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Fire alarm

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You are on page 1of 11

P.O. Box 297

Reading, Massachusetts 01867 - 0497

USA

781.944.9300 Fax / Data

781.942.7500 Telephone

1. A fire alarm manufacturer specifies a maximum allowable loop resistance of 50 1. What

is the maximum allowable distance from the control unit to the last device if a #16 AWG

stranded, un-coated copper wire is used? Assume a temperature of 750C. How does this

change if the temperature is 200C?

Rmax = 50 1 = 2 RW 1

R W = Ru D 1

W

W

Rmax = 50 1 = 2 Ru D 1

Ru = 4.99 1/1000 ft or 0.00499 1 per handout table for

#16 AWG stranded, uncoated copper wire at 750C

D=

D=L/2

Rmax

50

=

= 5010 = 5000 ft

2 Ru 2(0.00499)

Part B

If T = 200C calculate the unit resistance, Ru, at the lower temperature (it should be

less since resistance is lower at lower temperatures leading to super cooled super

conductors):

R2 = R1 [1 + 9 (T 2 - 75)] where: 9Cu = 0.00323

R2 = 0.00499 [1 + 0.00323 (20 - 75)] 1/ft or R2 = 4.99 [1 + 0.00323 (20 - 75)] 1/1000 ft

R2 = 0.00410 1/ft

D=

Rmax

50

=

= 6092 = 6000 ft

2 Ru 2(0.00410)

2. If a #24 AWG conductor has a resistance of 25.67 1/1000 ft at 200C what is the

maximum allowable distance from the control unit to the last device for a system having

a maximum allowable loop resistance of 501

1?

D=

Rmax

50

=

= 974 = 1000 ft

2 Ru 2(0.02567)

05 October 2000

3. Plot total loop resistance, RT, as a function of circuit distance (D = L/2) for 14, 16, 18, 22

and 24 AWG uncoated solid copper wire. Use unit resistances of 3.07, 4.89, 7.77, 16.14,

and 25.67 1/1000 ft respectfully.

R W = Ru D 1

R T = 2 RW = 2 R u D 1

straight line having a slope of 2Ru and a Y intercept of 0.

W

W

D=L/2

Also, a test of the data or the plot is:

When L = 1000 ft, RT = 1000 Ru 1. This occurs at D = L/2 = 500 ft So, at D = 500 ft we should

see RT = 1000 Ru 1.

D, ft

0.0

500.0

1000.0

#14 AWG #16 AWG #18 AWG #22 AWG #24 AWG

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

3.070

4.890

7.770

16.140

25.670

6.140

9.780

15.540

32.280

51.340

05 October 2000

rpsa

FIRE PROTECTION ENGINEERS

Loop Resistance

(Loop is 2 x D)

(Solid, uncoated copper at 750C)

200.0

RT = 2 RW

RW = RU D

RT = 2 RU D

180.0

160.0

140.0

W

W

#14 AWG

120.0

#16 AWG

100.0

#18 AWG

#22 AWG

80.0

#24 AWG

60.0

40.0

20.0

0.0

0.0

500.0

1000.0

1500.0

2000.0

2500.0

3000.0

3500.0

4000.0

4500.0

5000.0

Loop Resistance

(Loop is 2 x D)

(Solid, uncoated copper at 750C)

60.0

50.0

40.0

#14 AWG

#16 AWG

#18 AWG

30.0

#22 AWG

25.67

#24 AWG

20.0

16.14

10.0

7.77

4.89

3.07

0.0

0.0

100.0

200.0

300.0

400.0

500.0

600.0

700.0

800.0

900.0

05 October 2000

rpsa

1000.0

4. A notification appliance circuit (NAC) serves four horns located in a remote portion of a

building. The circuit is approximately 400 feet from the panel to the last appliance and is

wired using #16 AWG stranded, uncoated copper wire. Each appliance is rated to draw

0.05 amps at a nominal 24 volts DC. The appliances are rated to produce 78 dBA at 3

meters as long as the voltage is no less than 22 nor more than 29 VDC. The fire alarm

power supply is rated at a nominal 24 VDC. Calculate the voltage across the horns and

determine if it is sufficient to operate the horns at the rated sound pressure level (SPL).

