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137

Maintenance Section
Top End and Overhaul

G3500 Gas Engine Top End and Overhaul Intervals for Dry Natural Gas
[LHV 33.72 kJ/L (905 Btufft 3)]
--Estimated Output--

Engine

Engine

Model

kW

G3516

--Top End Intervals--

--Overhaul Intervals-mJ ..
(It')""

Megawatt

25,000

6.5
(228.7)

20,000

6,800
6,700
6,300
. 5;600
4,600
3,600

29,100
33,200
37,300
41,400
45,500
54,000

"

20,400
19,900
18,700
16,600
13,700
10,800

1.6
(55.5)

5,000

25,000

4.7
(167.1)

15,000

"

5,100
5,000
4,700
4,200
3,400
2,700
3,300

29,100
33,200
37,300
41,400
45,000
54,000
25,000

"

15,300
14,900
14,000
12,400
10,200
8,100
10,000

Clock

mJn

Megawatt

Clock

hp

Gen
kW

Hours

(It')""

Hours

Hours

860

1150

8oo

8,300

2.2
(75.9)

6,600

750
650
540
430
320
220

1010
860
720
580
430
290

700
600
500
400.
300
200

9,700
11,100
12,500
13,900 .
15,300
18,000

"

G3512

650

860

600"

8,300

G3508

560
480
400
320
240
160
430

760
650
540
430
320
220
575

525
450
375
300
225
150
400"

9,700
11,100
12,500
13,900
15,300
18,000
8,300

. '---./

375
325
270
215
160
110

505
430
360
290
215
145

350
300
250
200
150
100

9,700
11,100
12,500
13,900
15,300
18,000

"

1.1
(37.9)

"

3.25

Hours

(11~.3)

3,400
3,350
3,150
2,800
2,300
1,800

29,100
33,200
37,300
41,400
45,500
54,000

10,200
9,950
9,350
8,300
6,850
5,400

"Highest generator set rating as of 1/87.


Cubic meters (m3) and cubic feet (fP) are stated in millions.

Calculating Top End and Overhaul Intervals


Using Fuel Consumption
! The "cubic meters (cubic teet)" value is the most
"...... important criteria lor determining when a Top End or
Overhaul should be performed because it compensates
lor application and engine loads. Use the following
formula to estimate the Top End or Overhaul clock hour
interval if records have not been kept on the total cubic
meters (cubic teet) of fuel consumed. Also, use it lor
estimating intervals for new engines.

Overhaul interval (hours) = "cubic meters (cubic


feet)" (from the chart)+ cubic meters/hour (cubic
ftjhour) (").
Use actual fuel records if available. If the actual cubic
meters (cubic feet) per hour is not available, use the
following steps to estimate the fuel consumption rate.
Estimate the percent load of the rated engine or
..(-""'>generator set output.
.._)

Refer to the specification sheet to determine the


cubic meters/hour (cubic fljhour) for the estimated
percent load. Use this value in the overhaul interval
formula.
NOTE: For engines operat'1ng at less than 50% load,
use the 50% load fuel consumption rate to determine
the top end or overhaul hour interval.

138
Maintenance Section
Top End and Overhaul

Adjusting Chart tor Fuels With Different Low


Heat Value (LHV)

Top End Determined by Measure of Exhaust


Valve Wear

The interval and fuel consumption (cubic meter [cubic


feet]) listed on the chart applies only for ~ngines
operating on preferred fuels as def1ned 1n the Gas.
Specification Section of this manual. The consumpt1on
volume listed was established tor dry natural gas w1th a
low heat value of 33.72 kJ/L (905 Btujcu It).

Monitoring exhaust valve wear by measuring valve


stem projection and crankcase blowby can help
determine when a Top End Overhaul is required.

It your engine is operating on another preferred fuel


with a different low heat value (LHV), the total volume
of fuel consumed must be adjusted tor both the Top
End and Overhaul using the following procedure:

Select the tuel consumption value (cubic meters


[cubic teet]) from the Top End or Overhaul columns of
the chart.
Example: G3516 TA overhaul occurs at a fuel
consumption of 64.7 million cubic meters (228.7
million cubic feet).
Calculate the adjustment factor by dividing 33.72 kJ/L
(905 Btujcu It) by the low heat value of the gas being
used.
Example: 905 Btujcu ft + 750 Btujcu ft = 1.2.
Adjust the fuel consumption value (cubic meters
[cubic teet]) by multiplying it by the adjustment factor.
Example: 228.7 million cubic feet x 1.2 = 274.44
million cubic feet.
Use this adjusted fuel consumption for your overhaul
interval formula.

If your engine is operating on a fuel other than a


preferred tuel, contact your Caterpillar dealer for
assistance. He can help determine the effect of the fuel
on engine lite.

Base line exhaust valve projection measurements


should have been recorded at initial start-up of the
engine. The valve take-up should then have been
monitored and recorded at the Every Two Months or
1500 Hours interval to keep a record of the valve wear
over time.
The measurement of each valve stem projection and
recording the adjustment will help to determine when
the cylinder heads need Top End overhaul
maintenance.
The Top End cylinder head maintenance should have
been scheduled when the valve adjustment take-up
total was 1.78 mm (.070 inch). The Top End
maintenance work should be completed before
allowing the total measurement to reach 2.9 mm (0.090
inch).
Refer to the Exhaust Valve Data Sheet in this manual
tor the form to record valve stem wear, crankcase
. blowby and cylinder pressure.
Refer to the Service Manual or your Caterpillar dealer
for more information on this procedure.

