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World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 69 2010

Emotional Intelligence: The Relationship


between Self-Regard and Communication
Effectiveness
Hassan Jorfi, Saeid Jorfi, Hashim Fauzy Bin Yaccob, Ishak Mad Shah

Self-regard plays an important role in emotional


intelligence .Self-regard is individuals perception of
themselves .The self concept can be an agent and motivates
individuals to take on an action .Those people who see
themselves positively tend to engage in communicating with
others and doing a better work in connecting with others .A
study showed that self-regard is positively correlated with
emotional intelligence [34]. In other Words, individuals with
high self-regard tend to have higher emotional intelligence and
this action lead to improve communication effectiveness.The
goal of introducing instruction emotional intelligence with
communication effectiveness was to expose managers and
employees to a framework that describes specific
competencies needed for educational administration. People
with high self-regard are likely to have good communication,
and will probably be successful in anything they decide to do .
On the other hand, people with low self regard are likely to
have a hard time in communication with others.

AbstractIn today's complex global environment, emotional


intelligence in educational administrations encompasses self-regard
that is formed to utilize communication effectiveness.The paper is
undertaken to understand the relationship between managers
emotional intelligence especially self-regard and employees to
improve communication effectiveness in educational administrations
of Iran. Data (N = 145) for this study were collected through
questionnaires that participants were managers and employees
educational administrations of Iran. The aim of this paper assess the
emotional intelligence especially self-regard of managers and
employees and its relationship with communication effectiveness in
educational administrations of Iran .This paper explained self-regard
that has a high relationship with communication especially
communication effectiveness. Self-regard plays an important role in
communication effectiveness. Individuals with high self-regard tend
to have higher emotional intelligence and this action lead to improve
communication effectiveness.The result of the paper shows a strong
correspondence
between
self-regard
and
communication
effectiveness in educational administrations.
KeywordsEmotional
Intelligence,
Communication Effectiveness, Motivation.

Self-Regard,

II. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE

I. INTRODUCTION
Matthewas defined emotional intelligence as individuals
way that leads to experience emotions and it can manage their
emotions while communicating with others [21]. Researchers
as Goleman and Matthewas assert that emotional intelligence
plays an important role to perception how person carries
himself and connects with others [12, 21]. Also Matthewas
expressed that individuals emotional intelligence level
reflects the value of communication with others [21]. The term
of emotional intelligence appeared by Daniel Goleman, a
science writer for the New York Times and a Harvard trained
psychologist in the beginningof twenty century and became
famous during the 1990s .Daniel Goleman developed the
term of emotional intelligence in his book in 1995s .The book
was under the title :Why It Can Matter More Than IQ for
Character, Health and Lifelong Achievement. Dulewicz and
Higgs and Langley (2000) believe that emotional intelligence
plays key role in psychology and it has direct relating with
communication effectiveness for develop the organizations
[35, 36]. Cherniss and Dries & Pepermans argue that
emotional intelligence improved organizational performance
that is relating with career development strategies in the

HE literature indicates recent applications of emotional

intelligence especially self-regard and how they can


improve communication effectiveness .This manuscript
describes emotional intelligence of managers and employees
of educational administration have a direct role to improve
communication effectiveness. According to Goleman et al the
definition of emotional intelligence is the ability to handle
manners so that they are expressed effectively, enabling
individual to work together smoothly against their general
[13].

Hassan Jorfi. Management and Human Resource Development Faculty.


University Technology Malaysia (UTM). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
(0060176125344,
00989163007040,
fax:
0612222-4300.
E-mail:
haassan_jorfee@ yahoo.com, Hassan.jorfi@yahoo.com).
Saeid Jorfi, Management Faculty. University Technology Malaysia
(UTM). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. (E-mail: said_jorfi@yahoo.com).
Hashim Fauzy Bin Yaccob. Head of Department of Human Resource
Development. University Technology Malaysia (UTM). Kuala Lumpur,
Malaysia (E-mail: hfauzy@utm.my).
Ishak Mad Shah.
Department of Human Resource Development.
University Technology Malaysia (UTM). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
(e-mail: ishak@utm.my).

