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Hybrid-Electric Drive for the SAE Mini Baja Car

FINAL REPORT
Project Number: May05-13

Client: Iowa State University, Society of Automotive Engineers


Faculty Advisor: Dr. Venkataramana Ajjarapu
Team Members:
Chris Zach
Godwin Itteera
Douglas Milewsky
Nicholas Olson
Rajdeep Wadhwa (Team leader)

ME
EE
CprE
EE
EE

DISCLAIMER: This document was developed as a part of the requirements of an electrical and computer
engineering course at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. This document does not constitute a professional
engineering design or a professional land-surveying document. Although the information is intended to be accurate,
the associated students, faculty, and Iowa State University make no claims, promises, or guarantees about the
accuracy, completeness, quality, or adequacy of the information. The user of this document shall ensure that any
such use does not violate any laws with regard to professional licensing and certification requirements. This use
includes any work resulting from this student-prepared document that is required to be under the responsible charge
of a licensed engineer or surveyor. This document is copyrighted by the students who produced this document and
the associated faculty advisors. No part may be reproduced without the written permission of the senior design
course coordinator.

Date: April 1, 2005

Table of Contents

Page Number

List of Figures
List of Tables
List of Definitions

ii
iii
iv

Introductory Material
Executive Summary
Acknowledgement
Problem Statement
Operating Environment
Intended Users and Intended Uses
Assumptions and Limitations
Expected End Product and Other Deliverables

01
02
03
03
03
04
04

Proposed Approach and Statement of Work


Proposed Approach
Detailed Design

05
08

Estimated Resources and Schedules


Estimated Resource Requirement
Schedules

23
30

Closure Material
Project Team Information
Closing Summery
References

38
39
40

List of Figures

Page Number

Figure 1: Diagram of series set-up hybrid-electric drive

iv

Figure 2: Diagram of detailed electric drive

Figure 3: Model of a gas engine in Simulink

Figure 4: Model of a dc motor in SimPower

Figure 5: DC-DC Buck Chopper

10

Figure 6: A diagram of a dc-dc buck chopper

13

Figure 7: Model for dc-dc buck chopper in SimPower

15

Figure 8: Output plot of dc-dc buck chopper given in Figure 7

15

Figure 9: Model of DC motor with variable load in SimPower

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Figure 10: Simulation Result for motor with different loads

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Figure 11: Buck chopper and motor together running off


generator idealized as a voltage source

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Figure 12: Simulation of Figure 11 with no load

19

Figure 13: Simulation of Figure 11 with varying duty ratio


on buck chopper

20

Figure 14: Simulation of Figure 11 with varying load

21

Figure 15: Original Gantt Chart

30

Figure 16: Revised Gantt Chart

31

Figure 17: Final Gantt Chart

32

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List of Tables

Page Number

Table 1: Original Group Schedule

25

Table 2: Revised Group Schedule

25

Table 3: Final Group Schedule

26

Table 4: Original Other Resources

27

Table 5: Revised Other Resources

27

Table 6: Final Other Resources

27

Table 7: Original Financial Costs

28

Table 8: Revised Financial Costs

29

Table 9: Final Financial Costs

29

Table 10: Evaluation process

33

Table 11: Milestone success scoring

34

Table 12: Anticipated risks

37

Table 13: Unanticipated risks

37

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List of Definitions
Buck chopper

DC to DC converter that lowers the voltage. Part of the motor controller.

SAE

Society of Automotive Engineers

Simulink

Control systems toolbox within the MATLAB software

SimPower

Simulink library for power electronics analysis

Series hybrid

Hybrid power train architecture with all components arranged in a series


(see Figure 1). An engine rotates a generator that converts mechanical
energy to electrical energy. This energy can be stored, if desired, before
being sent through a controller and on to a traction motor(s), through the
transmission, and finally to the vehicles wheels.

Figure 1: Series hybrid architecture (AC type)