139
Maintenance Section
Top End Overhaul

.Top End Overhaul


You must read and understand the warnings
and instructions contained in the Safety section
of this manual, before performing any operation
or maintenance procedures.

Overhaul Programs

Overhaul Recommendation
To minimize downtime and provide you with the lowest
cost and highest value, Calerpillar recommends that
the engine be scheduled for an overhaul with your
Caterpillar dealer.

Your Caterpillar dealer may be offering a variety of


options regarding overhaul programs and Caterpillar
recommends that an Overhaul be performed at this
maintenance interval.

NOTE: Overhaul programs vary from dealer to dealer.


Therefore, Caterpillar recommends that you confer with
your dealer to obtain specific information regarding the
types of programs offered and overhaul services
provided for extending the life of your engine.

Overhaul Before Failure

Top End Overhaul Instructions

(_) planned overhaul may be your best value, because


you can:
Avoid costly unplanned downtime
Reuse as many original parts as standards permit
Extend your engine's service life without the risk of a
major catastrophe had you continued to operate to
failure
Get the best costfvalue relationship per hour of
extended life

-flat Rate Overhaul


To further control your overhaul costs, Caterpillar
recommends that you contact your dealer ior
information regarding the availability of a Flat Rate
Overhaul.
Flat rate prices on preventive maintenance programs or
major repair options are available from many dealers
lor all Caterpillar engine models.

G
Overhaul Options
Caterpillar Dealer - Contact your Caterpillar dealer to
schedule a Before Failure Overhaul.
Overhaul Kit - This useful kit was developed for those
users that prefer to perform their own overhaul. This kit
includes a combination of new, reused and
remanufactured parts. Also included is a step-by-step
instruction regarding how to perform an overhaul. An
Overhaul Kit simplifies parts ordering, helps speed
repairs and reduces parts cosls.
Contact your local Caterpillar dealer for information
regarding the Overhaul Kit.

If you elect.to perform a top end overhaul yourself,


without having Caterpillar dealer perform the overhaul
for you, or without using an overhaul kit, then you
should perform the following maintenance.

140
Maintenance Section
Top End Overhaul

(
Cylinder Head Assembly
Rebuild or Exchange

Maintenance Options
New Parts - Genuine Caterpillar parts are constantly
tested and modified to incorporate the latest design
advances. Your Caterpillar dealer can provide the parts
needed for rebuilding the components. Your benefit:
Long-lasting replacement parts at competitive prices.
Repair Kits - These useful kits can be obtained from
your Caterpillar dealer. These kits include all the
necessary parts and instructions to repair the
components, in either the owner's maintenance shop
or at a Caterpillar servicing dealer's facility. Repair kits
simplify parts ordering, help speed repairs and reduce
parts cost.

The Cylinder Head Assembly should be inspected


according to the instructions found in Caterpillar
reusability publications. Refer to the Index Of
Publications On Reusability Or Salvage Of Used Parts
section of the Guideline For Reusable Parts and
Salvage Operations, SEBF8029, to determine the
reusability publications needed for inspecting your
parts.
The Guideline For Reusable Parts and Salvage
Operations is part of an established Caterpillar parts
reusability program. These guidelines were developed
to assist Caterpillar dealers and customers reduce
costs by avoiding unnecessary expenditures for new
parts when existing parts can be used as is, repaired
or salvaged.
, Failure to salvage, repair or replace out-of-spec parts
'---'will result in unscheduled downtime and could result in
costly repairs caused by potential damage to other
engine parts.

Remanufactured - This process uses manufacturing


techniques and procedures to restore the components
to like-new performance capability. This process
always involves an end product which conforms to the
manufacturer's "original" functional specifications.
Remanufactured parts may not be available in your
area. Contact your Caterpillar dealer for information.
New Components - Replace worn or failing
components with new components.
Before deciding which method is best, make sure all of
the options and costs associated_ with repair have been
considered. Some considerations 'are:
The costs associated with using separate parts from
inventory versus the cost of a repair kit.
Downtime costs while the product is being rebuilt or
repaired.
Total parts and labor costs for repairs versus the
actual Remanufactured cost.
Remanufactured components from Caterpillar (if
available) are covered by a standard, factory
warranty.

Flame Arrestors

Caterpillar Recommendation

Caterpillar recommends that while performing this


maintenance procedure, the flame arrestors be
removed and cleaned. They are subject to plugging
during normal operation, which can cause a loss of
engine andjor cylinder-to-cylinder power, and variations
in exhaust temperatures.

To minimize downtime, Caterpillar recommends that


the use of Remanufactured components (subject to
availability) is the most cost effective option ..

A solvent cleaning is recommended for best results.


After cleaning, inspect the arrestors for cracked andjor
missing fins and replace if necessary.

Removal and Installation


Refer to the established procedure in the Service
Manual for this engine to remove and install these
components or contact your Caterpillar dealer for
assistance.

