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SAT Chemistry

SAT Chemistry
TEST 1

I ANSWER

KEY

DETAILED EXPLANATIONS
OF ANSWERS

TEST 1

PART A

PART A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

IC)
(D)
(B)
(B)
(D)
IA)

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

(D)

105.
106.
107.
108.

F, T
F, F
T, T
F, F

36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.

(E)
(B)

IE)
(C)
(G)
IB)
(D)

13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

(A)

109.
110.
111.
112.

48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.

IE)
IB)
IC)
IA)

19.
20.
21.
22.
23.

(E)
IE)
(D)
(B)
IE)

F, T
F, T
T, F
T, T, GE

113.
114.
115.
116.

F,
T,
T,
F,

(A)
(B)
(B)
IB)
IE)
IG)
(G)
IB)
IB)
(B)
(E)
(A)

60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.
69.

(D)

(D)

PARTB
101.
102.
103.
104.

T, F
F, F
T, T, GE
F, T

F
T, CE
T, GE
F

PARTe
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.

(G)
(D)

IA)
IE)
(D)
(D)

(E)
IE)
(A)
(A)
(A)
(A)

(D)

(E)
IG)
(D)

(B)
(G)
(E)
(D)
(G)
(B)

(E)
(E)
IC)
(D)

(C)
(G)
(E)
(E)
(A)

(e)
The metalloids have characteristics of both the metals and the nonmetals. Metals are conductors while nonmetals are insulators.
I.

2.

(D)
The halogens (Group VII A) el" Br2' and 12 are examples of diatomic molecules. None of the other choices occur as diatomic molecules.
3.

(B)
An oxide of formula X10 indicates that X has an oxidation state of
+ 1 since oxygen has an oxidation state of -2. The alkali metals (Group IA)
have an oxidation state of +1. The alkali earth metals (Group IIA) usually
have an oxidation state of +2, thus giving an oxide with the formula XO.
The metalloids have varying oxidation states as do the rare earths. The
halogens usually have an oxidation state of -1.
4.

(B)
The sulfate group has an oxidation number of -2. Thus, an oxidation
number of +2 is required to produce an acid salt with the formula XS04
The alkaline earth metals usually have an oxidation number of +2.
5.

(D)
The halogens have the largest electronegativity values since they re:
quire only one electron to completely fill their valence shell. The alkali
metals have the smallest electronegativity values since they can lose one
electron and have a complete valence shell. The alkali earth metals ~so
have small electronegativities since they can lose two ~lectrons to attal~a
~oblegas configuration. The metalloids have intermediate electronegauvtty values.

98
99

en
z
o
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za:
<cw
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0. en
><z

W<c

I-

UJ

I-

eLL

~o

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w
o

UJ UJ

oo
>-' u,
>-' u."

u, fu, f-

wwocow

---->-

>
w

l/)

...
.-E

.....
Q) ~
s: en
ow
~
!C(
en

.,.

co
~~

oww606uww~

----------

-"' -

---<0

----.------------------alr:omwOOCCCCIIlW<:(

a:
w

OJ

en

"' "'

==
en

I-LLI-LL
u.~LL.- 1--

Z
<C

---.-------------------WCDOW()OOJowoom

LL.~

<ri <0 ,..: <Xi


0 0 0 0
~~

--

UJ

.~

< oocomo~
<
Q.
M .j <ri <0

E
~

III:

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>--c

V)

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M
0 0 0
~~

------------------------

>-' ....

OOc(wooww<[c(

" - -g

Q.

'"l..--r~'
-

-'

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"

SAT Chemistry

SAT Chemistry
TEST 1

I ANSWER

KEY

PARTA
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

(C)
(D)
(B)
(B)
(D)
(A)

PART
101.
102.
103.
104.

7.
9.
10.
11.
12.

(E)
(C)
(C)
(B)
(D)
(D)

13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

(E)
(8)
(C)
(A)
(D)
(A)

19.
20.
21.
22.
23.

(E)
(E)
(D)
(B)
(E)

105.
106.
107.
108.

F, T
F, F
T, T
F, F

109. F, T
110.F,T
111. T, F
112. T, T, CE

113.
114.
115.
116.

F, F
T, T, CE
T, T, CE
F, F

36.
37.
3B.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.

(E)
(B)
(0)
(E)
(C)
(0)
(B)
(C)
(E)
(0)
(C)
(B)

48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.

60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68
69.

(D)
(E)
(E)
(C)
(D)
(C)
(C)
(E)
(E)
(A)

B.

T, F
F,F
T, T, CE
F, T

PARTe
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.

98

(C)
(D)
(A)
(E)
(D)
(D)
(E)
(E)
(A)
(A)
(A)
(A)

(A)
(B)
(B)
(8)
(E)
(C)
(C)
(8)
(B)
(8)
(E)
(A)

DETAILED EXPLANATIONS
OF ANSWERS
TEST 1
PART A
L

(e)

The metalloids have characteristics of both the metals and the nonmetals. Metals are conductors while nonmetals are insulators.

2. (0)
The halogens (Group VII A) Cl" Br,. and I, are examples of diatomic molecules. None of the other choices occur as diatomic molecules.

3.

(B)

.An oxide of formula X20 indicates that X has an oxidation state of


+ 1 SInce oxygen has an oxidation state of -2. The alkali metals (Group IA)
have an oxidation state of + 1. The alkali earth metals (Group I1A) usually
have an oxidation state of +2, thus giving an oxide with the formula XO.
The metalloids have varying oxidation states as do the rare earths. The
halogens usually have an oxidation state of-1.
4.

(B)
The sulfate group has an oxidation number of -2. Thus, an oxidation
number of +2 is required to produce an acid salt with the formula XS04
The alkaline earth metals usually have an oxidation number of +2.