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World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 69 2010

workplace [37, 38]. Diggins, Goleman, Mayer &Salovey; and


Rosete and Ciarrochi show that intellectual quotient is
necessary for communication effectiveness but not sufficient
[12, 22, 24, 26, 39] .Despite the vital role that emotional
intelligence could play key role in communication
effectiveness as well as career prospects in organizations,
managers, employees and executives .They want to understand
the term of emotional intelligence, self regard and relationship
with communication effectiveness .This paper tries to answer
these questions by describing a model of EI .Though the
model would require more research in future to add empirical
strength, the aim of this paper is to help managers, executives,
employees and other career aspirants understand relationship
between emotional intelligence and communication
effectiveness in educational administrations.

challenge .This constant challenge is show on a daily base.


Caldwell, Lefforge, Silver and Silverman asserted that
motherly emotional support was negatively connection with
criminal behavior and positively connection with emotional
happiness and comfort [47]. Cohn & Kao and Patterson,
Snyder & Patterson indicates that positive known processes
can keep a teenager from engaging in discordant behaviors
[48, 49]. Other researchers have recommended that the
emotional support received from parents can serve as a barrier
in periods of pressure. Individual in one way or the other ways
influence their self-regard through positive and negative
events. Abend, Berry, Herlocker, Kernis, McNamara and
Waschull discovered the area to which the level and stability
of self-regard forecasted the influence that daily positive and
negative events have on peoples manners about themselves
[50]. Negative and positive events had a direct effect on
peoples who had an unstable self-regard .In compare,
individual with a high self-regard rated positive events more
favor and significant than individual with low self-regard.

III. SELF-REGARD
The concept of self-regard is individuals view of
themselves .In brief it is how individual estimate themselves .
According to Paradise and Kernis Self-regard divided into
three categories :(a) high (positive), (b) low (negative) and (c)
middle (neutral) [40]. The means of having high self-regard is
that an individual has a high idea of oneself .Individuals with
low self-regard observe themselves as not important and
lower .They always tend to be negative. Sternberg and Vroom
explained that in a successful interpersonal connection, every
person has a positive self-regard [41]. They significance
themselves and identify that they have something essential to
supply to the interpersonal connection .In compare, those who
have a low self-regard observe everything to their sense of
self .Consequently, these persons are highly reflexive to the
events. Kernis, Golman, Paradise, Wheatman, & Whitaker
argued that, these individual, it may appear that their selfregard is always is on the line and requires to be secured
against apparent threats .As time development for these
individual is hard and difficult to progress a sense of self that
is obviously defined and steady [42]. Gecas and Gecas &
Schwalbe suggest that the term of self-regard consist of two
dimensions :self-efficacy and self-worth [43, 44]. Degree that
individuals see themselves as effective and adequate is called
efficacy dimension and degree that individual felt they are an
individual of worth and value is called worth
dimension.According to Rosenberg there are several ways for
accomplished enhancement of self-regard. (a) When selfregard has been lowered, individual might act in ways that
develops their self-regard .They might make a feeling of
themselves that is high positive by redefine the condition of
work .This state helps the people to obtain self-regard (b) Selfverification is another way to increase self-regard [45].
Swann express that it is probable that individual look for
increase their self-regard by participating themselves with
people that study or confirm their identity [46]. Individual are
more probable to keep interpersonal relationships where they
are to confirm their personalities .(c) Constant challenge is
another way to increase self-regard .Ability to create and
maintain a positive vision about oneself is called constant

