You are on page 1of 52

CTU in Prague

ADVANCED DESIGN OF GLASS


STRUCTURES
Lecture L4_ME
Bolted connection in glass structures
Martina Eliov
European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards and Catastrophic Events
520121-1-2011-1-CZ-ERA MUNDUS-EMMC

Objectives of the lecture

CTU in Prague

Objectives

Introduction

Structural design of
bolted
connections

Structural design of bolted connections

Typology and
technology

Typology and technology

Behaviour under
loading

Behaviour under loading

Experimental
research

Experimental research

Design concepts

Introduction

Design concepts

CTU in Prague

Examples of bolted connections


Objectives
Introduction

Bolted Connection in horizontal Glass Beams

Structural design of
bolted
connections
Typology and
technology
Behaviour under
loading
Experimental
research
Design concepts

Allied Irish Banks, Bank centre, Dublin


Architect: RKD Architects
Facade:

Gartner Steel and Glass,


Germany
Structure Specialist Glazing, Curtain Wall,
Surface:

Steel- and Glass roof


20,000 m

Completion: 2008

Wellershoff F., Schreiter D., Schmitt F., 2008


3

CTU in Prague

Examples of bolted connections


Objectives

Bolted Connection in horizontal glass beams

Introduction
Structural design of
bolted
connections
Typology and
technology
F. Wellershoff

Behaviour under
loading
Experimental
research
Design concepts

Gartner Steel and Glass

Practical examples
Objectives

CTU in Prague

Bolted Connection in horizontal glass beams

Introduction
Structural design of
bolted
connections
Typology and
technology
Behaviour under
loading
Experimental
research
Design concepts

Glass roof for university of Glasgow, 2002


friction grip connection
soft interlayer replaced by aluminium alloy
prestressed M20 bolts
special friction layers
5

CTU in Prague

Examples of bolted connections


Objectives
Introduction

Bolted connection in vertical fins

Structural design of
bolted
connections
Typology and
technology
Behaviour under
loading
Experimental
research
Design concepts

River City - Danube house, Prague


6

CTU in Prague

Examples of bolted connections


Objectives
Introduction

Bolted connection in vertical fins

Structural design of
bolted
connections
Typology and
technology
Behaviour under
loading
Experimental
research
Design concepts

Gartner Steel and Glass

Trump Tower, Chicago (SOM Architects, 2008)


7

CTU in Prague

Examples of bolted connections


Objectives
Introduction

Bolted connection in vertical fins

Structural design of
bolted
connections
Typology and
technology
Behaviour under
loading
Experimental
research
Design concepts

Museum of history Luxembourg


Glass fins: height - 12 m, thickness 19 mm
8

CTU in Prague

Examples of bolted connections


Objectives
Introduction

Bolted connection in vertical fins

Structural design of
bolted
connections
Typology and
technology
Behaviour under
loading
Experimental
research
Design concepts

Museum of history Luxembourg


9

CTU in Prague

Examples of bolted connections


Introduction

Bolted connection in vertical fins


wind

Structural design of
bolted
connections
Typology and
technology
Behaviour under
loading

compression
A
tension in steel tie
glass fin divided into pieces of 4m and 2m
steel ties with nuts

Experimental
research
Design concepts

direct contact

Objectives

Detail A

Natural museum in Rotterdam, 1997


glass faade of 6m height is stabilized by
glass fins
depth of fin 400mm, distance 2.5m
10

CTU in Prague

Examples of bolted connections


Objectives
Introduction

Bolted connection in glass bridges

Structural design of
bolted
connections
Typology and
technology
Behaviour under
loading
Experimental
research
Design concepts

Glass footbridge, Rotterdam, 1994


beam: span 3,5 m, depth 300 mm, composition 3 x 10 mm float glass,
parabolic shape = architectural reasons
floor plates float glass 2 x 15 mm
walls: laminated glass - external:10 mm toughened glass, internal: 6 mm
heat-strengthened glass
11

CTU in Prague

Examples of bolted connections


Objectives
Introduction

Bolted connection in glass bridges

Structural design of
bolted
connections
Typology and
technology
Behaviour under
loading
Experimental
research
Design concepts

Glass footbridge, Rotterdam, 1994


beam: span 3,5 m, depth 300 mm, composition 3 x 10 mm float glass,
parabolic shape = architectural reasons
floor plates float glass 2 x 15 mm
walls: laminated glass - external:10 mm toughened glass, internal: 6 mm
heat-strengthened glass
11

