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iii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Anyone who attempts to write a dissertation owes an inexpressible debt not only to his
dissertation committee but also to his former and current teachers, to his colleagues in the
program and beyond, and to the authors of countless books and papers. I would like to
acknowledge a profound debt to those who belong in these categories and have been a
tremendous help for me over the past four years of research. Foremost, I would like to thank my
advisor at the University of Pennsylvania, Dr. David Silverman, whose support for this project
and my education has been unfailing. His insightful initial questions about the Pyramid and
Coffin Texts shaped my research, and his interest on the reasons behind ancient textual criticism
and editing has served a model for me. I sincerely thank him not only for his comments and ideas
but also for improving my writing and supporting my dissertation research abroad. I thank Dr.
James Allen, who has been a constant source of guidance and assistance regarding the details of
the texts. His important contributions to the study of the Pyramid Texts are too many to list, and
they have had an impact on my work. Dr. Harold Hayss vast knowledge of the corpus has
informed this study in many ways and to him I owe a tremendous debt. I appreciate his guidance,
his model of superlative scholarship, and his support for me to work at the De Buck Archives in
Leiden University. I would also like to thank Dr. Josef Wegner, who helped me to address issues
of archaeological context, regional agendas and multiplicity of textual programs during the First
Intermediate Period and the Middle Kingdom. I must also thank him and Dr. Silverman for
granting me the opportunity to get fieldwork experience during several seasons at Abydos and
Saqqara. I thank them all, as well as other readers of my dissertation drafts for their thorough
reading and thoughtful comments and corrections: Dr. Jochem Kahl (Berlin), Dr. Mark Smith
(Oxford) and Dr. Wolfram Grajetzki (London).
Additional members of the faculty in the Department of Near Eastern Languages and
Civilizations at Penn deserve my gratitude. I would like to thank Dr. Richard Zettler and Dr. Paul
Cobb, former and current graduate student chairs, both of whom helped me with many of the
organizational, logistical and more pecuniary matters of my research project. Special thanks go to
Dr. Cobb for helping me in difficult times and always offering me a great input on behalf of the
department and to Dr. Ralph Rosen (Dean, School of Arts and Sciences) for his support, specially
in my last semester at Penn. I also wish to acknowledge the input of Dr. Jennifer Houser-Wegner,
who taught me Demotic and History of Ptolemaic Egypt and has always been supportive to my
work with the museum collection. Also I express my gratitude to Dr. Robert Ritner, who showed
me during my year with him as assistant that his academic excellence is without equal, not only in
research but also in teaching. And finally, the NELC departmental administrators, Linda Greene,
Peggy Guinan, and Diane Moderski, without whom I could not have completed graduate school.
Special thanks go to Linda Greene: she has the amazing ability to always provide the most
efficient information, the best shortcut for solving problems, and the most generous assistance.
The three of them always provided both good humor and quick solutions, and deserve to come to
Torremolinos, indeed!
The origin of this dissertation dates back to my years as an undergraduate at the
University of Seville and my M.Phil. studies at the University of Birmingham. I have great
personal and intellectual debt to Dr. Jos Miguel Serrano (Ancient History, Seville), who
introduced me to the study of ancient Egyptian religion, language and literature; he was my
mentor at home, and his wise guidance, friendship and support have always been invaluable to
me. I would also like to express my gratitude to the late Dr. Francisco Presedo, who unveiled to
me and other students the wonders of the Egyptian culture in Graeco-Roman times. It was at the
library of the Ancient History Department in Seville that I discovered my love of ancient Egypt;
on account of Henry George Fischers Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphs: a Beginners Guide to
Writing Hieroglyphs, I decided to master hieroglyphs and read ancient Egyptian literature. Also, I

iv

wish to express my gratitude to Dr. Jos Manuel Galn (CSIC, Madrid), whose passion for
Egyptology and excellent scholarship inspired me to pursue graduate studies in the US. As my
first mudr, he and his team, Djehuty Project offered me the opportunity to participate in my
first archaeological mission in Egypt, at Dra Abu el-Naga. To my advisor at the University of
Birmingham, Dr. Anthony Leahy, I also owe much: his guidance, constant support, and deep
understanding of ancient Egyptian history and religion were stimulating for my education and
future decisions to pursue a Ph.D.
The research for this dissertation was supported by several grants and fellowships for
which I am filled with gratitude: in Philadelphia, the University of PennsylvaniaSchool of Arts
and Sciences (William Penn Fellowship), the Louis J. Kolb Foundation (Junior Kolb Fellowship)
the NELC Department (Benjamin Franklin Funds and the J.R. Koury Fellowship) provided me
financial aid for my PhD studies; in Berlin, the Freie Universitt Berlin Forschungstipendium and
the hospitality of Dr. Jrgen Osing and Dr. Jochem Kahl contributed to my studies on mortuary
texts and initiation into the field of textual criticism and stemmatics; in Oxford, the University of
OxfordFaculty of Oriental Studies (The Queen Elizabeth Scholarship), St. Cross College and the
generosity of Dr. Mark Smith in discussing the major questions of my dissertation provided a
solid grounding for approaching the religious and social meaning of the phenomenon of
transmission. I wish to thank also Dr. John Baines and Dr. Elizabeth Frood for their generosity in
providing ideas and support while at Oxford, and Dr. Cynthia Sheikholeslami for her friendship
and collaborative work; in London, the Warburg InstituteUniversity of London (The Henri
Frankfort Fellowship in Cultural and Intellectual History), its director, Dr. Peter Mack, and
manager, Ms. Anita Pollard, for their support in my study of ritual theory and performance. In
addition, several short grants and a prize awarded by the School of Arts and Sciences and the
Office of the Provost at the University of Pennsylvania allowed me to conduct research at Leiden
University for several summers.
I wish to call particular attention to the professional assistance I have received from
librarians, archivists, and curators. At the gyptische Museum und Papyrussammlung
(Altes/Neues Museum) in Berlin, curator Dr. Klaus Finneiser assisted me in the examination of
several Middle Kingdom coffins and sarcophagi from their collection. At the Cairo Museum,
thanks are due to its director Dr. El Awady and curator Dr. Yasmin El Shazly, for providing me
permission to study and examine several Middle Kingdom objects with Pyramid Texts. At the
Griffith Institute in Oxford University, Dr. Jaromir Malek, Dr. Diane Magee, and Ms. Alison
Hobby helped me with my examination of manuscripts, papers and photos from the collections of
Jaroslav ern, Alan Gardiner, and Battiscombe Gunn; at the Sackler Library, the assistant
librarian for Egyptology and Ancient Near Eastern Studies, Mrs. Diane Bergman; and at the Pitt
Rivers Museum at Oxford, curator Ms. Elin Bornemann, for providing me access and information
to several objects from the collection. At the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden in LeidenDepartment
of Egyptology, curator Dr. Maarten Raven offered me information and photo materials for the
stela of Amenemhatseneb. I would like to thank also Dr. Harold Hays, Dr. Olaf Kaper and Dr.
Ren van Walsem at Leiden University (Middle Eastern Studies) for permission to look at the De
Buck Archives and work with Professor Adriaan de Bucks notes and photos. For his help with
my work with Professor Henri Frankforts notes and photos, I would also like to thank the
archival assistant at the University of LondonWarburg Institute, Dr. Eckart Marchand. At the
Department of Egyptian Art in the Metropolitan Museum of New York, I wish to express my
gratitude to curators Dr. Dorothea Arnold, Dr. Adela Oppenheim, Dr. Marsha Hill, Dr. Janice
Kamrin, and Dr. Morena Stefanova for responding to my request for information and photos of
four Late Middle Kingdom Theban coffins, as well as to the assistant curator Isabel Stnkel for
providing me with images and details of a coffin from Meir and Dr. Kei Yamamoto for updates
on the collection. In the Department of Ancient Art at the National Museum in Warsaw, I want to
thank the Senior Keeper Dr. Monika Doliska, who provided me with descriptions and photos of

