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SUMMER TRAINING
AT

BABRALA (U.P)
PROJECT REPORT ON
EVALUATION OF AMMONIA VAPOUR LOAD ON REFRIGRATION
COMPRESSOR K-451 AND MARGIN FOR OPEN ANTISURGE

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ROORKEE


ROORKEE, UTTARAKHAND, INDIA

Submitted by:
Joyal Dubey
( Department of Chemical Engineering )
Under the supervision of:
Mr. Maneesh Sankhyadhar
(Manager Ammonia Department)

CERTIFICATE
We hereby certify that the work which is being presented in the training project report entitled
EVALUATION OF AMMONIA VAPOUR LOAD ON REFRIGRATION COMPRESSOR
AND MARGIN FOR OPEN ANTISURGE by Joyal Dubey in partial fulfillment of
requirements for the award of degree of B. Tech. (Chemical Engineering) submitted at INDIAN
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ROORKEE, INDIA is carried out during a period from 3rd
June 2013 to 6th July 2013 under our supervision .

(Joyal Dubey)
This is to certify that the above statement made by the candidate is correct to the best of his knowledge.

Project Head: -

Mr. S.K.S. Chauhan


(Head of Department Ammonia Section)
Project Guide:-

Mr. Maneesh Sankhyadhar


(Manager Ammonia)

Mr. B Chaitanya Babu


(Deputy Manager Ammonia)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Words are inadequate and out of place at times particularly in the context of expressing sincere feelings in
the contribution of this work, is no more than a mere ritual. It is our privilege to acknowledge with respect
& gratitude, the keen valuable and ever-available guidance rendered to us by Name and Designation of
Training Guide/Mentor of industry without the wise counsel and able guidance, it would have been
impossible to complete the training in this manner.
I am always be highly grateful to Mr. S.K.S. Chauhan, (Head of Department), and Mr. Maneesh
Sankhyadhar, (MANAGER) for providing this opportunity to carry out the present work. I would like to
thank Mr. Chaitanya Babu for his appreciations that made me more enthusiastic in delivering my best
efforts for completion of the project We express gratitude to other faculty members of Chemical
Engineering Department, IITR for their intellectual support throughout the course of this work.
Finally, we are indebted to our family and for their ever available help in accomplishing this task
successfully.
Above all we are thankful to the almighty god for giving strength to carry out the present work.

Name of Candidate : Joyal Dubey

DECLARATION
I hereby declare that all the information mentioned in the project report is best to my knowledge;
I have not submitted the same report in any other organization. All the findings are based on my
own effort and research.

Joyal Dubey

CONTENTS
S.No.

Name

1.

Certificate

2.

Acknowledgement

3.

Introduction to Company

4.

5.

Fire & Safety

Fire Prevention
Classification of fire
Fire fighting gadgets & appliances

Safety programme at T.C.L.

Ammonia Plant (Process Description)

De sulphurisation Section

Steam Reforming Section

Shift Conversion Section

CO2 Removal Section

Methanation Section

Compression Section

Ammonia Synthesis and


Refrigeration Section

6.

Ammonia Recovery Section

Purge Gas Recovery Unit

Project Objective

Theory

7.

Design Data

Design calculations
Operating calculations

Calculations

8.

Results

9.

Proposed Scheme: Possible Queries

10.

References

11.

Experience

INTRODUCTION TO TATA CHEMICALS LIMITED


BABRALA
Tata Group, India's foremost business conglomerate. Tata Chemicals, by itself, is one of the
largest inorganic complexes in the world beginning to TATA Group. Its first plant, which is also
called inaugurated establishment of TATA. It is India's leading manufacturer and marketer of
inorganic chemicals and fertilizers, with a turnover of over Rs. 4000 crores and is part of the Rs
65,000-crore ($14.25 billion) TCL's products and production processes are benchmarked with
the best of global touchstones, and meet the most rigorous international specifications.,
Established in 1939. An ISO-9001/14001 OHSAS 18001 certified company, TCL has a varied
user industry base comprising glass, paper, textiles, food additives, petroleum, refining,
chemicals, dyes, pesticides, direct farm application etc. The products go into numerous end-use
applications in a variety of industries: glass, detergents, paper, textiles, agriculture, photography,
pharmaceuticals, food, tanning, rayon, pulp, paints, building and construction, and chemicals.

Tata Chemicals is also one of India's leading manufacturers of urea and phosphatic fertilizers.
With an export presence in South and Southeast Asia, the Middle East and Africa, it has set itself
the objective of achieving global cost competitiveness in soda-ash. Its foray into phosphatic
fertilizers follows the merger of Hind Lever Chemicals Limited into Tata Chemicals Limited.
TCL's phosphatic fertilizer complex at Haldia in West Bengal is currently the only manufacturing
unit for DAP/NPK complexes in West Bengal. The Haldia plant has production volumes
exceeding 1.2 million tons per annum. Tata Chemicals makes urea at its fertilizer complex in
Babrala. The complex has an installed capacity of 8, 64,000 tons per year, which constitutes
nearly 12 per cent of the total urea produced by India's private sector. Tata Chemicals is among
the world's largest producers of synthetic soda ash, with the largest domestic market share,
produced at the company's integrated complex at Mithapur on the Gujarat coast in western India.

The fertilizers, sold under the brand name 'Paras', lead the market in West Bengal, Bihar and
Jharkhand. TCL is also a pioneer and market leader in the branded, iodized salt segment. Its salt
has a purity percentage of 99.8 per cent, the highest in the country.

CREDENTIALS OF TATA CHEMICALS LIMITED


BABRALA

AWARDS:

Prestigious Industry Award, Govt. of UP., 1995.


