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Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

FLAMMABLE AND EXPLOSIVE CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

A Flame is produced when sufficient energy is liberated,


usually in the visible range of the spectrum through some are
in the infra red or ultra violet region and invisible.
Chemical combustion processes are initiated by heat,
light, sparks, etc.
When the temperature of the combustible substance rises
it reaches the ignition temperature specific to the material
and to the pressure, and then the combustion process
begins.

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

FLAMMABLE AND EXPLOSIVE CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES


Flammable substances are those gases, liquids and solids that will
ignite and continue to burn in air if exposed to a source of ignition

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

Flammable liquids are classed as:


Extremely flammable
Liquids which have a flashpoint lower than 0C and a boiling point
(or, in the case of a boiling range, the initial boiling point) lower than
or equal to 35C.
Highly flammable
Liquids which have a flashpoint below 21C but which are not
extremely flammable.
Flammable
Liquids which have a flashpoint equal to or greater than 21C and
less than or equal to 55C and which support combustion when
tested in the prescribed manner at 55C.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/fireandexplosion/about.htm

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

Liquids
Liquids (such as petrol and other fuels) and solvents in industrial products (such
as paint, ink, adhesives and cleaning fluids) give off flammable vapour which,
when mixed with air, can ignite or explode.
The ease by which liquids give off flammable vapours is linked to a simple
physical test called Flashpoint (ie. the minimum temperature at which a liquid,
under specific test conditions, gives off sufficient flammable vapour to ignite
momentarily on the application of an ignition source) which allows them to be
classed according to the fire hazard they present in normal use.

http://www.hse.gov.uk/fireandexplosion/about.htm

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

Dusts
Dusts which can form explosive atmospheres are also
classed as dangerous substances. Dusts can be produced
from many everyday materials such as coal, wood, flour,
grain, sugar, certain metals and synthetic organic chemicals.
They are found in many industries such as food/animal feed,
chemicals, woodworking, rubber and plastic processing and
metal powders. They may be raw materials, intermediates,
finished or waste products.
A cloud of combustible dust in the air can explode violently if
there is a source of ignition (eg naked flame, sparks).
http://www.hse.gov.uk/fireandexplosion/about.htm

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

Gases
Gases, such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or methane, which are
usually stored under pressure in cylinders and bulk containers.
Uncontrolled releases can readily ignite or cause the cylinder to become
a missile.

Solids
Solids include materials such as plastic foam, packaging, and textiles
which can burn fiercely and give off dense black smoke, sometimes
poisonous.

http://www.hse.gov.uk/fireandexplosion/about.htm

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

Other fire and explosion hazards


Many chemical substances can give rise to harmful heat and pressure
effects because they are unstable or because they can react violently with
other materials.
Chemicals need to be stored correctly and when reacted together
sufficient information obtained to ensure that correct process controls can
be used to prevent dangerous exothermic runaway reactions.

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

http://www.scientificoem.com/ecosafe/ecosafe-flammable-90-minutes.aspx

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

Flash Point : the lowest temperature at which a liquid has a sufficient


vapor pressure to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface of
the liquid. Note: many common organic liquids have a flash point below
room temperature.
Ignition temperature: is the minimum temperature required to initiate
or cause self-sustained combustion independent of the heat surface.
The lower the ignition temperature, the greater is the potential for a fire
to be started by typical laboratory equipment. A spark is not necessary
for ignition when the flammable vapor reaches its ignition temperature.
Heat can also cause ignition.
Limits of flammability: each flammable gas and liquid (as a vapor)
has two fairly definite limits of flamability defining the range of
concentrations in mixtures with air that will produce a flame and cause
an explosion.

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

Limits of flammability: each flammable gas and liquid (as a vapor)


has two fairly definite limits of flammability defining the range of
concentrations in mixtures with air that will produce a flame and cause
an explosion.
The lower explosive limit (LEL) is the minimum concentration
(percent by volume) of the fuel (vapor) in air at which a flames is
produced when an ignition source is present
The upper explosive limit (UEL) is the maximum concentration
(percent by volume) of the vapor in air above which a flame is not
produced.

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

Certain chemicals pose fire and explosion risks because:


They ignite easily. Vapours often travel a considerable distance to an
ignition source remote from the point chemical escape
Considerable heat is generated. Many volatile substances liberate heat at
a rate some ten times faster than burning wood
The fire spread easily by e.g. Running liquid fire, a pool fire, heat radiation
or thermal lift (convection)
Explosion: a confined vapor cloud explosion (CVCE) can result from
ignition of vapour within a building or equipment; a boiling liquid expanding
vapour explosion (BLEVE) can result when unvented containers of
flammable chemicals burst with explosive violence as a result of the buildup of internal pressure; onconfined vapour cloud explosion (UCVE) can
result from ignition of a very large vapour or gas/air cloud.

