL
i
nd
M
H
3
11
-D
-W
8M
SA
in
A
H
d1
-D
11
SW 8W
-W
O
in
H
L
d2
-D
12
2
A
SW
-W
U
in
D
H
O
d3
-D
11
SW 5B
-W
R
in
U
H
N
d1
-D
11
5N
-W
O
in
R
D
d2
13
-W
in
d3

Voltage sags [%]

DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS
Voltage sags

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

Dietmar Holzer
without SVC
1X1000 MVAr
2X500 MVAr
5X200 MVAr
5X500 MVAr

30%

20%

10%

0%

Figure 6-48: C4 - Voltage sags at wind parks during fault in D3MIT11

Visualization of Simulation C5 (D2WAHL11)

Voltage sags

80%

70%

60%
without SVC

50%
1X1000 MVAr

2X500 MVAr

40%
5X200 MVAr

5X500 MVAr

30%

20%

10%

0%

Figure 6-49: C5 - Voltage sags at wind parks during fault in D2WAHL11

The regions MVP, SWH and SAH enjoy the highest improvements for the assembly of

Qsvc=5x200 MVAr. The arrangement of Qsvc=2x500 MVAr shows higher efficiency in the region

85

Diploma Thesis

DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

of SAH when compared to the variant Qsvc=5x200 MVAr. Another version of multiple SVCs,
rated to Qsvc=5x500 MVAr, lifts the voltage levels throughout all bus systems, but effect
especially the regions NRW, MVP, SAH and SWH.
A further comparison of variant Qsvc=5x200 MVAr to previous Qsvc=2x500 MVAr
assembly states the downgrading effect in BBG-D8PRL12-Wind3. Figure 6-50 depictures the
associated tripping for unselective coupling. This downgrading effect applies also for the whole
region of SAH, but there are no differences regarding wind park disconnections compared to
the two SVC variant.
An interesting fact is the significant bus voltage improvement (around 8%) of a single
SVC device in NRW-D7NEHD11.

6.6.5

Analysis of Wind Power Outages


The validation determines the power outages for the variant of multiple SVC devices

installed.

6.6.5.1 Wind Park Connections According Revised Guidelines


The installation of multiple SVC devices has no effect for power outage reduction since
the wind parks are following revised connection guidelines.
Fault location
D8WHTU21
D7ARPE11

Simulation
C1
C2

D8WOL11

C3

D3MIT 11
D2WAHL11

C4
C5

Steady Wind Power Outages


without SVC assembly
no tripping action
no tripping action

MW

Steady Wind Power Outages


5X200MVAr
no tripping action
no tripping action

0.0
0.0

BBG-D3TEU 11-Wind1
421.9
BBG-D8PE 11-Wind2
420.0
SAH-D8KLM 11-Wind1
350.1
SAH-D8MA 11-Wind2
350.1
Total 1,542.2
BBG-D3TEU 11-Wind1
421.9
no tripping action
0.0

MW
0.0
0.0

BBG-D3TEU 11-Wind1
421.9
BBG-D8PE 11-Wind2
420.0
SAH-D8KLM 11-Wind1
350.1
SAH-D8MA 11-Wind2
350.1
Total 1,542.2
BBG-D3TEU 11-Wind1
421.9
no tripping action
0.0

Steady Wind Power Outages


5X500MVAr
no tripping action
no tripping action

MW
0.0
0.0

BBG-D3TEU 11-Wind1
421.9
BBG-D8PE 11-Wind2
420.0
SAH-D8KLM 11-Wind1
350.1
SAH-D8MA 11-Wind2
350.1
Total 1,542.2
BBG-D3TEU 11-Wind1
421.9
no tripping action
0.0

Table 6-16: C- Steady wind power outages for grid connection according revised guidelines

6.6.5.2 Wind Parks Connections with Combination of Different Guidelines


Table 6-17 depictures the steady wind power outages for the variants of

Qsvc=2x500 MVAr, Qsvc=5x500 MVAr and without SVC elements. The marked wind parks
exhibit avoidances for tripping achieved by SVC applications. The analysis highlights a
prevention of outage power of 730 MW in simulation C4 (D3MIT11) with the SVC version of

Qsvc=5x500 MVAr. Moreover, the SVC arrangement Qsvc=5x500 MVAr reduces steady outage
power of 1150 MW in simulation C5 (D2WAHL11).