four Middle Kingdom coffins as well as details of the late Dr. Elizbieta Dabrowska-Smektalas
dissertation on Middle Kingdom coffins from the Varsovian collection. Finally, in researching
this dissertation, I also used the resources of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of
Archaeology and Anthropology Library and Archives, as well as the Van Pelt Library. First, I
would like to thank Dr. David Silverman for providing me access to his notes and drawings of
Pepi-Imas texts. I also owe my gratitude to the staff of the Museum Library, its director Dr. John
Weeks, as well as to Ms. Anita Fahringer and Ms. Sheryl Tisdale; to the Museum Archivist, Mr.
Alessandro Pezzati; to the Museum Director Secretary, Ms. Margaret Spencer; and to the Van
Pelt Librarian Mr. Mark Lewis. At the Museum Egyptian Section storage I also received the help
of Jean Walker.
In addition, very special thanks are due to the colleagues that made available for me
unpublished materials even when my dissertation was sStA pw aA n mAA n ptr: Dr. James Allen
(Pyramid Texts computer spreadsheets and Lisht database lists), Dr. Harold Hays (Pyramid Texts
data-tables); Mr. John Thompson (who offered me information about his investigations on the
representation of rituals and performers in the Old Kingdom elite tombs); the director of the
Mission Archologique Franaise de Saqqara, Dr. Phillippe Collombert, and Dr. Bernard Mathieu
(unpublished textual reconstruction of the W-wall of Ankhesenpepi II); Dr. Catherine Berger-el
Naggar and Dr. Marie-Noelle Fraisse (BIFAO manuscript of Behenus texts); and Dr. Audran
Labrousse (manuscript of his publication in OLA 214).
I have lived in various places while working on this dissertation, and many individuals
offered me help along the way. I have benefited greatly from their ideas and encouragment: in
Baltimore, Dr. Hans Goedicke; in Basel, Dr. Susanne Bickel and Dr. Antonio Loprieno; in Berlin,
Dr. Nicole Alexanian, Ms. Angela Bhme, Dr. Frank Feder, Dr. Ingelore Hafemann, Dr.
Alexandra von Lieven, Dr. Angelika Lohwasser, Dr. Rania Merzeban, Dr. Jan Moje, Dr. Ludwig
Morenz, Dr. Jurgen Osing, Dr. Stephan Seidlmayer, and Dr. Doris Topmann; in Birmingham, Dr.
Lisa Leahy; in Boston, Dr. Denise Doxey and Dr. Peter der Manuelian; in Chicago, Dr. Janet
Johnson, Dr. Raymond Johnson, and Dr. Robert Ritner; in Heidelberg, Dr. Jan Assmann, Dr.
Daniela Luft, Dr. Andreas Pries, and Dr. Joachim Quack; in London, Dr. Richard Bussmann, Dr.
Richard Parkinson, Dr. Stephen Quirke, Dr. John Tait, and Dr. Aloisie de Trafford; in Leiden, Dr.
Sasha Verma; in Madrid, Dr. Barbara Boeck, Dr. Andrs Diego, Dr. Luca Daz-Iglesias, Dr.
Ignaci Mrquez Rowe, and Dr. Manuel Molina; in Mainz, Dr. Ursula Verhoeven; in New York,
Dr. Matthew Adams, Dr. Ellen Morris, and Dr. David OConnor; in Oxford, Dr. John Baines, Ms.
Elin Bornemann, Dr. Jacob Dahl, Dr. Elizabeth Frood, Dr. Diane Magee, Dr. Mark Smith, and
Dr. Alice Stevenson; in Philadelphia, Dr. Paul Delnero, Dr. Barry Eichler, Dr. Philip Jones, Dr.
Fumi Karahashi, Dr. Simon Martin, Dr. James Mathieu, Dr. Stephen Phillips, Dr. Holly Pittman,
and Dr. Stephen Tinney; in Prague, Dr. Miroslav Barta, Ms. Petra Marikova, and Dr. Jana
Mynarova; in Providence, Dr. Ramadan Hussein; in Tbingen, Dr. Wolfgang Schenkel; in
Vienna, Dr. Roman Gundacker. I am deeply grateful to the support and company of the house
staff at the Penn-Yale-IFA dig house, the Penn Saqqara Expedition, and the Djehuty Project staff,
where I found really good friends: to the inspectors and staff (including Mish-Mish), with whom I
worked during our seasons at Abydos, Dra Abu el-Naga, El-Amra, and Saqqara, shukran limusadatikum wa-mudaqatikum!
I would also like to thank to my fellow graduate students at Penn. There is no adequate
way to thank their hospitality, friendship and support in academic and personal matters,
especially Rachel Aronin, Kevin Cahail, Ari Hagler, Allison Hedges, Jane Hill, Maxime Huang,
Beth Ann Judas, Kate Liszka, Melinda Nelson-Hurst, Nicholas Picardo, Josh Roberson, Rachel
Rodabaugh, Charlotte Rose, Elias Saba, John Thompson, Leslie Warden and the younger
Egyptology fellows (very interesting students, Dr. Silverman). I have also been blessed with the
support of other friends throughout this process: Anthony lvarez, Asuncin Aranda, Isaas