()I
I

141
Maintenance Section
Top End Overhaul

Cooling System
Performing maintenance on the cooling system is
important because the cooling system has a direct
effect on the operation and service life of the engine.
Improper maintenance can result in a variety of
problems that could shorten the engine's service life,
reduce the efficiency of the cooling system, result in
poor engine performance, and in some cases, result in
an increase in fuel consumption.

NOTICE
Caterpillar does not recommend the use of cooling
system solutions that are intended to stop leaks. Use
( l these products may result in excessive internal
'-deposits that could reduce the engine's heat transfer
characteristics as well as damage to the water pump
seals.

Add Cooling System Cleaner


Approximately 250 Hours prior to draining the cooling
system,-add 5 liter (5 U.S. quart) of Caterpillar Cooling
stem Cleaner (6V4511) for every 60 liter (16 U.S.
)ion) of cooling system capacity. Continue to operate
The engine for 250 hours before draining and/or
performing maintenance of the cooling system.

Replace Cooling System Lines


Cooling system lines (piping and hose) replacement
prior to failure is a recommended preventive
. n:)aintenance practice. Inspect all system components
( )r leaks due to cracking, softness next to clamps and
loose clamps. Replace any component that is cracked
or soft and tighten loose clamps.
Replacing the items (and associated clamps and
hardware) before failure reduces the chances for
unscheduled downtime. By replacing a system
component that is cracked, soft or leaking, major
repairs can be avoided that could result in severe
engine overheating problems.
Before Replacing Lines
Drain the coolant from the cooling system (or drain
coolant to a level below the lines that are replaced if
replacing system lines ONLY). Remove clamps,
disconnect the old components and.replace with new.
--,--'~tall clamps. See the Torque Specifications section
(
! the appropriate torque values. Refer to Clean/Flush
\.._<>6olant topic in this publication.

After Replacing Lines


NOTE: Perform Cooling System Clean{Fiush procedure
unless replacing cooling system lines ONLY.
If performing top end overhaul interval, continue to
Cooling System Clean/Flush procedure.
If replacing cooling system lines prior to the top end
overhaul interval, perform following steps.

1. Add coolant to the cooling system to bring it to the


proper level by mixing a solution of acceptable water,
Caterpillar Antifreeze (and coolant additive if not using
Caterpillar Antifreeze). Install the filler cap. Refer to the
Cooling System Specifications section in this
publication for information about the appropriate
maintenance of the cooling system or contact your
Caterpillar dealer for assistance.
2. Start the engine, inspect for leaks and check water
temperature gauge for proper operating temperature.
3. After water temperature gauge has stabilized, stop
the engine and check coolant level to ensure it is at the
proper level.

Clean/Flush Coola.nt
NOTICE.
Do not perform this maintenance until you read and
understand the material in the Safety and Cooling
System Specifications sections of this publication.
This procedure is to be used for normal maintenance
of cooling systems to return to "like new" condition.
For heavy build-up of scale. and deposits, a severe
acid-type, commercial cleaner or mechanical cleaning
will be required.

With the engine shut down and cool, use the following
procedure:

1. Disable the starting system and place a DO NOT


OPERATE tag on the start valve or start switch.
2. Shut off separate Circuit inlet water flow. Slowly turn
the cooloing system pressure cap to the first stop to
release the system pressure. Then push down and turn
the cap until it is released.

142

' '

Maintenance Section
Top End Overhaul

(
Drain
When you drain, clean, flush and replace the coolant,
small particles, undesirable chemicals, scale and other
deposit formations are removed. These deposits
reduce the necessary heat transfer characteristics of
the cooling system.

Separate Circuit Water Pump Drain

NOTE: Check the water pump seal. If coolant is


leaking, make repairs to the pump(s).

3. Remove the drain plug or open the drain valve from


cooling water system andjor bottom of jacket water
pump housing. Remove the drain plugs to drain the
tank, the pump(s), the aftercooler, thermostatic valve,
engine cylinder block drain plug(s) and all lines. Allow
coolant to drain.

Dispose of used engine coolant or recycle. Various


methods have been proposed to reclaim used coolant
for reuse in engine cooling systems. Filtering methods
for reclaiming the used engine coolant do not reduce
the level of chemicals in the water. The full distillation.
procedure is the only method acceptable by Caterpillar
to reclaim the used coolant. Refer to your Caterpillar
.dealer for information regarding disposa:J and recycling
of used coolant.
4. Clean and install all drain pl~gs andjor close the
cooling system drain valve(s).

Flush
5. Refill the cooling system with clean water mixed
with the proper concentration of Caterpillar Cooling
System Cleaner. Install cooling system filler cap.
NOTE: The system requires 5 liter (5 U.S. quart) of
Caterpillar Cooling System Cleaner for every 60 liter (16
U.S. gallon) of cooling system capacity for proper
cooling system cleaning.

Lett Side View-Cylinder Block Drain Plug


If the outside temperature is expected to go below
freezing, drain the water line between the heat
exchanger and the separate circuit water pump to
empty the aftercooler housing.

6. Start and allow the engine to run to circulate fluid in


the cooling system for 90 minutes.
7. Stop the engine and allow to cool. Remove cooling
system filler cap and system drain plugs.
8. Drain the cleaning solution. Flush the cooling
system with clean water until draining water is clear.
Clean and install all drain plugs andjor close the drain
valve.
NOTE: Repeat Steps 5 thru 8 if necessary until the
draining water is clear.