5. (0)
. The halogens have the largest electronegativity values since they re:
quire only one electron to completely fill their valence shell. The alkali
metals have the smallest electronegativity values since they can lose one
electron and have a complete valence shell. The alkali earth metals also
have small electronegativities since they can lose two electrons to attai~ a
~oble gas configuration. The metalloids have intennediate alectroneganv-

tty values.
99

r
SA T Chemistry

(Al
The smallest ionization energies are realized when the removal ofone
electron yields a noble gas configuration. Thus, the alkali metals havethe
6.

lowest ionization energies, then the alkali earth metals, metalloids, and

halogens in order of increasing ionization energy.


7.

(E)
A buffer is a solution made by the combination

of a weak acid anda


salt of its conjugate base. For example, acetic acid combined with sodium
acetate would comprise a buffer. A buffer is intended to be insensitive[0

modest changes in pH.


8.

(C)

Both strong acids and bases dissociate nearly completely in aqueous


solution. For example, Hel is termed a strong acid because in aqueous
solution it dissociates into H+ and CI- and the concentration of Hel itself
is negligible.

9.

(C)

. As a strong acid dissociates essentially completely,


tion constant, Ka will be extremely high. For HCl:
Ka

=:

its acid dissocia-

[H+][CI-]
[HCI]

Since [H+] and [Cl"] are very large compared


large as well.

with (HCI), K" will be very

10. (B)
The Br0nsted-Lowry notion of an acid-base reaction requires a protontobetranf
d I
.
and a
b
sterre . n this concept an acid must donate a proton
ase must accept one.

11. (D)
NH3 is a weak base because in the reaction
NH,(aq) + H20 <- .....NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq)

does not proc d


much

h ee

very far to the right and the concentration

, rnuc less than that of NH

100

f oir is
0

Detailed Explanations

of Answers I Test 1

12. (0)
Cl is also considered to be a weak base. This is so because it is the
conjugatebase of a strong acid.
13. (E)
NaHC03 is a salt. It is a salt of the weak acid H,C03
14. (B)
. NaOH is a strong base because it dissociates completely to give OHIOns.

15. (C)
The oxidation number of Na in NaCI is +1. In all monatomic ions, the
oxidationnumber is that of the charge on that ion.
16. (A)

The oxidation number of CI in e12 is zero (0). In any elementary


substance. the charge of an element is zero (0). The charge of 0 in 2
H in Hz. are also 0. for example.

17. (0)
. The oxidation number of S in Na-S is -2. Because the charge on Na
15 + I and there are two of them in order to create a neutral compound. the
oxidationnumber of S must be ~2.
18. (A)
Solid sulfur is yellow. In addition, it smells like rotten eggs.
19. (E)
Aqueous hydrochloric acid is colorless.
20. (E)
Aqueous sodium hydroxide is colorless as well.
21. (0)
In the reaction given, since there is an excess of oxygen. it is the
amount only of ammonia put in that will determine how m~ch product
there will be. For every 4 moles of ammonia put into the reacuon- 6 moles
of water will be obtained. The first step is to determine how many moles
are in 16.00 grams of ammonia. Dividing J 6.00 by the molecular weight
of ammonia:
101

SAT Chemistry

16.00 g
~ 0.9395 moles NH3
17.03 g/mole
Using cross multiplication, if for every 4 moles of NH3 you get 6 molesof
water:
4 moles ammonia ~0.9395 moles ammonia
6 moles water
x moles water
x :;::1.409 moles of water. To convert this to grams, we multiply by the
molecular weight of water:
1.409 moles H20 X 18.02 glmol ~ 25.39 g H20.
This corresponds to choice (D).
22. (B)
Here you must determine which is the limiting reagent. First yo,u
must convert the masses of both the ammonia and the oxygen to therr
respective number of moles by dividing by the molecular weights.
66.00 g NH,
17.04 g/mole ~ 3.873 moles NH3
54.00 g 0,
32.00 g/rnole ~ 1.688 moles 0,
Oxygen is therefore the limiting reagent.
. For every 5 moles of oxygen put in, you get 6 moles of water OUl.
Usmg cross multiplication:

:i. moles oxygen


6

_ 1.688 moles oxygen


moles water
x moles water

x ~ 2 025 m I
.:"
0 es water. Convert to grams by multiplying
weight of water:
2.025 moles

by

th

olecul~
em

18.02 ~ 36.49 grams O

This Corresponds to choice (B).


23 (E)
For every 4
I
.
4 molesof
NO
rna es of NH] that are put into the reacuon.
513
mol are .Plroduced. Therefore, if 2513 moles of NH are reacted, 2,
3
esw1lbeprod
d'
.
102
uce . ThIS is choice (E).

.......-\
Detailed Explanations

of Answers / Test 1

PARTS
101 T, F
Acid rain is generally considered to be destructive to limestone
(CaCO]) because acid rain contains sulfuric acid (H2S04) or nitric acid
(HNO]).The reaction that occurs is
CaCO, (5) + H2S04 (aq) -> CaSO, (5) + CO, (g) + H20
102. F, F
The correct net ionic equation is
Ca'+ (aq) + 504'"- (aq) -> CaSO, (5).
NaClis soluble in water and does not appear in the final net ionic equation.
103. T, T, CE
K equals the product of the equilibrium concentrations of the ions in
sp
a compound where each concentration is raised to the power of the ion
coefficient.
104. F, T
In a neutral solution, [H+] = 1 x 10-7. This is equivalent to saying that
~solution has a pH of 7. This is not true in an acidic or basic solution. Kw
14.
IS, however, always equal to I x 10--

105.F, T
Strong acids do ionize completely in an aqueous solution, but HF
doesnot ionize completely and is therefore considered a weak acid.
106. F, F
NH + is a weak acid because it doesn't dissociate completely in wa4
ter. NH4+ is the conjugate acid of NH3, a weak base.
107. T, T
Both statements are true but the latter is not a correct explanation of
the former. By the Lewis definition, F- is a base because it can donate an
electronpair.