vi

Arrayas, Nawguan Bahaa, Rut Ballesteros, Ivn Barchn and family, Mirek Barta, Guido Bettoni,
Francisco Bosch, Monica Botta, Alfonso Botta-Lpez, Lauren Brown, Antonio Caballos, Antonio
Cantalejo, Gustavo Carrera, Jos Antonio Castro, Margarita Conde, Margui Hays-Conde and
family, Violaine Chauvet, Reyes Damigo, Luca Daz-Iglesias, Andrs Diego, Helena
Domnguez, Fatmanil Dner, Sara Duque, Abraham Fernndez, Eduardo Ferrer, Jos Manuel
Galn, Flix Garca, Gudelia Garca, Leonardo Garca, Paco Pepe Garca, lvaro Gmez, Daniel
Gmez, Laura Gmez, Yan Axel Gmez, Elena de Gregorio, Begoa Gugel, Rene Guitart,
Tobias Gutmann, Steve Harvey, John B Hedges, Isabel Hernndez, Francisco Hidalgo, Vctor
Hurtado, Ramadan Hussein, Shih-Wei Hsu, Jos Ildefonso Ruz, Salima Ikram, Alejandro
Jimnez, Angie Jimnez, Alexandra Kasseri, Kenichiro Kimura, Lingbing Kong, Bryan Kraemer,
Maxime Kupreyev, Manuela Lehman, Mark Lewis, Mara Limn, Fernando Lpez, Mara Jos
Lpez, Carolina Lpez-Ruiz, Fernando Lozano, Rita Lucarelli, Jos Lull, Esther Menacho,
Daniel Mndez, Laura Miralles, Miguel ngel Molinero, Juan Carlos Moreno, Ludwig Morenz,
Jana Mynarova, Ana Navajas, Toni aco, Leire Olabarria, Isabel Olbs, Joan Oller, Jos Miguel
Parra, Valeria Riedemann, Vctor Rivas, Oliva Rodrguez, Patricia Rojo, Carolyn Routledge,
Elias Saba, Vctor Snchez, Isaac Sastre, Jos Miguel Serrano, JJ Shirley, lvaro Solano, Cristina
Solano, Kasia Starczewska, Iria Surez, Sofa Torallas, Mara ngeles Utrero, Paula Veiga,
Rodrigo Verano, Sasha Verma, Krisztian Vertes, Jordi Vidal, Richard de Witt, and Kei
Yamamoto. I wish to thank also my students of Egipcio clsico and Mitos, rituales y prcticas
mgicas en el Egipto faranico at the University of Seville, who gave truth to the proverb that
teaching is learning twice; and to the members of the ARCE-Pennsylvania chapter; their
support in the final stages of my research was enthusiastic and comforting.
Above all, I would like to thank the people who gave the very best of themselves to help
me, support me, protect me, and keep me positive in my adventures; in one way or another, I have
been walking this path with them in my side: Margarita, mi hermana siempre; Fernando, Jos
Miguel y Nacho, los irremplazables; Esther, for supporting my first steps to become an
Egyptologist; Paco and Ken, for our exciting escapades in Birmingham; Carolina, for introducing
me into the world of the muses and Alfonsos life; Allison, Beth, Jane, Kate, Melinda and
Richard, my family in Philadelphia, who cared about me while away from home and
(over)indulged me with continuous celebrations of friendship; Sara, porque sin ella, este
trabajo y yo nunca hubiramos llegado a ser lo que somos; Ludwig and his family, for so many
fond moments (and football); Tobias, for his kindness, wit and diligence in meeting his friends
every need; and Isaac, simply my brother-in-arms in Oxford. I would also like to remember Stine
Rossel, an extraordinary person who is no longer with us. Many of us really miss your
enthusiasm, kindness, and humor, Fisqueline.
Sincere appreciation goes to colleagues and friends who have read and commented on
portions of this work. Their input, corrections, and suggestions were always helpful. I wish to
acknowledge such immeasurable assistance from Beth Ann Judas and Jane Hill. Special thanks
go to my friend, editor and Penn colleague, Elias Saba, who made the language and style of this
dissertation more readable, fluid and graceful by reading it several times (ooh!) Gracias Elas!
Finally, the ones who are the hardest to thank, because their contributions in every stage
of my life are impossible to separate from their support in this particular adventure, are my
parents Mercedes and Antonio, and my brother Juan Pablo. They supported me as I wanted to
venture into the field of Egyptology and graduate studies in the US, even if they knew we would
miss each other every day. No one could receive more love than you have given to me, and thus I
dedicate this work to you. Elisa Solano, my wonderful love, provided me endless support, love,
and care in good and difficult times. She was extremely helpful during the ultimate struggles of
my research, and sacrificed in order that I might succeed. Her whole family also deserves my
gratitude for their deep affection and support. I am eternally grateful to you, Elisa.

vii

I wish to make a tribute to my father, Antonio Morales Serrano, who did not live long
enough to see this work finished. I will always be inspired by his strong spirit, deep sacrifice and
profound love to our family and others: May I feast with you on your offerings, may I eat with
you of the provisions, and may you take account of me for it everyday (stela New York MMA
13.182.3). Your spirit will always abide with me.
In writing this dissertation (also during my breaks from it), I have benefitted from the
congenial and supportive work environment at three cafes in the world: Green Line Caf (West
Philly, Philadelphia), Pi-Caf (Freie Universitt, Berlin), and The Missing Bean (Lincoln College,
Oxford). In addition, I want to thank my computer for its loyal dedication in a thousand moments:
0111010001101000011000010110111001101011011100110000110100001010 . Last
but not least, thanks Moccha, the greatest elixir known to mankind!
In conclusion, during my dissertation years I have tried to follow the words that Diane
Jonte-Pace dedicated not so long ago to the life and work of her colleague and famous ritualist,
Catherine Bell: 1) dont be constrained by the present or the past; 2) look for large patterns and
ask big questions; 3) transform the personal into the professional; and 4) find pleasure in
creativity (D. Jonte-Pace, Foreword: Notes on a Friendship, in C. Bell, Ritual Theory, Ritual
Practice (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), pp. vii-xi). I hope that, by writing this
dissertation, I have been able to attain some of these virtues, which would have never happened
without the knowledge and patience of the members of my dissertation committee, the support of
my friends, teachers and colleagues, and the love of my family and my partner. Thanks to all.