143
Maintenance Section

Top End Overhaul

~ce

Thermostats, Gaskets and Seal

:'17.;#dng your thermostats prior to failure is a


J<nmended preventive maintenance practice
, / ;1 ,:mse it reduces the chances for unscheduled
,,_'"''time. Failure to replace thermostats on a regularly
. 11 ,,,Juled basis could cause severe engine damage to
, 11 , '"~J system and other engine components andjor
, .' /<:H.sed operating and repair cost.

";1 /

,, '"' Caterpillar engines incorporate a shunt design


, 11 ,l,ng system, it is mandatory to always operate the
,,,,~Jif'" with thermostats. If thermostats are not
"''"'lied, there is no mechanical control and the
,
f ,, ,J:.nt mixture will take the path of least resistance
\._,'i<r'''Jgh bypass). This will cause the engine to
,, 1,,rtJeat in hot weather and in cold weather, the
"'<(line will not reach proper operating temperature.

l!idll
Jacket Water Thermostats

11 lli<:rmostats fail in the closed position, it will cause


.,1 , ;<:ssive engine overheating. Excessive overheating

, ,, ,, 1ld result in cylinder head cracking or piston seizure


,tJiems. Excessive oil overheating could result in
dl1lnage to the engine by accelerating piston ring and
1;yrinder liner wear.

I'''

Jlinrmostats fail in the open position, it will cause the


oil and operating temperature to be too low
dJHiflg partialload operation. Low engine oil and
"''"rating temperatures during partial loads could
'"' 11
reduced efficiency and accelerated ring and liner

-~1 1 uine

,,;c

wuar.
1 ", 1,nnding on load, thermostats that fail in a partially
, , "" JC:d
1

position will cause either an overheating or an


'"v'" cooling condition.

'

'-(,torpillar recommends the replacement of the


II~<JJIIIOStats on a regularly scheduled basis to be the
111 .. ni cost effective way to operate the engine.

ll01nove Thermostats
II< >lor to the Service Manual for disassembly and
,, 1,aunbly procedures to replace the thermostats as
1," Jllired in the Maintenance Schedule. Contact your
1 ,torpillar dealer for assistance.

t.

Stop the engine and allow to cool. Loosen the


,, lllnnt filler cap slowly to relieve any pressure and
1111111lVe

the

cap.

2. t lrain the coolant from the cooling system to a level


1,, ,,, w the thermostat housing if system has not been
"(''"""d for coolant flus~ procedure.

'~.

t.oosen clamps. Refove clamps, piping and/or


1":a:s from the therm?[tat housing inlets. Remove
t ,, It" and thermostat ~ous1ngs.

SCAC Thermostat

4. Remove the thermostats, gaskets and seals from


the housings.
5. The thermostats can be reused if they are tested
and meet the test specifications below and are not
damaged or have excessive buildup of deposits.
Thermostats should begin to open and be fully open as
indicated in the following chart.
The thermostats should begin opening (bench test in
atmospheric pressure) at approximately 87 to 89C
(188 to 190F). The thermostats should be fully open at
approximately 98C (208F).

Rated Thermostat

Beginning Opening,

Fully Open

oc

op

oc

op

oc

op

82

180

81 to 84

178 to 183

92

198

88
190
87 to 89 189 to 192
1 Bench test tn atmosphenc pressure.

98

208

144
Maintenance Section
Top End Overhaul

(
Install Thermostats
6. Replace thermostats, gaskets and seals. Make sure
that you have the correct thermostats for your jacket
water and afiercooling systems.

NOTICE
If the thermostats are installed incorrectly, it will cause
the engine to overheat.

7. Install the housings in position. Install tubes,


.. gaskets and new hoses.

U NOTE: Before proceeding with following steps, ensure


Cooling System Clean/Flush and Coolant Hose
replacement procedures are complete unless replacing
defective thermostats ONLY.

8. Be certain all drain plugs are clean and installed.


Add coolant solution to the cooling system to bring it to
the proper level by mixing a solution of acceptable
water, Caterpillar Antifreeze and coolant additive (if not
using Caterpillar Antifreeze). See Cooling System
Specifications and Refill Capacities for the capacity of
your engine's system.
9. Start and run the engine witli the cooling system
filler cap removed. Operate the engine and allow the
coolant to warm, the thermostats to open and the
coolant level to stabilize. Inspect for leaks and proper
operating temperature.

NOTICE
To prevent engine damage, never add coolant to an
overheated engine. Allow the engine to cool first.

Fill System with Coolant


NOTICE
All water is corrosive at engine operating temperature.
The cooling system should be protected with a 3 to 6
percent concentration of cooling system conditioner at
all times. Use Caterpillar liquid cooling system conditioner to treat the coolant mixture.

Refer to the Cooling System Specifications in this


publication for all information regarding acceptable
water, antifreeze and supplemental coolant additive
(Conditioner) requirements.

(__)

10 .Add coolant mixture if necessary to bring the


coolant to within 13 mm ('12 inch) below the bottom of
the fill tube or the correct level on the sight glass, if
equipped.
NOTE: Upon initial fill the sight gauge can indicate an
incorrect coolant level. Be sure the coolant is to the
bottom of the fill tube.