Dietmar Holzer

86

Diploma Thesis

DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS
Fault location
D8WHTU21
D7ARPE11

Simulation
C1
C2

D8WOL11

C3

D3MIT 11

C4

D2WAHL11

C5

Steady Wind Power Outages


without SVC assembly
MVP-D8GUE 12-Wind2
RPF-D7WTHU11-Wind3

MW

Steady Wind Power Outages


5X200MVAr
MVP-D8GUE 12-Wind2
RPF-D7WTHU11-Wind3

189.5
129.5

BBG-D3TEU 11-Wind1
421.9
BBG-D8PE 11-Wind2
420.0
BBG-D8RAG 12-Wind3
410.1
MVP-D8GUE 12-Wind2
189.5
MVP-D8LUB 11-Wind3
192.5
SAH-D8KLM 11-Wind1
350.1
SAH-D8MA 11-Wind2
342.0
SAH-D8WOL 12-Wind3
350.1
Total 2,676.3
BBG-D3TEU 11-Wind1
421.9
BBG-D8PE 11-Wind2
420.0
MVP-D8GUE 12-Wind2
189.5
MVP-D8LUB 11-Wind3
192.5
SAH-D8MA 11-Wind2
350.1
SAH-D8WOL 12-Wind3
342.0
Total 1,916.1
BBG-D8PE 11-Wind2
420.0
BBG-D8PRL 12-Wind3
410.1
MVP-D8GUE 12-Wind2
189.5
MVP-D8LUB 11-Wind3
192.5
NSA-D7WEHR11-Wind3
774.0
SAH-D8MA 11-Wind2
350.1
SAH-D8WOL 12-Wind3
342.0
SWH-D5BRUN11-Wind2
378.1
SWH-D5NORD13-Wind3
373.9
Total 3,430.3

MW

Steady Wind Power Outages

189.5
129.5

BBG-D3TEU 11-Wind1
421.9
BBG-D8PE 11-Wind2
420.0
BBG-D8RAG 12-Wind3
410.1
MVP-D8GUE 12-Wind2
189.5
MVP-D8LUB 11-Wind3
192.5
SAH-D8KLM 11-Wind1
350.1
SAH-D8MA 11-Wind2
342.0
SAH-D8WOL 12-Wind3
350.1
Total 2,676.3
BBG-D3TEU 11-Wind1
421.9
BBG-D8PE 11-Wind2
420.0
MVP-D8GUE 12-Wind2
189.5
tripping of wind park avoided
0.0
tripping of wind park avoided
0.0
SAH-D8WOL 12-Wind3
342.0
Total 1,373.5
BBG-D8PE 11-Wind2
420.0
BBG-D8PRL 12-Wind3
410.1
MVP-D8GUE 12-Wind2
189.5
MVP-D8LUB 11-Wind3
192.5
NSA-D7WEHR11-Wind3
774.0
SAH-D8MA 11-Wind2
350.1
SAH-D8WOL 12-Wind3
342.0
tripping of wind park avoided
0.0
SWH-D5NORD13-Wind3
373.9
Total 3,052.2

MW

5X500MVAr
MVP-D8GUE 12-Wind2
RPF-D7WTHU11-Wind3

189.5
129.5

BBG-D3TEU 11-Wind1
421.9
BBG-D8PE 11-Wind2
420.0
BBG-D8RAG 12-Wind3
410.1
MVP-D8GUE 12-Wind2
189.5
MVP-D8LUB 11-Wind3
192.5
SAH-D8KLM 11-Wind1
350.1
SAH-D8MA 11-Wind2
342.0
SAH-D8WOL 12-Wind3
350.1
Total 2,676.3
BBG-D3TEU 11-Wind1
421.9
BBG-D8PE 11-Wind2
420.0
tripping of wind park avoided
0.0
tripping of wind park avoided
0.0
tripping of wind park avoided
0.0
SAH-D8WOL 12-Wind3
342.0
Total 1,183.9
BBG-D8PE 11-Wind2
420.0
BBG-D8PRL 12-Wind3
410.1
MVP-D8GUE 12-Wind2
189.5
MVP-D8LUB 11-Wind3
192.5
tripping of wind park avoided
0.0
SAH-D8MA 11-Wind2
350.1
SAH-D8WOL 12-Wind3
342.0
tripping of wind park avoided
0.0
SWH-D5NORD13-Wind3
373.9
Total 2,278.2