IV. COMMUNICATION
The formal definition of communication displayed in the
Websters Dictionary is as follows :the act of transmitting
ideas through writing or speech; the means to transmit
messages between places or persons. [28]. We give and
receive messages by a process called communication .These
messages impact our own behavior and self concept, and also
the behavior and self concept of others .The way we
communicate with others is important because that's how we
let people know who we are, what we believe in, what our
values are, and how we feel. Hackman and Johnson define
communication as the transfer of symbol [16]. This transfer
allows for the creation of meaning within individuals .
Symbols are anything that stands for, or represents, other
things .Symbols are abstract, ambiguous, and arbitrary .
Symbols have no natural or intrinsic relation to what they
represent and they do not necessarily share the same meaning
across individuals .Thus, the definition of communication used
in this study posits that communication is an interactive and
interdependent systemic process whereby meaning is
generated using symbols in the form of verbal, written,
nonverbal, and met communications . Luftman belief
communication is the base of all human activities and relations
with others [19]. Asimov expressed that communication has
been an important factor in our evolution into civilized
societies [2]. Communication plays an important and essential
role in our personal and professional lives. Schermerhorn,
Hunt & Osborn illustrated that at an organizational level,
communication is essential in enabling an organization to
complete its goals, vision and mission [25]. The success of an
organization may lie in the ability of the manager to
effectively communicate to the employees in educational
setting.

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World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 69 2010

V. COMMUNICATION EFFECTIVENESS

integrates the circle of effective communication by focusing


on how the message is sent and reply and feedback given to
the communicator and individuals openness to that feedback.
This paper explored the concept of emotional intelligence
especially self-regard and communication effectiveness.
Communication can be given in verbal, nonverbal, and written
forms .Teaching required skills; presenting clear rules,
policies, and strategies; developing consequences; and using
nonverbal techniques, such as a simple smile to acknowledge
employee performance, are examples of positive
communication techniques .Providing positive and helpful
feedback is vital to employee development and performance.

Communication is the process contained with the exchange


of any kind of information or data .Communication
effectiveness is a success factor for managers and employees .
Effective communication does not happen automatically .
Communication is an art and a science whereby techniques
must be learned; which for some managers, the techniques of
communication may come naturally .Effective manager
communication can help employees acquire skills, raise their
self-image, and also assist practitioners in earning employee
respect. Thamhain argued that effective communication can
add value to organizations [27]. Hersey et al suggests that
there is a direct correlation between communication and
effectiveness in some organizations [18]. Helgeson belief that
junction of events has happened that requests modify in the
meaning of effective communication [17]. These events need
communication effectiveness such as increased diversity in the
workers and the globalization of the emporium .In other
words, commerce organization itself and the universe in which
it competes have changed, in this state definition of effective
communication is culminating in a change .Hersey et al
defined communication effectiveness as person who delivers
an obvious message, listens carefully, and receives and sends
feedback [18]. Fisher and Wood express that communication
effectiveness has the flexibility to scruple among stereotypical
man or woman communication behavior as need for the
condition [10, 29]. Gudykunst expresses that high level of
communication effectiveness leads to a high degree of
equalities of perceptions between the sender and the receiver
[15]. In this perception, Kuncoro states that communication
effectiveness of the managers correlates positively with
maximizing understanding or minimizing misunderstanding of
employees [51]. Research by Chen illustrates that effective
communication takes into account interact ants gender,
religion, and ethnicity when determining the ability to
negotiate cultural meanings and to execute appropriately
effective communication behaviors [6]. Fisher argues that
effective communication is important in the place of work, in
interactions, and in daily life [10]. Thamhain illustrates that
effective communication can connect the employees,
strengthen shared ideas, and develop teamwork and decision
making in the organizations [27]. Even though effective
communication is essential in individual relations and it can be
hard to attain in the work .Communication mechanisms
improve the managers knowledge and understanding of
communication effectiveness .The manager had to effectively
convey individuals message in order to understand how and
when to integrate into individuals communication style .
Otherwise,
the
organization
may
redound
to
miscommunication, frustration, employee turnover, lack of
communication, insufficient communication or ineffective
communication causing disorder, and failure to achieve goals
in organizations .In search toward power communication,
Marshak recommends that the Communicator must apply
certain elements to create greater effect on communication
intellects such as active listening [20]. Active listening