CTU in Prague

Examples of bolted connections


Objectives
Introduction
Structural design of
bolted
connections
Typology and
technology

high modulus
structural silicone
sealant

4mm, 180mm
steel plate

15mm thick,
130mm
steel plate

Behaviour under
loading

M16 countersunk
screw

low modulus
silicone sealant

8mm heat
strengthened
glass

Experimental
research
Design concepts

round polished
edge hole
142mm

1,52mm thick
PVB interlayer
nylatron
bush

1mm thick vulcanised


cellulose fibre gaskets

15mm toughened
glass
ground and
arrissed hole
12mm, steel 28mm
plate, 180mm

12

CTU in Prague

Examples of bolted connections


Objectives
Introduction

Bolted connection in glass bridges

Structural design of
bolted
connections
Typology and
technology
Behaviour under
loading
Experimental
research
Design concepts

Eaton Center, Calgary (MMC International Architects, Toronto, 2010)


13

CTU in Prague

Examples of bolted connections


Objectives
Introduction

Bolted connection in glass bridges

Structural design of
bolted
connections
Typology and
technology
Behaviour under
loading
Experimental
research
Design concepts

14

CTU in Prague

Examples of bolted connections


Objectives
Introduction

Bolted connection in glass bridges

Structural design of
bolted
connections
Typology and
technology
Behaviour under
loading
Experimental
research
Design concepts

15

CTU in Prague

Structural design of bolted connections


Objectives
Introduction

Stress Analysis with FE-Methods

Structural design
of bolted
connections
Typology and
technology
Behaviour under
loading
Experimental
research
Design concepts

16

CTU in Prague

Structural design of bolted connections


Objectives

Kravis Center, LA (Gartner, 2011)

Introduction
Structural design
of bolted
connections
Typology and
technology
Behaviour under
loading
Experimental
research
Design concepts

Rafael Vinoly Architects

Client

Claremont MC Kenna College

Architect

Rafael Vinoly, NY

Faade

Gartner Steel and Glass, Germany

Structure

Structural glass columns, steel roof, glass walls

Completion

2011
17

CTU in Prague

Structural design of bolted connections


Objectives

Kravis Center, LA (Gartner, 2011)

Introduction
Structural design
of bolted
connections
Typology and
technology
Behaviour under
loading
Experimental
research
Design concepts

Gartner Steel and Glass

18

CTU in Prague

Structural design of bolted connections


Objectives
Introduction

Stress Analysis with FE-Methods

Structural design
of bolted
connections

0.9

X
Y

Z
Z

Typology and
technology

Spannungen
[kN /cm 2]
140.0

1,+

Behaviour under
loading

80.0

2.01

50.0

2.33

1.69

Experimental
research

1.37
1.04
0.72

Design concepts

0.40
0.08
-0.25
-0.57
-0.89
-1.21

10.1 6
10.66
1 0.6610 .16

10.16
10.16
10.66
10.66

7.51
8 .74
8.74 7.51

7.51
8.74
8.74 7.51

40.24
40.25
57.68
57.68

4040.2
.24 5
57.68
57.68

191.0
146.0

2.33
-1.21

50.0

Max :
Min :

80.0

34.25
3 4.26

34.25
34.26

8.74
8 .74

146.0

4 8.90
48.9 1

48.90
48.91

19

CTU in Prague

Structural design of bolted connections


Objectives
Introduction
Structural design
of bolted
connections

Detail tests of the connection force


resistance

Typology and
technology
Behaviour under
loading
Experimental
research
Design concepts

Sttzenkrfte
Lastkombination
nach ASCE-07

N [kN]

Kraftresultierende je Bolzenpaar

V [kN]

R druck [kN]

R zug [kN]

DL + LLR

34

DL + 0,7 EL

17

66,5

195

178

10,5

66,5

191,5

181

0,6 DL + 0,7 EL

DL (Dead Load), LLR (Life Load), EL (Earthquake Load)

20

CTU in Prague

Structural design of bolted connections


Objectives
Introduction
Structural design
of bolted
connections
Typology and
technology
Behaviour under
loading
Experimental
research
Design concepts

F. Wellershoff

F. Wellershoff

21

CTU in Prague

Structural design of bolted connections


Objectives
Introduction
Structural design
of bolted
connections

Detail tests of the connection


force resistance

Typology and
technology
Behaviour under
loading
Experimental
research

Test
sample

Breakage force of glass layer

First
layer

Design concepts

1)

Second
layer

Max. force

Safety coefficient

All
layer

719,5

755,0

4,17

682,0

682,0

3,77

733,2

800,0

4,42

476,7

578,9

3,20

798,0

801,4

4,43

742,8

742,8

4,10

775,9

449,2

578,9

1)