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Introduction
Executive Summary
The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Mini Baja team at Iowa State University (ISU) is
seeking to integrate innovative design components in their competitive, off-road racecar. The
team participates in an annual Mini Baja competition with more than a hundred other universities
present. Points are awarded based on design, cost, presentation, and performance. ISUs SAE
team feels that a new car design featuring a hybrid-electric drive would gain their team a distinct
competitive advantage.
The May05-13 senior design team was assigned the task of developing such a drive for future
ISU Baja cars. This is a two-phase project split into two year-long segments. The May05-13
conducted the first years work, creating a concept and simulating the solution with computer
software. The projects second phase will be conducted by a new design team who will install
and test the hybrid-electric drive in a Mini Baja car.
Between project start and November 12, 2004, the May05-13 team successfully completed a
preliminary design of the hybrid-electric drive for the car. The drive is powered by a Briggs and
Stratton engine, the standard power plant provided by SAE, which spins a DC generator and
generates electrical power. This power is then fed to a DC-DC converter, or buck chopper, which
regulates the power sent to a DC traction motor for propulsion. The cars driver controls the
power sent from the controller to the motor through a foot pedal. The pedal varies a
potentiometer which adjusts the duty ratio of the buck chopper, and hence the power sent to the
motor.
The team conducted extensive research to locate the best components for this project design.
Factors considered included cost, weight, performance, durability, and availability. Etek motors,
by Briggs and Stratton, were used for both the motor and generator. An Alltrax DC motor
controller was chosen to regulate current and voltage flows.
After creating the concept, the team began work on a computer simulation to analyze the
performance of the concept system. The parts needed to build the electric drive design are
expensive, so it was advantageous to virtually prove their performance before purchasing. The
SimPower software, which integrates with MATLAB and Simulink, was chosen to simulate the
electric drive concept design.
The design team recently succeeded in creating a working simulation of the hybrid drive. The
next challenge in evaluating this simulation is to obtain the remainder of the missing component
parameters and to create a motor load vs. motor speed equation to assess the systems
performance on a typical track.
Two main options exist for future work on this project. The Baja team could decide to close the
project and discontinue any future plans, particularly if their budget does not allow for the
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development of an electric drivetrain. However, if the funds are available, the design team is
confident in the success of this project and recommends that work on this project continues in
full-force. The next task required is the construction of a full-scale prototype for performance
and endurance testing. After the competitiveness and durability of the system is proven, it will be
ready to take to competition and to victory.

Acknowledgement
The ISU SAE Mini Baja team, through its general fund and hybrid drive-specific sponsorships,
provided for all project costs outside of those associated with the EE/CprE 491/492 class
requirements (poster, report binding, printing, etc.).
Ethan Slattery, the lead client, provided assistance in the form of technical advice and access to
SAE materials and workshop facilities.

Problem Statement
The Iowa State Universitys Society of Automotive Engineers Mini Baja team requested the
assistance of a senior design group to engineer a hybrid-electric drive for their off-road racecar.
Design and implementation of the project will occur over a two-year period. Phase I, the design
stage, was conducted during the 2004-2005 academic year. Phase II, the implementation and
testing stage, is planned for the 2005-2006 academic year.
A series hybrid drivetrain concept was chosen as the best solution to Phase 1 of this project. In
this layout, the gas engine spins a DC generator whose output current is routed through a
controller and on to the DC traction motor. This system has been researched, its components
selected, and its performance both predicted through calculations and through simulations. The
design team is now prepared to fully document the system in preparation for its construction into
a prototype next year.

Operating Environment
The hybrid-electric drive system was integrated into the space behind the drivers seat of the
Baja car. Being near the engine of a car on a jump-filled dirt track, the system is subjected to
many extreme conditions, including dust, dirt, mud, water, high temperatures (>200F), grease
and oil, shocks, vibrations, and a potential collision with another car or the track itself. All
components of the system must be designed to withstand these torturous conditions. Critical
components such as gears and electronics must be sealed from all potential contaminants.
Adequate air cooling must be supplied to the motor, generator, and controller at all times.
Mechanical components must be designed for high cycle life. Electrical equipment must be
protected from current or voltage over the rated values. At all times, the car must present no
danger of electrical shock, fire, or mechanical failure to the driver or nearby race personnel.

Intended Users
The hybrid drives sole user is the Iowa State Mini Baja team. Before handing over the final
design, the project team will prepare extensive documentation and training for the Baja team on
the systems proper usage. This ensures each individual working on the team understands the
hybrid functionality and its hazards and is aware of useful troubleshooting methods.

Intended Use
The hybrid drive system was designed specifically for use in a Mini Baja car driven on a closedcourse dirt track. Like any Baja car, the hybrid car is not intended for use on public roadways.
Doing so places the cars driver and other vehicles occupants at risk of injury or death, because
the Baja car was not designed to comply with governmental automobile safety regulations.

Assumptions
Simplifications adopted to aid design and analysis included:
Constant electrical output from generator
Gasoline engine delivers constant power at its governed speed of 3800 rpm
All power for brake light, speedometer, and other instrumentation will be available from
separate 12V battery
Simulink models, when properly designed, will accurately predict the performance of
real-world components

Limitations
Rules and constraints that affected the design included:
Design must adhere to all rules defined by SAE Mini Baja Collegiate Design Series
Car may possess no potential energy (including electrical) at the start of race
Car must use unmodified 10 hp Briggs and Stratton engine
All electrical and mechanical components must withstand wet and muddy conditions
Power is routed through chain drive from motor to rear axle
Design is intended to meet performance of original car (i.e. comparable efficiency)
The hybrid power train must fit within a space envelope similar in size to that of the
current mechanical drive train. This space is approximately 8 cubic feet.
The hybrid power train shall not add considerably to the cars overall weight. The
addition of 60 pounds is considered the maximum feasible weight increase.

