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Jungs Psychological Types

Personality refers to those qualities which make us what we are, which give us a personal identity
and distinctive individuality. It encompasses our habitual patterns of behavior, which we express
through physical and mental activities and attitudes.
Jung's Psychological Types, published in 1921 in Switzerland, is only one among many
personality theories. Nevertheless, it impresses us by its relevance to many facets of life. The
types Jung describes are in evidence in our families, among friends and neighbours, and at work
They are also clearly depicted by writers, poets, philosophers, artists and composers.
If this theory is so powerful, the reader may ask, and if it was developed over seventy years ago,
why is it attaining prominence only now? One possible explanation is the prejudice of
behaviorists and cognitive psychologists toward depth psychology. Other explanations arise from
the sheer volume and complexity of Jung's work, the perceived impracticality of his theories,
their lack of application to some systems of psychology, and the difficulty of accurately
measuring his typologies.
Jung's type theory was originally developed to explain his differences with Freud. The book,
Psychological Types (in German: Typologie), was translated by one of Jung's close associates, H.
Baynes, only two years after it was published in German. All the same, nobody paid much
attention to the theory until fairly recently. It lay dormant for decades, until it was gradually
"discovered," mainly by North Americans. The theory gained prominence and popularity in the
US and Canada through Katharine Briggs and her daughter, Isabel Briggs Myers, who developed
a test to measure the various types Jung had proposed. They were among the first to see its value
and power in a wider context beyond the domain of analytical psychology.
The following synopsis will describe Jung's theory of psychological types. Our discussion is
divided into three parts: first, the concepts of attitudes and functions; next, the way attitudes and
functions combine into eight types; and finally, the notion of differentiation and development of
functions.
Attitudes and Functions
At the very outset, we wish to clarify our approach and elaborate our basic premise in describing
Jung's theory. We intend to present what Jung wrote--not our interpretation of it, nor that of
others--in a condensed, readable, and simplified form. We have tried not to deviate too far from
his words, because Jung expressed himself well, if not always coherently, and chose his terms
with care.
Secondary sources--that is, writers and researchers who have elaborated and applied Jung's
theory--are deliberately omitted from our discussion. In perusing these sources (e.g., Keirsey &
Bates, 1984; Myers-Briggs, 1985; Sharp, 1987; Wheelright, et al., 1964), we reached the
conclusion that each author used Jung selectively. We prefer to go back to Jung's original work
rather than citing authors who selected only those aspects of his theory that interested them
personally.

The following descriptions of attitudes, functions and types contain the essence of Jung=s theory
(admittedly, as we perceive and judge it). We have attempted to organize the descriptions in a
coherent, logical, and sequential manner, bringing together passages from different sections of
the book to draw a clearer picture of each type. More specifically, we have categorized and
sorted, gathered scattered ideas and organized them, pulled together negative and positive
aspects, consolidated, highlighted, and simplified--using Jung's own words or close paraphrases,
to avoid distortions, misinterpretations, and falsifications. We have omitted references to gender
(Jung laid himself open to charges of sexism), the fine arts (many artists, for example, are
infuriated by his limited discernment of paintings) and mental illnesses (these are not relevant to
our developmental view of Jung's theory).
We should point out that Jung's descriptions of attitudes and functions create an image of pure,
undiluted, absolute types that are rarely embodied in actual people. For example, his description
of extraverts seldom applies to single individuals. Similarly, Jung=s description of the
extraverted thinking function disregards the moderating effects of the other functions.
At the most general level, Jung identifies two basic types of people, two contrary attitudes, two
mechanisms of adaptation and defense: introversion and extraversion. These traits are found in
every human being, and help us understand the wide variations that occur among individuals.
They are neither traits of character nor attributes of gender, but appear to be randomly distributed.
Both modes of psychic reaction operate alternately in the same person, and can be turned on and
off. One of them, extraversion, moves toward the object: people or things; the other, introversion,
moves toward the subject: one's own mind.
Extraversion
The interest of extraverts is directed toward the object. Objects can be people or things, which
act like a magnet on extraverts, allowing them to find themselves--to unfold, stream outward, and
embrace the world. This interest can be charged with psychic energy and can manifest itself in
extraverts, as a need to get outside themselves. It makes them energetic, active, and full of life; it
gives them a relaxed and easy attitude. Through the object, they take delight in themselves and in
people; they are "open, sociable and jovial, or at least friendly and approachable...on good terms
with everybody, or [apt to] quarrel with everybody, but always relat[ing] to them in some way
and in turn affected by them" (330).
The libido of extraverts is directed toward material things and external reality. They are interested
in the tangible phenomena of the outside world, and motivated by facts and experiences.
Extraverts fit easily and well into existing conditions, exert compelling personal influence on
others, and are in turn influenced by others. They are able to gather around them a large and
enthusiastic circle of people, and enjoy doing so. Toward the outside world extraverts are full of
confidence and trust, assurance and initiative; here they feel united, reconciled, and merged with
their fellow human beings. They have "a need to join in and 'get with it,' the capacity to endure
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bustle and noise of every kind, and [they] actually find [these things] enjoyable" (549). They
attach great importance to the figure they cut.
Of course, such a glorious description of extraverts cannot be left to stand by itself, but needs
some counterweight to give it balance. Jung supplies it readily. Inasmuch as the outside world is
of interest and importance to the extravert, he says, in extreme cases the extravert gets sucked
right into it and loses himself there. This assimilation by the object, by outer happenings,
prevents an individual's personal, subjective impulses (thoughts, wishes, feelings, needs, etc.)
from reaching consciousness. These impulses take on an infantile, archaic, and unconscious
character. They may reveal themselves in almost childish selfishness, ruthlessness, and even
brutality.
In less extreme cases, identification with the object, and the accompanying loss of subjectivity,
leads to a valuing of sense impressions over reflection and forethought. Extraverts often jump
headfirst into situations "only to reflect afterwards that they had perhaps landed themselves into a
swamp" (533). Lack of reflection also results in ideas that are badly digested and of doubtful
value, a poor ability to synthesize, "theories" which are merely accumulations of experiences, and
lack of the "unity of settled systems" that results from reflection. Because his own inner thoughts
and feelings are not taken into account, the extravert's "philosophy of life and his ethics are as a
rule of a highly collective nature, with a strong streak of altruism, and his conscience is in large
measure dependent on public opinion" (549).
Introversion
Jung has rather more to say about introverts than extraverts. This may partially reflect his own
bias, since--according to his own and various biographical accounts--he himself was introverted.
It may also be an attempt to reveal the ways of the introvert in more depth since Jung claims
people are generally rather badly informed about this mechanism.
The life energy of the introvert moves toward the subject; that is, toward a person's own psyche.
Introverts like to withdraw into themselves; to meditate, reflect, and contemplate--mainly about
themselves. Thus introverts appear outwardly calm, possess quiet manners, and prefer an
atmosphere of repose. It is difficult for outsiders to read them, because they are reserved, rather
inscrutable, mistrustful, quite anxious, and generally not forthcoming. They keep their
ruminations to themselves and do not show the emotions, passions, and powerful impulses that
lie dormant under the surface of their equanimity. They hold their ground against outside
influences by assigning them a low value, staying aloof from them, detaching and isolating their
personalities from external reality. Introverts draw upon flashes and snippets of the outside world
to take secret delight in their own inner life; objects are no more than outward tokens of this life.