Global safety factor related to characteristic connection force (181 kN)


22

CTU in Prague

Structural design of bolted connections


Objectives
Introduction

Full scale test for overall behavior of the


column

Structural design
of bolted
connections
Typology and
technology
Behaviour under
loading
Experimental
research
Design concepts

F. Wellershoff

F. Wellershoff

23

Typology and technology


Objectives
Introduction
Structural design of
bolted
connections
Typology and
technology

Great number of point fittings on market

Glass connectors, cylindrical


flat shape, round-head

Behaviour under
loading
Experimental
research

CTU in Prague

Glass connectors, countersunk


flat-head, round-head

Slideable glass connectors,


countersunk

Glass connectors for round pipe mounting

Hinged glass connectors

3D-glass connectors

Countersunk glass connector, tapered

Design concepts

24

Typology and technology

CTU in Prague

Objectives
Introduction

Hole shapes

Structural design of
bolted
connections
Typology and
technology
Behaviour under
loading
Experimental
research

cylindrical hole

conical hole

undercut hole

no universally accepted rules for positioning or dimensioning of drilled holes


hole diameter at least glass thickness, preferable twice of the glass thickness

Design concepts

A 2T

DT

A edge distance
B distance between holes (from hole
edge to hole edge)
C distance to corner
D hole diameter
T glass thickness

DT

B 2T

C 6T

A 2T

recommended distances between holes and edges

25

Typology and technology


Objectives
Introduction
Structural design of
bolted
connections
Typology and
technology
Behaviour under
loading

CTU in Prague

Standard bolt - simplest type of fixing


load transfer by direct bearing of the glass on the shank of the bolt
small contact area limits capacity, liner between glass and bolt
increase bearing surface
little provision for rotation to the fixing under applied out-of plane
loads

Experimental
research
Design concepts

fibre
washers

steel
washer

steel
washer

liner

26

Typology and technology


Objectives

CTU in Prague

Simple countersunk bolt bolt head is flush with glazing

Introduction
Structural design of
bolted
connections

liners enhance the in-plane load capacity


little provision for rotation of the glass relative to the fixing under
applied out-of plane loads

Typology and
technology
Behaviour under
loading
Experimental
research

liner

Design concepts

steel
washer
fibre
washer

27

Typology and technology


Objectives
Introduction
Structural design of
bolted
connections

CTU in Prague

Bolted connection with steel splices


bearing or friction bolts (bolts are tightened to a specific torque in
order to achieve a friction connection)
increased contact area and wider load spread provide high load
carrying capacity

Typology and
technology
Behaviour under
loading

fibre
gasket

Experimental
research

steel
washer

Design concepts

steel
washer
plate

plate

28

Typology and technology


Objectives
Introduction
Structural design of
bolted
connections
Typology and
technology
Behaviour under
loading
Experimental
research
Design concepts

CTU in Prague

Bearing bolt connection with steel splices


stress concentrations around the bolt
hole necessity of tempered or heat
strengthened glass
ultimate breaking stress depends on the
number and diameter of bolts
maximum force about 30kN per bolt
load is transferred into the plane of glass
by contact between suitable interlayer
and bolt bearing surface
use of single splice plate avoided due to
load eccentricities
important is quality of edge treatment

29

Typology and technology


Objectives

CTU in Prague

Friction bolt connection with steel splices

Introduction
Structural design of
bolted
connections
Typology and
technology
Behaviour under
loading
Experimental
research
Design concepts

normally double shear connection


friction forces resist the shear forces
between the components of joint

elastomer
sleeve

spring
washer

magnitude of stresses, which friction


grip connection can carry, depends
on the contact pressure and friction
coefficient
special friction layers greater load
capacity in comparison to bearing
connection

friction
layer

steel splice
plate

normally used ONLY with monolithic


glass creep behaviour of PVB foil
laminated glass PVB foil can be
replaced in area of load transfer by
insert of stiffer material, i.e.
aluminium

30

Typology and technology


Objectives

CTU in Prague

Bolted connections with steel splices

Introduction
Structural design of
bolted
connections
Typology and
technology
Behaviour under
loading
Experimental
research
Design concepts

bolt groups and multiply bolt connection are typical


example of internal splice plate design of friction grip connection
friction grip connection with more than one individual splice plate
31

Behaviour under loading


Objectives

CTU in Prague

Basic Parameters in Bolted Connections

Introduction
Structural design of
bolted
connections
Typology and
technology
Behaviour under
loading
Experimental
research
Design concepts

Glass thickness

Glass type (pre stress)

Glass surface quality in the borehole

Borehole offset in laminated glass

Borehole diameter

Bolt diameter

Bushing diameter and tolerances to bolt diameter

Contact material (thickness and tolerances, Young's modulus,


viscosity, creeping performance, compression strength, adhesion to
glass surface, UV-stability, moisture-stability,..)