NOTE: When refilling the aftercooling system, open the


vent plug on the aftercooler, to allow the aftercooler to
fill. Failure to do this will cause an air lock and engine
damage. After the aftercooler is filled, close the vent
plug before operating the engine.

\
. .

145
Maintenance Section
Top End Overhaul

11. Recheck the coolant level and fill the cooling


system to the bottom of the fill tube if the system was
low.

Water Pumps (Jacket & SCAC)


Inspect for Proper Operation

NOTICE
In cold weather, frequently check the specific gravity
of the coolant solution to ensure adequate protection.
If the engine is to be operated, stored in, or shipped to
an area with freezing temperatures, the cooling
system must be either protected to the lowest expected outside temperature. Always check your cooling
system before operating ther engine.
i

v
12. Check the condition of the filler cap gasket. If the
gasket is damaged, discard the old filler cap and install
a new filler cap. If the gasket is not damaged, use a
9S8140 Service Tool to pressure test the filler cap. This
tool is available from your Caterpillar dealer.

Jacket Water Pump

The correct filler cap pressure is stamped on the face


of the filler cap. If the filler cap does not hold the
correct pressure, install a new filler cap.
; Stop the engine and check the coolant to ensure
it is at the proper level.

SCAC Water Pump


Inspect for wear, cracks, pin holes and proper
operation. If repairs or replacement is needed, see the
Service Manual or contact your Caterpillar dealer.
If the engine is operated until the component fails, it
could cause additional damage to the engine. A failed
water pump might cause severe engine overheating
problems that could result in cracks in the cylinder
head, a piston seizure or other potential damage to the
engine.
Caterpillar recommends that the most cost effective
method of operation for components is to inspect the
unit before it fails.

146
Maintenance Section
Top End Overhaul

(
Maintenance Options
New Parts - Genuine Caterpillar parts are constantly
tested and modified to incorporate the latest design
advances. Your Caterpillar dealer can provide the parts
needed for rebuilding the components. Your benefit,
long-lasting replacement parts at competitive prices.
Repair Kits - These useful kits can be obtained from
your Caterpillar dealer. These kits include all the
necessary parts and instructions to repair the
components, in either the owner's maintenance shop
or at a Caterpillar servicing dealer's facility. Repair kits
simplify parts ordering, help speed repairs and reduce
parts cost.

Remanufactured - This process uses manufacturing


techniques and procedures to restore the components
to like-new performance capability. This process
always involves an end product which conforms to the
manufacturer's "original" functional specifications.
Remanufactured parts may not be available in your
area. Contact your Caterpillar dealer for information.

Oil Cooler and


Aftercooler Core
Clean/Test
Caterpillar recommends that the water-to-air or air-to-air
aftercooler core (if equipped) and the oil cooler core be
cleaned and pressure tested at each overhaul. For
additional specifications and/or pressure test
information, contact your local Caterpillar dealer.
Cleaning Procedure for Cooler Cores (Oil
Cooler and Aftercooler)
Caterpillar recommends that the cooler cores be
removed, cleaned, and tested at overhaul or if a
turbocharger failure has occurred, or if at any time the
turbocharger develops an oil leak.
To clean the aftercooler or oil cooler system:

1. Remove the cooler cores. Turn the core upside


down to remove debris from the inlet side.

New Components - Replace worn or failing


components with new components.
Before deciding which method (rebuild or exchange) is
best, make sure all of the options and costs associated
with repair have been considered. Some considerations
are:
The costs associated with using separate parts from
inventory versus the cost of a repair kit.
Downtime costs while the product is being rebuilt or
repaired.
1 Total parts and labor costs for repairs versus the
\......; actual Remanufactured cost.
Remanufactured components from Caterpillar (if
available) are covered by a standard, factory
warranty.
Caterpillar Recommendation
To minimize downtime, Caterpillar recommends that
the use of Remanufactured components (subject to
availability) is the most cost effective option.

Removal and Installation


Refer to the established procedure in the Service
Manual for this engine to remove and install these
components or contact your Caterpillar dealer for
assistance.

NOTICE
Do not use caustic cleaners to clean the air-to-air
aftercooler core. Caustic cleaners will attack the internal metals of the core and cause leakage.

2. Back flush internally with a solvent to loosen foreign


substances and to remove oil, dirt and debris.

147
Maintenance Section
Top End Overhaul

Caterpillar recommends the use of Caterpillar


Hydrosolv 4165 or Hydrosolv 100 Liquid Cleaners.

Description

Size

8T7570

Part No.

Hydrosolv 4165

208L (55 U.S. Gal.l Drum

8T7571

Hydrosolv 100

208L (55 U.S. Gal. I Drum

For more information refer to General Instructions and


Application Guide, LEHQ61 01 or contact your
Caterpillar dealer.

Ignition Transformers
The ignition transformer causes an increase of the
magneto voltage. For good operation, the connections
(terminals) must be clean and tight. The negative
transformer terminals, with (-) mark, for each
transformer are connected together and to ground.

Test Resistance

3. Shake the core vigorously to eliminate any trapped


'iebris.

u4. Wash the core with hot, soapy water. Rinse


thoroughly with clean water.