108. F, F
Because normality depends on the number of transferable protons in
a Species and molarity doesn't, a IN solution of H2S04 is half as concentratedin terms of H2S04 as a 1M solution of H2S04.
103

SA T Chemistry

109. F, T

These solutions together would not make a good buffer. A buffer IS


made by a weak acid and the salt of its conjugate base or vice versa. It IS
true that OH- is a common ion, but this is irrelevant to use as a buffer here.

no. F, T
LikeofO.
any other elementary substance, the CI in
number
]J

el2 has

an oxidation

I. T, F

Water has a high boiling point for its molecular weight due to hydro.
gen bonding. Polar covalent bonding also occurs in methane (CH ) which
has a boiling point of -1620C.
4
112. T, T, CE
Benzene is a poor electrolyte because it does not ionize in water
solution.
113. F, F
The reaction of zinc with hydrochloric acid goes to completion because the hYdrogen gas which is evolved is allowed to escape. This is in
effect removing one of the reaction products causing the equilibrium to
shift towards completion of the reaction.
114. T, T, CE
Atoms of the same element form Covalent bonds because their electronegativity values are the same. Bonds formed between elements whose
electronegativities differ from 0.5 to 1.7 form polar covalent bonds. Differences greater than 1.7 in element electronegativities result in ionic
bonds.
115. T, T, CE
Most metals characteristics SUch as malleability, flexibility, strength,
and electrical conductivity are characteristic of the positive atomic nuclei
surrounded by mobile electrons.

116. F, F
acid is a weak acid because it is only Partially dissociated in a
water Acetic
SOlution.

104

Detailed Explanations

of Answers / Test 1

PARTe
24. (C)

Referring to the periodic table we see that element 32 is germanium.


~ennanium is a metalloid as are boron, silicon, arsenic, antimony, tellunum, polonium, and astatine. Chemically, metalloids exhibit both positive
and negative oxidation states and combine with metals and nonmetals.
They are characterized by electronegativity values between those of the
metalsand the nonmetals.
25. (0)
The prime consideration in representing the bonding of a polyatomic
element or compound is that each atom bonded should have a complete
valence shell (eight electrons except hydrogen and helium which have
two). Since nitrogen is in Group VA, it has five valence electrons illustrated as
:N

Diatomic nitrogen must have the structure


: N : : : N : (or : N" N :)

to completely fill the valence shells of both atoms.


26. (A)
Dissolving sodium chloride in water is an example of a physical
change. A physical change alters the physical properties of a substance
while maintaining its composition. If the water solution of NaCI were to
be evaporated we would once again have solid sodium chloride. Chemical
changes involve altering the composition and structure of a substance and
are always associated with changes in energy. Wood and oxygen are
changed to CO , H20 and nitrogen oxides while ozone is changed to
2
diatomic oxygen and sodium and water are changed to sodium hydroxide
and hydrogen gas.
27. (E)
A beta particle is a fast electron of mass 9.11 x lO....
28 g while a proton
and a neutron both have a mass of 1.67 x 1O-24 g. A hydrogen nucleus is a
proton, and an alpha particle is a helium nucleus (two protons and two
neutrons). Thus, the electron (beta particle) has the smallest mass of the
choices given.
105

SA T Chemistry

28 (0)
One mole of NaCI weighs 58.5 g as obtained by: the atomic weightof
Na plus the atomic weight of CI from the periodic table. Thus, 58.5 g of
NaCI in one liter of solution is 1 molar and 58.5 g of NaCI in one kilogram
of solvent is I molal. By simple proportions, 58.5 g of NaCI in 2 kilograms of solvent is 0.5 molal.

29. (0)
Molecules in the gaseous state have the greatest kinetic energy. The
difference in energy between the liquid and gas phases is greater than the
difference in energy between the solid and liquid phases. This may be readily
seen by the energy changes occurring in water; the heat of fusion of wateris
80 calories/gram, while the heat of vaporization is 540 calories/gram.

30. (E)
Cr(NH)sS04Br represents 27 atoms.
15 x H; I x S; 4 x 0; and I x BI.

They are: I x Cr; 5 x N:

3l. (El
. The element of atomic weight 197 is gold (Au-atomic number 79).
Since the atomic weight is equal to the number of protons and neutrons m
the nucleus and the atomic number is equal to the number of protons in the
nucleus, the number of neutrons in the nucleus is 197 _ 79 or 118.

32. (A)
Diamond, composed solely of carbon cannot have ionic bonds or
hydrogen bonds. Van der Waals attraction between the nucleus of one
atom and the electrons of an adjacent atom are relatively weak cornpar~d
t~ the covalent bonding network (sp3 hybrid) between the carbon atoms In
dIamond. On the other hand, graphite (another allotropic form of carbon)
IS sp2 hybrid and not strongly bonded as compared to diamond.

33. (A)
. Atomic radius decreases as one goes from left to right across a p~n~d,. so the atomic radius of carbon is greater than that of oxygen. ThiS
ehmmates choices (B) and (D). Now we must determine whether the CO,
molecule is linear Or bent. Linearity means the O-C-O bond angle is 180.
Recall that the nu I' f
erience
c er 0 a molecule anent themselves so as to exp
.
the smallest repUlsions of the positive nuclei. Thus a triatomic molecule IS
expected to he Ii
. C
. .
The lone
.
near as IS 02' However this IS not always true.
electron pairs 0"
that the
n oxygen III a water molecule bend the molecule so
106

a
Detailed Explanations of Answers / Test 1

hydrogen nuclei and the two electron pairs occupy the comers of a tetrahedron. Thus, the water molecule is bent. The same effect occurs in ammonia, NH3, where a lone pair of electrons on nitrogen distorts the expected
trigonal planar geometry. Shape of a CO2 molecule is

:0=

C =0:

~180)
34. (Al
All three phases (solid, liquid and gas) may coexist at a single pressure/temperature combination known as the triple point. This point occurs
at the intersection of the solid-liquid, solid-gas and liquid-gas equilibrium
Curves as illustrated by point C.