By withdrawing from too intimate a contact with the world, they overcome their fear of powerful
and dangerous objects, and of their own impotence. When the introvert asks questions, "it is not
from curiosity or a desire to create a sensation, but because he wants names, meanings,
explanations to give him subjective protection against the object" (517).
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Introverts lead a conscious inner life. They love to understand and grasp ideas, to perceive inner
images of beauty, to order and synthesize their psychic contents, and to create abstractions that
collect the diversity of their impressions into a fixed form. Introverts go so far with this process
that they become lost and submerged in the inner image, so that "finally its abstract truth is set
above the reality of life" (297). They themselves become the center of their interests. Their inner
movement, activity, and development are of crucial importance to them. The introvert, Jung
writes vividly,
has a distinct dislike of society as soon as he finds himself among too many people. In a
large gathering he feels lonely and lost. The more crowded it is the greater becomes his
resistance. He is not in the least 'with it', and has no love of enthusiastic get-togethers. He
is not a good mixer. What he does, he does in his own way, barricading himself against
influences from outside. He is apt to appear awkward, often seeming inhibited, and it
frequently happens that, by a certain brusqueness of manner, or by his glum
inapproachability...he causes unwitting offence to people. His better qualities he keeps to
himself, and generally does everything he can to dissemble them. He is easily mistrustful,
self-willed, often suffers from inferiority feelings, and for this reason is also envious. [He]
has an everlasting fear of making a fool of himself, is usually very touchy and surrounds
himself with a barbed wire entanglement so dense and impenetrable that finally he
himself would rather do anything than sit behind it. He confronts the world with an
elaborate defense system compounded of scrupulosity, pedantry, frugality, cautiousness,
painful conscientiousness, stiff-lipped rectitude, politeness and open-eyed distrust. His
picture of the world lacks rosy hues, as he is over-critical and finds a hair in every soup.
(551)
Jung goes on to say that the introvert is also pessimistic and worried, and never feels accepted
because he himself does not accept the world, but judges it by his own critical standards. He likes
to self-commune in his own safe world, which Jung likens to a carefully tended and protected
garden, closed to others. He likes his own company best and feels at home in his world,
where the only changes are made by himself. His best work is done with his own
resources, on his own initiative, and in his own way. If ever he succeeds, after long and
often wearisome struggles, in assimilating something alien to himself, he is capable of
turning it to excellent account. Crowds, majority views, public opinion, popular
enthusiasm never convince him of anything but merely make him creep still deeper into
his shell.
Introverts exercise little direct personal influence over others, and therefore have few friends,
acquaintances, or disciples. A possible reason for this is that they generally resist outside
influences and have problems warming up to other people and overcoming their shyness and
defensive distrust of others. This does not mean that introverts are completely as a loss socially
but rather that other people make them uneasy and disquiet them. They prefer to retreat into
themselves, to concentrate their psychic energy on their inner life. Introverts thus live apart,
absorbed in themselves.
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Introverts give an impression of slowness. This is partially due to their ability to engage in
forethought: they like to consider a situation before they act, and interject their personal views
between what they perceive and how they act. Because of their personalization of reality, their
actions do not always fit the objective situation. Consequently, they are the victims of numerous
misunderstandings. Jung claims that these misunderstandings give introverts a certain satisfaction
because they reaffirm their pessimistic outlook. "That being so, it is easy to see why [they are]
accused of being cold, proud, obstinate, selfish, conceited, cranky, and what not" (552). Their
lives are ruled by their subjective world, which they sometimes believe, "in moments of delusion,
to be the objective one" (552).
Two Mechanisms
Since the psychic values of the two types are diametrically opposed, they naturally speak ill of
each other: "the extravert has the same repugnance, fear, or silent contempt for introversion as the
introvert for extraversion" (102). Worse, the extravert "inevitably comes to the conclusion that
the introvert is either a conceited egoist or crack-brained bigot...harboring an unconscious power
complex" (377). Further, extraverts dislike the way introverts express generalizations, seeming to
rule out others= opinions from the start, as well as the inflexibility of their subjective standpoints
and judgments, through which they set themselves above all objective situations and facts. To the
extravert, the subjective process is little more than a disturbing and superfluous appendage to
objective events.
Introverts, on the other hand, find it incomprehensible that the object should be the decisive
factor: "This dependence on the object seems to the introvert a mark of the greatest inferiority"
(517). Introverts are distressed by the quickness and volatility of extraverts. When criticized by
them, introverts are at a loss for what to say.
Besides this mutual bias, the two attitudes can also produce inner dissension. "The opposition
between the types is not merely an external conflict between men; it is [also] the source of
endless inner conflicts; the cause not only of external disputes and dislikes, but of nervous ills
and psychic suffering" (523). Each of us have probably experienced the pull of the two inner
forces and their disquieting manifestations.
Predilections toward introversion or extraversion seem to depend on a person's inborn, innate
disposition. Yet, since the two mechanisms also shape character through habitual use,
environmental influences can be just as important. They allow some people to alter their attitudes
from one moment to the next, as situations change. Usually, however, these individuals=
dominant attitude is not affected, and reestablishes itself when the environmental forces are no
longer operative.
The two mechanisms can be active or inactive at any one time within the same individual. They
exist successively, rather than side by side. An introvert may find herself in an extraverted phase
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vis--vis the external world at a point, for instance, when she is in a totally congenial harmonious
milieu. Such an environment may induce her to appear vigorously active, so that others think they
are dealing with an extravert. An extravert in an introverted phase will appear passive and calm to
outsiders, even though the inner activity of his thought or feeling may be quite lively: "put an
extravert in a dark and silent room, where all his repressed complexes can gnaw at him, and he
will get into such a state of tension that he will jump at the slightest stimulus" (287).
We should mention here the influence of libido on the two mechanisms. This "magical power," or
psychic energy, which will be discussed later, is said to reside in the depth of our being, to give
life and force to each mechanism, and to determine whether a person is shut up within or
liberated from herself.
Since people often alternate between extraversion and introversion in quick succession, it is
difficult to spot a person=s prevailing attitude. Extraverts can become quite introverted if they
remain for prolonged periods in close proximity to introverts. Similarly, introverts can become
rather extraverted when they work with small groups of extraverts. Most of the time, however,
the two types stand in striking contrast to each other. Even if they do change mode, eventually
they will always revert to their dominant attitude.
Thus, typing of attitudes is not always easy. In some cases, where the characteristics are
exaggerated, the distinction may appear obvious. For the extensive middle group, however,
"which is the most numerous and includes the less differentiated normal man" (516), only
"careful observation and weighing of the evidence permit a sure classification" (516). In a lecture
delivered seven years after publication of the book on type, Jung appeared more optimistic with
respect to typing: "whether a function is differentiated or not can easily be recognized from its
strength, stability, consistency, reliability and adaptedness" (540). We may conclude that even
though the attitudes are simple in principle, they are more complicated in reality and more
difficult to discern. Every individual seems to be an exception to the rule.