VI. SELF-REGARD AND COMMUNICATION


EFFECTIVENESS
Self-regard is the way individuals think about themselves .
Low self-regard for both men and women has been recognized
as one of the most important prospects of violent relationships .
Learning how to make self-regard and improving interpersonal
skills is one way to avoid negative or violent relationships in
the all aspects of life .People by learning better
communication skills and achieving personal goals that make
them feel good about themselves can improve their selfregard .People with high self-regard are probable to have good
communication, and will likely be successful in everything
they decide to do .On the other hand, people with low selfregard are likely to have a hard time in communication with
others.By seeing individual with high self esteem, we can
observe how they communicate effectively with others, how
they confront negative reply, the way they talk, sit, walk, how
they do their work or study and so on .We can learn from
these people but we mustnt be like them we will lose our own
solidarity .If we lose our own solidarity, it can devastate our
self esteem.This paper strongly supports a positive
relationship between communication effectiveness and
emotional intelligence especially self-regard [3, 4, 9, 11, 23,
26]). Self-regard is inherently linked to communication .Selfregard is linked to thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that
combine together in the process of interpersonal relations and
the means by which interpersonal relations happen is
communication.In summary, a communication view of selfregard on the interaction and relationship components of the
process .The vision holds that self-regard is outcomes of the
communicative process .It follows that to improve manager
effectiveness requires a significant emphasis on
communication effectiveness since according to this vision; it
is through communication effectiveness that self-regard
happen.

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World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 69 2010

people, not as superiors to them .The development of


motivation will develop life, but also, at the same time,
develop self esteem and this state leads to improve the selfregard.
Individual can improve their self esteem to feel better with
them; with a high level of self-regard, motivation for the work
will be improved because people will want to show the others
the good they are in their job .Also, enhancing motivation for
job produces as side effect the improvement of self esteem .As
you see, both skills are interrelated, and usually the lack of
motivation in a person will show occult low self-regard.Self
hypnosis is the way to improve motivation for life and selfregard; in other terms, the hypnosis applied over your own to
modify your inner patterns of thought saving new patterns of
motivation, success, happiness and self-regard .

Communication
Effectiveness
Self-Regard

Link between managers


and employees

Fig.1 Communication effectiveness View of managers and SelfRegard

VII. MOTIVATION
Arkes and Garske defined the concept of motivation as
those processes that influence the provocation, strength or
direction of behavior or also Woolfolk defined motivation as
an internal state that maintain behavior and arouses directs
[53, 30]. Motivation consists of two types: (a) intrinsic
motivation, and (b) extrinsic motivation .Intrinsic motivation
means motivation that root from factors that do not
wantmotives or punishments such as interest or pry because
the motion itself is rewarding. Extrinsic motivation means
motivation that rises from what individual will achieve .
Individual do something in order to learn a reward,
eludepunishment, which is not associated to the task.
Johnson and Johnson proposed that for learning motivation
there are many factors .These factors include :planning,
compression on the goal, cognitive awareness of what
peoplewant to learn and how people want to learn it, the active
explore for new information, clear understanding of feedback,
pride and satisfaction in attainment [54].

IX.MOTIVATION AND COMMUNICATION


EFFECTIVENESS
Scott indicates that without a sufficient level of motivation,
the communication may not be successful [32]. Anthony and
Govindarajan show that an organization for improve decisions
and financial success must increase motivation through
development the communication [31]. Also, Edmondson
argued that communication positively impact on employee
motivations to speak up to their superiors about problems that
happened while using a new work system [8]. Gibson and
state good communications lead to high motivation for
managers and employees of organization [55]. In general, the
researcher achieve this result from written says, that
motivation and communication are inseparable factors in daily
life and work.

VIII. MOTIVATION AND SELF-REGARD


Goleman and Lanser propose that motivation is an
important factor of emotional intelligence especially selfregard that allow individual to understand and recognize this
factor through the positive and negative aspects of working
life by showing invention, assiduity and sacrifice, as well as
being goal orientated, focused and proactive [14, 33]. In
general self-regard of emotional intelligence plays a key role
in organizations and increase motivation [52]. Abraham
underscores the importance of motivation in relation to
emotional intelligence especially self-regard in the following
excerpt :Emotional intelligence incorporates the quality of
emotional resilience, or flexible optimism, which gives the
individuals the ability to cope with interpersonal conflict
Instead of engaging in the disruptive activity of faultfinding,
emotionally intelligent employees are flexibly optimistic
enough to put difficulties behind them and redirect their
attention to conflict resolution, and they espouse a durable
sense that they will succeed, despite setbacks and
frustrations, [1]. Dijk and Freedman indicated the there is
relationship between self-regard and motivation. They argued,
People who require external reinforcement to be motivated
are always at the mercy of others approval or reward system
[7]. The improvement of peoples self-regard will make them
to feel better and safety; people will have trust in their powers,
skills and abilities and we will see the others as equals to

X. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
The model for this paper is composed of four key
constructs (see Figure2) including emotional intelligence,
communications effectiveness, motivation, and self-regard.
Based on the existing literature-as stated earlier- there is a
positive relationship between emotional intelligence especially
self-regard and communication effectiveness with motivation
serving as a moderator of this relationship.

Emotional Intelligence

Self-regard

Motivation

Communication Effectiveness

Fig. 2 Conceptual Framework

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World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 69 2010

provides opportunities for determining whether emotional


intelligence (self-regard) and motivation have an impact on
communications effectiveness. The respondents for the
research were selected from the Educational Administrations
of Iran. The group comprised (82) persons, out of which (502)
respondents completed the questionnaire.

From the model, the following hypothesis is derived:


H1: Self-regard will have a significant relationship with
communications
effectiveness
in
educational
administrations.of Iran.
H2: Motivation will moderate a relationship between selfregard and communications effectiveness in educational
administrations.of Iran.

To assess the relationship between self-regard and


communication effectiveness, we used a three-part
questionnaire .First part was BarOn EQ-i, which includes 133
questions in 5 categories and 15 scales .The five categories are
Intrapersonal (Self-Regard, Emotional Self-Awareness,
Assertiveness, Independence, and Self-Actualization),
Interpersonal (Empathy, Social Responsibility, and
Interpersonal Relationship), Stress Management (Stress
Tolerance and Impulse Control), Adaptability (Reality
Testing, Flexibility, and Problem Solving), and General Mood
Scale (Optimism and Happiness). Second part was
Communication Effectiveness Questionnaire which was
completed by managers and employees in educational
administrations .Third part was Motivation Questionnaire
which was completed by managers and employees in
educational administrations .The questionnaires were
multiple-response questionnaire that response is measured on
5-point Likert-type scales and range from Strongly Agree to
Strongly Disagree. The total score was the sum of all 14
scales scores .The minimum and maximum scores for each
scale were 6 and 30 respectively and the maximum and
minimum total score was 90 and 450 respectively [5]. These
questionnaires were standardized to be used in Iran; its content
validity was reported to be acceptable and its reliability was
0.93 by Cronbach's alpha. The Questionnaires were distributed
among managers and employees in their administration or
office environments and after explaining the aims and
methodology of the study, they were asked to take the
questionnaire home and return them back after completing .
They had the option to complete the questionnaire or not and
they were assured of the privacy of their personal data .Data
were analyzed using SPSS-13 .For each manager and
employee, the total score of self-regard and the score of each
scale were calculated .To analyze data, descriptive statistics
(frequency, mean scores and standard deviation) and
inferential statistics (independent t-test, ANOVA and Pearson
correlation coefficient) were used.

XI. EDUCATION ADMINISTRATION


The administration of higher education is connected by law
and policy to the Iranian government by the concept of
velayet-i-faqih, but the tight control over educational
administration is a reflection of the power that student
movements have traditionally had in Iranian politics .To a
large degree, the revolution itself was a student movement,
and, especially in the 1990s, unrest and protest against
restrictive government policies were centered on university
campuses .So the strong connection between the university
system and the government has been a political necessity .Any
decisions made at the institutional level must be approved by
either The Ministry of Culture and Higher Education and its
Supreme Council on Higher Education Planning or the
Ministry of Health, Treatment, and Medical Education,
depending on the nature of the institution .Decisions regarding
the policies of higher education are made by these
organizations under the approval of the Islamic Parliament, the
Cabinet, and the Higher Council of Cultural Revolution .
University administration is undertaken by the Board of
Trustees, affirmed and appointed by the Higher Council of
Cultural Revolution .By law, these trustees set university
budgets, research finances, and teaching salaries, subject to the
approval of the council .They are also responsible for
supervision of the effective administration of educational
research, cultural affairs, student, official, financial,
construction, and discipline affairs, scientific services, all
national and international relationships of the university or
institution, and the coordinating and leading of different units
and departments.The Educational Council forms the second
institutional level of university administration .This council is
made up of members of the administrative body and the deans
of faculties, junior colleges, and research departments, as well
as faculty teachers who are members of each institution's
specialty council .Some of the duties of this council include
the study and approval of short-term educational and research
projects and new educational courses or fields .