35. (A)
Examining a labeled phase diagram we see that the solid phase can

only exist at point A.

Pressure

solid

liquid

G
D

C
gas

Temperature

36. (El

The critical point is the point above which a gas cannot change mto a
liquid. This means that a liquid cannot exist above this poi~t~ but a~ an.d
below this point a liquid can exist. The temperature at the cntl~~l point IS
called the critical temperature and the pressure is called the c.f1tIcalp,resSure,The critical point in the phase diagram shown is the pomt H, smce
above it a gas cannot be liquefied.

107

SA T Chemistry

37. (B)
Referring to the phase diagram previously given we see that the solid
and liquid phases coexist on the line upon which point D is located.

38. (0)
An electrolyte is a substance which, when melted or dissolved in a
suitable medium, conducts electricity. Therefore (D), a solution of sodium
chloride dissolved in water, is electrolytic since the sodium and chloride
ions are free to move. Neither (A) mercury in water, (B) a benzene solution of ethanol, nor (C) sucrose in water, are electrolytic.

39. (E)
The oxidation state of sulfur in sodium bisulfate may be determined
by recalling that the oxidation states of sodium, hydrogen, and oxygen are
usually + 1, + I, and -2, respectively. Since the sum of the oxidation stales
for the atoms of a neutral compound are zero we have:
oxidation state of S + 1 + 1 + 4(-2) = 0; therefore
oxidation state of S :;::+6
So, the oxidation state of sulfur in NaHS04

40.

is +6.

(el

The solution in question had been supersaturated as is seen by the


precipitation of more solute than what had been added. The same amount
of solute would have precipitated if the solution was saturated and no
precipitation would have occurred if the solution was unsaturated. The
terms dilute and concentrated cannot be used in this context since a dilute
solution may be saturated if the solute is only slightly soluble while a
concentrated solution may be unsaturated if the solute is exceptionally
soluble.

41. (0)
This is an exam p If
e 0 a neutralization reaction where an acid and a
base ~eac~to produce water and a salt. It must be known that barium has
an oxidation number of +2 and that perchloric acid is HCI04.
2HCI04 + Ba(OH)2 --'> 2H,O + Ba(CI04),

108

Detailed Explanations of Answers / Test 1

42. (B)
An endothermic reaction is one in which heat may be considered one
ofthe "reactants." An exothermic reaction releases heat upon formation of
the products. An equilibrium reaction may be either exothermic or endothermic.The same holds true for spontaneity; spontaneity can only be
determinedif one also knows the entropy change (~) for the reaction.
43 (e)
The transition metals have highest energy electrons in d subshells
(3d, 4d, and 5d). Lanthanides and actinides are characterized by highest
energyelectrons in the 4jand 5jsubshells, respectively.
44. (E)
Neutral fluorine atoms have 9 electrons as determined by their atomic
number. Magnesium atoms have 12 electrons so Mg3+ has 9 electrons.
Boronhas 5 electrons so B3- has 8 electrons (the same as oxygen). Nitrogenhas 7 electrons so N+ has 6 electrons (the same as carbon). Neon has
10electrons so Ne- has 11 electrons (the same as sodium). Sodium has] 1
electronsso Na- has 12 electrons (the same as magnesium).
45. (0)

Le Chatelier' s Principle may be used to predict equilibrium reactions.

If a stress is placed on a system in equilibrium, the equilibrium shifts so as


to counteract that stress. Hence, increasing the reactant concentration favorsformation of the products while decreasing the reactant concentration
favors formation of the reactants. The same holds true for altering the
productconcentrations. Increasing the temperature favors the reaction that
absorbs heat while decreasing the temperature favors the reaction that
releasesheat. Increasing the pressure favors the reaction that decreases the
~olumeof a closed system while decreasing the pressure favors the reaction resulting in an increased volume (moles of gaseous product prod.uced
are the only things counted since liquids and solids occupy a relatively
small volume in comparison). However, temperature and pressure dependencies cannot be inferred from this question. The addition of a catalyst
alters the reaction rate but not the position of equilibrium. The only way
Completioncan
be obtained is that we remove the products as they
f
. are
.
armed. Now the state of the reaction becomes nonequilibrium, but It tnes
to come into an equilibrium state once again. This lea~s to fo~ation of
moreproducts which in turn leads to completion of the given reaction.

109

..

SA T Chemistry

46. (e)
An acid H3X is classified as triprotic since it may "give up" three
protons to a base. An example of a triprotic acid is phosphoric acid,
H3P04 Examples of monoprotic and diprotic acids are hydrochloric, Hel
and sulfuric, H2S04, respectively. The term bidentate, rather than referring
to acids, is associated with ligands. Bidentate ligands have two atoms that
may coordinate to a metal ion.

47. (B)
The salts of strong bases and weak acids hydrolyze to form a basic
solution while the salts of weak bases and strong acids hydrolyze to form
an acidic solution.

Ha(N03), + 2H,o -> 2HN03 + Ba(OH)z


A neutral solution is produced since both nitric acid and barium hydroxide
are completely dissociated, and each is present in the same concentration

(barium hydroxide has 2 hydroxy groups)


Na,S + 2H,O -> H,S + 2NaOH
A ~asic solution is produced since hydrosulfuric
sodium hydroxide is a strong base.

acid is a weak acid and

AI,(S04h + 6H,O -> 3H,S04 + 2Al(OH)3


An ac!dic ~ol.ution is produced since aluminum hydroxide
sulfunc acid IS a strong acid.

is insoluble and

Pb3(P04), + 6H,O -> 2HJPO, + 3Pb(OHjz


An acidic solution is produced since phosphoric

acid is a weak acid and

lead (II) hydroxide is insoluble.