Simplified calculation methods are permitted. Is a larger (smaller AWG number) wire

size needed? If so, what size? Can a smaller (larger AWG number) wire size be used?

The diagrams below show how the circuit analysis can be simplified.

E

O

L

Ignore EOL

IT

rw 1

rw 2

rw 3

rw 4

iw 7

rw 6

rh3

rw 5

iw 6

rh4

ih 4

rw 7

rh2

ih 3

IT

iw 4

ih 2

rw 8

rh1

iw 3

ih 1

DC

iw 2

iw 5

DC

IT

DC

RW

RW

RH

IT

VDC

VH

IT

05 October 2000

rpsa

FIRE PROTECTION ENGINEERS

There are two methods to solve for the voltage across the horns (load) using the simplified circuit

diagram. The first assumes that the load will not draw the nominal rated current because they will

be operating at a reduced voltage, not their nominal rated voltage. The second method assumes

that the current draw by the load will be the nominal even though the reduced voltage will actually

result in a smaller current draw.

In addition to the two possible calculation methods, we must choose a starting voltage. Although

the nominal voltage of the power supply is 24 VDC, it is reasonable to assume that if it switches to

batteries as a secondary power supply, the voltage will decrease or degrade over the required

supply time. NFPA 72 and UL require a power supply even secondary power to put out no

less than 85% of the nominal voltage. Therefore:

VDC = 0.85 x 24 = 20.4 VDC as a starting voltage

SOLUTION # 1

The resistance of each horn is calculated using the nominal voltage and current specified by the

manufacturer:

rh = v/i = 24/0.05 = 480 1

The equivalent resistance of 4 horns in parallel is:

1

1

1

1

1

4

= +

+

+

=

RH rh1 rh 2 rh 3 rh 4 480

RH = 120

The resistance of each length of wire is:

4.99

RW = Ru D =

400 ft = 1.996

1000 ft

The total resistance of the circuit, RT, is the sum of all three series resistances:

RT = RW + RW + RH = 1.996 + 1.996 + 120 = 123.992 1

When a voltage of 20.4 VDC is applied across a resistance of 123.992 1, how much current

flows?

IT =

VDC

20.4

=

= 0.165 Amps or 165 mA

RT 123.992

05 October 2000

rpsa

FIRE PROTECTION ENGINEERS

VH = IT RH = 0.165(120) = 19.8 = 20 VDC

In this problem we were told that The appliances are rated to produce 78 dBA at 3 meters as long

as the voltage is no less than 22 nor more than 29 VDC. Therefore, we must be sure that the

appliances receive at least 22 VDC. Since 20 < 22 they will not sound at full volume. However,

is 22 VDC really the lowest voltage at which they will operate correctly? At the present time, if a

manufacturers specifications list such a range U.L. requires that the horn actually work at 80% of

that low number: 0.80 x 22 = 17.6. Therefore, the answer depends on which voltage is really the

lowest the horns require to sound at full volume.

If we assume that they really will work at a minimum voltage of 17.6, then the wire size is

adequate. So, if I were analyzing a set of conditions such as these, I would conclude they would

work. However, for a design or design review we would set a goal with a factor of safety. I think

it would be reasonable to use 10 to 20% factor of safety. I would prefer that a proposed circuit not

drop below the manufacturers specified minimum. But if we start with a degraded power supply

at 20.4 VDC we are already below the manufacturers stated minimum of 22 VDC. A 10% factor

of safety would require that the voltage not drop below 0.9 x 22 = 19.8 = 20 VDC. The circuit in

this situation would just meet that criteria.