Psychic Functions
Attitude types (extraversion or introversion) do not exist by themselves, but only in conjunction
with function types. Jung defines a psychological function as "a particular form of psychic
activity that remains the same in principle under varying conditions" (436) and "by which
consciousness obtains its orientation to experience" (1964, p. 61). The different functions in our
conscious psyche allow us to adapt and orient ourselves, to grasp differences between people and
to understand our own and others' prejudices.
Jung distinguishes among four distinct functions, two rational and two irrational: thinking-feeling
and sensation-intuition. The four functions can be found in both extraversion and introversion,
which "appear only as the peculiarity of the predominating conscious function" (520). There are,
then, four types of extraverts and four types of introverts: eight attitude-types altogether. Jung
describes the function-types in one sentence: "The essential function of sensation is to establish
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that something exists, thinking tells us what it means, feeling what its value is, and intuition
surmises whence it comes and whither it goes." (553)
Thinking is the process of connecting ideas by means of concepts. It is activated when people
subject their experiences to consideration and reflection. When thinking is active and directive, it
is an act of the will; when it is passive and undirected, it merely occurs. In the former case,
judgment is exercised through the intellect; in the latter, connections come about of their own
accord. Jung points out that the quality of thought varies widely among people: "...there are a
surprising number of individuals who never use their minds if they can avoid it, and an equal
number who do use their minds, but in an amazingly stupid way." (1964, p.60) Yet all thinking
types apply those mental operations that seem to them the most logical, reasonable and correct to
guide them in life.
Feeling is the subjective process that imparts value to every conscious content. Whatever comes
to mind, even a mood, is imbued with value--accepted or rejected, liked or disliked, considered
good, bad or indifferent. Unlike what occurs with thinking, no conceptual connection of ideas
takes place when feeling is involved. Jung differentiates between abstract and concrete feeling.
Abstract feeling entails universal values rather than specific contents of the conscious mind; it
produces a general mood. Concrete feeling entails personal values applied to specific content.
Jung is quite aware that the very nature of feelings makes intellectual judgment difficult. His
definition of feeling stresses valuation; the common definition emphasizes affect and emotion.
Sensation, or sensing, is the operation of sense perception. It conveys to the mind images of both
the external and internal world. Like feeling, sensing can be concrete or abstract. Concrete
sensation is a reactive process: a person sees, hears, touches, or smells something and reacts to it.
Abstract sensation is proactive, mobilized by the will; it detaches itself from what is perceived
(person, thing, etc.) and concerns itself with the essence of what is perceived. Seeing the details
of a flower is an example of concrete perception; perceiving what is salient about the flower--its
brilliant color, for instance--is an example of abstract perception.
Intuition is the process of unconscious, indirect perception. The focus of this perception can
include internal or external objects, and the relationships between them. With intuitives,
something presents itself whole and complete to the mind, without any indication of where it
came from. Intuition thus derives an overall impression from a situation; a whole picture,
including a sense of where it comes from and where it may go. Jung calls intuition an
Ainstinctive apprehension,@ whereby ideas and associations are added to what is perceived.
When intuition is subjective, it refers to a person's perception of unconscious, internal psychic
data. When it is objective, it refers to subliminal perception of external data.
Like thinking and feeling, sensing and intuition are opposites. A person who is paying attention
to details will not be able to keep the overall picture in mind, while a person who seeks an overall
impression will not be able to concentrate on specifics at the same time. Therefore, if and
individual prefers and develops the intuitive mode as his main function, sensing will be repressed
and, for lack of use, undeveloped in him.
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Psychological Types
As we explained at the outset, the following description of the eight types is based on Jung's
original work, Psychological Types, first published in 1921, and in small part on Man and his
Symbols, completed a few days before his death in 1961. The descriptions are organized
according to their classification as rational or irrational functions.
Rational Judgmental Types
Jung considers thinking and feeling to be rational or judgmental functions. Judgments are
decisions, opinions or estimates as to the value, importance or relative worth of something.
Rational functions provide direction to people, based on their reflection and deliberation. The
lives of rational types are subordinated to judgments; only choices based on reason and logic are
accepted. Everything irrational and accidental is excluded.
This polar opposition leads to biases. To the rational types, the irrational (sensing and feeling)
ones appear scarcely credible. How can you orient yourselves by a hodge-podge of accidental
factors rather than by reason?, the rational types ask the others. They find it painful to think that
relationships will only last "as long as external circumstances and chance provide a common
interest" (372).
When rational types make use of their auxiliary function, their perceptions are, for the most part,
chosen and guided by rational judgment. However, antagonistic, unconscious elements of
perception are at times so strong that they disrupt the conscious rule of reason.
The nature of judgment is different when exercised by extraverted and introverted functions.
Extraverted thinking and feeling types have an outward-oriented rationality that gives their lives a
definite pattern. Their rapport with others is based on behavior generally considered to be rational
and reasonable. The subjective, individualistic aspects of their thinking are repressed. The
rationality of introverted thinking and feeling types is based on subjective, invisible, and
intangible data. This subjectivity biases their judgments, fostering misunderstandings and giving
them a tendency toward egotism.
With Extraverted Thinking types (ETs), all vital energy flows into thinking. Their thoughts are
generally logical, positive, productive, progressive and creative. They orient themselves by
external facts and objective data transmitted by sense perception and by generally accepted ideas,
equally determined by external data. However, their thinking can lead to new conceptions of
ideas and to the discovery of new facts or, through logical analysis, to new combinations of old
facts. All their activities and behaviors are thus dependent on intellectual conclusions.
What makes ETs extraverted is that "input"--the facts and ideas they work with--comes from the
outside and that "output"--the conclusions they draw from the data and ideas--is directed
outwards. When these external data overwhelm them, ETs= thinking can become rather imitative
and dull, affirming "nothing beyond what was visible and immediately present in the objective
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data in the first place" (345). In the process, they lose valuable and meaningful aspects inherent in
situations. Such dissociation of thought only ends when they use a simple idea to give coherence
to the disordered whole in order to "get back on track".
ETs have a tendency to elevate outer reality into a ruling principle or formula. This formula
contains and embodies their entire meaning of life. It is truth as they see it, and it represents their
purest conceivable formulation of outer reality. By this formula, good and evil, beauty and
ugliness, are measured. They elevate the formula into universal law which they then put into
effect everywhere, all the time, and which they themselves and others are expected to follow and
obey. Anything new that does not fit the formula is either condemned or considered an
imperfection. Viewpoints that violate the formula are considered reluctantly, if at all. Critics are
silenced through invalidation of their arguments.
If the formula is broad and encompassing, it plays a useful role in social life and has a beneficial
and favorable influence. Its oughts and musts are then not too disturbing. But if the formula
is applied in a narrow, rigid fashion, it becomes dogmatic and has negative effects. It then takes
on the character of fanaticism or intellectual superstition, with an overtone of absoluteness. Those
closest to the ET are the first to taste the unpleasant consequences of this formula. The majority
of ETs move in between these two extremes. Because they cannot guide their entire life by one
formula, sooner or later they will feel disturbed by it, will consequently modify it, and will then
rationalize the modification.