NaCI + H20 -> HCI + NaOH
A n.eutral solution is produced since hydrochloric
sodium hydroxide is a strong base.

acid is a strong acid and

48. (A)
The reaction of the Haber process is:

N, (g) + 3H, (g) <--> 2NH3 (g) + heat


We see that th
4
. and2
ere are moles of gas on the left side of the reaction
mo Ies of gas
th .
.
. creas.
h
On
e fight. According to Le Chatelier's PrinCiple, In
mg t e. pressure would force the rea

on to the right to produce

ammon,. (Note Ch
hi h'
.
ange III pressun
w IC a zas or gas
110
0
es are reactants or

L,

mo~

lbrium III

ffects only those equut


cts.)

....
Detailed Explanations of Answers I Test 1

49. (B)
The ionization energy is defined as the energy required to remove the
most loosely bound electron from an element in the gaseous state. The
energy released by an element in forming an ionic solid with another
element is the lattice energy of that ionic compound. The electronegativity
of an element gives the relative strength with which the atoms of that
element attract valence electrons.
50. (B)
Plutonium-238 has a mass of 238 and an atomic number of 94. The
atomic mass tells us the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
while the atomic number tells us the number of protons. An alpha particle
(a) is a helium nucleus j: He composed of 2 neutrons and 2 protons
(atomic mass of 4). Hence, upon emitting an alpha particle, the atomic
number decreases by 2 and the atomic mass decreases by 4. This gives us
2~~
X. Examining the periodic table we find that element 92 is uranium.
Thus~our new atom is 2j: U. 2j: Pu and 2j: em are impossible since the
atomic number of plutonium is 94 and that of curium is 96. 2~PU and
2~~Cmare impossible since these nuclei could only be produced by fusion
of 2lPu with an alpha particle. In addition, ~~ Pu is incorrectly named.
The reaction (decay) is 238Pu~
234U~
4He
94
92
2

51. (B)
First we determine the number of moles present in solution taking the
molecular weight of ethylene glycol to be 62 g. Thus,
6.20 g x = 0.1 mole of ethylene glycol
We must also know the molality-the

ratio of moles of solute to kilograms

of solvent. The number of kilograms of solvent is


0.2 L x I kg = 0.2 kg

I L
since the density of water is I g/rnL. The molality of the solution is

Q.I mole
0.2 kg

For Ii 0

= 0.5 molal.

the molal freezing point depression constant


Thus, the freezing point depression is
2

. 1.86 'CimolaI.

IS

111

SAT Chemistry

0.5 molal

1.86 'C ~ 0.93 'C


molal

Thus, the melting point would be

o 'C

- 0.93

-c ~ -0. 93 "C

52. (E)
A 100 g sample of this gas contains 25.9 g of nitrogen and 74.1.g of

oxygen. Dividing each of these weights by their respective atomic weighs


gives us the molar ratio of N to for the gas. This gives
N 25.9074.1 = N1.8504.63
14
16

Dividing both subscripts by the smallest subscript gives


N1.8504.63 =
1.85 1.85

N102.5

Doubling both subscripts so as to have whole numbers gives us N20s.

53. (C)

A molecular weight of 16 g tells us that a volnme of 22.4 hte"


(molar volume) of that gas weighs 16 g. To determine the weight of a
4.48 L sample we multiply
4.48 Lx

16 g ~3.2 g
22.4L

54. (C)
Th ere Iations hirp M1 VI = M V in neutralization
2 2

. volving'
problems III

strong acid and strong base. We have

(3 M HCI)(2,000 mL) ~ (5 M NaOH)(V2 mL)


~ ~ (3M)(2,000 mL) _ I 20
2
(5M)
-,
OmL

55. (B)
A 1M

f sulrate
I of
IOn per .hter of solution. Thus 0.2 L of aIM solution contains 0.2 mo e te
sulfate IOn 02 L f 2'
.
Ie ofsu l ar
.
'.
0 a
M solutIOn would then con tam 0.4 roo
Ion.
.

112

. sodium sulfate (Na2S04) solution contains one mole a

Detailed Explanations of Answers I Test 1

56. (B)
The atomic weight of lead is 207.2 g/mole from the periodic table.
The number of moles present in 103.6 g of lead is given by
103.6 g x

1 mole
207.2 g

= 0.5 mole

Since lead is in the +2 oxidation state, two moles of electrons are required
for every mole of lead to reduce it to the metals. However only one mole
of electrons is required to reduce 0.5 mole of Pb2+ to Pb".
57. (B)
Copper is being reduced from Cu2+ to the metal according to
Cu2+ + 2e-

---7

Cu

The amount of electricity that allows one mole of electrons to undergo


reaction is the faraday (F) which is equal to 96,500 coulombs. Thus, two
2
faradays of charge are required to reduce one mole of Cu + to the metal.
Now we must calculate the number of coulombs provided by the applied
Current
3.0 amps x 2 hOUISx 3,600 sec x I coulomb = 21 ,600 coulombs
I hour
I amp sec
Calculating the number of faradays donated to the copper we obtain
21,600 coulombs x

1F
=0.22 F
96,500 coulombs

Now we may compute the amount of copper deposited by this amount of


2
charge since we know that 2F of charge reduces one mole of Cu + to CUD.
Thus, we have
0.22 Fx 1 moleCu x 63.5 g Cu =7.1 g
2F
1 moleCu
7.0 g of Copper deposited.

58. (E)
. The hydrogen
WIth

electrode

has been chosen as the standard electrode

an assigned value of EO = 0.00 V.

113

a
SA T Chemistry

59. (A)

The anode of any electrochemical cell is defined to be the siteof


oxidation. Thus, since Zn is being oxidized to 202+ in this cell it is determined to be the anode. The cathode, the site of reduction, is Cr in this cell.
The solutions of the metal ions are not the anode or the cathode but rather
the electrolytic medium.
60. (0)
An sp2 configuration is represented by the trigonal planar orientation,
which looks like

61. (E)

. An sp3cfl configuration is represented by the square planar orientatron, which looks like the following. Note: two hybridizal pairs of electrons are unbounded.