Load eccentricity (additional bending moment)

Distances (between boreholes and from boreholes to glass edges)

32

Behaviour under loading


Objectives

CTU in Prague

Stress distribution around the hole

Introduction
Structural design of
bolted
connections
Typology and
technology

1. bearing bolt connection with steel splices


2. compressive stress in the glass pane
3. tensile stress in the glass pane

Behaviour under
loading
Experimental
research
Design concepts

stress distribution around the bolt


33

Behaviour under loading


Objectives
Introduction
Structural design of
bolted
connections

CTU in Prague

Description of contact compression with Fourier formula


(Girkmann, 1978)
Centric Load

Typology and
technology
Behaviour under
loading
Experimental
research
Design concepts

34

Experimental research
Objectives
Introduction
Structural design of
bolted
connections
Typology and
technology

CTU in Prague

Research and concepts


Example of original beam with a splice connection and the
isolated detail
Ioad
Belastung
q
qd

Behaviour under
loading
Experimental
research
Design concepts

Isolated Beispiel
Detail fr
to be
tested bauteilhnlichen
in laboratory
Ausschnittsversuch

35

CTU in Prague

Experimental research
Introduction
Structural design of
bolted
connections

Bolted Connection Tests RWTH Aachen


Test set up
Centric Load

Behaviour under
loading

200

Typology and
technology

Steel plate

Objectives

Eccentric Load M = F e

Load F
Load F
Load introduction material

Experimental
research

Glass bore hole


35 (cylindrical)

Steel bolt
25
Steel plate

200

600
200

Design concepts

Side view:

[ mm ]

Glass sample
600 * 400

Steel bolt
e
e = 0 / 4 / 5 / 6 cm

400
200

200
36

Experimental research
Objectives
Introduction
Structural design of
bolted
connections
Typology and
technology
Behaviour under
loading
Experimental
research
Design concepts

CTU in Prague

Bolted Connection Tests RWTH Aachen


Tested Materials:
Polyamide 6 with 30% glass
fibers (PA6 GF30)
Polyethereethereketone
(PEEK)
PolySulfone (PSU)

Treatment:
Pre fabricated bushes
Fill out the gap between the bush and
the glass without compression
Fill out the gap between the bush and
the glass with compression

Rein Aluminum
AlMgSi (toughened)
POM
Hilti Hit Hy50
epple easy glass mortar
epple easy 5610

37

CTU in Prague

Experimental research
Objectives
Introduction
Structural design of
bolted
connections

Bolted Connection Tests RWTH Aachen


Test results centric load
Tests
with bolted connections;
Glass
Lochleibungsversuch,
ESG d = Tempered
10 mm und 15
mm

Typology and
technology

Experimental
research
Design concepts

gemessene
Bruchkraft
in [kN]
Maximal force
at failure
[kN]

Behaviour under
loading

100
PSU

Alu
(weichgeglht)

90

PEEK

PA6
GF30

POM

Hilti
nur Stahl
epple
5610

80
70

epple
Glasmrtel

60
50
40
30
20

d = 10 mm
d = 15 mm

10
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

Versuchsnummer
Number
of test

38

Experimental research
Objectives
Introduction

CTU in Prague

Application of photoelastic method - CTU in Prague


F

Structural design of
bolted
connections

Steel
splice

Typology and
technology
Behaviour under
loading

Glass
specimen

Experimental
research
Design concepts

Testing
machine

Nominal dimensions of the specimens: 680 x


300 x 12 mm, float glass
Insert from hard plastic between glass and bolts
M16, quality 8.8
Special steel hinge - from one side of the glass
specimen
39

Experimental research
Objectives
Introduction

F = 0 kN

F = 5 kN

CTU in Prague

F = 10 kN

Structural design of
bolted
connections
Typology and
technology
Behaviour under
loading
Experimental
research
Design concepts