rS.wj sDd dpt.n=f

December 1, 2012
Philadelphia

viii

ABSTRACT
THE TRANSMISSION OF THE PYRAMID TEXTS INTO THE MIDDLE KINGDOM:
PHILOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF A CONTINUOUS TRADITION
IN EGYPTIAN MORTUARY LITERATURE
Antonio J. Morales
David P. Silverman

This dissertation focuses on the dissemination and use of texts originally used in royal pyramids
during the First Intermediate Period and the Middle Kingdom. As late as the reign of Unas (ca.
2375-2345 BCE), the prominent priesthood at Memphis undertook the task of fixing these
recitations into writing so that they could be transferred onto the walls of the pyramids and thus
benefit the deceased king. At the end of the Old Kingdom, however, these texts began appearing
in the tombs and coffins of high-status officials and priests of the provinces, who soon integrated
these time-honored texts into their ritual practices and mortuary monuments.
This dissertation addresses the literary and textual aspects of this process of transmission,
focusing on the scribal mechanisms for adapting the royal texts of Memphis to the smaller venues
of non-royal tombs and coffins, and the theological speculative movements that transformed the
compositions in accordance with local beliefs and ritual practices. It also deals with the
transmission of the series of Pyramid Texts of Nut by examining its textual variations (errors and
differences) and genealogical relationships. In addition, it focuses on questions of social
inequality, access to royal privileges and the transformation of Egyptian society in the third and
second millennia BCE. The conclusions of my research demonstrate that the transmission of
mortuary literature in the Old and Middle Kingdom operated as an uninterrupted cultural
phenomenon that encompassed coexisting streams of transmission and two major bodies of
compositions, Pyramid Texts and Coffin Texts. In addition, the study validates the degree of

ix

adaptability of the Pyramid Texts, a corpus whose heterogeneous characteristics allowed priests
and scribes to adapt tradition to new settings by re-arranging texts, preparing new versions, and
combining them with novel compositions.
This dissertation challenges Egyptologys monolithic understanding of the mortuary texts
as a novel invention created in the interest of the crown, and instead pinpoints the origin of these
collections in the private oral domain, identifies a wider range of uses for these texts in both royal
and private contexts, and emphasizes the relationship of the multiplicity of textual programs with
local ritual traditions.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
DEDICATION
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS..
ABSTRACT ......
TABLE OF CONTENTS...
ABBREVIATIONS..
EXPLANATORY NOTES FOR CHAPTER FIGURES.
LIST OF SOURCES.
LIST OF TRANSMITTED PYRAMID TEXTS...
LIST OF DIAGRAMS AND FIGURES
MAP OF EGYPT.

p. iii
p. iv
p. ix
p. xi
p. xv
p. xxvi
p. xxvii
p. xxxi
p. xxxiii
p. xxxviii

INTRODUCTION...

p. 1

A. Aims of the present study.


B. The study of Old and Middle Kingdom mortuary corpora...
C. A history of the Pyramid Texts in the Old and Middle Kingdom
D. History of scholarship...
E. Structure of the dissertation..
F. Focus and objectives.
G. Data set.....
H. Methodology.

p. 2
p. 7
p. 12
p. 14
p. 24
p. 28
p. 30
p. 34

CHAPTER ONE:
THE TRANSMISSION OF THE PYRAMID TEXTS INTO THE MIDDLE KINGDOM...

p. 40

A. Introduction...
B. Ritual: from general to specific.
1. The power of ritual language: speech acts
2. The syntax and meaning of ritual.
a. The three-stage hypothesis..
1. First stage: construction of the symmetric structure..
2. Second stage: development of the symmetric structure.
3. Third stage: a move away from the symmetric structure and outset
of doctrinal structures
b. The streams of mortuary literature transmission
1. MLT.I
2. MLT.Ia..
3. MLT.Ib..
4. MLT.II...
5. MLT.IIa.
6. MLT.IIb.
7. MLT.III..
8. MLT.IV..
3. The purpose and efficacy of ritual...
xi

p. 40
p. 43
p. 68
p. 86
p. 94
p. 95
p. 97
p. 100
p. 104
p. 106
p. 106
p. 107
p. 108
p. 110
p. 112
p. 114
p. 115
p. 122

4. Agency in ritual
C. Conclusion

p. 127
p. 132

CHAPTER TWO:
PYRAMID TEXTS REPERTOIRE IN THE FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD AND MIDDLE
KINGDOM I.

p. 136

A. Introduction..
B. Repertoire of Pyramid Texts transmitted into the Middle Kingdom (northern
region)...
1. Introductory remarks
2. The Northern Egypt Group (NEG): Kom el-Hisn, Qatta, Mendes, Abusir,
Saqqara, Dahshur, Lisht, Riqqa, Harageh, Lahun, Hawara, and Sedment..
a. Introduction.
b. The Delta region: Kom el-Hisn, Qatta, and Mendes..
1. Kom el-Hisn...
2. Qatta...
3. Mendes...
c. The group of Memphite cemeteries: Abusir, Saqqara, and Dahshur..
1. Abusir.
2. Saqqara...
3. Dahshur..
d. The cemeteries of Herakleopolis and Lisht
1. Lisht
1.1. Appendix: The Lisht model coffins and the pyramidia...
2. Riqqa...
3. Harageh...
4. Lahun..
5. Hawara
6. Sedment..
3. Summary...
C. Conclusion

CHAPTER THREE:
PYRAMID TEXTS REPERTOIRE IN THE FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD AND MIDDLE
KINGDOM II

A. Introduction..
B. Repertoire of Pyramid Texts transmitted into the Middle Kingdom (middle and
southern regions)...
1. Introductory remarks
2. The Middle Egypt Group (MEG): Beni Hasan, Bersheh, Meir, Asyut, Qau
el-Kebir, Naga ed-Der, Abydos, Hu, Dendera, Thebes, Tod
a. Introduction.
b. The northern MEG (MEG:N): Beni Hasan, Bersheh, Meir, Asyut, and
Qau el-Kebir...
xii

p. 136
p. 143
p. 143
p. 144
p. 144
p. 148
p. 149
p. 158
p. 165
p. 172
p. 174
p. 180
p. 237
p. 256
p. 259
p. 302
p. 306
p. 309
p. 313
p. 316
p. 318
p. 324
p. 326

p. 336
p. 336
p. 338
p. 338
p. 342
p. 342
p. 344

1. Beni Hasan.
2. Bersheh..
3. Meir
4. Asyut..
5. Qau el-Kebir...
c. The southern MEG (MEG:S): Naga ed-Der, Abydos, Hu, Dendera,
Thebes, Tod.
1. Naga ed-Der
2. Abydos....
3. Hu...
4. Dendera...
5. Thebes.
6. Tod..
d. Conclusion...
3. The Southern Egypt Group evidence (SEG): Elephantine...
a. Introduction.
b. The Qubet el-Hawa evidence..
c. Conclusion...
4. Sources with unknown provenance..
a. Introduction.
b. Evidence without provenance.
c. Conclusion...
5. Summary...
C. Conclusion....