Table 6-17 : C- Steady wind power outages with combination of different connection guidelines

6.6.6 Visualization of Power Outages for Selected Simulations


In the following, visualization for selected simulations is accomplished to highlight
occurring power decreases and outages and possibly outage reductions through utilized SVC
technology.

6.6.6.1 Visualization for Simulation C4 (D3MIT11)


Wind power decrease and steady outages
450

Revised Connection
Guidelines without SVC

400

Revised Connection
Guidelines 5X200 MVAr

350

Combined Connection
Guidelines without SVC

PWIND [MW]

300

Combined Connection
Guidelines 5X200 MVAr

250

Tripping
-Revised Guidelines-

200

Tripping
-Combined Guidelines-

150

Tripping avoided
2x500MVAr

100

Additional tripping
avoided 5x500MVAr

50

B
B

B
B

-D
3T
EU
1
-D
B
8 P 1 -W
B
E
in
G
-D
d1
11
8
M
VP PR -W
in
L
-D
d
12
2
8
M
VP GO -Wi
-D E 1 nd
3
8
1
M
VP GU -Wi
-D E 1 nd
N
1
2
8
R
-W
L
W
in
-D U B
d2
11
7G
N
R
R
W
W
O
in
-D
N
d
7N 12
N
3
R
-W
E
W
in
-D H D
d1
1
7
1N
SA SE
W
in
-D C H
d2
2A 11
N
L
SA
G Win
E1
d3
D
N
1SA 2D
W
In
-D IEL
d1
7W 12
-W
R
PF EH
in
R
-D
d2
1
14
R
W
PF PH
i
-D IL1 nd
3
R
2
-W
PF 7D
in
-D IEF
d1
7W 21
SA
T H -W
H
in
U
-D
d2
8K 11SA
LM Wi
H
nd
-D
11
3
SA
8M
-W
H
A
in
d1
11
SW D8
W
-W
H
in
-D OL
d2
12
SW 2A
-W
U
H
D
in
-D
O
d3
11
SW 5B
-W
R
H
in
-D U N
d1
11
5N
-W
O
R
in
D
d2
13
-W
in
d3

Figure 6-50: C4- Transient power decrease during fault and steady wind power outages for simulation C4
Dietmar Holzer

87

Diploma Thesis

DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

The Figure 6-50 reflects the power outage statistic for simulation C4 (D3MIT11).
Multiple SVC elements show higher efficiency for outage reduction than single or double SVC
arrangements. In the specific simulation of C4 obviously the SVC assembly with

Qsvc=5x200 MVAr avoids power outages for generation sites MVP-D8LUB11-Wind3 as well as
SAH-D8MA11-Wind 2. A further increase to the variant of Qsvc=5x500 MVAr additionally allows
the wind park in MVP-D8GUE-Wind2 to sustain the occurring grid disturbances.

6.6.6.2 Visualization of Simulation C5 (D2WAHL11)


Wind Power decrease and steady outages
900
Revised Connection
Guidelines without SVC

800

Revised Connection
Guidelines 5X200 MVAr

PWIND[MW]