Feeling, the inferior function, is opposed to the conscious aims of the ET's formula and therefore
becomes greatly distorted. ETs feelings may grow sullen, resentful and mistrustful, their voices
sharp, and their behavior aggressive. "Their sanction is: the end justifies the means. Only an
inferior feeling function, operating unconsciously and in secret, could seduce otherwise reputable
men into such aberrations" (349). Inferiority of feeling also shows itself in other ways: in poor
taste, neglect of family and friends, in over-sensitivity, or prejudices.
Extraverted Feeling types (EFs) are guided in their lives by feeling. Feeling has a personal
quality: "In my view, the extraverted feeling type has really the chief claim to individualized
feeling, because his feelings are differentiated" (283). Due to its extraverted nature, the
personality of this type adjusts itself to and harmonizes with external conditions, objective
situations, and commonly held values. Thus, although feeling is individualized, it subordinates
itself entirely to the influence of external circumstances, "the object being the indispensable
determinant of the quality of feeling" (354).
The following may seem like a paradox, difficult for other types to understand, but EFs feel
moved to call a painting beautiful, not because they find it so in their deepest inner being, "but
because it is fitting and politic to call it so, since a contrary judgment would upset the general
feeling situation" (355). To EFs it is therefore most important to establish an intense feeling of
rapport with their environment through inner acts of adjustment. It is they who fill the theatres,
concerts, and galleries; it is they who support social, philanthropic and cultural institutions; and it
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is they who go with the fashion and trends of the time. Without them, Jung says, a harmonious
social life would be impossible.
EFs are good companions, excellent parents, and suitable mates, because they measure up to all
reasonable expectations. Their feelings are genuine, if without passion--that is, without suffering
or agony, which characterize the deeper feelings of the EFs opposite, the IT. Passionate feelings,
Jung says, are an instinctive force common to all; this form of feeling is undifferentiated, and
hence not individualized.
The more EFs consider external events and situations important, the more their individual
personalities become lost and dissolved into the feeling of the moment. The personal, warm and
genuine quality of feeling then disappears and turns cold, "unfeeling," and artificial. It no longer
speaks to the heart, but becomes "padding for a situation, but there it stops, and beyond that its
effect is nil" (356).
In addition, because life presents a constant succession of situations that evoke feelings, the EF's
personality can get split into many different feeling states, resulting in "self-disunity." The
expression of feeling is then no longer personal, but appears as a mood, manifesting itself in
"extravagant displays of feeling, gushing talk, loud expostulations, etc., which ring hollow" (358)
and which the observer cannot take seriously.
EFs must therefore be careful not to have their personalities swallowed up in successive feeling
states. Thinking disturbs feeling. What EFs cannot feel, they cannot consciously think. When
asked what they think, they are likely to begin their reply with "I feel that...". Conclusions based
on thinking, when they disturb feelings, are rejected. Thinking is only tolerated as a servant of
feeling. For that reason it appears infantile, archaic, and negative.

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Introverted Thinking types (ITs) like to create ideas, formulate theories, and open up new
prospects or insights. These are not triggered by external sources but by contemplation of inner
images and conceptions. ITs are not concerned with the intellectual reconstruction of concrete
facts, but with shaping the inner images they perceive into luminous ideas. Facts are collected
only to illustrate their ideas, to present them as evidence, or to see how they fit or fill in the idea.
Indeed, translating an initial image into an idea that fits external facts is one of the main
weaknesses of ITs. They are inclined to force facts to fit their ideas, or else to ignore them.
Basically they delight in using their powers of thinking to create new abstract ideas for the ideas=
own sake, regardless of external validity or practical applicability. Traditional or commonly
shared ideas do not interest them; likewise, they are indifferent or averse to anything practical or
experiential, rarely applying their ideas to real-world situations. The reason for this is that ITs
have no idea of how their abstract thoughts connect to reality--unlike ETs, whose concrete
thoughts do sustain such a connection.
ITs value their conscious, intense inner lives and try to shut out all external influences. They love
contemplation, reflection and solitude. Such a peaceful state allows them to immerse themselves
in the process of assimilating and understanding ideas. They can then use their intellect to think
out problems to the limit, admittedly complicating them at times. But they never shrink from a
risky or unpleasant idea, nor "from thinking a thought because it might prove to be dangerous,
subversive, heretical, or wounding to other people's feelings" (384).
Because of their captivating inner preoccupations, ITs place their relations to other people at a
secondary level of importance. Yet they appreciate good arguments, and one can talk to them in a
reasonable and coherent manner. They annex others' meanings to their own thoughts without
attempting to press their convictions on those others. But they never yield to opposing arguments,
and can respond quite viciously if their own ideas are criticized, however just that criticism may
be. At the same time, they are afraid of the disagreeable effects they produce through their own
criticisms because they believe others to be as sensitive as they are themselves. They cling to
their own convictions in a rigid, stubborn, and headstrong way, impervious to influence. They
will not go out of their way to win anyone's appreciation, especially anyone of influence. If others
cannot understand their ideas, ITs consider them stupid, failing to understand that their own
thoughts are not clear to everyone. When they do feel that they have been understood, and
believe their ideas to be accepted, they can easily overestimate their own abilities.
Nevertheless, the better one knows ITs, the more favorable one's judgment of them becomes.
Close friends value being on intimate terms with them. To avoid becoming isolated, ITs become
quite dependent on these relationships. However, if they cannot form close friendships, their
"originally fertilizing ideas become destructive, poisoned by the sediment of bitterness" (386).
Outsiders and casual acquaintances perceive ITs to be rather prickly, taciturn, gauche,
inconsiderate, unapproachable, arrogant, domineering, and unsympathetic. Professionally, they
provoke the most violent opposition; because ITs do not know how to deal with antagonism, they
often make colleagues feel superfluous. Usually though, they try to act polite and kind in order to
disarm and pacify opponents so that the latter do not become bothersome.
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When ITs get lost in their own immense inner world of ideas and truths, they may act
extraordinarily unpractical. As a result, their work proceeds slowly and with difficulty. "[Their]
style is cluttered with all sorts of adjuncts, accessories, qualifications, retractions, saving clauses,
doubts" (385). They let themselves be brutalized and exploited in order to gain the peace they
need to pursue their ideas. Every so often, others get to see the fruits of their deliberations. But
frequently, they merely Adump@ their ideas, without much patience . If these ideas fail to thrive
on their own account, or if they vanish behind a cloud of misunderstanding, ITs easily get
annoyed.
The ITs= inferior function is feeling. They are tormented by their emotions and bottle up their
feelings to the point of becoming completely overwrought. Believing their feelings to be unique,
they fail to realize that extreme emotion possesses little that is individual. The more their thinking
function is consciously activated, the more their feeling function is prey to unconscious fantasies.
"In contrast therefore, to [their] logical and well-knit consciousness, [their] affective life is
elemental, confused and ungovernable" (155). They become unreasonably inflexible in things
that touch their emotions, and their judgment appears arbitrary and ruthless. They prefer to keep
their feelings to themselves, or else to express them in rational terms ("Let me think about how I
feel!@).
Introverted Feeling types (IFs) feel everything, just as ITs think everything. In some respects,
the two types are very much alike, particularly with regard to the outside world. In typical
introverted fashion, both of them underrate and dismiss the object without paying much attention
to it. The world serves merely as a stimulus to generate intense feelings; otherwise, IFs shrink
back from it. They prefer to seek inspiration primarily from the fathomless store of primordial
images which have no existence in reality. These images can be as much ideas as feelings, but
each significant idea has feeling values attached to it (e.g., God, freedom, immortality).