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

Certain chemicals pose fire and explosion risks because:


They ignite easily. Vapours often travel a considerable distance to an
ignition source remote from the point chemical escape
Cause of ignition:
spontaneous combustion : takes place when a substance reaches its
ignition temperature without the application of external heat. Please
consider the possibility of spontaneous combustion, especially when
storing or disposing of materials.
Example of materials susceptible to spontaneous combustion include oily
rags, dust accumulations, organic materials, mixed with strong oxidizing
agents (e.g. Nitric acid, chlorates, permanganates, peroxides, persulftes),
alkali metals (e.g. Sodium, potassium), finely divided pyrophoric metals,
and phosporus.

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

Cause of ignition:
Ignition sources: potential ignition sources in the laboratory include the
abvious torch and Bunsen burner, as well as a number of less obvious
ellectrically powered sources, including refrigerators, stirring motors, and
microwave ovens. Whenever possible, replace olen flames with electrical
heating.
Oxidants other than oxygen: the most familiar fire involves a
combustible material burning in air. However, the oxidant driving a fire or
explosion need not be oxygen itself, depending on the nature of the
reducing agent.

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

Cause of ignition:
Oxidants other than oxygen: the most familiar fire involves a
combustible material burning in air. However, the oxidant driving a fire or
explosion need not be oxygen itself, depending on the nature of the
reducing agent.
Substances

Examples

Gases

Chlorine, flourine, nitrous oxide, oxygen, ozone, steam

Liquids

Bromide, hydrogen peroxide, nitric acid, perchloric acid,


sulfuric acid

Solids

Bromates, chlorates, chlorites, chromates, dichromates,


hyphoclorites, iodates, nirates, nitrites, perchlorates,
peroxides, permanganates, picrates

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

DSEAR?
The Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres
Regulations 20021, known by the acronym DSEAR, aim to
protect people from the risks from fires, explosions and
other similar events that may occur as a result of the presence
or use of dangerous substances in the workplace.
a dangerous substance is any natural or artificial substance
which is explosive, extremely flammable, highly
flammable or flammable, including liquids, vapours,
gases, dust; and equipment that might leak or generate a
dangerous substance

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

The key requirements of the Regulations are to:


Assess the risks from dangerous substances;
Provide measures to eliminate those risks, or reduce them
so far as is reasonably practicable;
Provide equipment and procedures to deal with accidents
and emergencies; and
Provide information and training to employees.

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

Examples of Dangerous substances include


o Most common organic solvents
o Benzoyl peroxide
o Ammonia gas
o Oxygen gas
o Petrol
o Varnishes
o LPG
o Methyl ethyl ketone
o Styrene monomer
o Acrylamide monomer

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

STEP 1 - Check whether the substance has been classified under the
Chemicals (Hazard Information and Packaging for Supply) Regulations2
(CHIP) as: explosive, oxidising, extremely flammable, highly
flammable or flammable. The CHIP Regulations require dangerous
substances to be classified by suppliers using criteria set out in the
Approved Guide to the Classification and Labelling of Substances and
Preparations Dangerous for Supply3 into certain categories of danger. If
a substance or preparation is classified as explosive, oxidising,
extremely flammable, highly flammable or flammable then it is a
dangerous substance.

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

STEP 2 - Assess the physical and chemical properties of the


substance or preparation and the work processes involved to see whether
that creates a potential for fire, explosion or similar energetic (energy
releasing) event4.
If the assessment of the work activity involving the substance or preparation
shows that there is a risk of a fire, explosion or similar energetic (energyreleasing) event then the substance or preparation is dangerous.

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

Remember, the Regulations apply because of the way a substance is used or present.
For example, diesel oil is not classified as flammable under CHIP.
Nevertheless its physical properties are such that when heated to a high temperature
it can present a fire and explosive risk.
The key point is that it is not only the substances fundamental physical or chemical
properties, but also the way the substance is used/processed or present that
determines whether DSEAR applies.
Another example would be substances which on their own or when mixed with others
decompose or react to release energy such that there could be a fire or explosion.
Examples include certain chemical reactions with the potential for thermal runaway
and the handling and storage of unstable substances such as certain types of
peroxides. A risk assessment uses information about the physical and chemical
properties of the substance and the characteristics of the work processes to determine
whether there is a hazard and risk.

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

STEP 3 - Check to see if the work activity involves the creation or handling of
potentially combustible or explosive dusts

DSEAR also requires mitigation measures to be in place in case an incident


occurs. These measures include:
Preventing fires and explosion from spreading;
Reducing the number of people exposed to a potential incident; and
Providing equipment that can safely contain or suppress an explosion or vent
it to a safe place.

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

PREVENTION ACTIONS
Reducing the quantity of dangerous substances to a minimum
Avoiding or minimising releases
Controlling releases at source
Preventing the formation of an explosive atmosphere
Collecting, containing and removing any releases to a safe place
(e.g. by ventilation)
Avoiding ignition sources
Avoiding adverse conditions (e.g. exceeding the limits of
temperature or control settings) that could lead to danger
Keeping incompatible substances apart

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.

Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga

Miranda Adihimawati, M.Sc.