700
600

Combined Connection
Guidelines without SVC

500

Combined Connection
Guidelines 5X200 MVAr

400

Tripping
-Revised Guidelines-

300

Tripping
-Combined Guidelines-

200

Tripping avoided
2x500MVAr

100

Additional tripping
avoided 5x500MVAr

-D

B
G

-D

B
G

B
G

-D

3T
EU

1
8P 1-W
in
E
d1
11
8
M
VP PR -Wi
nd
L
-D
2
8G 12M
W
VP
O
i
-D E 1 nd3
18G
M
W
U
VP
i
-D E 1 nd1
N
28L
R
W
W
U
in
B
-D
d2
11
7G
N
-W
R
R
W
in
-D ON
d3
7 N 12
N
-W
R
E
W
in
-D HD
d1
11
7
N
SA SEC -W
i
n
H
-D
d2
2A 11
N
SA LG Win
E
d3
-D
11
N
-W
SA 2D
In
-D IEL
d1
7W 12
-W
R
PF EH
in
R
d2
-D
11
4P
-W
R
H
PF
in
I
L
d3
-D
12
R
-W
PF 7DI
EF
in
-D
d1
2
7
SA WT 1-W
H
in
H
U
-D
d2
11
8
-W
SA KL
in
M
H
d
-D
1
3
SA
8M 1-W
H
-D A 1 ind
1
SW 8W
1W
O
H
in
-D
L
d2
12
SW 2A
-W
U
H
in
-D DO
d3
11
SW 5B
-W
R
H
in
-D UN
d1
11
5N
-W
O
R
in
D
d
13
2
-W
in
d3

Figure 6-51: C5 - Transient power decrease during fault and steady wind power outages for simulation C5

The comparison of power outages for the variant Qsvc=5x200 MVAr (Table 6-12) and

Qsvc=2x500 MVAr (Table 6-17) points out the disconnection of BBG-D8PRL12-Wind3 for
variant 5x200 MVAr, where this decoupling is not given for the arrangement with two SVCs
(2x500 MVAr). Nevertheless, observing the region of NSA highlights the avoided
disconnection of the WP SWH-D5BRUN11-Wind2 by the used SVC assembly (5x200 MVAr).
Similar to the simulation in C4 (D3MIT11), a further increase to the variant of

Qsvc=5x500 MVAr additionally avoids the disconnection of wind park in NSA-D7WEHR11Wind3.

6.6.7

Validations and Conclusions for Multiple SVC Assemblies


The arrangements with five SVC devices are compared to applied SVC variants

beforehand. Therefore, the arising costs for SVC realization and the voltage criteria for SVCs
in different SVC quantities and ratings are analysed. The utilized validation parameters are the
Dietmar Holzer

88

Diploma Thesis

DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

same as for the simulations in A and B, what allows establishing relationships to previous
investigations.
Revised connection
guidelines

Validation Parameter
(Mean values)

Parameter

Unit

without SVC

umean
%
uimprove
%
urelated
%
Poutage
MW
Poutage
MW
costs
Million
costs/urelated
Million /%
Poutage/costs MW/Million

*1

Qsvc=1000 MVAr

19.79%
0.00%
0.00%
393
0
0.0
0.0
0.0

*1

Qsvc=2X500 MVAr

19.07%
5.80%
0.72%
393
0
30.9
49.8
0.0

*1

Qsvc=5X200 MVAr

18.30%
11.87%
1.49%
393
0
41.0
29.3
0.0

*1

Qsvc=5X500 MVAr

17.93%
13.20%
1.86%
393
0
62.0
41.5
0.0

16.71%
20.48%
3.07%
393
0
102.5
41.9
0.0

Table 6-18: C - Comparison of diverse multiple SVC arrangements with WP modeled according revised
connection guidelines
Combination of
connection guidelines

Validation Parameter
(Mean values)

Parameter

Unit

without SVC

umean
%
uimprove
%
urelated
%
Poutage
MW
Poutage
MW
costs
Million
costs/urelated
Million /%
Poutage/costs MW/Million

*1

Qsvc=1000 MVAr

19.79%
0.00%
0.00%
1,668
0
0.0
0.0
0.0

*1

Qsvc=2X500 MVAr

19.09%
5.70%
0.69%
1,668
0
30.9
50.7
0.0

*1

Qsvc=5X200 MVAr

18.37%
11.34%
1.42%
1,516
152
41.0
30.6
3.7

*1

Qsvc=5X500 MVAr

17.97%
12.97%
1.81%
1,484
184
62.0
42.0
3.0

16.83%
19.75%
2.96%
1,291
377
102.5
43.0
3.7

Table 6-19: C - Comparison of diverse multiple SVC arrangements with WP modeled according combination
of former and revised connection guidelines

For the analysis, the focus is on the statistics in Table 6-19 representing the mean
parameter for combined connection guidelines.
In a first comparison, the value urelated shows a steady increase for raising SVC
quantity (up to 2.96% for

*1

Qsvc=5x500 MVAr). Of course, also the arising investment costs

increase with growing quantity of utilized SVC elements.