5. Dry the core with compressed air. Blow air in


reverse direction of normal flow. Use all necessary
_ safety equipment while using compressed air.
6. Inspect the system to ensure cleanliness and install
the core.
Check the ignition transformers for loose connection,
moisture, short or open circuits. Check the low and
high tension wiring resistance using the procedures
established in the Service Manual, or contact your
Caterpillar dealer.
Altronic Solid State Magneto
Check the resistance of the ignition transformer
primary coil between (-) negative and (+) positive
post. The value should be 0.15 0.05 ohms.
Check the resistance of the ignition transformer
secondary coil between (-) negative post and spark
plug wire connection. The value of the high current
(tension) should be 6,500 1,500 ohms.
Refer to the Service Manual for your engine to obtain
additional information on the ignition system.

148
Maintenance Section
Top End Overhaul

(
Carburetor, Gas Pressure Regulator

Maintenance Options

Inspect/Replace

New Parts - Genuine Caterpillar parts are constantly


tested and modified to incorporate the latest design
advances. Your Caterpillar dealer can provide the parts
needed for rebuilding the components. Your benefit:
Long-lasting replacement parts at competitive prices.
Repair Kits - These useful kits can be obtained from
your Caterpillar dealer. These kits include all the
necessary parts and instructions to repair the
components, in either the owner's maintenance shop
or at a Caterpillar servicing dealer's facility. Repair kits
simplify parts ordering, help speed repairs and reduce
parts cost.

Carburetor
Check the operation of the carburetor. Make sure the
throttle plate does not bind. Inspect the diaphragm for
wear, cracks, and pin holes.
Clieck the throttle shaft bearings. Check and inspect
all linkage bearings, replace if necessary. Replace the
bearings in the linkage between the carburetor and
governor.
Your engine may be equipped with an actuator which
will have additional maintenance points.
After replacing bearings, follow the adjustment
procedures established in Engine Adjustments-Initial
On-Site or refer to the Service Manual to ensure your
engine is set up properly. If further assistance is
required, contact your Caterpillar dealer.

\.._.)

Remanufactured - This process uses manufacturing


techniques and procedures to restore the components
to like-new performance capability. This process
always involves an end product which conforms to the
manufacturer's "original" functional specifications.
Remanufactured parts may not be available in your
area. Contact your Caterpillar dealer for information.
New Components - Replace worn or failing
components with new components.
Before deciding which method is best, make sure all of
the options and costs associated, with repair have been
considered. Some considerations are:
The costs associated with using separate parts from
inventory versus the cost of a repair kit.
Downtime costs while the product is being rebuilt or
repaired.
Total parts and labor costs for repairs versus the
actual Remanufactured cost.
Remanufactured components from Caterpillar (if
available) are covered by a standard, factory
warranty.

Caterpillar Recommendation
To minimize downtime, Caterpillar recommends that
the use of Remanufactured components (subject to
availability) is the most cost effective option.

Removal and Installation

Gas Regulator

Inspect for wear, cracks, pin holes and proper


operation. If repairs or replacement is needed, see the
Service Manual or contact your Caterpillar dealer.

Refer to the established procedure in the Service


Manual for this engine to remove and install these
components or contact your Caterpillar dealer for
assistance.

149
Maintenance Section
Top End Overhaul

Prelube Pump
Inspect for Proper Operation

Turbochargers
NOTICE
Turbocharger bearing failures can cause large quantities of oil to enter the air intake and exhaust systems.
Loss of engine lubricant can result in serious engine
damage.
Minor leakage of a turbocharger housing under extended low idle operation will not cause problems as
long as no turbocharger bearing failure occurred.
When a turbocharger bearing failure is accompanied
by a significant engine performance loss (exhaust
smoke or engine speed up at no load), DO NOT continue engine operation until the turbocharger is repaired or replaced.

Inspect the brushes, replace if necessary. Inspect


hoses and fittings for leaks and electrical connections
for damaged or frayed wires.

Inspect/Rebuild or Exchange

Refer to the Service Manual for the correct procedure


to replace the brushes.

Damage to the turbocharger compressor wheel could


cause parts from the compressor wheel to enter the
engine cylinder and cause additional damage to the
piston, valve and cylinder head. The excessive cost of
additional engine damage could have been prevented.
Turbocharger components require precision clearances
and balancing due to operation at high rotational
speeds. Severe service applications can accelerate
component wear and may suggest the need to
lnspect;Repair/Replace the cartridge at reduced
intervals to ensure maximum reliability and retention of
full core value.

...
150
Maintenance Section
Top End Overhaul

(
The following conditions can indicate severe service
operation.
High altitude operation above 1525 m (5,000 ft).
Arctic operation (regular cold starts at temperatures
below O'C [32'F]).
Extending lube and air system maintenance intervals.
Frequent hot shutdowns .(minimum cool down periods
after high load !actor operation).

Caterpillar Recommendation
To minimize downtime, Caterpillar recommends that
the use of Remanufactured components (subject to
availability) is the most cost effective option.
NOTE: There are two levels of pricing for
Remanufactured turbochargers. The first level is
primarily based on damage to the turbocharger before
failure. The second level is primarily based on damage
to the turbocharger after failure.