CHAPTER FOUR:
RECOVERING RITUAL TRADITIONS FROM THE PYRAMID TEXTS REPERTOIRE

A. Introduction...
B. Ritual dialectics in the transmission of the Pyramid Texts...
1. Introductory remarks.
2. Principles of transmission of the Pyramid Texts..
a. The adaptation of the post-Old Kingdom Pyramid Texts...
1. The layout adaptation: limited epigraphic areas
2. The textual adaptation: ancient textual criticism...
b. The permanence of traditional patterns in the post-Old Kindgom
Pyramid Texts.
c. The textual programs in the First Intermediate Period and Middle
Kingdom.
1. Immutable programs: traditional sets of Pyramid Texts
2. Innovative programs: the mutability of tradition...
d. The local influence and the question of the regionalisms...
3. Concluding remarks..
C. The series of Pyramid Texts of Nut: Saqqara as primary source..
1. Introductory remarks.
2. Modern Textual Criticism and the Pyramid Texts

xiii

p. 345
p. 368
p. 439
p. 482
p. 504
p. 513
p. 516
p. 522
p. 534
p. 539
p. 549
p. 600
p. 603
p. 605
p. 605
p. 605
p. 612
p. 613
p. 613
p. 614
p. 628
p. 631
p. 633

p. 636
p. 636
p. 639
p. 639
p. 641
p. 643
p. 643
p. 651
p. 656
p. 662
p. 664
p. 675
p. 696
p. 703
p. 705
p. 705
p. 710

3. Textual analysis of the Pyramid Texts of Nut: phylogenetics..


a. Recension....
1. Sources...
2. Collation..
b. Examination....
1. Analysis of deviations: scribal errors, digressions, and differences...
2. Stemmata and transmission mapping.
4. Brief history of the transmission of the Pyramid Texts of Nut.
5. Ritual and theological aspects of the series of Pyramid Texts of Nut..
6. Concluding remarks..
D. Conclusion

p. 717
p. 717
p. 717
p. 735
p. 736
p. 736
p. 741
p. 761
p. 784
p. 802
p. 805

CHAPTER FIVE:
IN RETROSPECT...

p. 809

From voice to script to monument. p. 814


Mutable tradition or traditional mutability?.. p. 824
Towards a poetics of performance. p. 836

APPENDICES

p. 849

APPENDIX 1: STREAM AFFILIATION OF THE SOURCES..


APPENDIX 2: TRADITIONAL TEXTUAL PROGRAMS...
APPENDIX 3: INNOVATIVE TEXTUAL PROGRAMS.
APPENDIX 4: COLLATION OF THE PYRAMID TEXTS OF NUT...
APPENDIX 5: EXAMINATION OF THE PYRAMID TEXTS OF NUT..

p. 850
p. 852
p. 854
p. 868
p. 924

BIBLIOGRAPHY

p. 962

INDICES...
GENERAL INDEX..
EGYPTIAN TERMS INDEX.

p. 1076
p. 1076
p. 1100

xiv

ABBREVIATIONS
Bibliographical abbreviations
A
AA
AT
ABKK
ACF
ADAIK
F
AG
AH
AJA
AJSL
K
AKM
&L
AnAe
AnOr
AOAT
APAW
ARA
ARCE
ArOr
ARWAW
ASAE
ASP
AuOr
AV
BA
BBA
BACE
BAR
BASOR
BBR
BD
BdE
BDIA
BEHE SHP
BIFAO
BiAe
BiOr

gyptologische Abhanlungen, Wiesbaden


Archiv fr gyptische Archologie, Wien
gypten und Altes Testament, Wiesbaden
Amtliche Berichte aus den Kniglichen Kunstsammlungen, Berlin
Annuaire du Collge de France, Paris
Abhandlungen des Deutschen Archologischen Instituts Kairo, Cairo
gyptologische Forschungen, Glckstadt/Hamburg/New York
E. Edel, Altgyptische Grammatik I-II (Roma: Pontificium Institutum
Biblicum, 1955), AnOr 34 and 39.
Aegyptiaca Helvetica, Basel
American Journal of Archaeology, Baltimore/New Haven
American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Chicago
gyptologie und Kulturwissenschaft, Mnchen
Abhandlungen fr die Kunde des Morgenlandes, Berlin
gypten und Levanten, Wien
Analecta Aegyptiaca, Copenhagen
Analecta Orientalia, Rome
Alter Orient und Altes Testament, Mnster
Abhandlungen der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin
Annual Review of Anthropology, Palo Alto
American Research Center in Egypt, San Antonio
Archiv Orientaln, Prague
Abhandlungen der Rheinisch-Westflischen Akademie der Wissenschaften,
Opladen
Annales du Service des Antiquits de lEgypte, Cairo
American Society of Papyrologists, Durham
Aula Orientalis, Barcelona
Archologische Verffentlichungen, DAIK, Cairo
Beitrge zum Alten gypten, Basel
Beitrge zur gyptischen Bauforschung und Altertumskunde, Cairo
Bulletin of the Australian Centre for Egyptology, Sydney
British Archaeological Reports, Oxford
Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, South Hadley/New
Haven
Bulletin for Biblical Research, Forth Worth
Book of the Dead (chapter)
Bibliothequ dtude, Cairo
Bulletin of the Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit
Bibliothque de lcole pratique des hautes tudes. IV section: Sciences
Historiques et Philologiques, Paris
Bulletin de lInstitut Franais dArchologie Orientale, Cairo
Bibliotheca Aegyptiaca, Brussels
Bibliotheca Orientalis, Leiden

xv

BM
BMMA
BMFA
BMSAES
BOS
BSAE
BSAK
BSEG
BSFE
BSdGE
BTAVO
B&W
CAH
CAJ
can.box
CdE
CENiM
CG
CHANE
CNI
CNRS
col(s).
cont.
CRAIBL
CRIPEL
CT
CTN
d.
DAIK
dec.
DE
DFG
DG
DKAW
EA
EA
ECT