SOLUTION # 2

Assume the actual current flow is equal to the nominal current flow:

IT = ih1 + ih2 + ih3 + ih4 = 4(ih) = 4(0.05) = 0.2 A

VDC VW VH VW = 0

VH = VDC 2 VW

VH = 20.4 2 IT RW

4.99

RW = Ru D =

400 ft = 1.996

1000 ft

VH = 20.4 2 (0.2) (1.996) = 19.6 = 20 VDC

05 October 2000

rpsa

FIRE PROTECTION ENGINEERS

circuit length (from panel to last appliance) for each combination of amperage and wire

size. Use the following: Nominal 24 VDC power supply de-rated to 85% of nominal; 16

VDC required at the end of the circuit (last appliance); #18 and # 16 AWG wire is solid,

uncoated copper; #14, #12, and #10 AWG wire is stranded uncoated copper; wire is at

750C . Calculations and results may be in feet, meters or both.

IT

VDC VW VH VW = 0

VD

VDC 2 IT RW VH = 0

(VDC VH )

2 IT Ru

RW

RW

RH

VH

IT

VDC 2 IT Ru D VH = 0

D=

DC

IT

VDC 2VW VH = 0

ft

In this case we are given VDC = 20.4 VDC and VH = 16 VDC. The formula for D is placed in each

cell of the table with IT and RU as the variables.

18 AWG

Solid Cu

0.00777

1/ft

Amps

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

Amps

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

566

283

189

142

113

94

81

71

173

86

58

43

35

29

25

22

16 AWG

14 AWG

12 AWG

10 AWG

Solid Cu

Stranded Cu

Stranded Cu

Stranded Cu

0.00489

0.00314

0.00198

0.00124

1/ft

1/ft

1/ft

1/ft

Allowable Circuit Length, ft

900

1401

2222

3548

450

701

1111

1774

300

467

741

1183

225

350

556

887

180

280

444

710

150

234

370

591

129

200

317

507

112

175

278

444

Allowable Circuit Length, m

274

427

678

1082

137

214

339

541

91

142

226

361

69

107

169

270

55

85

136

216

46

71

113

180

39

61

97

155

34

53

85

135

05 October 2000

rpsa

FIRE PROTECTION ENGINEERS

6. Assuming batteries will be used as a secondary power supply, use the attached form to

determine what capacity (ampere-hours) batteries would be required for the protected

premises fire alarm system. Assume 1/2 of the smoke detectors in alarm at the same

time, 70 hours of standby followed by 5 minutes of alarm, and a 20% factor of safety.

How might you reduce the required battery size? The system is composed of the

following:

ITEM

DESCRIPTION

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

FACU

Heat detectors

Photoelectric Smoke Detectors

Normally energized control relays

Normally de-energized relays

Strobe Lights (15 candela)

Strobe Lights (110 candela)

Horns

ITEM

DESCRIPTION

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

FACU

Heat detectors

Photoelectric Smoke Detectors

Normally energized control relays

Normally de-energized relays

Strobe Lights (15 candela)

Strobe Lights (110 candela)

Horns

STANDBY

CURRENT

PER UNIT

(AMPS)

QTY

0.200

1

X

=

0.000

X 12 =

0.000100

X 100 =

0.02

X 10 =

0.00

5

X

=

0.000

X 20 =

0.000

X 40 =

0.000

X 20 =

TOTAL SYSTEM

STANDBY CURRENT

(AMPS)

ALARM

CURRENT

PER UNIT

(AMPS)

0.600

0.000

0.050

0.00

0.02

0.060

0.218

0.040

QTY

1

X

=

X 12 =

X 50 =

X 10 =

5

X

=

X 20 =

X 40 =

X 20 =

TOTAL SYSTEM

ALARM CURRENT

(AMPS)

05 October 2000

TOTAL

STANDBY

CURRENT

PER ITEM

(AMPS)

0.200

0.000

0.010000

0.20

0.00

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.41

TOTAL

ALARM

CURRENT

PER ITEM

(AMPS)