--~

"
"
"
62. (E)

E~amining the balanced reaction equation of 2HzO


the ratio 2:2: 1.

----7

2Hz + 02 yields

63. (e)
Balancing the reaction equation gives

2H,O --? 2H, + 0,


As may be seen 1
h
.
duc one
.
rom t e equation two units of water react to pro e
unit 01 oxygen Th 10 L
'
f oxygen
. us
of water are required to produce 5 L 0

114

Detailed Explanations of Answers I Test 1

64. (0)
The molecular weight of a compound is the sum of its constituents'
atomic weights. Elements or groups followed by a subscript have their
atomic weight multiplied by that subscript. Thus, the molecular weight of

perchloricacid (HCI04) is
atomic weight of H + atomic weight of Cl
+ 4 x atomic weight of 0

or

I g/mol + 355 g/mol + 4(16 g1mol) = 1005 g/mol

65. (C)
The first member of the alkyne series is acetylene (or ethyne), whose
structure is

HC"CH
Thesecond is propyne:

HC" C - CH3

Thethird is butyne:

HC" C - CH, - CH3

Note that there are no analogous compounds in the alkene or alkyne series
forthe first member of the alkane series (methane - CH4)
66. (C)
Alcohols are named by replacing the -e of the corresponding hydrocarbon name by the suffix -ol. The position of the hydroxy substituent IS
numbered from the shorter end of the chain. Thus, the structure is named
3-hexanol. It is a hexanol because the parent hydrocarbon has six carbons
and the prefix 3- (not 1-) is used to indicate the location of the hydroxy
group on the third carbon.
67. (E)
The metals are found on the left side of the periodic table, with
~etallic character increasing as one goes down a group. All the choices
given are in Group IA, so the one farthest down in the group has the
greatest metallic character. This is francium (Fr).
68. (E)
The oxidation states of the element comprising a neutral compound ~ust
~avea sum of zero. Thus, nitrogen in HN03 has an oxidation sta~eof +5, since
rdrogen and oxygen have oxidation states of +1 and -2, respectively.

i.e.,

(I) + (n) + (-{j) = 0; therefore

n=5
115

SA T Chemistry

69. (A)
A mole is defined to be 6.02 x 1023 atoms, molecules, ions, particles,
etc. Thus, 1.5 x 1023 atoms represents 0.25 mole. Recalling that the molar
volume of any ideal gas at STP is 22.4 liters, we may calculate the volume
of 1.5 x 1023 atoms to be

(025 L)(22.4 Limo!) = 56 L

116

---.--PRACTICE
TEST 2

SAT Chemistry
Practice Test 1
(Answer sheets appear in the back of this book.)

PART A
TIME:

1 Hour

85 Questions
DIRECTIONS: Each set of questions below consists of five lettered
choices followed by a list of numbered statements

or questions. For each

statement or question, select the answer choice that is most closely


related to it. Each answer choice may be used once, more than once, or
not at all.

Vote: For all questions involving solutions, assume that the solvent is
water unless otherwise

noted.

Questions 1-6 refer to the following groups.

(A) Alkali metals

(D) Halogens

(B) Alkaline earth metals

(E) Rare earths

(C) Metalloids

l.

Used primarily in semiconductors

2.

Some occur as diatomic molecules

3.

Give oxides with die formula X20

4.

Produce acid salts with the formula XS04

5.

Have large electronegativity

6.

Have small ionization energies

values

83

SAT Chemistry
Practice Test 1
(Answer sheets appear in the back of this book.)

PART A
TIME:

1 Hour

85 Questions
DIRECTIONS: Each set of questions below consists of five lettered
choices followed by a list of numbered statements or questions. For each
statement or question, select the answer choice that is most closely
related to it. Each answer choice may be used once, mere than once, or
not at all.

Note: For all questions involving solutions, assume that the solvent is

water unless otherwise noted.


Questions 1-6 refer to the following groups.

(A) Alkali metals


(B) Alkaline earth metals
(e)

(D) Halogens
(E) Rare earths

Metalloids

1.

Used primarily in semiconductors

2.

Some occur as diatomic molecules

3.

Give oxides with the fannuia X20

4.

Produce acid salts with the formula XSO

5.

Have large electronegativity values

6.

Have small ionization energies

83

SA T Chemistry

Questions 7-10 refer to the following species.


(A) A Brensted acid

(D) A weak base

(B) A Brensted base

(E)

A buffer

(C) A strong acid

7.

Is a solution made by the combination of a weak acid and the salt of


its conjugate base

8.

Always dissociates nearly completely in aqueous solution

9,

Has a very high K,

10. Always accepts a proton

Questions 11-14 refer to the following species.


(A) A strong acid

(D) A weak base

(B) A strong base

(E) A salt

(C) A weak acid

12, CI-

13. NaHC03
14, NaOH
Questions 15-17

f
'
re er to the followmg values.

(A) 0
(D) -2
(8) -t
(E) +2
(C) +\

15 The idan
.
ox! ation number of Na in NaCl

84

Test 1

16. The oxidation number of Cl in Cb


17. The oxidation number of Sin NazS

Questions 18-20 refer to the following colors.


(A) Yellow

(D) White

(B) Purple

(E) Colorless

(C) Green

18. S(s)
19. HCI(aq)

20. NaOH(aq)

Questions 21-23 refer to the following reaction and the given values.
4NH,(g) + 502(g) -> 4NO(g) + 6H,O(g)
(A) 2.294

(D)

25.3

(B) 36.49

(E) 2.513

(C) 1.409

21. If you begin with 16.00 grams of ammonia, and an excess of oxygen,
how many grams of water will be obtained?

22. If you begin with 66.00 grams of ammonia, and 54.00 grams of
oxygen, how many grams of water will be obtained?

23. How many moles of NH, are needed to produce 2.513 moles of NO?

85

SA T Chemistry

PARTS
DIRECTIONS: Each question below consists of two statements. Determine if Statement I is true or false.a.r::K!.jf Statement II is true or false an?
fill in the corresponding ovals on your answer sheet. Fill in oval CE If
Statement II is a correct explanation of the true Statement I.