ed(s).
EEF
EEFo
EES
EM
EME

British Museum, London


Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Bulletin of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan, London
Bonner orientalische Studien, Bonn
British School of Archaeology in Egypt, London
Beihefte Studien zur Altgyptischen Kultur, Hamburg
Bulletin de la Socite dgyptologie, Geneva, Geneva
Bulletin de la Socit Franaise dgyptologie, Paris
Bulletin de la Socit de Gographie dEgypte, Cairo
Beihefte zum Tbinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients, Tbingen
black and white (photo)
The Cambridge Ancient History, Cambridge
Cambridge Archaeological Journal, Cambridge
canopic box
Chronique dgypte, Bruxelles
Cahier de lgypte Nilotique et Mditerranenne, Montpellier
Catalogue General of Egyptian Antiquities, Cairo Museum
Culture and History of the Ancient Near East, Leiden
Carsten Niebuhr Institute, Copenhagen
Centre Nationale de Recherche Scientifique, Paris
column(s)
continuation
Comptes-Rendus de lAcadmie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, Paris
Cahier de Recherches de lInstitut de Papyrologie et dgyptologie de
Lille, Paris/Lille
Coffin Texts (recitation)
Coffin Texts notebook(s), Oriental Institute, University of Chicago
date
Deutsches Archologisches Institut Kairo, Cairo
deceased
Discussions in Egyptology, Oxford
Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft, Bonn
Denkschriften der Gesamtakademie, Kairo
Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften,Wien
Egyptian Antiquities (Department of)
Egyptian Archaeology, EEF London
Egyptian Coffin Texts = A. de BUCK and A.H. GARDINER, The Egyptian
Coffin Texts I-VII (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1936-1961),
OIP 34, 49, 64, 67, 73, 81, 87.
editor(s)
Egypt Exploration Fund, London (= EES)
Egyptologists Electronic Forum, online
Egypt Exploration Society, London (= EEF)
Egyptological Memoirs, Leiden
tudes et mmoires dgyptologie, Paris

xvi

ENiM
EOL
EPHE
esp.
et al.
EU
EVO
ExMem
ext.
FAT
f.c.
FIFAO
fig(s).
FIP
form.
former.
fPT

frg(s).
GHP
GM
GOF
HB
HAT
HdO
i.a.
ibid.
id.
IFAO
illeg.
int.
inscr.
JAEI
JANER
JAOS
JARCE
JEA
JdE
JEgH
JEOL
JES
JFA
JNES
JRAS

gypte Nilotique et Mditerranenne, Montpellier


Ex Oriente Lux, Leiden
cole Pratique des Hautes tudes, Paris
especially
et alii (and others)
Egyptologische Uitgaven, Leiden
Egitto e Vicino Oriente, Pisa
Excavation Memoirs, Egypt Exploration Society, London
exterior
Forschungen zum Alten Testament, Tbingen
forthcoming
Fouilles de lInstitut Franais dArchologie Orientale, Cairo
figure(s)
First Intermediate Period (also known as the Period of the Regions)
formula (i.e. offering formula or Htp-dj-nsw.t formula).
formerly
Pyramid Text (recitation), as numbered in R.O. FAULKNER, The Ancient
Egyptian Pyramid Texts (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998) [* In the figures,
viz. f+recitation].
fragment(s)
Golden House Publications, London
Gttinger Miszellen, Gttingen
Gttinger Orientforschungen (Reihe: gypten), Gttingen
Hildesheimer gyptologische Beitrge, Hildesheim
Handschriften des Altgyptischen Totenbuches, Bonn
Handbuch der Orientalistik, Leiden
inter alios (among others)
ibidem (in the same place)
idem (the same)
Institut Franais dArchologie Orientale, Cairo
illegible (text)
interior
inscription(s)
Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections, Arizona
Journal of Ancient Near Eastern Religions, Leiden
Journal of the American Oriental Society, Michigan
Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, San Antonio
Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, London
Journal dEntre, Cairo Museum
Journal of Egyptian History, Leiden
Jaarbericht van het Vooraziatisch-Egyptisch Genootschap Ex Oriente
Lux, Leiden
Journal of Egyptological Studies, Sofia
Journal of Field Archaeology, Boston
Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Chicago
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, London

xvii

JRSS
JSRC
JSSEA
KMT
L
l(l).
L
LAPO
LD
L.E.
LingAeg
loc.
MafS
MS
MDAIK
MDOG
M.E.
MEG
MELCHAT
MFA
MIFAO
MMA
MMAFC
MMJ
MR
MOS
MS
MSS
MVG
MVEOL
N
NAWG
NARCE
NB
NCG AEIN
NEG
neg(s).
no.
n.s.
NMW
NWPL
NyCGP

Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, London


Jerusalem Studies in Religion and Culture, Jerusalem
Journal of the Society of the Study of Egyptian Antiquities, Toronto
KMT: A modern journal of ancient Egypt, San Francisco
Lid (surface)
line(s)
W. HELCK and E. OTTO (eds.), Lexikon der gyptologie (Wiesbaden: Otto
Harrassowitz, 1972-1992), 7 vols.
Littratures anciennes du Proche-Orient, Paris
R. LEPSIUS, Denkmler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien (Leipzig: J.C.
Hinrischsche Buchhandlung, 1897-1913), 6 vols.
Lower Egypt
Lingua Aegyptia, Gttingen
location
Mission archologique franaise de Saqqarah
Mnchner gyptologische Studien, Mnchen
Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archologischen Instituts Kairo
Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft, Berlin-Leipzig
Middle Egypt
Middle Egypt Group
Moyen gyptien: langage et culture des hiroglyphes analyse et
traduction, Paris
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Mmoires de lInstitut Franais dArchologie Orientale, Cairo
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Mmoires de la Mission Archologique Franaise au Caire, Paris
Metropolitan Museum Journal, New York
Mundffnungsritual (i.e. Opening of the Mouth ritual)
Mitteilungen aus den orientalischen Sammlung, Berlin
Millennium-Studien zu Kultur und Geschichte des ersten Jahrtaudens n.
Chr., Berlin
manuscript(s)
Mitteilungen der Vorderasiatisch-gyptischen Gesellschaft, Leipzig
Mededelingen en Verhandelingen Ex Oriente Lux, Leiden
Name (deceaseds)
Nachrichten der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Gttingen, Gttingen
Newsletter of the American Research Center in Egypt, San Antonio
nota bene
Ny Carlsberg Glyptothek, Aegypten Sammlingen, Copenhagen
Northern Egypt Group
negatives
number
new series
National Museum, Warsaw
Newcastle Working Papers in Linguistics, Newcastle
Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek Publications, Copenhagen

xviii

AW
OBO
off.
OI
OIM
OIP
OIS
OLA
OLZ
OMRO
OP
opc.
ORA
OrAnt
OrMonsp
own.
Pap.
Pass
p(p).
pl(s).
Pd
PM