Again, the cos ts mean voltage improvement constitute a very significant factor. This ratio
shows

similar

values

for

the

version

*1

Qsvc=5x200

MVAr

(42

million

/%)

and

*1

Qsvc=5x500 MVAr (43 million /%), slightly to the advantage of the first variant. A comparison

of cos ts mean voltage improvement to the variant of

*1

Qsvc=2x500 MVAr (30.6 million /%)

points out that this ratio increases significant for both multiple SVC arrangements.
The observation of differences in steady power outage Poutage highlights definitely best
*1

results for multiple SVC arrangements. The SVC version with Qsvc=5X200 MVAr achieves a
mean reduction of 184 MW, but especially the higher-rated variant with

*1

Qsvc=5x500 MVAr

points out a remarkable value of 377 MW. Finally the analysis of Poutage/costs shows a higher
ratio for the SVC version of

*1

Qsvc=2X500 MVAr

compared to the multiple variant

*1

Qsvc=5X200 MVAr.

Dietmar Holzer

89

Diploma Thesis

DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

As a resume, the installation of several SVC devices lift the voltage levels for isolated
bus voltages more and others in a less effective way. Furthermore, a combination of multiple
SVC combinations enables significant reductions of steady power outages.
A final comparison of different SVC arrangements with same overall rating shows
advantages of the realization

*1

Qsvc=2x500 MVAr for the parameters costs/mean voltage

improvement and Poutage/costs. For the SVC arrangements with multiple SVC devices, these
characteristics are lower than for double SVC arrangement. Nevertheless, the value for power
outage differences Poutage increases with raising SVC quantity. A further increase of feeding
capacity for multiple SVCs to

*1

Qsvc=5x500 MVAr maximizes the achievable power outage

reduction. This can be ascribed to the feature that single SVC element out of the version
*1

Qsvc=5x500 MVAr with single capacity of Qsvc=500 MVAr intensifies its impact on the power

system.

Dietmar Holzer

90

Diploma Thesis

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS

7
7.1

Results and Conclusions


Simulation of Dynamic SVC Performance in Power Grids
The application of selected methods and different validation criteria allows the

determination of optimal SVC locations. Appropriate control circuits and strategies allow the
modeling of the dynamic performance of Static Var Compensators in transient simulations.
For steady state operation, the SVC technology shows the advantage of voltage
regulation for bus voltage stabilization. For wind power fluctuations and associated changes
in bus voltage levels the SVC, operating within its operation range, represents an appropriate
element for compensation.

7.2

Attributes of Dynamic SVC Performance


The simulations exhibited a close relationship between fault location, SVC installation

site and its dynamic performance. The impact of SVC assemblies during faults on
surrounding bus voltage levels depends on the arising levels of voltage at the SVC
installation site. For near faults, depressing the voltage levels in nearby areas of SVC very
heavily, the effect of voltage stabilization by SVC is restricted. In this case, SVC applications
are no practicable solution for the reduction or at least restriction of voltage funnels. Hence,
the reachable improvements by SVC technology at the installation site are sufficient only for
distant faults, which show slight bus voltage depressions.
The performance of SVC showed voltage spikes after fault clearing due to SVC
controller gain and time delays. Nevertheless, modern SVC controllers normally include
voltage hysteresis function to reduce or even remove these spikes after fault clearing and to
avoid power quality disturbances. Furthermore, the application of SVC technology in high
voltage grids allows significant reduction of the voltage recovery time after grid disturbances.

7.3

Positioning, Rating and Quantity of Applied SVC Arrangements


The optimal position and rating means a very important item for SVC realizations.