National Energy Conservation Award, Ministry of Power, 1997.
National Energy Conservation Award, Ministry of Power, 1998.
Best Production Performance Award for Nitrogenous Fertilizers, Fertilizers Association
of India.
Second best productivity performance in Nitrogenous Fertilizers Industry, 1997-98.
Yogyata Praman Patra Award, 1998.
Jawaharlal Nehru memorial National Award for Pollution Control and Energy
Conservation, 2000-01.
Golden Peacock Environmental Management Award, World Environment Foundation,
2001-02.
Best Technical Innovation Award, Fertilizer Association of India, Dec.2004.
Excellence in Safety, Fertilizer Association of India, Dec.24.
Commendation Certificate for Strong Commitment to TQM, CII-Exim Bank Award for
Business Excellence, Nov.2004.
5 Star Rating in Safety, British Safety Council, UK, Safety Gold Awards, Greentech
Foundation, Delhi.
Indian Chemical Council (ICC) confers the ICC award for social responsibility 2005-06.
NSCI safety award for 2006.
ICC Aditya Birla Award for Best Responsible Care Committed Company and ICC Award
for Social Responsibility for 2005-06.
Fertilizers Association of India Award for the Best Technical Innovation 2007.
Nine ABCI (Association of Business Communicators of India) Awards, 2008.

TCL BABRALA: THE NATIONS CONCEIT

Substituting a part of the imports of Urea, TCL, Babrala is estimated to save the country
about Rs. 500 crores in foreign exchange every year and provide the farmer with
nitrogenous nutrient, which could help raise the food production by about 4 million
tones/year.
First major steps towards the fulfillment of a long standing TATA CHEMICALS
commitment to provide the farmer with an optimal package of agriculture inputs to safe
guard the food security of the company.
Produced more than 100% of the designated production during the first year of
commercial production.
Produced more than 8, 40,102.35 tons of Urea achieving a capacity of 113% in the
year1995-96, and produced 9, 51,764 tons of Nitrogenous Urea in year 1996-97.

Now produce capacity of 8, 64,000 tons of Urea per year, which constitutes nearly 12 per
cent of the total urea produced by India's private sector.
Total production of urea at Babrala is 3575 tons/day maximum and 3500 tons/day
average.
Current maximum capacity is 101%.
The Babrala facility, among the best of its kind in India and comparable to the best in the
world, has set new standards in technology, energy conservation, productivity and safety
It is the only fertilizer plant in the country to use dual feedstock: natural gas or naphtha,
or a combination of both.

MILESTONES OF TATA CHEMICALS LIMITED,


BABRALA

Commercial Production Started on

December 21, 1994

AMMONIA UNIT
First firing of Reformer Furnace for dry out of refractory

October 12, 1994

First feed into Primary Reformer

October 20, 1994

First Carbon Dioxide for making Urea

October 23, 1994

First Ammonia production

November 14, 1994

UREA UNIT
Urea Prill Test conducted

October 04, 1994

First Prill Test conducted through Unit 2

November 05, 1994

Second Prill Test conducted through Unit 2

December 09, 1994

ISO 14001 certificate obtained in October 2000.

ISO 14001 certificate for Babrala township obtained in 2004.

COMPOSITION OF TATA CHEMICALS LIMITED,


BABRALA

Ammonia Plant

Capacity: 2000MTPD
Technology: HALDOR TOPSE Process, DENMARK
Plant (Single Stream) Production: 2000 tons/day of liquid Ammonia.
After de-bottlenecking Plant at TCL, Babrala is the first low energy plant
in the country.

Basic scheme involves the following steps:

Desulphurization.
Primary, Secondary Reforming and fired heater
Carbon Dioxide Shift.
Methanation.
Synthesis and Chilling.
Storage and supply to Urea unit
2.Urea Plant

Capacity: 3500 MTPD


3.Offsite and Utilities
Technology: SNAMPROGETTI Process, ITALY
S. N. UNIT
CAPACITY
TECHNOLOGY
Carbon
Dioxide
requirements
fromMT
ammoniaM/S
plant.
1.
Ammonia
Storage
Tank supplied
2X5000
Kaveri Engineering

2.
Power
Plant
1X110section.
TPH
TwoCaptive
urea strings
have
a common Prilling

THERMAX/ L&T

3. Cooling Tower
24000 M3/hr
Maximum Urea production: 3574 tonnes per day

M/S Paharpur Cooling

Basic scheme involves the following steps:


Urea Synthesis
Waste Water Treatment section

Tower

4.

D. M. Water Plant

3X450 M3

TCL, Mithapur

5.

Gas Turbine Generator

2X20 MW

THOMASSON, Holland

6.

Heat Recovery Unit

2X90 TPH

L&T

7.

Naptha Bulk Storage

3X6300 KL

M/S Technofab Engg. Ltd.

Tank

SALIENT FEATURES OF TATA CHEMICALS LIMITED,


BABRALA
Location

Babrala, District Sambhal, Rajpura block, Gunnor


Tehsil, Uttar Pradesh. Approx. 160km. south-east
of Delhi.

Land Area

1519 acres
Plant area:1,069 acres
Township area:350 acres
Green belt: 100 acres

Fuel

Natural gas (main)


Naphtha (alternate)

Fuel Source

Natural gas supplied by GAIL (HBJ Pipeline)


Naphtha from IOCL, Mathura

Consumptive water
source

Eight deep bore wells.

Present installed
capacity

Ammonia:2000 MTPD
Urea: 3500 MTPD

Man power
Deployment
(During
Commissioning/
Erecting phase )

Total 7,855,128 man-hours.


Peak (month) 405,799 man-hours.

Beneficiary states

U.P., Bihar, West Bengal, Punjab, M.P., Assam.

UNIQUE FEATURES OF TATA CHEMICALS LIMITED, BABRALA

An integrated energy network, which is the key, factor in achieving high energy
efficiency. The flexible range of the ratio of natural gas and naphtha as a fuel/

QUALITY POLICY OF TATA CHEMICALS LIMITED

feed is a major reason for this. The current low operating energy record is

To provide customer satisfaction and timely delivery of quality products.


5.13 Gcal/MT of Urea.
Maintain good quality management systems and incorporate regular

improvements to meet our customer changing needs.

The second unique feature is common single central control room (CCR) for
Continuously upgrade product quality by improvements in process technology.
Develop
andUrea
upgrade
employee
skills
provide
an environment
for their
ammonia,
to captive
power
andand
steam
generation
plant (CPSSGP)
and

effective
participation
through
to meet
our customer expectations.
other offsite
and utility
plants.teamwork
This provides
a well-coordinated
and integrated

Take adequate care to ensure safety at the work place, environmental

control of theand
entire
complextofrom
one location
and on line inters plant sharing
preservations
to respond
the needs
of the community.
of information. This has been found extremely beneficial especially during plant
startups and upsets.