PMAA
PMLA
PN
prob.
PSBA
PT
PULC
PUMJ
Pyr.
RAPH
RdE
RdT
reg.
RHT
RHR
SAAS
SACE
SAGA

sterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien


Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis, Freiburg/Gttingen
offering
Oriental Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago
Oriental Institute Museum, University of Chicago, Chicago
Oriental Institute Publications, University of Chicago, Chicago
Oriental Institute Seminars, Chicago
Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta, Leuven
Orientalistische Literaturzeitung, Mnster
Oudheidkundige Mededelingen uit het Rijksmuseum van Oudheden,
Leiden
Occasional Publications, Egypt Exploration Society, London
optional(ly)
Orientalische Religionen in der Antike, Tbingen
Oriens Antiqvvs
Orientalia Monspeliensia, Montpellier
owner
papyrus
passageway (between sarcophagus chamber and antechamber)
page(s)
plate(s)
Probleme der gyptologie, Leiden
B. PORTER and R.L.B. MOSS, Topographical Bibliography of Ancient
Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings (Oxford: Clarendon
Press, 1927-2007), 8 vols.
Princeton Monographs in Art and Archaeology, Princeton
Proceedings of the Modern Language Association of America, New York
H. RANKE, Die gyptischen Personennamen (Glckstadt: J.J. Augustin,
1935-1977), 3 vols.
probably
Proceedings of the Society for Biblical Archaeology, London
Pyramid Text (recitation)
Princeton University Library Chronicle, Princeton
Pennsylvania University Museum Journal, University of Pennsylvania,
Philadelphia
Pyramid Text (line)
Recherches dArchologie, de Philologie et dHistorie, IFAO, Cairo
Revue dgyptologie, Cairo/Paris
Recueil de Travaux relatifs la philologie et larchologie gyptiennes
et assyriennes, Cairo
register
Revue dHistoire des Textes, Paris
Revue de lHistoire des Religions, Paris
State Archives of Assyria Studies, Helsinki
School of Archaeology, Classics, and Egyptology, University of Liverpool
Studien zur Archologie und Geschichte Altgyptens, Heidelberg

xix

SAK
SAOC
SAOS
Sarc
SASAE
SAT
SBL
SCA
SDAIK
SEG
Sen
SF
SHAW
sic
SIP
SJOT
SMMA
SPAW
spec.
sPT

StLit
Suppl.
TAVO
temp
TMO
TSR
TTS
UCLA
U.E.
UGA
uniden.
UPM
USE
usurp(s).
var.
VDWR
vol.

Studien zur Altgyptischen Kultur, Hamburg


Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization, Chicago
School of Archaeology and Oriental Study, University of Liverpool (now
SACE)
sarcophagus
Supplment aux annales du Service des Antiquits de lgypte, Cairo
Studien zum Altgyptischen Totenbuch, Bonn
Society of Biblical Literature, Atlanta
Supreme Council of Antiquities, Cairo
Sonderschrift Deutsches Archologisches Institut Kairo, Cairo
Southern Egypt Group
Senwosretankh, Lisht
Sheikh Farag (This/Naga ed-Der area)
Schriften der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, PhilosophischHistorische Klasse, Heidelberg
error
Second Intermediate Period
Scandinavian Journal of the Old Testament, Abingdon
Series of Monographs in Mediterranean Archaeology, Sheffield
Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften,
Philosophisch-Historische Klasse, Berlin
specifically
Pyramid Text (recitation), as numbered by the Saqqara mission (s stands
for Saqqara) in J. LECLANT et al., Les textes de la pyramide de Ppy Ier
(Cairo: IFAO, 2001), MIFAO 118, vol. 1 [* In the figures, viz.
s+recitation].
Studia Liturgica, Wrzburg
Supplement
Tbinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients, Tbingen
temporary (see LESKO, Index of the Spells on Egyptian Middle Kingdom
Coffins, p. 3 and the explanatory notes for the chapter figures below)
Travaux de la Maison de lOrient, Lyon
Toronto Studies in Religion, Toronto
Theban Tomb Series, London
University California Los Angeles
Upper Egypt
Untersuchungen zur Geschichte und Altertumskunde gyptens,
Leipzig/Berlin
unidentified
University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archeology and Anthropology
Uppsala Studies in Egyptology, Uppsala
usurper(s)
variant
Verlag der Weltreligionen, Frankfurt am Main
volume

xx

Wb.

Wdo
WZKM
WZKS
WVDOG
x
YES
ZS
ZBA
ZDMG
ZNTW

A. ERMAN and H. GRAPOW (eds.), Das Wrterbuch der gyptischen


Sprache; zur Geschichte eines grossen wissenschaftlichen Unternehmens
der Akademie (Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1953), Deutschen Akademie des
Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Vortrge und Schriften 51.
Die Welt des Orient, Gttingen/Wupoertal
Wiener Zeitschrift fr die Kunde des Morgenlandes, Wien
Wiener Zeitschrift fr die Kunde Sdasiens, Wien
Wissenschaftliche Verffentlichung der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft,
Berlin
unknown
Yale Egyptological Studies, Yale
Zeitschrift fr gyptische Sprache, Leipzig/Berlin
Zaberns Bildbnde zur Archologie, Mainz am Rhein
Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlndischen Gesellschaft,
Leipzig/Wiesbaden
Zeitschrift fr die Neutestamentliche Wissenschaft, Berlin

xxi

Abbreviations for manuscripts, photos and personal files


ALLEN, Computer Spreadsheet
Personal computer database spreadsheet (generously provided by James P. Allen)
JRGENS, Coffin Database
Personal computer database software (shared by Peter Jrgens online)
CTN
Coffin Texts Notebook(s), Oriental Institute Archives, University of Chicago
GARDINER MSS
A.H. GARDINER, Notebooks, notes, card indexes of the Pyramid Texts and Late Egyptian,
copies of inscriptions, corpus of transcribed hieratic ostraca and papyri, photographs,
drawings, correspondence, copies of his own publications, and portraits (Oxford:
Bequeathed to the Griffith Institute by Sir A. H. Gardiner, ca. 1900-1063).
GARSTANG Photos
J. Garstangs collection: School of Archaeology and Oriental Studies (University of
Liverpool), Liverpool (data partially collected from S.E. Orels dissertation (SAOS negs.
therein), see bibliography).
GUNN MSS
B.G. GUNN, Notebooks, notes, articles (some unpublished), lecture notes, photographs,
correspondence, squeezes, drawings, tracings, and casts (Oxford: bequeathed by B. G.
Gunn to the Griffith Institute, ca. 1920-1950).
OIM Photos
Oriental Institute Museum, Photos Archives
MFA Photos
Museum of Fine Arts, Photo Archives