Numerical study comparison with experiments

40

CTU in Prague

Design Concepts
Objectives

Design Formula

Introduction
Structural design of
bolted
connections

,max,d

Typology and
technology

K
k1 k 2 k 3 k 4 k 5 1,2 2,2 m
bm

Pd

d
d0 t

Behaviour under
loading
Experimental
research
Design concepts

Pd
d0
t
ki
bm
Km

design load at relevant bore hole


bore hole diameter
glass thickness (one layer for laminated glass)
factors for design and production parameters
relevant width in [d0]
factor to consider load balance at multiple bore holes

Baitinger M., 2009


41

Design Concepts
Objectives
Introduction

CTU in Prague

Definition of relevant pane width

Structural design of
bolted
connections
Typology and
technology
Behaviour under
loading
Experimental
research
Design concepts

Baitinger M., 2009

42

Design Concepts

CTU in Prague

Objectives
Introduction

Factor Km to consider load balance at multiple bore holes

Structural design of
bolted
connections
Typology and
technology
Behaviour under
loading
Experimental
research
Design concepts

Baitinger M., 2009

43

Design Concepts

CTU in Prague

Objectives
Introduction

Factor Km to consider load balance at multiple bore holes

Structural design of
bolted
connections
Typology and
technology
Behaviour under
loading
Experimental
research
Design concepts

Baitinger M., 2009

44

Design Concepts
Objectives
Introduction
Structural design of
bolted
connections

CTU in Prague

Factors for design and production parameters


Factor to consider unequal distribution of compression

Typology and
technology
Behaviour under
loading

Factor to consider little relevant width

Experimental
research
Design concepts

Design formula is not applicable for bm < 3 d0


Factor to consider little edge distances e1=e2

k3=1.0 for e1e2


Baitinger M., 2009

45

Design Concepts
Objectives
Introduction
Structural design of
bolted
connections

CTU in Prague

Factors for design and production parameters


Factor to consider little bore hole distances p1

Typology and
technology
Behaviour under
loading
Experimental
research

Factor to consider offset in laminated glass

Design concepts

The maximum allowed offset is 50% of the mortar thickness

Baitinger M., 2009

46

Design Concepts
Objectives

CTU in Prague

Example: Splice connection in the point of zero shear load

Introduction
Structural design of
bolted
connections

glass panels

Typology and
technology
Behaviour under
loading

steel
splices

Experimental
research
Design concepts

Characteristic bending moment


MEk = 2.3 kNm

Required glass thickness?

Bolted
connection
Baitinger M., 2009

47

CTU in Prague

Design Concepts
Objectives
Introduction
Structural design of
bolted
connections

geometric parameters

factors

Typology and
technology
Behaviour under
loading

centric load

Experimental
research
Design concepts

2 layers laminated glass

Baitinger M., 2009

48

Design Concepts
Objectives
Introduction

CTU in Prague

Determination of Pd:

Structural design of
bolted
connections
Typology and
technology
Behaviour under
loading

Determination of trequired:

Experimental
research
Design concepts

Baitinger M., 2009

49

References

CTU in Prague

Educational pack of COSTActin TU0905 Structural Glass - Novel design methods and next generation
products
TECHEN, H.
Fgetechnik fr den konstruktiven Glasbau, Institut fr Statik, TU Darmstadt, PhD 1997.
WELLERSHOFF, F.; SEDLACEK, G.
Glass Pavilion Rheinbach Stability of Glass Columns; Proceedings of the Glass Processing Days 2003,
page 316-318.
MOCIBOB, D.
Glass Panel under Shear Loading - Use of Glass Envelopes in Building Stabilization, EPFL Lausanne,
PhD 2008.
VENCL, R., ELIASOVA, M.
Bolted Connections of Glass Structures by means of Two Holes In-line. In: proceedings Challenging
Glass, Conference on Architectural and Structural Applications of Glass, Faculty of Architecture, Delft
University of Technology, May 2008, s. 279 284, IOS Press, ISBN 978-1-58603-866-3.
VENCL, R., ELIASOVA, M., NETUSIL, M.
Connections of Glass Structures by Used Shear Bolts in a Row. In: proceedings Eurosteel 2008
Volume A, 5th European Conference on Steel and Composite Structures, Graz, Austria, 3rd 5th
September 2008, ECCS, s. 923 -928, 2008, ISBN 92-0147-000-90.
BAITINGER, M.
Zur Bemessung von SL-belasteten Anschlssen im konstruktiven Glasbau, RWTH Aachen, PhD 2009.
WELLERSHOFF, F., SENDELBACH, M.; SCHMITT, F.
Glass Colunms and Glass Beams Projects of 2010, engineered transparency at glastec 2010.
Conference Proceedings, page 349- 357.

50

CTU in Prague

Thank you
for your kind attention

51
52