FIRE AND SAFETY

FIRE CHEMISTRY: The well-known Fire triangle requires the three ingredients of fire
namely fuel, oxygen and source of ignition.
A fire is a combination of fuel, oxygen and source of ignition.

2.1 FIRE PREVENTION:


Fire prevention can be done in three ways:

Eliminate sources of ignition.


Eliminate combustible substances.
Eliminate air excess to combustible substances.

FIRE PREVENTION
SOURCES:

THROUGH

ELIMINATION

OF

IGNITION

To prevent fire the first is to remove the cause of fire. Studies made by fire insurance company
shows that majority of fires are caused by following general sources of ignition:
Electrically limited fire: Improper earthing, short circuiting, loose electrical contacts,
temporary direct connections without proper fittings, high current, over heating of
electrical equipment are among the common cause of electrically initiative fires.
Smoking ignited fire: Smoking or even carrying cigarettes/ beedies/matches/lighter etc.
in the following areas is a serious offence. All non-smoking areas should carry NO
SMOKING signboards.
Friction and overheated material: In flame proof areas, frictional fires can also be
started by the friction of moving parts of machinery which are overheated due to excess
friction. This is likely in non-lubricated and not well maintained machinery.

FIRE PREVENTION THROUGH ELIMINATION OF


COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS:
Waste and combustible materials: All combustible wastes and materials like
waste paper, cotton waste etc. accumulated after a job should be transported to waste bins
and is the responsibilities of the person doing the job that creates the wastes. Tins and
cans of flammable materials like paints, oils, spirit etc.: These should be handled
carefully ensuring that no undue spillages takes place during their uses and any spillages
takes place during their use and any spillage should be cleaned immediately.
Fueling of vehicle tanks: Engine should be always switched off while fueling a
vehicle. If diesel or petrol spills over during fueling, dry sand should covered over the
spill immediately till only dry sand is visible on the spilled area.
Waste disposal: All combustible waste must be regarded in such a way that can be
disposed of as such and not burnt.

PREVENTION THROUGH ELIMINATION OXYGEN SUPPLY:

Smoothening: It is a process of covering the burning area with a non-combustible


substance like asbestos or fire proof blanket, wet thick cotton blanket or sand.

2.2 CLASSIFICATION OF FIRES:


Fires are classified according to the nature of fuel burning and fire extinguishing methods that
can be applied and the following is the fire classification under the Indian fire code.

CLASS A FIRE
CLASS B FIRE
CLASS C FIRE
CLASS D FIRE
CLASS E FIRE

CLASS A FIRE: Fires where the burning fuel is a cellulosic material such as wood,
clothing, paper etc. is called class A fire.
It can be extinguished by the water and sand. Class A fires can also be extinguished by all the
available means of extinguishing fires like foam, soda acid, dry chemical powder, carbon dioxide
etc.

CLASS B FIRE: Fires where the burning fuel is a flammable liquid Naphtha, petrol etc.
are categorized as class B fire.
Blanketing is a useful first aid fire control for B class fire. Water is forbidden as a fire fighting
means on class B fires. Foam, carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder extinguishers are the
desired means of controlling B class fires.

CLASS C FIRE: Fire involving flammable like natural gases hydrogen are classified as
class C fire. The best means of extinguishing C type fire is by stopping the gas supply to the
leaking vessels or pipe lines if possible. This must be the intermediate and very first step. Dry
chemical powder and carbon dioxide are useful in controlling C class fire.

CLASS D FIRE: Fire involving material like magnesium, aluminum, zinc, potassium etc.
are classified as class D fire. Sand buckets are useful in most cases of metallic fires. Special
dry chemical powder also works on class D fires.

CLASS E FIRE: Fires involving electrical equipments are classified as E class fires.
Only carbon dioxide and D.C.P extinguishers are used on class E fires.

2.3 FIRE FIGHTING GADGETS AND APPLIANCES: CO2:- It contain under pressurized liquid carbon dioxide.
SODA ACID:- Contain a double container with sodium bicarbonate solution in outer
container and dilute sulphuric acid in the inner container. After the inner container both
react and produce a liquid of entrapped CO2.
FOAM:- Contain aluminous sulphate in inner container and sodium bicarbonate in outer
one. After cracking the container both reacts to produce carbon dioxide and the foam
stabilizer makes stable form of carbon dioxide.
DRY CHEMICAL POWDER:- It contains an inert dry chemical powder of sodium
bicarbonate or potassium bicarbonate or potassium chloride and diammonium phosphate
along with liquid carbon dioxide under pressure.
HALON/ BROMOCHLOROFLUORO METHANE:- Halon is in the form of a liquid
gas under pressure that is released on pressing the knob.

2.4 SAFETY PROGRAMME AT T.C.L


The company conducts regular programs for safety measures, which not only creates awareness
about safety but also maintains it; the fire and safety department of T.C.L organizes many
programs to motivate in this direction and to make the employees aware. National safety day 4 th
march is being celebrated each year with earnestness and includes various awareness programs,
competitions and includes various awareness programs, competitions etc.
Some of these are listed below:

Training programs on safety.


Home safety.
Use of safety equipment.
Safety quiz.
Safety slogan competition.

SAFETY PROVISIONS
Personal protective equipment (PPEs): The various types of PPEs are: Helmet for head protection.
Goggles for eye protection.
Ear plugs and muff for ear protection.

Safety shoes for foot protection.


Gloves for hand protection.
Face shields foot protection.
Full body protection suits.
Hoods for head, neck, face, and, eye protection.
Safety belts or life belts or harness.
Breathing apparatus or respiratory protection equipment.

Fencing of machinery.
Devices for power cut.
Hoists and lifts.