Maintenance Options
New Parts - Genuine Caterpillar parts are constantly
tested and modified to incorporate the latest design
. '\dvances. Your Caterpillar dealer can provide the parts
L1eded tor rebuilding the components. Your benefit:
Long-lasting replacement parts at competitive prices.
Repair Kits - These useful kits can be obtained from
your Caterpillar dealer. These kits include all the
necessary parts and instructions to repair the
components, in either the owner's maintenance shop
or at a Caterpillar servicing dealer's facility. Repair kits
simplify parts ordering, help speed repairs and reduce
parts cost.

Removal and Installation


Refer to the established procedure in the Service
Manual for this engine to remove and install these .
components or contact your Caterpillar dealer for
assistance.

( -~

Remanufactured - This process uses manufacturing


techniques and procedures to restore the components
to like-new performance capability. This process
always involves an end product which conforms to the
manufacturer's "original" functional specifications.
Remanufactured parts may not be available in your
area. Contact your Caterpillar dealer for information.
New Components - Replace worn or failing
components
/
-.,
.with new components.

~elore deciding which method is best, make sure all of


the options and costs associated with repair have been
considered. Some considerations are:
The costs associated with using separate parts from
inventory versus the cost of a repair kit.
Downtime costs while the product is being rebuilt or
repaired.
Total parts and labor costs for repairs versus the
actual Remanufactured cost.
Remanufactured components from Caterpillar (if
available) are covered by a standard, factory
warranty.

(.

'-\

151
Maintenance Section
Top End Overhaul

Exhaust Bypass Valve


Inspect/Clean

1. Inspect for proper operation.


2. Clean the breather.

3. Remove the breather element and wash in


nonflammable solvent.
4.. Install the breather.
-~,efer

to the Service Manual or contact your Caterpillar


dealer for assistance for removal and maintenance
options if the bypass valve is not operatinQ correctly.

152
Maintenance Section
Overhaul

Overhaul
Overhaul is defined as the interval at which the major
wear items in the engine should be replaced. The
overhaul interval represents overhaul of a non failed
engine. In other words, the engine is being rebuilt with
certain new parts replacing worn parts. The major wear
items include piston rings, engine rod and main
bearings, valves, and valve seats, etc.

(
Overhaul Instructions
If you elect to perform an overhaul yourself, without
having a Caterpillar dealer perform the overhaul for you,
or without using an overhaul kit, then you should be
aware of the following:
Rebuild or Exchange

Incidental to the changeout of these relatively few parts


is the complete inspection of all other parts that are
visible during the opening up of the engine. The
disassembly required to perform an overhaul means
that disturbed seals and gaskets, etc., will be replaced
and the internal passages of the engine and block be
uleaned.
The interval in the Top End and Overhaul chart gives
C'!terpillar's recommendation for doing an Overhaul.
Refer to the chart in the Top End and Overhaul
section in this publication.
The chart suggests intervals in hours and calendar
time for overhaul. These intervals are average values
and there will be engines that may require overhauling
at shorter intervals and many which could go longer.
The other interVal" is expressed in fuel consumption.
The best figure to use is total fuel consumed, even if
this figure is estimated. Fuel consumption more closely
follows the load upon the engine.
The hours (or calendar figure) will be too high if the
engine is run at high load and too low if the engine is
lightly loaded. Use the clock hour figure only as a
guideline. Other factors, such as how conscientiously
. preventive maintenance has been performed, fuel
(_)uality, operating conditions, SOS results, etc., are
1mportant in deciding when to perform an overhaul.
The real measure of when to overhaul an engine is
performance as measured by output, fuel consumption,
oil consumption, blowby and compression. When an
engine's oil consumption has risen to three times the
initial (new engine) consumption due to normal wear,
then the engine should be scheduled for overhaul. We
would expect to see a corresponding increase in
blowby figures and may also see slight increase in fuel
consumption.
Your Caterpillar dealer may be offering a variety of
options regarding overhaul programs and Caterpillar
recommends that an Overhaul be performed at the
maintenance intervals listed in the chart for your
engine.

Cylinder Head Assembly and Cylinder Packs.


These components should be inspected according to
the instructions found in various Caterpillar reusability
publications. Refer to the Index Of Publications On
Reusability Or Salvage Of Used Parts section of the
Guideline For Reusable Parts and Salvage Operations,
SEBF8029 to determine the reusability publications
needed for inspecting your parts.
These guidelines were developed to assist Caterpillar
dealers and customers avoid unnecessary
expenditures for new parts when existing parts can be
used as is, repaired or salvaged.
Install New

Crankshaft Bearings and Crankshaft Seals.


In most probability, your thrust,.main and rod bearings
and crankshaft seals will not last until your second
overhaul. Therefore, Caterpillar recommends the
installation of new thrust, main and rod bearings at
each overhaul period.
Inspect
Crankshaft, Camshaft, Camshaft Followers and
Bearings, Damper, Gear Train Gears and Bushings
and Driven Unit Alignment.
The ideal time for inspecting these items is while your
engine is disassembled for overhaul. Inspect each
component for potential damage as follows:
Crankshaft - Inspect for deflection, journal damage
and bearing material seized to the journal. At the
same time, check the taper and profile of the
crankshaft journals by interpreting your main and rod
bearing wear patterns.
Camshaft - Inspect the camshaft for joumal and/or
lobe damage.
NOTE: If camshafts or crankshafts are removed for
any reason, use the magnetic particle inspection
process to check the components for cracks.