Jung points out that it is difficult to give an intellectual account of the positive feeling process. "A
more than ordinary descriptive or artistic ability@ is needed Abefore the real wealth of this feeling
can even be approximately presented or communicated to the world" (388). Seldom appearing on
the surface, the depth of such feeling can be guessed, but never grasped, and its existence only
inferred indirectly. In communicating with others, IFs have to externalize their feelings in a way
that arouses a parallel feeling in others. Otherwise, they feel misunderstood and become silent
and inaccessible. Yet Jung claims that the peculiar nature of IFs gains clarity once one becomes
aware of it.
In the normal IF type, the ego, center of consciousness, is subordinated to images that arise from
the unconscious. In this case, the outward demeanor [of the individual] is harmonious,
inconspicuous, giving an impression of pleasing repose, or of sympathetic response, with no
desire to affect others, to impress, influence, or change them in any way" (389). IFs observe a
benevolent though critical neutrality, but are mostly silent and inaccessible, keeping their true
motives to themselves, often hiding behind a childish or banal mask, inclined to melancholy,
neither exposing nor revealing themselves.
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Although IFs display "a constant readiness for peaceful and harmonious co-existence, strangers
are shown no touch of amiability, no gleam of responsive warmth, but are met with apparent
indifference or repelling coldness" (389). IFs restrict feeling relationships to a safe middle path,
curtailing expressions of affection and making no effort to respond to the real emotions of others.
When they feel threatened, they assume an air of profound indifference and "a faint trace of
superiority that soon takes the wind out of the sails of a sensitive person" (389), causing him to
feel superfluous and undervalued.
With abnormal IF types, when their feelings are distorted by egotism, or when they fall into their
inferior thinking function, causing them to feel overwhelmed by the outside world, their
mysterious power of intense feeling can turn into bossiness, and their sense of harmony ceases.
They then try to express their feelings through others, by letting their intense emotions flow into
them and by overpowering them with their feelings. Such domineering behavior becomes a
stifling and oppressive, extending its influence to everybody around them. This mysterious power
can stem from deeply felt unconscious images which IFs sometimes believe to be their own.
When this occurs, their feeling power turns into a banal desire to dominate. Unconscious thinking
can also project itself into open opposition: "other people are thinking all sorts of mean things,
scheming evil, contriving plots, [hatching] secret intrigues" (391). These projections then need to
be forestalled through counter-intrigues and suspicions.
Irrational Perceptive Types
Jung calls the two other functions, sensing and intuition, irrational--that is, undirected,
perceptive, and lacking the power of reason. The irrational is beyond reason; judgments are
unintelligible. People with an irrational dominant function will go with the flux of events, react to
every occurrence, and lack direction by logic. Although they become progressively aware of what
is happening around them, they do not interpret or evaluate what they perceive, and often behave
in ways that are illogical and contrary to reason. All rational communication is alien and repellent
to them. They establish rapport through common perceptions and experiences. This does not
mean that irrational types have no judgmental functions. They do, if they have a pronounced
auxiliary function, but often the sheer intensity of their perceptions allows no time for judgments.
The irrational types are naturally biased against the rational types, whom they regard with
suspicion and believe to be only half-alive, and "whose sole aim is to fasten the fetters of reason
on everything living and strangle it with judgments" (371). They find it difficult to understand
how one can put rational ideas above actual, live happenings, and generally find the rational types
unreliable and hard to get along with.
In the extraverted mode, perceptions focus on events as they happen. What arises from within is
not accorded much significance. Introverted irrational types experience and perceive inwardly.
What goes on within them is inaccessible to judgment from the outside. Because they lack
reason, and thus conviction, they find it hard to translate their inner perceptions into intelligible
language. This limits their capacity for expression and communication. "From an extraverted and
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rationalistic standpoint, these types are indeed the most useless of men" (404), Jung writes. Yet,
he continues, they are not blinded by the intellectual fashion of the day and do not fall into the
trap of overestimating human communication.
Extraverted Sensing types (ESs) are conspicuously well-adjusted to reality. They are drawn to
things in life that are touchable, visible, detectable, discernible, perceptible, and palpable. In
short, they are interested in reality as it is, in pure sense perception: "no other human type can
equal the extraverted sensation type in realism" (363). All concrete objects and processes
perceived with their senses enter into their consciousness. They hear and see everything to the
limits of their physiological ability; their sensitivity to the outside world is extraordinarily
developed. They value things and people, facts and data, to the extent that they excite sensations.
The more intense the sensation produced--and it does not have to be pleasurable--the more value
ESs assign to it.
The phrase "real life lived to the full" (363) characterizes ESs. They are easygoing, sociable,
quite likeable, and considerate of others. They have no desire to dominate. They can be quite
jolly, know how to enjoy themselves, and are able to differentiate their sensations to the finest
pitch of aesthetic purity and good taste. Their love, too, "is unquestionably rooted in the physical
attractions of its object" (364). ESs know how to dress well, as befits the occasion, and keep a
good table for their friends.
When ESs are in bondage to the object--when the object takes over and they are only out to
stimulate their senses--their less differentiated functions come into play and show less agreeable
tendencies. ESs can then turn quite mean, developing into crude pleasure seekers who ruthlessly
exploit an object and squeeze it dry, with a morality that is oriented accordingly. Due to the
archaic nature of their weakest function, intuition, they project onto others: "The wildest
suspicions arise; if the object is a sexual one, jealous fantasies and anxiety states gain the upper
hand" (365). When their judgmental functions, thinking and feeling, are undeveloped, "reason
turns into hair-splitting pedantry, morality into dreary moralizing...religion into ridiculous
superstition" (365).
ESs do not notice glaring violations of logic. They also have little inclination for reflection. This
makes them quite credulous; they accept everything that happens indiscriminately, without
rational judgment. Thus they make little use of the experiences they accumulate, treating them
instead as starting points for fresh sensations. Many people, ESs included, mistake their highly
developed sense of reality for rationality--which it is not. Further, because they lack intuition,
they show no interest in conjectures that go beyond concrete sensuous reality; and because they
are extraverted and can only receive from the outside, anything that comes from inside is
perceived as morbid and suspect.
Extraverted Intuitives (ENs), like all extraverts, are totally outward-directed. Yet their
psychology is different--rather peculiar and difficult to grasp, though unmistakable. Unlike the
ESs, who are very conscious of what they perceive, ENs= dependence on external conditions is,
in the main, an unconscious process. Unconscious perception "is represented in consciousness by
15

an attitude of expectancy, by vision and penetration" (366). ENs have an eye for the soul,
essence, and heart of things. Yet what they see in people or things may be entirely what they read
into them. For Ens, intuition is an active and creative process, triggered by the object. It allows
them to perceive relationships between things or matters, to have specific insights into people or
situations, to peer around corners or gaze beyond the horizon. Unlike ESs, who are guided by
their strongest sensations, ENs never know which stimuli will make an impression on their
unconscious minds. Their visions are a kind of fate.
ENs are keenly interested in trying to discover the possibilities inherent in external situations.