AMMONIA PLANT Process Description

Flow Chart of Ammonia Plant


The ammonia process can be divided into the following sections:

De-sulphurisation Section
Steam Reforming Section
Primary and Secondary Reforming
Shift Conversion Section
Medium Temperature Conversion
Low Temperature Conversion
CO2 Removal Section
Methanation Section
Compression Section
Ammonia Synthesis and Refrigeration Section
Ammonia Recovery Section
Purge Gas Recovery Unit

3.1 DESULPHURISATION SECTION

The feed gas contains some sulfur, which is to be removed before the reforming section. This is
done in the Hydro Desulphurisation (HDS) Section. This section contains a HDS Reactor (R
201) having a nickel based hydrogenation catalyst (TK-261) and two ZnO Absorbers (R 202
A/B). In presence of HDS catalysts, the sulfur containing compounds of the feed gas reacts with
a hydrogen rich recycle gas at a temperature of 380 400 C to form H 2S. H2S thus formed is
absorbed by the ZnO Absorbers (R 202 A/B). At the exit of HDS section, the S content in the
feed gas will be <0.005 ppm by wt.

Process Description
The hydrogenation in the HDS reactor consists of following reactions:
RSH + H2 RH + H2S
R1SSR2 + 3H2
COS + H2

R1H+R2H+H2S
CO + H2S

Where R is a hydrocarbon radical


After hydrogenation, the gas passes through ZnO Absorbers (R 202A/B) for removal H 2S (both
operating in series. Any one of them can be bypassed at any time). R 202 A contains
CCATALC032-4 catalyst at the top, C7-DD catalyst at bottom and R 202 B contains
CATALCO23-4.
Reactions:
ZnO + H2S ZnS+H2O
ZnO + COS

ZnS + CO2

During normal operation, the sulfur content in the feedstock is decreased by contact with ZnO
catalyst to <. 005 ppm

3.2 REFORMING SECTION


The reforming section consists of Adiabatic Pre Converter (Pre-Reformer), Primary
Reformer and Secondary Reformer. Steam reforming of hydrocarbons can be described
by the following reactions:

CnHm + nH2O
CH4+H2O

nCO + (n+m/2)H2 - heat


CO + 3H2 - heat

CO + H2O

CO2 + H2 + heat

Adiabatic Pre-conversion
Hydrocarbon feed coming from the HDS section is mixed with steam and preheated to 460-480
C in exchanger E 201. All higher hydrocarbons are decomposed into CH 4 in presence of nickel
based pre-reformer catalyst. The advantage is lower internal wall temperature. This reduces the
risk of producing olefins when the higher hydrocarbons in the feedstock get in contact with the
hot internal surface of the coil. R 206 contains 26.9 m 3 of RKNGR-7H and RKNGR catalyst
specially treated for low temperature operations. In the upper part of the bed, the decomposition
of higher hydrocarbons is the dominating reaction. Owing to the endothermic nature of reaction,
the temperature will tend to drop. In the lower part of the bed, the shift reaction and methanation
reaction dominate. When the feedstock is NG, the overall process is endothermic. For heavy
feedstock like naphtha, the overall process is exothermic.

Primary Reforming

The gas exit pre reformer comes to the primary reformer where the steam reforming of
hydrocarbons takes place. The main components of the reformer furnace are:
300 vertically mounted high alloy Cr-Ni-Nb (25 %, 35%,and 1%) tubes filled with
catalyst. Heated length is 12 m and OD/ID is 134mm /109.8 mm
Process gas flows downward from inlet headers through Inlet Hairpins.
The gas leaves the tubes through Outlet Hairpins and enters refractory lined Cold
Collector through high alloy intermediary Hot Collector. Heat required for the
reforming is supplied by 432 forced draught radiant wall burners
Burners arranged in 6 horizontal rows on both sides of the tubes in both the chambers (18
in a row).
Catalysts used: R67R-7H(top), R-67-7H(bottom)
Temperature of the gas leaving the tubes will be around 765C and the methane slip 1012%. Flue gases exit at 1025C to convection zone which has following coils:
E201 (Steam + Hydrocarbon pre-heater)
E 202 A/B (Process air pre-heater)
E 203 A/B/C (HP steam super-heater)
E 204 A/B (NG/Naphtha pre-heater)
E 205 (Combustion air pre-heater)
Fuel system of primary reformer is designed to operate on following fuels:
Natural Gas
NG + lean off gases
Vaporized naphtha

Vaporized naphtha + lean off gases

Secondary Reforming
Gas from primary reformer is passed on to secondary reformer (R 203) through refractory line
Transfer line. Process gas at 31 Kg/cm2 (g) and 765C enters R203 where it is mixed with
preheated process air (540C in E 202 A/B). Due to combustion, the temperature increases to
1200C.The temperature drops to 930 960C due to reforming reaction. Gas exit R 203 enters
E206 A (Waste heat boiler). It is a fire tube and gravity water circulation type boiler and
produces KS steam. Gas from R 203 is cooled to 575C. Then enters E207 (HP steam superheater) provided with a bypass. Process gas is cooled in E 207 leaves at 400-450C. After mixing
with hot bypass flow, enters E 206B. KS steam is generated in E 206B and the gas leaves at
330C. KS steam is superheated from saturation temperature of around 324 C to 385 C in E 207.
Further superheating of KS steam to 510C is carried out in super-heater coils E203 A/B/C.
Catalysts used: C-14-4GG, C14-2LDP

3.3 SHIFT CONVERSION

SECTION

CO is converted to CO2 in two shift converters Medium Temperature Shift Converter (R204) and
Low Temperature Shift Converter (R205). The reaction is as follows:
CO + H2O CO2+H2 + heat
The heat evolved in the above reaction is recovered in BFW preheating. The process gas leaving
CO conversion section contains about 0.12 % CO.

MT Shift Conversion
Before entering MTS Converter (R 204), the gas is cooled to 220C. R 204 consists mainly of
catalysts CSK, MTS-3(shift max C1) C11-18, and MTS-1 (ShiftMax 300). Main part of shift
conversion takes place in R 204 and the temperature rise is around 90-120C.

LT Shift Conversion
The process gas at 185C exit E 210 A/B enters LTS converter (R 205). 0.8% CO exit of R 204 is
further converted into CO2. The CO exit concentration will be around 0.12-0.13 %. R 205
contains 118 m3 of LK 821 catalyst in a single bed. It is made of oxides of Cu, Zn and Al.