Expected End Product and Other Deliverables


End Product System Design (Delivery date: 5/5/2005)

The end product, soon to be delivered to the Baja team, is a design for a hybrid powertrain to
propel a Mini Baja car via electric motor. The design includes component specifications needed
to construct the entire hybrid system and computer simulation results predicting its performance.
Other Final Project Report (Delivery date: 5/5/2005)

This report, once revised at the end of the project term, will also be delivered to the Baja team as
documentation of the entire project process.

Product Approach and Results


This section includes the functional requirements, design constraints, approaches considered and
use, and detailed system design.

Functional Requirements
This section defines required characteristics of the end design.
Control
Vehicle acceleration shall be controlled by driver with a foot pedal.
Durability
Hybrid drive system must be able to withstand adverse conditions, including
vibrations, shocks, and moisture.
Performance
Hybrid Baja car must be capable of acceleration and top speed figures competitive
with opponents vehicles.
100 ft drag race:
5.74 sec
Top speed:
11.72 m/s
Regulations
System design must comply with all SAE rules.
Safety
Driver shall be safe from any electrical hazards.
Power delivery
Wheels shall be powered by an electrical motor.

Design Constraints
This section lists restrictions imposed on the final design.
System voltage
The system should operate safely at a peak voltage of 55 volts.
Power
The hybrid power train must be able to endure a 10 hp input power over the
course of a 4-hour race.
Size
Design the system for a space of six cubic feet.
Weight
Net weight gain of less than forty pounds.

Approaches Considered and Used


This section summarizes the technologies and technical approaches considered for this design.

Technologies
Various technologies were considered for each component, as discussed below.

Motor and Generator


Permanent magnet, axial flux Etek DC motors from Briggs and Stratton
Advantages:
The lightest (21 lbs) and most efficient (~91%) motor in the teams price
and power range. Relatively inexpensive at $400. DC motor controllers
are much less expensive than those for AC motors. Using a DC generator
and motor requires no inverter to convert AC electricity.
Disadvantages:
Available in only one size and power rating.
Controller (DC-DC Converter)
Alltrax 7245 motor controller, 24-72 VDC, 450 A
Advantages:
Common (used in golf carts) and inexpensive ($500). High voltage and
current ratings will help resist overheating. Maximum current protection.
Programmable and waterproof.
Disadvantages:
Originally designed for use with battery packs.
Battery pack
No energy storage integrated in system because SAE rules prohibit stored energy
at race start.
Theoretical advantages:
Excess electrical power could be stored when it is not demanded by the
driver and then used later to effectively increase the vehicles power.
Disadvantages:
Not within competition rules.
Rectifier
Not necessary for converting AC current because DC motor and generator were
used.

Technical approach

Simulation
Computerized testing was accomplished without the purchase of any expensive
components. Presumed to be an easy way to approximate the total design, but
turned out to be more difficult than initially predicted. SimPower and Simulink
software were used.
Advantages:
Ensure compatibility of components. Test whether design will operate near
desired performance levels.
Disadvantages:
Some component parameters were not published and instead had to be
estimated. Some real world factors might not have been included in the
simulation.
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CAD Model
Not used. These models would have helped to visualize the physical components
and how they fit together in space. However, the Baja team instructed that it could
create the models once the system was designed.
Advantages:
Ensure design will fit properly in vehicle.
Disadvantages:
Time and resources needed to produce the models.
Electrical schematics
The schematics proved to be a good way to organize the design of the electrical
system. They also helped to keep records for future work. The schematics were
created in the simulation software mentioned above.
Advantages:
Provided clear diagrams of the drives functionality. Should assist with
future repairs or troubleshooting of electrical system.
Disadvantages:
Schematics must be updated regularly or will soon become out-of-date.

Detailed Design
General Overview
Figure 2 shows a detailed system layout, the basis of which was the series hybrid architecture
shown earlier in Figure 1. That initial design was modified to meet the specific requirements of
this project. For simplicity, the generator was changed from an AC source to a DC generator,
removing the need for the rectifier. The use of a DC generator also increases the efficiency of the
system as rectifier losses are eliminated. The controls box from Figure 1 became the buck
chopper block and its controls, which together form the motor controller. Test points were added
to Figure 2, allowing for instrumentation and system safety features. Lastly, the transmission of
Figure 1 was removed, and the final design will only require a simple chain reduction to the
drive axle. Overall, the design remains a basic series setup, but with some necessary changes in
response to the projects specific requirement.