xxii

Abbreviation system for textual position


For the system of location and distribution of texts listed in this work, see J. LECLANT, C.
BERGER-EL NAGGAR, and I. PIERRE-CROISIAU, Les textes de la pyramide de Ppy 1er,
MIFAO 118/1-2, pp. 27-199; which revises T.G.H. ALLEN, Occurrences of Pyramid
Texts with Cross Indexes, SAOC 27, pp. 48-99.
Pyramid distribution
A
antechamber
C
corridor leading north from the antechamber
D
descending passage
g
gable
hor
horizontal band
S
sarcophagus chamber
Sarc sarcophagus
Ser
passageway to serdab from A
V
vestibule
Further locative abbreviations
beg beginning section
col(s). column(s) [by numeral order]
cont. continuation
end ending section
ext
exterior
frg(s). fragment(s)
int.
interior
l(l). line(s) [by letter order]
leg. legend
med. middle section
reg. register
/
two walls/sides marker or corresponding walls
(e.g. FR/B or FR-side/E-wall)

xxiii

Coffin distribution
B
back-side
BO
bottom
F
foot-side
FR
front-side
H
head-side
L
lid

E
N
S
W
e
n
s
w

east wall
north wall
south wall
west wall
eastern section
northern section
southern section
western section

Abbreviation system for tomb and coffin nomenclature


For the system of location and distribution of texts attested in coffins listed in this work,
see DE BUCK, The Egyptian Coffin Texts I, p. xxvii. The letters used in the designations
stand for provenience in the first column and current location in the second one. When a
source is found and remains in situ, then the same abbreviation is used for both
provenience and current location (e.g. Kh1Kh).
* With sources from Lisht, we follow the system of J.P. ALLEN, The Egyptian Coffin
Texts VIII: Middle Kingdom Copies of Pyramid Texts (Chicago: The Oriental Institute
University of Chicago, 2006), OIP 132, with the initial letter L indicating the
procedence from Lisht and the second column referring in abbreviated form to the name
of the owner (e.g. L-MH1A).
For the royal pyramids, the monuments are abbreviated by the first letter (and with
number referring to the position order) of the owner (e.g. AII).
Provenience

Current location

W
T
P
B
M
N
A
AI
AII
AIII
Ab
Aby
B
Ba
BH
D
Da
E
G
Haw
Ha
Hu
Ib
IpII
IpIII
K

Ba
Be
BO
Br
C
Ca
Ch
Chass

king Unas
king Teti
king Pepi I
queen Behenu
king Merenre
king Pepi II
Aswan
queen Ankhesenpepi I
queen Ankhesenpepi II
queen Ankhesenpepi III
Abusir
Abydos
Bersheh
Balat
Beni Hasan
Dendera
Dahshur
Elephantina
Gebelein
Hawara
Harageh
Hu (Diopolis Parva)
King Ibi
Queen Iput II
Queen Iput III
Qau el-Kebir

Basel, private collection


Berlin, gyptisches Museum
Boston, Museum of Fine Arts
Brussels, Muses Royaux dArt et dHistoire
Cairo, Egyptian Museum
Cambridge, Ethnological Museum
Chicago, Oriental Institute Museum
Chassinat, coffin at publication (see
bibliography)
Cop Copenhagen, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek
L
London, Britism Museum
Le
Leipzig, gyptische Museum Universitt
Leipzig
Mos Moscow, Pushkin Museum
NY New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Ox
Oxford, Ashmolean Museum
P
Paris, Muse du Louvre
Parma Parma, Museo Archeologigo Nazionale
Ph
Philadelphia, University Museum
T
Turin, Museo Egizio di Torino
T
Tbingen, Tbingen Universitt Sammlung
W
Wrzburg, Martin von Wagner Museum
War Warsaw, Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie
X
unknown current location
Y
Yale University, Art Gallery

xxiv

Kh
Kom el-Hisn
L(i) Lisht
M
Meir
Me
Mendes
NeD Naga ed-Der
Nt
queen Neith (Neith,
queen)
Q
Al-Qatta
R
Riqqa
Ri
Riffeh
S
Asyut
Sed Sedment
Sen Senwosretankh
Sq
Saqqara
T
Thebes
Tod El-Tod
TT
Theban Tomb
Wedj queen Wedjebteni
Y
unknown provenance

xxv

EXPLANATORY NOTES FOR CHAPTER FIGURES


In the figures with Pyramid Texts assemblages, the location of texts on the outer side of
the source (e.g. coffin) is noted with the label exterior. No particular reference means
that the texts appear on the inner side. The offering lists (off.list) and offering formulae
(off.formula) affecting the order or interpolating in the series of mortuary texts have been
included in the figures.
Sign

Meaning

italics font
letter
number

[recitation]
[]
CTtemp no.

framing of Pyr. or CT line(s) within the text of another recitation


band or line [i.e. German waagerecht for horizontal elements]
column
continuation in a different side/wall
similar to
reconstruction in illegible section or area with traces of a text
damaged or destroyed (e.g. title in PT214 in L-A1: fig. 59, n. 786)
Numbers used by T.G. ALLEN, Occurrences, p. 122, n. 4, and 133;
and L. LESKO, Index of the Spells, passim, for texts that were not
easily identifiable. For instance, CTtemp 325 in LESKO, Index of
the Spells, p. 102 is a common text in the FR-side of some sources
from Lisht and Thebes in which Re gives the deceased the
beautiful horizon (e.g. the model coffin of Teti X1L: see
GRAJETZSKI, BMSAES 5 (2006), p. 4, section b); another instance
is CTtemp 189 in T7C FR, col. 5 (LACAU, Sarcophages antrieurs
au Nouvel Empire I, p. 80, col. 5) and T7C B, col. 1 (see LACAU,
Sarcophages antrieurs au Nouvel Empire I, p. 81, col. 1).
For this system, see GESTERMANN, Die berlieferung
ausgewhlter Texte, p. 9, n. 26, where the author explains that
Leonard Lesko was the designer of the new system with CTtemp
labels, which intended to include those texts that were not included
in the Coffin Texts volumes by A. de Buck. See further references
also in J.P. ALLEN, The funerary texts of king Wakhare Akhtoy,
p. 1, n. 6.

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