3.4 CO2 REMOVAL SECTION


Process gas exit LTS contains about 19% CO2. This content is reduced to 600-700 ppm by
absorption in hot K2CO3 solution. (25-28% K2CO3, 0.5% Glycine, 0.5% DEA and 0.5% V2O5).
The loaded solution is regenerated by stripping off the CO2 and is re-circulated. Glycine and
DEA are activators and V2O5 is corrosion inhibitor. Heat in CO 2 & steam mixture is used for
preheating of DMW.

CO2 Absorption
Process gas is introduced to the bottom of F303, which contains 6 beds. Gas flows upward and
the K2CO3 solution is coming from top to bottom. About 85% of K 2CO3 is introduced above
bottom three bed and rest 15% is cooled to 70 C in E 303 and introduced to the top of column.
The bulk CO2 is removed in lower part of the column. The rest is removed in two upper beds.
CO2 Absorption occurs according to the following reaction mechanism:
CO2 + H2O
CO3-- + H2O
CO3-- + CO2 + H2O

HCO3- + H+
HCO3- + OH2HCO3-

3.5 METHANATION SECTION


Remaining traces of CO and CO2 must be removed since they are poisons to ammonia synthesis
catalyst. This is done in methanator, R311.
CO + 3H2 CH4 + H2O + heat
CO2 + 4H2 CH4 + 2H2O + heat
After R311, gas normally contains < 10 ppm of CO + CO 2. The temperature rise across R311 is
around 10C. R311 contains 30 m3 of PK5 catalyst in a single bed. It is Nickel catalyst on a
ceramic base.
Methanation reaction starts at 250 C causing temperature to increase. The increase in
temperature corresponds to 60C per mole of CO 2 and 75C per mole of CO. Preferable
operating inlet temperature is 290 - 310 C. Methanation catalyst should not be exposed to temp
> 420 C for extended period of time.

3.6 COMPRESSOR SECTION


Process Air Compressor (K421)

Compressing atmospheric Air to 33-35 Kg/cm2g, to be fed in R203, in 4 stage centrifugal


compressor driven by steam turbine. Live steam enters at 110 Kg/cm 2. Consumption is
around 80 T. It has a facility of LP steam extraction at 3.2 - 3.6 Kg/cm 2 of 8 - 10T/ hr.
Rest is condensing.

Synthesis Gas / Recirculation Compressor (K431)


To compress the MU gas from 26 to 135 Kg/cm2 in 3 stages and to compress recirculation gas to loop pressure (dp of recycle wheel is 11 - 12 Kg/cm 2). It is also driven
by steam turbine. Live steam enters at 110 Kg/cm2 (253 T/ hr.) out of which 37-40 T/ hr.
goes to condensing. Rest is extracted at 39 Kg/cm2 (g).

Ammonia Refrigeration Compressor (K451)


To give refrigeration duty to the refrigeration circuit in the synthesis loop. Driven by
Steam Turbine. Live steam enters at 40 Kg/cm 2 (g) and totally condensing. Steam
consumption is around 24 T/ hr.

Flash Ammonia Compressor (K441)


If NH3 is to be sent to storage, then it is flashed from B 502 to B 503 (from 25 Kg/cm 2 to
0.2 Kg/cm2). The vapour generated are compressed by K441. Driven by motor of rating
1850KW.

3.7 AMMONIA SYNTHESIS SECTION


Ammonia synthesis takes place in R501 and R502. The operating conditions in loop are all
interdependent. The main operating parameters, which can be controlled directly or indirectly in
the loop, are the following:

o
o
o
o
o

Catalyst temperature.
Gas composition
Circulation rate
Purge rate
Pressure.

Synthesis loop is designed for a maximum pressure of 155 Kg/cm 2. Normal operating is 140-145
Kg/cm2g. The synthesis of ammonia takes place according to the following reaction:
3H2 + N2 2NH3 + Heat

In R501, the normal operating temperature will be in the range of 360C to 480C for the 1st bed
and 370C to 440C for the 2nd bed. In R 502, the normal operating temp will be in the range of
375 C to 420 C. A considerable amount of heat is liberated by the synthesis reaction and nearly
all this heat is utilized for production of KS steam and preheating of BFW. As only about 30% of
H2 & N2 is converted to NH3, it is necessary to recycle the unconverted gas. This is done by
means of recirculator stage of synthesis compressor K 431.
Catalysts used for conversion: KM1R, KM1

Synthesis loop configuration


MU gas is introduced between E507&E508. By this point, considerable part of ammonia
produced is condensed. The mixture passes through E 508 and to B501 at -7 C where NH 3 is
separated. By the condensation of NH 3, traces of impurities in MU gas such as H 2O and CO2 are
absorbed in liquid Ammonia. CO2 reacts with both gaseous and liquid NH3 forming ammonium
carbamate.

2NH3+CO2 NH4COONH2
This carbamate is dissolved in condensed ammonia. CO is slightly soluble in ammonia and will
pass with the recirculation gas to R 501 where it is hydrogenated to H 2O & CH4 (Methanation).
As water deactivates the catalyst, the CO content should be kept as low as possible. The gas
leaving B 501 goes to E 507&E505. After E505, the gas is taken to K431 (4 th stage) and is
discharged to E503 on the way to R501.
R501 outlet at 440C is cooled to 375C in E 501 A (Waste heat boiler). After R502, the gas
contains 20.5-21% NH3. R 502 outlet temperature is 410-420C and is cooled to 330C in E 501
B(Waste heat boiler). From E 501B, it goes to E 502 (BFW pre-heater) and thereafter it is cooled
in a series of exchangers E503 (Gas-Gas exchanger), E 504 (Water cooler), E505 (1st cold heat
exchanger), E506 (1st NH3 chiller), E507 (2nd cold heat exchanger) and E508 (2nd NH3
chiller).

Refrigeration Section
This section comprises of 4 chillers operating at two different pressure levels:

E506, E514 and E 509 operate at 6.4 Kg/cm2g and E508 operate at 1.8 Kg/cm2g. Refrigerant
ammonia vapours are compressed in refrigeration compressor K451 (two stages). Suction
pressure of 1st stage is 1.4 Kg/cm2g and 2nd stage is 5.3 Kg/cm2g. The discharge pressure is
around 15 -16 Kg/cm2g and the compressed gaseous ammonia is condensed in ammonia
condensers E510 A/B/C and sent to ammonia accumulator B510.