Main effects are the achievable improvements for voltage stabilization as well as the
complete new conditions of reactive power inside the power grid.
First investigations with single SVC devices pointed out only slight improvements for
voltage stabilization. Hence, the simulations have shown that a central reactive power

injection, even inserted to an optimal position, does not ensure remarkable mean voltage
improvements. Arrangements with SVC devices operating simultaneously highlighted some

Dietmar Holzer

91

Diploma Thesis

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS

improvements compared to the single variant. Furthermore, multiple SVC arrangements


allow remarkable voltage lifting in certain grid zones, but also the associated investments
costs increase intensively. What makes the arrangement of multiple elements favourable is
the distribution of reactive power regularly, thus affecting larger grid areas.

7.4

Wind Power Outages


The comparison of revised and combined connection technology and protection

system settings for wind power plants showed enormous differences in occurring wind power
outages.
Multiple SVC arrangements offered some improvements for power outage reduction,
but only for wind parks following old connection requirements. The arising investment costs
for SVC installations have to be related to achievable voltage improvements. This will
determine the need for the realization of such installations.
Only the connection of wind parks according to revised connection guidelines pointed
out avoidances of disconnections for most simulations, also without necessary usage of
SVCs. Consequently, it has rather to be considered to equip existing wind power generators
with modern connection technology than installing SVC devices. Nevertheless, what should
be kept in mind are the arising costs of Repowering.

7.5

Final Statements, Comments and Perspectives


Overall, SVC technology applied for short circuits have shown very slight

improvements on grid performance during disturbances. The voltage stabilizing effect of


SVCs is small, except for isolated network buses. Therefore, the sense for cost-intensive
SVC realizations to improve grid performance during dynamic actions is outmost
questionable. The application of SVC for reduction of faultcaused wind power outages
highlighted isolated improvements in power outages. However, the improvements are not
relevant enough that realizations of SVC arrangements really could represent the appropriate
solution for this problem. In future investigations, the aspect of further increasing SVC
quantity, maybe one SVC device for each wind park, perhaps implicates the favoured
reduction of power outages.
The old connection guidelines have been supplemented by improved grid codes in
2004 through the arrangement of mains operators and generators. It has to be expected that
the adoption of improved shutdown criteria for wind turbines (following revised grid codes)
and increasing capacities of new wind power installations will considerably improve the
current situation.

Dietmar Holzer

92

Diploma Thesis

APPENDIX

Appendix

List of Realized Wind Parks


Wind Parks
BBG-D3TEU 11
BBG-D8PE 11
BBG-D8RAG 12
MVP-D8GOE 11
MVP-D8GUE 12
MVP-D8LUB 11
NRW-D7GRON12
NRW-D7NEHD11
NRW-D7SECH11
NSA-D2ALGE11
NSA-D2DIEL12
NSA-D7WEHR11
RPF-D4PHIL12
RPF-D7DIEF21
RPF-D7WTHU11
SAH-D8KLM 11
SAH-D8MA 11
SAH-D8WOL 12
SWH-D2AUDO11
SWH-D5BRUN11
SWH-D5NORD13

Table 8-1: List of realized wind parks

Typical Parameters of Synchronous Machines


Machine Type
Two-port turbo
generator with
massive round rotor
Salient-pole
generator
2p<16
with
longitudinal
und diagonal
2p>16
damping
Salient-pole
generator
2p<16
without
damper coil

2p>16

xd

xqxq'

xd'

xd"

xq"

Td0'

p.u.

p.u.

p.u.

p.u.

p.u.

1,5-2,5 1,2-2,3

0,150,35

0,10,25

0,10,25

5 -15

0,95 1,78

0,46 0,91

0,15 0,37

0,08 0,24

0,08 0,26

2-10

0,83 1, 6

0,57 0,89

0,23 0,34

0,16
0,24

0,17 0,25

4,210

0.98 1,7

0,52 0,9

0,2 0,35

0,2
0,35

0,52 0,9

2 -10

0,86 1,5

0,45 0,8

0,25 0,4

0,25 0,45 0,4


0,8
R 0.001-0.02
L
= Tq0
q
Tq0
Lq

1,5 8

Tdo
"
s
0,050,2

0,020,1

Tqo"