Apprehending and envisioning a wide range of possibilities gives members of this type their
highest satisfaction: "nascent possibilities are compelling motives from which intuition cannot
escape and to which all else must be sacrificed" (368). This constant act of sniffing and ferreting
out new possibilities and fresh outlets in external life gives ENs a keen nose for things new and in
the making. Business tycoons, entrepreneurs, speculators, stockbrokers, promoters, and
politicians are often ENs, Jung writes.
The ENs capacity to inspire courage and kindle enthusiasm in others is unrivalled, as long as the
situation holds their interest. Then their whole personality and existence is absorbed by the
project, which they tackle with utmost intensity and enthusiasm. It is ENs who have the ability to
bring their visions to life, and to present them convincingly and with dramatic fire. Stable,
normal, and routine conditions suffocate them. When confronted with such conditions, they
generally choose either to abandon them without regret or, if forced to endure them, to fall into a
disinterested stupor. Ordinary, preexisting situations constitute a prison for them, a locked room
from which they must escape by discovering new possibilities.
Although ENs generally have little consideration for the welfare, lifestyle, and convictions of
others, socially they are quite well adapted. They are able to exploit social occasions, make the
right connections, and seek out people who might be useful to them by making an intuitive
diagnosis of their abilities and potentialities. When they are on the scent of a new possibility,
however, their concern for their own and others= welfare diminishes, and they pursue their aim
without taking much note of personal consequences.
Sensing is the EN's inferior function because it prevents "naive," unconscious perception. When
thinking and feeling are undeveloped (that is, when judgment is lacking), these processes carry
no weight. They cannot frighten ENs away from new possibilities or influence their morality,
which consists mainly of loyalty to their vision. The inferior functions bring about unconscious,
archaic impulses: intense projections, compulsive tendencies, sexual suspicions, and forebodings
of illness or financial ruin.
The stronger their intuition, the more ENs become fused with the possibilities they envision.
They may thus fritter away their lives, moving from one possibility to the next, showing others
the abundant promise of each new situation, but never reaping any benefits themselves, always
going away empty-handed. They rely entirely on their sixth sense to exploit the possibilities that
chance throws their way.
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Introverted Sensing types (ISs), like other introverted types, are merely stimulated by what
takes place outside of themselves. Nevertheless, they are also dependent on the object. In contrast
to ITs or INs, who can generate images without outside influence, ISs perceptions depend greatly
on external stimuli. What they see and hear, however, undergoes considerable modification. They
add their subjective dispositions to objective stimuli; in other words, they add their very own
unconscious reactions to what they perceive. This alters their sense perception at its sourceas
though [they] were seeing [things] quite differently, or saw quite other things than other people
see" (394).
This peculiar nature of ISs requires amplification. Basically, they perceive the same things
everybody else does. But they do not stop there. They also add their personal meaning, which
they perceive as clinging to things or people. What they see may not be found in the things at all;
or it may merely be suggested. It is impossible to guess in advance, which things or people will
make an impression on them. Here they are strictly guided by the intensity of their sensation.
Jung claims that they can apprehend the background of what they see, rather than the mere
surface, and transmit images which do "not so much reproduce the object as spread over it the
patina of age-old subjective experience and the shimmer of events still unborn. The bare sense
perceptions develop in depth, reaching into the past and future" (395).
Probably because their perceptions are often different from reality, ISs are incapable of giving a
good account of what they perceive. Others will not easily understand them, nor do ISs often
understand themselves. They are at the mercy of their perceptions and, as a rule, have resigned
themselves to their isolation. Outwardly they appear as calm, passive, and neutral, showing little
sympathy yet constantly striving to soothe and adjust to keep the influence of the object within
bounds: "the too low is raised a little, the too high is lowered, enthusiasm is damped down,
extravagance restrained" (397). Thus ISs, for the most part, remain divorced from things and
people. People feel diminished in their presence. Jung maintains that ISs easily become victims
of others' aggression. They "allow themselves to be abused and then take their revenge on the
most unsuitable occasions" (397).
ISs are classified as irrational because they orient themselves by what happens in life and, if
thinking and feeling are unconscious, organize their impressions in an archaic way, without
judgment. If the two rational functions become momentarily conscious, ISs sense the difference
as morbid and remain generally faithful to their irrationality. At best, thinking and feeling result
in the most necessary and ordinary means of expression. Thus "the normal type will be compelled
to act in accordance with the unconscious model. Such action has an illusory character unrelated
to objective reality and is extremely disconcerting" (396). In extreme cases, the outside world
will appear to the IS as make-believe, and a giant theatrical production.
Intuition, ISs inferior function, is repressed. "This archaicized intuition has an amazing flair for
all the ambiguous, shadowy, sordid, dangerous possibilities lurking in the background" (398).
The properties of Intuition would contrast glaringly with the well-meaning and gullible
harmlessness of this type.
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Introverted Intuitives (INs) are peculiar types. Like other introverts, their attention and interest
is inner-directed. Unlike ISs, though, who need reality to give them ideas which they then follow
and enhance inwardly, INs draw from their unconscious. The unconscious coexists with the
conscious psyche; it is constantly undergoing transformation because it is connected to external
life. The images and visions arising from INs= unconscious are therefore not their own. Rather,
they are age-old images and archetypes stored in the collective unconscious. These are inherited,
accumulated life-experiences that go back to primeval times. Jung believes that these archetypal
patterns are part of our psyche. In INs they become activated in the form of images and visions.
INs then move from image to image, each arising from "the teeming womb of the unconscious
[in] inexhaustible abundance by the creative energy of life" (400).
When the impetus of perception comes from the outside, rather than from the unconscious, INs
can quickly see the inner image of what the external object releases in them. They can peer
behind the scenes and explore every detail of the image, holding fast to it and observing with
fascination how it unfolds, changes, and finally fades. When they communicate the image they
see, it usually has little reality or practical value, and is generally written off by others as a
fruitless fantasy. Jung points out that these inner images can be just as conscious and real to INs
as outer reality is to other types. The only difference is that inner reality is not physical but
psychic.
INs are misunderstood even more frequently than other introverts.. Theirs is not a language many
people can relate to. They appear to be wise simpletons and mystical dreamers, seers, or cranks.
Though they proclaim and foresee new possibilities in more or less clear outline, their arguments
lack conviction, and they are so far-removed from reality that they seem strange and weird, even
to their friends. Nevertheless, what they perceive are "possible views of the world which may
give life a new potential" (400); they "can supply certain data which may be of the utmost
importance for understanding what is going on in the world" (401)
When the auxiliary judging function, thinking or feeling, is pronounced, INs tend to reflect on the
meaning of their visions. Through judgment, they see themselves as somehow involved in their
visions, and become participants rather than mere spectators. They may even feel bound to apply
the visions to their own life. But as a rule, Jung states, INs stop at perception.
The INs= inferior function is Extraverted Sensing. Their perception of the outside world is
repressed and compensatory in nature, lending their unconscious personality a rather low,
primitive, and archaic character. "Instinctuality and intemperance are the hallmarks of this
sensation, combined with an extraordinary dependence on sense-impressions" (402). However,
sensation gives normal INs enough consciousness to make them aware of their own bodily
existence and its effect on others.