3.8 AMMONIA RECOVERY SECTION


This section helps to recover most of the NH 3 contained in purge gas from loop, let down gases
from letdown vessel B 502 & inert vent gas from inert gas chiller B509. After purification in
F523, the purge gas is sent to PGRU at 75 Kg/cm 2g. Purge gas is washed in F523 at 75 Kg/cm 2g
and the off gases are washed in F522 at 16 Kg/cm 2g. The column is provided with a reboiler
(E521) and a condenser (E522). The overhead vapour contains about 99% of NH 3 that is partly
returned to column as reflux and the rest is taken as product and sent to B502.

Process condensate recovery section


This section treats process condensate from separators B303, B311 and GV excess condensate
from P 303 A/B. This removes substantial portion of NH3, CO2 and CH3OH from the condensate.
A small amount of NH3 is formed in the secondary reformer and a small amount of methanol is
formed in the two shift converters. Together with CO 2 present in the condensate from B303,
these enter Process Condensate and CO2 Strippers F601 and F602. The reactions involved are:
NH3 + H2O NH4++ OHCO2 + H2O
HCO3-

CO3--

NH3 + HCO3-

H+ + HCO3+

H+

NH2COO- + H2O

The Methanol is physically dissolved in the process condensate.

CO2 Stripping
The CO2 stripper F 602 placed above F 601 is equipped with SS packing. Excess GV OH
condensate together with condensate from B 311 is preheated to 122C in E601 and mixed with
condensate from B303. The condensate leaves F602 at the bottom and enters the upper part of F
601.

Process Condensate Stripping


In F 601, the impurities like CO2, NH3 and methanol are stripped off by LP steam. The OH
vapours enter the partial condenser, E 604 where the heat of condensation is recovered by
preheating DMW. The vapors leaving B603 are completely condensed in E605 and sent to B604.

The liquid is transferred by P603A/B to the process steam line. Stripped condensate from F601 is
cooled in E601, E602 and E 603 to about 50C prior to delivery to the DM plant.

3.9 PURGE GAS RECOVERY UNIT


The washed gas from ammonia recovery section contains a maximum of 1400 ppm of NH3 at a
temperature of 55C and 75 Kg/cm2g pressure. The gas is cooled in E-3 (CW exchanger) to 40C
and the condensate is separated in separator B3. The gas then goes to the adsorbers R1 & R2.
One of them will be in service and the other will be under regeneration. The regeneration cycle is
of 8 hrs and it contains the following steps: Isolation, Depressurisation, Blowing, Heating,
Cooling, Isolation, Pressurisation and Parallel
The adsorber contains activated alumina (2-5 mm diameter) at the bottom for mainly adsorbing
water. At the top it contains a bed of molecular sieves (5A-1/16) for adsorbing ammonia. The
gas at the outlet of adsorbers contains less than 1 ppm of water and ammonia. The flow is from
bottom to top in the bottle in service and from top to bottom during regeneration. Filter F1
prevents any adsorbent dust from being carried away. The regeneration of the adsorbent is
performed by heating part of the fuel gas in E4 and allowing to flow from top to bottom. The
regeneration gas is heated in E4 by MP steam. During the cooling step, E4 is totally bypassed.
The moisture in the regenerated gas after adsorber is separated in B4 and joins the main stream
fuel gas to reformer. The gas leaving the adsorption is purified by cryogenic process involving
the low temperature condensation and separation of heavier components and low-pressure
vaporization of these heavier components.
The purge gas at 75 Kg/cm2g and 45C, is cooled in aluminum plate type heat exchanger inside
the cold box to about -186C.At such low temperatures most of the heavier components get
condensed and the gaseous phases reaches a hydrogen content of 91.3% (the main impurity
being nitrogen). The separation of gaseous and liquid phases takes place in B1. The gaseous
phase which is rich in hydrogen flows back into exchanger E1 in which it is warmed to around
39C and delivered at a pressure of 71-72 Kg/cm2g. The liquid phase, separated in B1 is
controlled by LV409 (throttling valve) where its pressure is reduced to 3-4 Kg/cm2g. Then it is
vapourised and warmed up in E1. The warm fuel gas so obtained is then sent to the B/L at a
pressure of 3-4 Kg/cm2g for burning in reformer.

PROJECT OBJECTIVE

EVALUATION OF AMMONIA VAPOUR LOAD ON REFRIGRATION


COMPRESSOR K-451 AND MARGIN FOR OPEN ANTISURGE

THEORY:
Centrifugal Compressor
2 stage compressor operated by single turbine
To give refrigeration duty to the refrigeration circuit in the synthesis loop. Driven by Steam
Turbine, live steam enters at 40 Kg/cm2 (g) and totally condensing. Steam consumption is around
24 T/ hr.
SURGING: - A compressor is said to be surging, when there is a sudden reversal
of flow through the machine. Trouble free operation can be expected if the
compressor is operated at the right side of surge line. Surging takes place due to
sudden changes in process condition.
ANTISURGE: - Purpose of antisurge control is to maintain a minimum flow
through the
compressor
so
as
to
avoid
conditions
leading to
surge .
This can be achieved by providing at the discharge a bleed valve ( for cheap / non toxic gases ) or a recycle valve ( for costly / toxic gases ) .