(I)

(II)

101. Acid rain is


destructive to limestone

because

102. The net ionic

because

equation for the mixing


of aqueous solutions
of CaCl, and Na,S04
is: Na+(aq) + C1-(aq) -> NaCI(s)
103. Given that the Ksp
of AgBr and BaCO]
are 5 X 10-13 and
2 X 10-9 respectively,
AgBr is less soluble
than BaCO]

104. In any solution


(H+] = 1 x ]()-7
105. HF is considered
a strong acid

106. N~+ is considered


to be a strong acid
107. By the Lewis
theory of acids and
bases, P- is considered
to be a base

86

acid rain contains


HC!.
NaCI precipitates
out of the reaction.

because

a larger Ksp indicates


a larger conversion
to products.

because

Kw = [OH-j (W]
= 1 X 10-14

because

strong acids ionize


completely in an
aqueous solution.

because

it is the conjugate
acid of a strong base.

because

it can accept
protons.

L
Test 1

because

108.A 1 N solution of

molarity are both

H2S04 is the same

units of concentration
and refer to the
same thing.

as a 1M solution
ofH2S04

109. A solution of NaOH


and Ba(OHh would
be a good buffer

because

110. The oxidation

because

it contains OH-

as a common Ion.

number of Cl in Ch

Cl is missing one
electron to fill its

shell.

is +1
111. Water has a high boiling

normality and

because

of polar covalent
bonding.

point for its molecular

weight
111. ~enzene is a poor electrolyte
In

because

it does not ionize.

because

hydrogen gas is

water solution

113.The reaction of zinc with


hydrochloric acid does not go
to completion in an open

not evolved.

container

because

they have the same

115 M etals such as gold are


malleable

because

the positive nuclei

116 Ace tilC acid


"

because

it ionizes completely
in water solution.

114 Atoms of the same element


combine covalently rather
than by ionic attraction.

IS

a strong acid

electronegati viti es.

are surrounded by a "sea"


of free electrons.

87

SA T Chemistry

PARTe
DIRECTIONS: For each question
In
se Iec t the
. best answer
the
.
'. this section,
.
from
among
the
given
choices
and
fill
in
the
corresponding
oval
on
answer sheet.

24. The element with atomic number 32 describes


(A) a metal
(D) a halogen

(B) a nonmetal

(E) a noble gas

(C) a metalloid

25. The Lewis dot structure of N 2 is best represented as


(A)

:N:N:
(D)

:N:::N:

(E)

N::: N

(B) :N::N

(C)

'N:: N

26. All of the follOwing are chemical changes EXCEPT

(A) dissOlving NaCI in Water


(B) burning a piece of wood
(e)

OZOneabsorbing ultraviolet light

(D) disSOlving Na metal in water


(E) rusling of iron
27. Which of the following has the smallest mass?
(A) a hydrogen nucleus
(B) an alpha panicle
(C)

88

a neUlron

(D) a helium nucleus


(E) a beta particle

Test 1

28. 585 g of NaCI in


(A) 1 liter of solution is 2 molar
(B) 2 liters of solution is 0.75 molar
(C) I liter of solution is I molal
(D) 2 kilograms of solvent is 0.5 molal
(E) 1 kilogram of solvent is I molar

29. The greatest reduction of kinetic energy of water molecules occurs


whenwater is
(A) cooled as a solid
(B) cooled as a liquid
(C) converted from a liquid to a gas

(D) converted from a gas to a liquid


(E) converted from a liquid to a solid
30. One formula unit of Cr(NH3),S04Br

represents

(A) 4 atoms

(D) 23 atoms

(B) 8 atoms

(E)

27 atoms

(C) 12 atoms

31. How many neutrons are there in the nucleus of an element of atomic
weight 197?
(A) 43

(D) 100

(B) 79

(E)

118

(C) 83

32

. The extremely high melting point of diamond (carbon) may

b exe

plamed by large numbers of


(A) covalent bonds

(D) Van der Waals forces

(B) ionic bonds

(E) polar bonds

(C) hydrogen bonds

89

SA T Chemistry

33. Which
.. of the followmg best represents the geome tr y a nd atomic radii

in a carbon dioxide molecule?


(A) 0-0-0

(B) 0-0-0

(C)

/,,-

(D)

o
/,,o

(E) 0-0--0

Answer questions 34-37 using the phase diagram below.


G

H
D

Pressure

Temperature

34. At which point can all three phases coexist at equilibrium?


(A) C
(D) G
(B) D

(E)

(C) E

35. At which point can only the solid phase exist?


(A) A
(D) E

(B) B

(E) F

(C) C
36.

Which

is the criticnl point?

(A) B
(D) G

(B) E
(E) H

(C) F
90

Test 1

37. At which point can only the solid and liquid phases coexist?
(D) A

(A) C

(E) B

(B) D

(C) E

38. Whichof the following is electrolytic?


(A) mercury in water

(B) a benzene solution of ethanol


(C) sucrose dissolved in water
(D) sodium chloride dissolved in water
(E) vinegar in water

39. The oxidation number of sulfur in NaHS04 is


(A) O.

(D) +4.

(B) +2.

(E) +6.

(C) -2.

40. A small crystal of NaCl is added to a sodium chloride solution resul~ing in the precipitation of more than I gram of sodium chloride. This
solution had been
(A)

unsaturated

(B) saturated

(D) dilute

(E) concentrated

(C) supersaturated
41, The salt produced by the reaction of perchloric acid with barium

hydroxide is
(A) BaCIa,

(D) Ba(CIO.),

(B) BaCia.