Differentiation
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Differentiation means becoming different. It involves the development of distinct differences.


Jung applies the concept of differentiation mainly to psychological functions. He distinguishes
among primary, secondary, and undifferentiated functions. Among the latter he includes the
inferior, or least preferred, function, which lags furthest behind in the process of differentiation.
He also writes on the development of functions, the process he calls individuation. Related to
differentiation is the idea of psychic energy, which determines the intensity of the workings of
the psyche. Each of these concepts will be discussed separately.
Differentiation of Functions
The notion of differentiation of functions is not easy to understand. While Jung is clear and
definite on some aspects of the concept, he is less clear, and at times contradictory, on others.
Basically, differentiation means the separation of one or more functions from the collective
psyche. Conversely, lack of differentiation means the fusion or merging of functions with one
another. When two functions are continually mixed up, when they do not exist separately, each in
its own right, the situation incessantly leads to ambivalences and opposed tendencies, inhibitions
and irrelevancies, lack of direction or poor guidance. For example, when feeling and thinking, or
sensing and intuition, are of equal strength, they both try to exert power over consciousness. This
indicates that both functions are relatively undeveloped and undifferentiated, regardless of
whether they are consciously directed or unconsciously followed. When people are
undifferentiated, their personalities disappear "beneath the wrappings of collectivity" (10). To
discover the nature and scope of their own personalities and individual characters, people have to
free themselves from collective opinion. If we are only collective, Jung writes, we are no longer
distinct individuals, but simply species, estranged from ourselves.
When the mechanism of extraversion predominates, Jung states, "the most differentiated function
is always employed in an extraverted way, whereas the inferior functions are introverted" (340).
The reverse also holds true. When the mechanism of introversion predominates, the most
differentiated function is employed in an introverted way, whereas the inferior functions are
extraverted. While the less differentiated functions of the extravert "show a highly subjective
coloring with pronounced egocentricity and personal bias" (341), those of the introvert are
outward-directed, in all their imperfections.
An illustration may be helpful. Consider Figure 1. It shows the personality profile of Jane Smith.
The upper "box" contains the two judgmental functions, thinking and feeling, while the lower
box contains the two perceptive functions, sensing and intuition. The four extraverted functions
are displayed on the left side, the four introverted functions on the right. We will refer to Jane's
profile throughout the sections that follow.

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Figure 1: Personality Profile of Jane Smith


Dominant Function
Experience shows, Jung says, "that the basic psychological functions seldom or never all have the
same strength or degree of development in the same individual" (346). One of the functions is
likely to dominate, in both strength and development.
In Jane's case, the dominant function is intuition. Intuition has the longest bar overall, a good
measure of the strength of a function, and the longest of the four bars on the extraverted side.
Jane would therefore be considered an EN. As one can see from the profile, Jane is neither
strongly extraverted nor introverted. Two of the four functions have longer bars on the
introverted side (IT and IF). Only intuition is predominantly extraverted.
Jung regards voluntary differentiation, "a conscious capacity for one-sidedness ... [as] a sign of
the highest culture" (207). For one thing, it allows people intentionally to keep out of the way of
their inferior functions. Thus a person who has only sensing dominant would consciously abstain
from making predictions about the future, a strength of the intuitive, but would instead suggest
alternatives to problems firmly rooted in experience. For another thing, people who identify with
one function can also deliberately invest it with all the psychic energy they have at their disposal.
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By implication, this means that, when they do so, the other functions will be starved of energy
and "gradually sink below the threshold of consciousness, lose their associative connection with
it, and finally lapse into the unconscious" (298). Here they regress, becoming infantile and
archaic. When they become activated while in this state, they disturb the directed dominant
function and bring about a state of personality dissociation.
However, having a dominant function is by no means always beneficial or desirable. If a
dominant function is not voluntary, not conscious, not under the control of a person's will, it is
what Jung refers to as an involuntary dominant function. In such a case, the individual identifies
with only one function. There is no backup, no secondary function. Jung calls this state
compulsive, untamed, uncontrolled, and undomesticated; a one-sided Aquarter psyche:@ "the
other three quarters languish in the darkness of repression and inferiority" (100). People who
meet this definition "barbarously" overvalue their one function and consider themselves highly
differentiated. Yet they are actually in a collective state, in that they conform to collective
demands and general expectations, lacking the ability to be anything but one-sided.
Auxiliary Function
Jung states that "besides the most differentiated function, another, less differentiated function of
auxiliary importance is invariably present in consciousness and exerts a co-determining
influence" (405). This means that the auxiliary function, like the dominant one, is consciously
under the control of the will and thus able to orient a person. In such an instance, it has clear
aims, allowing it to guide and motivate action.
In Jane's case, judging by the length of the bars, the auxiliary function is thinking. Since her
thinking is more introverted than extraverted, her auxiliary function is IT. This means that she
can "check out", think through, possibilities she sees "out there" in the world. Her IT function
would allow her to detect meaning and significance for herself; her ET function would help her to
explain her vision logically to others.
Although the auxiliary function complements the dominant function, it is always different from
it, Jung states, and never opposes it. Thus feeling cannot be an auxiliary function to thinking;
only sensing or intuition can. Rational judgmental functions, therefore, pair with irrational
perceptive ones. Nevertheless, Jung makes it quite clear that the auxiliary function can never be
as important, reliable, or decisive as the dominant one. If the auxiliary function should reach the
level of the dominant, the judgmental and perceptive character of the two functions would
simultaneously vie for attention, resulting in lack of differentiation. Thus "the auxiliary function
is possible and useful only insofar as it serves the dominant function" (406).
Undifferentiated Functions
While the dominant and auxiliary functions are under intentional control and represent an
expression of our conscious personality, the less differentiated functions are, at least partially,
unconscious. They always have some measure of consciousness attached to them, and aid
conscious personality--its aims, will and performance--to some extent, Jung writes. Only the
21

inferior function remains barely conscious, particularly if the dominant function is really
dominant and retains a small share of available psychic energy.
In Jane's case, ET, IN, and IF are somewhat pronounced, thus somewhat conscious. Indeed, ET
can be considered an auxiliary function to EN on the extraverted side, since it is clearly
differentiated from EF and ES, both of which are relatively undeveloped. On the introverted side,
IF and IN are almost of equal strength. They are both somewhat conscious, and will vie for
attention in assisting IT, the dominating introverted function. Sensing is clearly the least preferred
function; it has the shortest bar and is undeveloped in the introverted and extraverted attitude.
This means that the two descriptions of the ES and IS given earlier will not apply to Jane--they
define what Jane is not. Sensing is her weakness.
Jung links differentiation to consciousness and intent, and lack of differentiation to
unconsciousness and spontaneity: "the unconscious...is a neutral region of the psyche where
everything that is divided and antagonistic in consciousness flows together into groupings and
configurations" (113). This material constantly surfaces into consciousness "to such a degree that
at times it is hard for the observer to decide which character traits belong to the conscious and
which to the unconscious personality" (341). By contrast, "conscious contents can become
unconscious through loss of their energic value" (484); this process leads to forgetfulness and
fading memories.