PRE
SSU
RE
RAT
IO

UN
ST
ST
A
100
9
AB
B
SUR
80
%
INLE L
0
LE
GE
%
SP
T
%
E
LINE
VOL EE
UME D

Design Data:I Stage Compressor:

Medium

= Ammonia (gas)

Flow rate

= 26441 kg/hr

Inlet/ Outlet Temperature [K] = 259.25/355.15


Inlet/ Outlet Pressure [bar]

= 1.4/5.55

II Stage Compressor:
Medium

= Ammonia (gas)

Flow rate

= 68542 kg/hr

Inlet/ Outlet Temperature [K] = 286.85/394.15


Inlet/ Outlet Pressure [bar]

= 5.3/18.6

Power rating at normal operation (overall) 5432 kW

CALCULATIONS:
Calculating Vapour Load from Chillers :

E-506 (1st ammonia chiller)


COMPONENT

Design mole%

Operating mole%

H2

52.68

50.93

N2

17.56

17.07

Ar

3.16

2.92

NH3

6.60

19.95

TOTAL

100

100

Flow: 705107 Nm3/hr


Heat duty: 10.92 Gcal/hr
Temperature difference across chiller (T): 14.4 K

Molar specific heat capacity (Cp) :


Q = m*Cp*T or Cp = Q /(m*T)
Cp = (10.92*4.182*22.414*10-3*109) / (705107*14.4)
Cp = 100.8111377 J/mol K
Converter Inlet = 728993 Nm3/hr
Converter Outlet (equating the mole percentage of CH4) =728993*7.80/9.23 Nm3/hr
Outlet =Actual flow: 616050.4225 Nm3/hr
Actual temperature difference (T): (304.15 292.38) = 11.77 K

Considering change in Cp to be negligible from designed data (Assumption)

Heat duty: (616050.4225*11.77*100.8111377)/(.022414*4.182*109) =7.798 Gcal/hr


Latent heat of vapourization (): 1211.2 kJ/kg
Vapour load (Q./) = 26925.63839 kg/hr

E-514 (Makeup Gas Chiller)


COMPONENT

Design mole%

Operating mole%

H2

74.15

73.84

N2

24.74

24.85

CH4

0.76

1.01

Ar

0.35

0.3

TOTAL

100

100

Flow: 240230 Nm3/hr


Heat duty: 1.6 Gcal/hr
Temperature difference across chiller (T): 20.5 K

Molar specific heat capacity (Cp) :


Q = m*Cp*T or Cp = Q /(m*T)
Cp = (1.6*4.182*22.414*10-3*109) / (240230*20.5)
Cp = 30.45386 J/mol K
Actual flow: 247635 Nm3/hr
Actual temperature difference (T): (312.81-291.78) = 21.03 K

Considering change in Cp to be negligible from designed data (Assumption)

Heat duty : (247635*21.03*30.45386)/(.022414*4.182*109) =1.69196 Gcal/hr


Latent heat of vapourization () : 1211.2 kJ/kg
Vapour load (Q./) = 5841.957 kg/hr

E-508 (Second Ammonia Chiller)


Flow : 923752 Nm3/hr
Heat duty : 8.68 Gcal/hr
Temperature difference across chiller (T) : 12.9 K
Molar specific heat capacity (Cp) :
Q = m*Cp*T or Cp = Q /(m*T)
Cp = (8.68*4.182*22.414*10-3*109) / (923752*12.9)
Cp = 68.2775642 J/mol K
Actual flow : 844810.2225 Nm3/hr
Actual temperature difference (T) : (278.85-265.4) = 13.45 K

Considering change in Cp to be negligible from designed data (Assumption)

Heat duty : (844810.2225*13.45*68.277642)/(.022414*4.182*109) = 8.276678 Gcal/hr


Latent heat of vapourization () : 1304.3 kJ/kg
Vapour load ( Q./) = 26537.65856 kg/hr

Calculating vapour load of ammonia and efficiency of compressor:


Design:
1st Stage CompressorInlet temperature (T1)

: 259.25 K

Outlet temperature (T2): 355.15 K


Suction absolute Pressure (P1) : 2.4 bar
Discharge absolute Pressure (P2) : 6.55 bar
Polytropic compressor work : W./m. = (n*R*T1)( (P2/P1)(n-1/n)-1)/(n-1)
Polytropic exponent (n) = ln(P2/P1)/ ln(T2*P1/T1*P2)
So, n = 1.4566
W./m. = (1.4566*8.314*259.25)( (6.55/2.4)(0.4566/1.4566)-1)/(1.4566-1)
= 2543.306 J/mol
Molar flow rate (m.) = 26441/(.017*3600) = 432.0425 mol/s
Power consumed W. = 1098.816 kW
Calculation for isentropic index of compression (k) :
Compressibility factor (z) : PV/RT = z = 1/(1-h) - (A/B)(h/1+h)
h= b/v=BP/z

B=b/RT or

h= 0.0867 (P/Pc)/z(T/Tc) A/B = a/(bRT1.5)

z = 0.97552
Note :- For this compressibility factor we calculated isentropic index of compression (k) from
charts.
k = 1.29633
Efficiency of compressor () = ((k-1)/k)/((n-1)/n)
= 0.7291 or72.91 %

2nd Stage compressor:


Inlet temperature (T1)

: 286.85 K

Outlet temperature (T2): 394.15 K


Suction absolute Pressure (P1) : 6.3 bar
Discharge absolute Pressure (P2) : 19.6 bar
Polytropic : W./m. = (n*R*T1)( (P2/P1)(n-1/n)-1)/(n-1)
Polytropic exponent (n) = ln(P2/P1)/ ln(T2*P1/T1*P2)
So, n = 1.3888
W./m. = (1.3888*8.314*286.85)( (19.6/6.3)(0.3888/1.3888)-1)/(1.3888-1)
= 3186.267 J/mol
Molar flow rate (m.) = 68542/(.017*3600) = 1119.96732 mol/s
Power consumed W. = 3568.5147 kW
Total shaft power from compressor curves(Design) Ws = 5432 kW
Total power (1st stage +2nd stage) = 4667.331 kW
Fraction of maximum rated power = 4667.331/5432 = 0.85923or 85.923 %
Calculation for isentropic index of compression (k) :
Compressibility factor (z) : PV/RT = z = 1/(1-h) - (A/B)(h/1+h)
h= b/v=BP/z

B=b/RT or

h= 0.0867 (P/Pc)/z(T/Tc) A/B = a/(bRT1.5)

z = 0.95043
Note :- For this compressibility factor we calculated isentropic index of compression (k) from
charts.
k = 1.28743
Efficiency of compressor () = ((k-1)/k)/((n-1)/n)
= 0.7974 or79.74 %

Note :- Slight discrepancy in calculation is due to consideration of frictional losses during


design.