Td'

Td"

KD

TJ

2050

8-16

0,050,2

0,020,1

0,6 - 0,02 2,0


0,06
0,42,5

0,020,08

1,0 - 0,02 2,0


0,05

0,5 2,5

550

5-8

<1

1-2

0,55
-2,5

Table 8-2: Parameters of synchronous machines (Reactances unsaturated) [1]

Dietmar Holzer

93

Diploma Thesis

APPENDIX

Protection Settings for Voltage Relays


Revised Connection Guidelines
Voltage Decrease Protection
[p.u]
1.00
0.20
0.20
0.50
0.95
0.95
0.95

Release Time
[sec]
0.00
0.00
0.70
1.75
3.10
3.50
5.00

Voltage Increase Protection


[p.u]

Release Time
[sec]

1.20

consistent

Combined Connection Guidelines


Voltage Decrease Protection
[p.u]
1.00
0.80
0.80
0.80
0.95
0.95
0.95

Release Time
[sec]
0.00
0.10
0.70
1.75
3.10
3.50
5.00

Voltage Increase Protection


[p.u]

Release Time
[sec]

1.20

consistent

Table 8-3: Protection settings of voltage relays

Control Areas and Back-Up-Capacities


Region

BBG
MVP
NSA
NRW
RPF
SAH
SWH
ALL CONTROL AREAS
DEN
F
HOL
POL
CONTROL AREA 1
CONTROL AREA 1-Back-up-Capacities
CONTROL AREA 1-Wind
CONTROL AREA 2
CONTROL AREA 2-Back-up-Capacities
CONTROL AREA 2-Wind
CONTROL AREA 3
CONTROL AREA 3-Back-up-Capacities
CONTROL AREA 3-Wind
CONTROL AREA 4
CONTROL AREA 4-Back-up-Capacities
CONTROL AREA 4-Wind
SW
CZE
AUT
REST

P-Factor-GEN Gen. P Total P-Factor-LOAD LOAD P Total Q-Factor-GEN Gen. Q Total Q-Faktor-LOAD LOAD Q Total
MW
MW
MW
MW
Mvar
Mvar
Mvar
Mvar
1,00
-59826,70
1,00
59627,90
1,00
-10806,30
1,00
19873,10
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
1,00
0,00
1,00
0,00
1,00
0,00
1,00
0,00
1,00
-808,80
1,00
0,00
1,00
77,90
1,00
0,00
1,00
-5180,30
1,00
471,10
1,00
0,00
1,00
0,00
1,00
-166,70
1,00
4334,90
1,00
0,00
1,00
0,00
1,00
-95,40
1,00
174,20
1,00
0,00
1,00
0,00
1,00
-4322,30
1,00
8707,50
1,00
-1595,10
1,00
3263,50
1,00
0,00
1,00
0,00
1,00
0,00
1,00
0,00
1,00
0,00
1,00
0,00
1,00
0,00
1,00
0,00
1,00
-7904,80
1,00
14944,80
1,00
-2160,40
1,00
4388,00
1,00
-5503,90
1,00
0,00
0,00
-452,60
1,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
1,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
1,00
0,00
1,00
-19192,10
1,00
19096,80
1,00
-5456,40
1,00
8730,70
1,00
-4557,90
1,00
0,00
0,00
-1763,90
1,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
1,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
1,00
0,00
1,00
-3647,70
1,00
9166,80
1,00
256,10
1,00
3490,90
1,00
-5379,80
1,00
0,00
0,00
288,10
1,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
1,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
1,00
0,00
1,00
-413,10
1,00
2478,30
1,00
0,00
1,00
0,00
1,00
-1694,70
1,00
65,90
1,00
0,00
1,00
0,00
1,00
-959,20
1,00
187,60
1,00
0,00
1,00
0,00
-59826,70
59627,90
-10806,30
19873,10

Table 8-4: Wind power, conventional back-up capacities and the assigned control areas

Dietmar Holzer

94

Diploma Thesis

BIBLIOPGRAPHY

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[1]

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[2]

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Dietmar Holzer

96

Diploma Thesis