Psychic Energy
Why is it, Jung asks, that the dominating function is intense in one person and rather weak in
another? The answer he attributes to libido, or psychic energy: "the intensity of the dominant
function seems to me to be directly dependent on the degree of tension in the propensity to act"
(287). The higher the psychic tension, the more energy can flow into the dominant function.
High psychic energy can thus result in a highly charged dominant function. Put differently, the
intensity of the dominant function depends on the amount of accumulated, disposable libido. This
does not mean that the output of this function is always of positive value, a point worth
remembering. Differentiated thinking, for example, may well be superficial and shallow. Nor is
the energy produced by the functions, but rather by the attitudes. Attitudes energize functions.
Jung is specific about the effect of energy on attitudes. Introversion is generally characterized by
an intense dominant function, he contends, and by a correspondingly long auxiliary function. In
contrast, extraversion is characterized by a more relaxed, and therefore weaker, dominant
function and a correspondingly short auxiliary function. As with all energy, psychic tension
eventually lessens: "when with increasing fatigue the tension slackens, distractibility and
superficiality of association appear...a condition characterized by a weak dominant and a short
auxiliary function" (287).
In terms of psychic energy, Jane=s profile is difficult to interpret. It is possible that her dominant
function, EN, is not very intense, and that her auxiliary function, IT, is short. Still, as mentioned
22

above,, it is not clear whether Jane should be classified as an extravert simply because her
dominant function is oriented that way. Overall, her profile looks rather balanced between the
two attitudes. It could well be that her IT function is rather intense. Also, as mentioned, the
profile itself gives little indication of the quality of the conscious functions. Jane could be a
highly successful stockbroker, sniffing out and betting on the future after carefully checking out
the logic and reasoning behind her visions. Her intuition could also be restricted to more
mundane things, like the weather or news, and her thinking to more trivial pursuits, like
organizing her day=s activities.
Libido therefore divides into two streams, which alternately flow inward or outward. At times,
the outward stream opposes the inward and conflict results. The two impulses are difficult to
govern because of their overwhelming power. Jung calls a person cultured when he can tame the
libido "to the point where he can follow its introverting or extraverting movement of his own free
will and intention" (208). The taming process thus involves the will: "I regard the will as the
amount of psychic energy at the disposal of consciousness" (486). When the will is not brought to
bear and the psychic process is conditioned by unconscious motivation, Jung writes, an
uncultured, primitive mentality results.
Development of Functions
Development of functions should proceed by way of one auxiliary function; for instance, "in case
of the rational type via one of the irrational functions" (407). It is useless to develop the inferior
function, the opposite of the dominant function, Jung states, because this process would involve
"too great a violation of the conscious standpoint" (407). Thus a thinking type should work on
developing either the sensing or the intuitive function, but not the feeling one.
It strikes us that all extraverts would have to go against their stream of psychic energy in trying to
develop their introverted function. The more pronounced their extraversion, the more they would
dislike the process of developing an inner function. It may be more logical, and may make
intuitively more sense, to develop an auxiliary function for the same mechanism. Extraverts with
a rational dominant function (thinking or feeling) should develop an auxiliary irrational
extraverted function (sensing or intuition). Similarly, introverts should develop an auxiliary
introverted function. This does not mean that the opposite attitude should not also be developed.
It would be particularly useful for introverts, who, after all, have to orient themselves in the
external world.
Jane may therefore want to develop both thinking functions. The tertiary and least preferred
functions, however, are more difficult to develop. Her EF, ES and IS functions are all less
preferred. According to Jung, there is not much that someone like Jane can do to develop them,
although she might work out a set of elementary skills to compensate for their lack of
development. For example, Jane can learn some basic Arules of etiquette@ for her low EF
function, and become more aware of how she makes use of her five senses.
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Individuation
Jung defines Individuation as "the process by which individual beings are formed and
differentiated" (448). It is the impulse or urge toward uniqueness and self-realization, the process
of consciously "coming to terms with one's own inner center (psychic nucleus) or Self" (166).
This imperceptible process of psychic growth, Jung claims, leads to a wider and more mature
personality and to increased personal effectiveness.
In terms of type, individuation is a process whereby the functions are differentiated. Improving
and fine-tuning the dominant function, peeling away an auxiliary function, or developing a
tertiary function would be examples of individuation. In this sense, individuation is personality
development through type.
Every individual is also partly collective in nature. The collective norm is made up of the totality
of individual ways. Thus no individual standpoint can ever be completely antagonistic to the
collective social norm, since it is part of that norm-- only differently oriented. Therefore, says
Jung, individuals should try to remain distinct and separate from the norm on the one hand, and
continue to be oriented toward social norms on the other hand.
Achieving a balance between the development of one=s individual character and a social
personality is not easy. If someone is too far removed from social norms, she can become
isolated; if her behavior completely conforms with those norms, she ceases to exist as an
individual. Before a person embarks on the process of individuation, Jung writes, she must first
become adapted to the necessary minimum of collective norms.
Typing
Jung acknowledges that his descriptions of types are somewhat terse, and not always
understandable on first reading. In addition, he admits, "No one, I trust, will draw the conclusion
from my description...that I believe the four or eight types here presented to be the only ones that
exist." Nevertheless, Jung insists that "it would be difficult to adduce evidence against the
existence of psychological types." (489-90) He stresses that his typology is the product of many
years of practical experience, not an outcome of Aundisturbed hours in the study@ (xiii). Each
sentence, he says, has been tested a hundredfold in practice.
"My typology,@ Jung writes, does not "stick labels on people on first sight," a practice he
believes to be nothing but a childish game. Rather, it deals "with the organization and
delimitation of psychic processes that can be shown to be typical" (xv). Because typology is
derived from individual behavior, Jung continues, it touches on personal and intimate matters,
and is therefore contradictory. He claims that the great diversity of individual psychic
dispositions he encountered in the course of his professional practice made him aware of a Aneed
[to establish] some kind of order among the chaotic multiplicity of points of view" (xiv).
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Jungs typology is one of many possible ways of viewing life, a small contribution to the almost
infinite variations and gradations of individual psychology. Yet Jung is convinced that a thorough
understanding of type helps people settle conflicts, comprehend other standpoints, and free
themselves from their own type. Given the fact that, as he puts it, "people are virtually incapable
of understanding and accepting any point of view other than their own, knowledge of type
enables them to become conscious of their own partiality and abstain from "heaping abuse,
suspicion, and indignity upon [their] opponent" (489).
As we see it, the initial challenge lies in gaining a solid understanding of type theory and
observing type in action. When one uses type theory as a focus, as a way of looking at people, its
power gradually reveals itself.
References
Cranton, P. (1998). Personal Empowerment through Type. Sneedville, TN: Psychological Type
Press.
Cranton, P. (Ed.) (1998). Psychological type in action. Sneedville, TN: Psychological Type Press.
Jung, C. (1971). Psychological types. Princeton: Princeton University Press. (originally published
in 1921.)
Jung, C. (Ed.). (1964). Man and his symbols. New York: Doubleday.
Keirsey, D., & Bates, M. (1984). Please understand me: Character and temperament types. Del
Mar, CA: Prometheus Nemesis Books.
Myers, I. B. (1985). Gifts differing. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Sharp, D. (1987). Personality types: Jung's model of typology. Toronto: Inner City Books.

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