0.600

0.000

2.500

0.00

0.10

1.200

8.720

0.800

13.92

rpsa

FIRE PROTECTION ENGINEERS

REQUIRED

STANDBY

TIME

(HOURS)

0.41

REQUIRED

ALARM

TIME

(HOURS)

13.92

REQUIRED

STANDBY

CAPACITY

(AMP-HOURS)

28.7

TOTAL

REQUIRED

CAPACITY

(AMP-HOURS)

29.86

TOTAL SYSTEM

STANDBY

CURRENT

(AMPS)

70

TOTAL SYSTEM

ALARM

CURRENT

(AMPS)

0.083

REQUIRED

ALARM

CAPACITY

(AMP-HOURS)

1.155

REQUIRED

STANDBY

CAPACITY

(AMP-HOURS)

28.7

REQUIRED

ALARM

CAPACITY

(AMP-HOURS)

1.155

TOTAL

REQUIRED

CAPACITY

(AMP-HOURS)

29.86

ADJUSTED

BATTERY

CAPACITY

(AMP-HOURS)

35.8

OPTIONAL

FACTOR OF

SAFETY

X

1.2

05 October 2000

rpsa

FIRE PROTECTION ENGINEERS

To reduce the battery size try changing the normally energized relays to ones that are energized on

alarm.

ITEM

DESCRIPTION

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

FACU

Heat detectors

Photoelectric Smoke Detectors

Normally energized control relays

Normally de-energized relays

Strobe Lights (15 candela)

Strobe Lights (110 candela)

Horns

ITEM

DESCRIPTION

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

Heat detectors

Photoelectric Smoke Detectors

Normally energized control relays

Normally de-energized relays

Strobe Lights (15 candela)

Strobe Lights (110 candela)

Horns

STANDBY

CURRENT

PER UNIT

(AMPS)

QTY

0.200

1

X

=

0.000

X 12 =

0.000100

X 100 =

0.02

0

=

X

0.00

X 15 =

0.000

X 20 =

0.000

X 40 =

0.000

X 20 =

TOTAL SYSTEM

STANDBY CURRENT

(AMPS)

ALARM

CURRENT

PER UNIT

(AMPS)

0.600

0.000

0.050

0.00

0.02

0.060

0.218

0.040

QTY

1

X

=

X 12 =

X 50 =

0

X

=

X 15 =

X 20 =

X 40 =

X 20 =

TOTAL SYSTEM

ALARM CURRENT

(AMPS)

05 October 2000

TOTAL

STANDBY

CURRENT

PER ITEM

(AMPS)

0.200

0.000

0.010000

0.00

0.00

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.21

TOTAL

ALARM

CURRENT

PER ITEM

(AMPS)

0.600

0.000

2.500

0.00

0.30

1.200

8.720

0.800

14.12

rpsa

FIRE PROTECTION ENGINEERS

REQUIRED

STANDBY

TIME

(HOURS)

0.21

REQUIRED

ALARM

TIME

(HOURS)

14.12

REQUIRED

STANDBY

CAPACITY

(AMP-HOURS)

14.7

TOTAL

REQUIRED

CAPACITY

(AMP-HOURS)

15.87

TOTAL SYSTEM

STANDBY

CURRENT

(AMPS)

70

TOTAL SYSTEM

ALARM

CURRENT

(AMPS)

0.083

REQUIRED

ALARM

CAPACITY

(AMP-HOURS)

1.172

REQUIRED

STANDBY

CAPACITY

(AMP-HOURS)

14.7

REQUIRED

ALARM

CAPACITY

(AMP-HOURS)

1.172

TOTAL

REQUIRED

CAPACITY

(AMP-HOURS)

15.87

ADJUSTED

BATTERY

CAPACITY

(AMP-HOURS)

19

OPTIONAL

FACTOR OF

SAFETY

X

1.2

05 October 2000

rpsa

FIRE PROTECTION ENGINEERS

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