(
-~,~

',___,..--

153
Maintenance Section
Overhaul

Camshaft Followers and Bearings - Inspect the cam


bearings for fatigue and wear.
Damper - It is our recommendation to replace the
damper for any of the reasons that follow.

Dealer Exchange Components - This is exchanging


worn engine components for quality Cat dealer rebuilt
components on an over-the-counter basis.

crankshaft.
2. The crankshaft front bearing is badly worn.
3. There is a large amount of gear train wear that is
not caused by a lack of oil.

Caterpillar Remanufactured Components Manufacturing techniques and processes are used to


restore components to "like-new" performance
capabilities, conform to original functional
specifications and are exchanged for your existing
parts.

If none of the above conditions is found, dampers can


be used again at. overhaul, providing the damper is not
damaged.

The following is a list of (R)Remanufactured'


components currently being offered by Caterpillar in
many countries:

1. The engine has had a failure because of a broken

Gear Train Gears and Bushings- Inspect for worn


.
gear teeth, unusual fits and unusual wear.
U
Driven Unit Alignment -Upon reassembly of the drive
line and driven unit, check alignment as outlined in
the:
LEBX6213-Building Services Application and
Installation Guide
LEBH9324-Agricultura/ and Material Handling
~pplication and Installation Guide
-.osEHS7654-Aiignment-General Instructions
NOTE: For additional information regarding these
items, contact your local Caterpillar dealer for
assistance.

After Failure Overhaul


( 1you experience a major engine failure which requires
'-removal of the engine, there are also many After
Failure Overhaul options available. An overhaul should
be performed if your block or crankshaft needs to be
repaired. If the block and/or crankshaft is repairable,
then the cost of an overhaul should be between 40 and
50% of the cost of a new engine (with like exchange
core).
This lower cost can be attributed to Caterpillar
"designed-in" features that include:
Regrindable crankshaft
Undersize bearings
Cat dealer and Caterpillar Remanufactured exchange
components

Cylinder head - bare


Cylinder head - assembly. and group
Connecting rods
Crankshaft - undersized
Crankshaft - upgrade to new
Complete turbocharger
Turbocharger cartridges
Water pumps
Oil pump
Oil cooler and aftercoo/er cores
Alternator
Starting motor
Governor and Carburetor
Gas Pressure Regulator
NOTE: If the component you need is not listed here,
contact your Caterpillar dealer to see if it is offered
under a dealer exchange component program.
Current Parts Manuals will asterisk a part number
when a (R)Remanufactured unit is offered by
Caterpillar.

Caterpillar Recommendation
To further control your overhaul costs, Caterpillar
recommends that you contact your dealer for
information regarding the availability of a Flat Rate After
Failure Overhaul.

154
Maintenance Section
Gas Engine Standby Generator Preventive Maintenance Recommendations

Gas Engine Standby Generator


Preventive Maintenance Recommendations
Introduction

General Recommendations

The objective of this topic is to assist users in


establishing a Preventive Maintenance Program for
Standby Gimerator Sets or as an aid in evaluating their
present programs.

Safety

The stop-manual-automatic switch on the cranking


panel must be set at STOP position when performing maintenance or repair work on a standby generator set. This prevents the unit from starting if a
power failure or voltage drop should occur while
working on the unit.

Establishing a Preventive Maintenance Program will


provide maximum availability of a standby generator
uset when needed, longer engine and generator life, and
a minimum of expensive repairs.

To prevent personal injury due to accidental starting of the engine, disconnect the batteries or disable the starting system before doing maintenance
or repair work.

These guidelines are to be used with the information


contained in the Operation and Maintenance sections
of this manual. The Operation and Maintenance
sections of the manual will provide the necessary
information on how to perform the checks and routine
m.aintenance. Additional information can be obtained
from the SR4 Generator and Engine Service Manuals,
or contact your Caterpillar dealer for assistance.

Lock out all switch gear and a!Jtomatic transfer


switches associated with the generator while performing any generator maintenance or repairs. ~
Make sure no shock hazard exists.
Failure to comply could result in personal injury or
death.

Always make repairs with the engine stopped and the


starting system disabled. When s.ervicing the
generator, make sure that switch gear and automatic
transfer switches will not present a shock hazard. Lock
them out on the generator being serviced.

Inspection and Maintenance Agreements


Record Keeping
Your Caterpillar dealer can establish an Inspection and
i preventive Maintenance Program for your generator set
"'-"'to provide maximum reliability, increased engine and
generator life, and minimize expensive repairs. Contact
your Caterpillar dealer for details.

A WARNING

Standby Generator Sets may not be needed very often,


but when they are, it is usually under emergency
conditions. Maintenance of these standby units is very
important. They must always be in excellent operating
condition, ready to work under load at any time.

The recommended weekly maintenance checks can be


performed by an operator. All yearly and three year
maintenance should be performed by an authorized
mechanic or your Caterpillar dealer.

!_,

Maintain a log or record keeping system to document


all gauge readings, problems, repairs, and
maintenance performed on the equipment.

Space Heaters
Moisture is a natural enemy of generators and all
electrical equipment. Every effort must be made to
keep the generator as dry as possible. Space heaters
should be operated inside the generator when it is not
in use to maintain lhe integrily of the generator
windings.