At operating conditions:
1st Stage Compressor-

Inlet temperature (T1) : 261.02 K


Outlet temperature (T2): 267.45 K
Suction absolute Pressure (P1) : 2.43 bar
Discharge absolute Pressure (P2) : 7.07 bar
Compressor work : W./m. (J/mol) = (n*R*T1)( (P2/P1)(n-1/n)-1)/(n-1)
Polytropic exponent (n) = ln(P2/P1)/ ln(T2*P1/T1*P2)
So, n = 1.4114
W./m. = (1.4114*8.314*261.02)( (6.07/2.43)(0.4114/1.4114)-1)/(1.4114-1)
= 2718.9198 J/mol
Molar flowrate (m.) = 26537.6586/(.017*3600) = 433.6219 mol/s
Power consumed W. = 1178.983 kW
Calculation for isentropic index of compression (k) :
Compressibility factor (z) : PV/RT = z = 1/(1-h) - (A/B)(h/1+h)
h= b/v=BP/z

B=b/RT or

h= 0.0867 (P/Pc)/z(T/Tc) A/B = a/(bRT1.5)

z = 0.97567
Note :- For this compressibility factor we calculated isentropic index of compression (k) from
charts.
k = 1.29591
Efficiency of compressor () = ((k-1)/k)/((n-1)/n)
= 0.7833 or78.33 %

2nd Stage compressor :


Inlet temperature (T1)

: 297.68 K

Outlet temperature (T2): 407.45 K


Suction absolute Pressure (P1) : 6.75 bar
Discharge absolute Pressure (P2) : 20.94 bar
Polytropic compressor work : W./m. = (n*R*T1)( (P2/P1)(n-1/n)-1)/(n-1)
Polytropic exponent (n) = ln(P2/P1)/ ln(T2*P1/T1*P2)

So, n = 1.3836
W./m. = (1.3836*8.314*297.68)( (20.94/6.75)(0.3836/1.3836)-1)/(1.3836-1)
= 3291.51258 J/mol
Molar flowrate (m.) = 59305.25/(0.017*3600) = 969.0401 mol/s
Power consumed (W.) = 3189.607 kW
Total shaft power from compressor graph (Design) (Ws) = (5432*11115)/10890 = 5544.2314 kW
Total power (1st stage +2nd stage) = 4368.5907 kW
Fraction of maximum rated power = 4368.590/5544.2314 = 0.78795or 78.795 %
Calculation for isentropic index of compression (k) :
Compressibility factor (z) : PV/RT = z = 1/(1-h) - (A/B)(h/1+h)
h= b/v=BP/z

B=b/RT or

h= 0.0867 (P/Pc)/z(T/Tc) A/B = a/(bRT1.5)

z = 0.95209
Note :- For this compressibility factor we calculated isentropic index of compression (k) from
charts.
k = 1.28432
Efficiency of compressor () = ((k-1)/k)/((n-1)/n)
= 0.7984 or79.84 %

Calculation for Antisurge 04FV-207:


Vapour load on first stage compressor = 26537.65856 kg/hr = 13759.3955 ACM/hr
*(Taken from compressor curves)
Minimum vapour load required to prevent surging =12800 ACM/hr
So, Antisurge valve fully closed because minimum vapour load is more than
required.
Vapour load on second stage compressor = 59305.25 kg/hr = 12624.33 ACM/hr
*(Taken from compressor curves)
Minimum vapour load required to prevent surging =13500 ACM/hr

So, Antisurge valve is partially open to increase the suction flow and to prevent surging by
increasing the flow just enough to reach the minimum required flow.
Margin in 2nd stage compressor flow = 13500- 12624.33 = 875.67 ACM/ hr
= 4116.208 kg/hr
So an extra flow of 4116.208 kg/hr can be provided on closing the Antisurge valve 04FV-207.

RESULTS
At operating conditions antisurge valve 04FV-207 in second stage of K-451 Refrigeration
compressor is partially open due to lower suction flow. On closing the valve the suction flow

needs to be maintained at a minimum flow of 13500 ACM/hr. This gives a margin of 875.67
ACM/hr or 4116.208 kg/hr in second stage of refrigeration compressor at operating conditions.

PROPOSED SCHEME
What is the need of Antisurge valve in compressor?
Purpose of antisurge control is to maintain a minimum flow through the
compressor so as to avoid conditions leading to surge .
Surging takes place due to sudden changes in process condition.
These are as follows.

Reduced molecular weight.

Higher suction temperature.

Lower suction pressure.

Higher discharge pressure.

Lower speed of machine for variable speed machine.

The parameters taken into account for antisurge control, are :


* Suction pressure * Discharge pressure * F low through the machine
* Speed of rotation

References
Fire and safety manual, Fertilizer association of India.

Trainee Manual,1350 MTPD Ammonia Plant (operating Manual Vol 1)


by Haldor Topsoe
J .M. Smith, H.C. VanNess, M.M Abbott, Introduction to chemical Engg
Thermodynamics, Mc Graw Hill International Editions.
www.engineeringtoolbox.com/ammonia-d_971.html
Yunus A. Cengel, Micheal A. Boles; Thermodynamics : An Engineering
Approach, Tata McGraw Hill
Process Flow Diagram; available at Tata Chemicals Limited, Babrala
Compressor manual at Tata Chemicals Limited, Babrala

Experience
I am in TCL under 5 week summer training and my first industrial experience is too good so that
I cannot express it in my words. This industry is as prosperous as one engineer can dream. This
industry consists of several employs and all are very much helpful as they helps trainee like me

with their full devotion. They give us time from their busy schedule and try to resolve our every
problem.
This industry consist of wide and prosperous safety department which is providing a landmark to
the most important parameter of the company Safety and this industry is standing as one of the
most safe chemical industry of the world.
For trainees TCL provides best technical library which consist of best books regarding all the
technical aspects and for various field of engineering with good facility of internet but in my
view its capacity is less and procedure of issuing books for trainees is very complicated.
Moreover food facility in canteen is much better in comparison to other industries.
This industry also have beautiful township area which is clean and full of natural environment
moreover this area is completely pollution free and also providing 24 hrs light facility. My
residence is in township and there I feel as I am in heaven. Moreover rule and regulations of
traffic are up to the mark.
In nut and shell my experience in this industry is unforgettable and as good as I can think & I
want to come here again in future.