XIII. RESULTS
All 145managers and employees in educational
administrations of Iran completed the emotional intelligence,
communication effectiveness, and motivation questionnaires .
The mean age of managers and employees were 21.03 2.17.
106 managers and employees (73.6%) were male and 90
(62.5%) were female .Table 1 shows the mean of total scores
and scale scores of the emotional intelligence .Table 2
explains the effects of personal and social variables in the
managers and employees' emotional intelligence scores .This
table shows that there is no significant difference between
emotional intelligence of female and male managers and

XII. GOALS AND METHODS


The goal of the research was to determine the impact of
emotional intelligence (self-regard) through motivation on
communication effectiveness. The research was based on a
questionnaire study, which is a quite common form of
investigation in this behavior and business field and also

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World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 69 2010

employees (p =0.33) and manager and employee (p=0.78).


Further evaluation also showed no significant difference
among managers and employees' emotional intelligence
categories with communication effectiveness.
However, further evaluations showed a significant
difference between the self-regard and motivation
(p=
0.004). Also, there was a significant difference between
managers and employees emotional intelligence in all
categories except empathy, responsibility, flexibility, self
regard, interpersonal relationship and emotional selfawareness.

have high regards for themselves, they will be high achievers


academically and good citizen .It is very important for
managers to be stable and have all the positive traits because
they are the ones who are going to decide the countrys
harmony and prosperity .Everybody should play a key role in
increasing positive self regard and encourage motivation to
learn among employees and developing the effectively
communication in organizations .
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors would like to thank University Technology
Malaysia (UTM) for its invaluable help in developing and
setting up the social tag infrastructure, and in post-processing
the raw data. The authors are grateful for the organizations and
support they received from Educational Administrations of
Iran.

TABLE I
MEAN SCORES AND SD OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND ITS
SCALES
Category
Happiness
Stress Tolerance
Emotional Self-Awareness
Interpersonal Relationship
Self -Regard
Flexibility
Empathy
Problem Solving
Independence
Self-Actualization
Reality Testing
Optimism
Impulse Control
Responsibility
Assertiveness
Total Score

Mean SD
22.96 4.35
19.34 4 .95
22.23 3.65
23.59 3.40
22 .95 3.50
19.43 3.81
24.79 3.07
23.15 3.18
21.97 3.17
23.08 3.37
20.16 3.96
22.91 3.94
19.22 5.24
25.76 2.66
20.47 3.85
332.08 39.80

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TABLE II
COMPARISON BETWEEN EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE OF
MANAGERS AND EMPLOYEES IN EDUCATIONAL
ADMINISTRATIONS OF IRAN BASED ON THEIR DEMOGRAPHIC
CHARACTERISTICS
Variables
Sex
Individual
Type

Groups
Male
Female
Manager
Employee

Mean and SD
337.50 33.62
330.14 41.77
333.27 42.62
331.36 38.24

[8]

[9]

Scales
t =0.97, df =142
P =0.33
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[12]

The emotional intelligence of managers and employees in


educational administrations of Iran was compared by
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employees in different birth ranks
(f =1.59, p = 0.20).
Moreover, the Pearson correlation coefficient showed no
significant relation between age and emotional intelligence (r
- =0.06, p =0.45).

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XIV. CONCLUSION

[18]

Managers should have a positive self-regard in order to be


self motivated and have a stable self, to be motivated to learn
and communicate effectively with employees .When managers

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