(E) BaCl2

(C) Ba(OH)2

91

SA T Chemistry

42. A reaction that occurs only when heat is added is best described as
(A) exothermic

(D) spontaneous

(B) endothermic

(E)

non-spontaneous

(C) an equilibrium process


43. The transition metals are characterized by
(A) highest energy electrons in s subshells
CB) highest energy electrons in p subshells
(C) highest energy electrons in d subshells
CD) highest energy electrons injsubshells
(E) stable electron configurations
44. Neutral atoms of F (fluorine) have the same number of electrons as
(A) B3~

(D) Na-

(B) N+

(E) Mg3+

(C) Ne-

45. An equilibrium reaction may be forced to completion by


(A) adding a catalyst
(8) increasing the pressure
(C) increasing the temperature

(D) remOVing the products from the reaction mixture as they are
formed
(E) decreasing the reactant concentration
46. An acid H3X is classified as
(A) monoprotic
(B) diprotic
(C) triprotic

92

(D) bidentate
(E) polar covalent

Test 1

47. Which of the following salts will result in a basic solution when
dissolvedin water?
(A) Ba(NO,),

(D) Pb,(P04)2

(B) Na,S

(E) NaCl

(e)

Al,(S04h

48. TheHaber process is used for producing ammonia from nitrogen and
hydrogen. This reaction could be forced to produce more ammonia
by

(A) increasing the reaction pressure


(B) decreasing the reaction pressure
(C) adding a catalyst

(D) adding a salt


(E) adding water
49. Theionization energy of an element is
(A) a measure of its mass
(B) the energy required to remove an electron from the element in
its gaseous state
(C) the energy released by the element in forming an ionic bond

(D) the energy released by the element upon receiving an additional


electron
(E) the amount of ions in a molecule

so.

The.radioactive decay of plutonium ~238 ( 2~Pu)produces an alpha


particleand a new atom. That new atom is
(A)

234pU

(D) 242pU
96

(B)

234U

(E)

92

92

242Cm

96

(C) 234Cm
92

93

SA T Chemistry

5].

What is the approximate melting point of 0.2 liters of water containing 6.20 g of ethylene glycol (C,H,O,)?
(A) -186"C
(D) 0.93"C
(B) -D.93 -c
(E) 1.86"C

(C)

52.

a -c

What is the empirical formula of a compound composed of 25.9%


nitrogen and 74.]% oxygen?
(A) NO
(B) NO,
(C) N,O

(D) N,04
(E) N,O,

53. weighs
The molecular weight of a gas is 16. At STP, 4.48 liters of this gas
(A)

2.3 g

(B) 2.7 g

(C) 3.2 g

(D) 4.1g
(E) 4.9 g

54. tralize
How many
milliliters of 5 M NaOH are required to completely neu2 liters of 3 M Hel?
(A)

600 mL

(B)

900 ml,

(C) 1,200 mL

(D)

1,500 mL

(E)

1,800 mL

55. SOlution?
How many moles of SUlfateion are in 200 mL of a 2 M sodium sulfate
(A)

0.2 mole

(B) 0.4 mole


(C) 0.6 mole

94

(D) 0.8 mole


(E) 1.0 mole

Test 1

56. How many moles of electrons are required to reduce 103.6 g of lead
fromPb2+ to the metal?
(A) 0.5 mole

(D) 4 moles

(B) I mole

(E) 8 moles

(C) 2 moles
57. How many grams of copper will be deposited from a solution of
CUS04 by a current of 3 amperes in 2 hours?
(A) 5 g

(D) 11 g

(B) 7 g

(E) 15g

(C) 8 g

58. The standard electrode in electrochemistry is composed of


magnesium

(A)

gold

(D)

(B)

platinum

(E) hydrogen

(C) copper

59. Zn ~ Zn2+ + 2e- ; Eg~:;;:+0.76 V


Cr3+ + 3e- ~ Cr ; E~d:;;:~0.74 V
The anode in this cell is
Cr3+

(A)

Zn

(D)

(B)

Cr

(E) 3e-

(C) Z02+

60 A
.

.?

n sp configuration is represented by which onentatIon.

(A) tetrahedral

(D) trigonal planar

(B) planar

(E) square

(C) linear

95

SAT Chemistry

3 2

61. A sp d configuration is represented by which orientation?


(A) tetrahedral

(D) trigona! hipyramidal

trigonal planar
(C) linear

(E) square planar

(B)

62. The balanced molar relationship of the dissociation


hydrogen and oxygen is
(A)

I : I:!

(B)

2: 1: I

(C)

I :2: I

(D)

of water into

2:1:2

(E) 2:2:1

63. What volume of water is required to produce 5 liters of oxygen by the

process below?
H,O(g)

--?

(A)

3 liters

(8)

5 liters

H,(g)

+ O,(g)

(C) 10 liters
64.

(D)

14 liters

(E)

16 liters

What is the molecular weight of HCJ0 ?


4

(A) 52.5 g/mol


(B)

(D)

100.5 g/rnol

(E)

116.5 g/mo!

73.5 g/mo]

(C) 96.5 g/mol

65. The structure of the third member of the alkyne series is


(A) H-C"C_H
(B) H-C"C-CH,
(C) H-C" C-CH,-CH,
(D) H-C" C- C" C_ H
(E) H-C"C-CH~CH2

96

Test 1

66. The systematic (lUPAC) name of this structure is

OH

H-C-C-C-C-C-C-H

(A) hexanol

(D) l-hexanol

(B) 3-hydroxyhexane

(E) isohexanol

(C) 3-hexanol
67. Which of the elements in Group IA of the periodic table has the

greatest metallic character?


(A) Li

(D) Rh

(B) Na

(E) Fr

(C) K

68. The oxidation state of nitrogen in nitric acid (HN03) is


(A) +1

(D) +4

(B) +2

(E) +5

(C) +3
69. What volume does a sample of 1.50 x 1023 atoms of helium at STP

represent?
(A) 5.6 liters

(D) 22.4 liters

(B) 11.2 liters

(E)

1.5 liters

(C) 17.8liters

97