Driver
Gas pedal
Throttle
lever

10 hp engine
provided

Potentiometer
(controls duty ratio
of chopper)

DC
generator

Overload
circuit for
safety

Buck chopper
(DC-DC
converter)

DC motor

Voltage and/or
current meters

Wheels

Speedometer

Output for
testing/
operation

Figure 2: Detailed electric drive design

This diagram shows the flow of power from the 10 hp engine through the system to the wheels
and how this power is controlled by the user. First, the mechanical energy from the engine is
converted to electrical power by a generator. Before reaching the motor, it travels through a
controller that lowers the voltage proportional to the depression of the drivers accelerator pedal.
If the pedal is fully depressed, no voltage reduction will occur. The electrical energy sent to the
DC motor is converted back into mechanical energy where it drives the wheels. Auxiliary
features of the system include some testing points to ensure proper operation.

Engine and Motor


For the simulation, a model for the gas engine and the electric motor were found in the block
libraries. After the appropriate parameters are entered, the model will simulate the expected
outputs. Figure 3 shows the engine model while Figure 4 shows the motor model.

Figure 3: Model of a gas engine in Simulink

Figure 4: Model of a dc motor in SimPower

Buck Chopper
The buck chopper was more difficult to model because no pre-constructed block was available.
Instead, one was built from individual electrical components. The general design was taken from
Introduction to Power Electronics, by Hart. The design is shown in the figure below.

Figure 5: DC-DC Buck Chopper


(a) Diagram of DC-DC Buck Chopper
(b) Equivalent for switch closed
(c) Equivalent for switch open

The potentiometer would be connected with the buck chopper in order to control the duty ratio
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During simulation, it was found that the values for the capacitor, inductor, and load are crucial
and will affect the output greatly. The book gave some equations that were used to set general
values for this model. These are only the basic DC equations; the differential equations were not
necessary for determining L, C, and R.
Parameters:
R:
L:
C:
D:
f:
Vripple:
Vo:
Vs:

load resistor
inductor
capacitor
duty ratio
switching frequency
output voltage ripple in relation to input voltage
output voltage
input voltage

V0 V s D
Lmin

1 D R
2f

1 D
8 Lf 2V ripple

Using these equations, the following values were calculated. The team wrote a small program in
C to calculate the values below.
L = 400 uH
C = 100 uF
R = 20 ohms

Component Specification
Engine
The engine used in the Baja car, as stipulated in the SAE rulebook, is an unmodified, 10 hp
(nominal), single cylinder, air-cooled, four-stroke Briggs and Stratton model. The rules also
specify a maximum governed engine speed of 3800 rpm. As shown in Figure 2, the engine
rotates the generator to deliver a voltage and current output. This engine is provided by the Baja
team and no cost will be assigned to the design team for its use.
Generator
The second stage in the system is the generator. The design team has chosen to use an Etek motor
as the systems generator, because it has been demonstrated in the past to provide good

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regeneration abilities. The generator will supply a continuous output power of 6.62 kW at 53 V
to the controller, an efficiency of approximately 91%. A switch was included the open circuits
the generator, removing any load from the engine at times when the car must be idled for long
periods of time.
Motor
The motor is also an Etek model obtained from Briggs and Stratton. As mentioned earlier, it is of
a brushed, permanent magnet, axial flux design. While standard motors use stacks of steel
laminations around which copper wire is inserted or wound, the Etek motor uses copper bus bars
as the basic building block of the armature. These copper bus bars are stamped, bent, coated and
assembled into a thin rotary disk. Unlike conventional motors, the commutator of this motor is
produced by simply machining the edges of the copper bars, eliminating the need for an
additional assembly. Neodymium magnets provide three times the magnetic force of an
equivalent ferrite magnet in this permanent magnet motor.
Once integrated into the hybrid system, this motor will output a power of 6.00 kW and a torque
of 16.15 N*m, also at an efficiency of 91%.
Accelerator Pedal
Required by SAE rules to be foot-operated, this is the drivers control of the speed of the vehicle.
The pedal will be attached to a potentiometer, which in turn modifies the buck choppers output.
Voltage and Current Meters
These meters are used for troubleshooting and monitoring. For high-current applications such as
this, these devices will cost in the range of $300 to $400.
Speedometer
A digital speedometer is desired to record actual wheel speed, which can then be compared to
monitored electrical values to develop and improve the systems performance. This can also be
used to compare actual results to estimated results. A speedometer costs approximately $100.
DC-DC converter
A DC-DC converter, or DC motor controller when it is used to drive a motor specifically, accepts
a DC input voltage and produces a DC output voltage at a different voltage level. The design
team used a buck chopper, which is a step down DC-DC converter. The buck chopper allows the
design team to control the voltage being provided to the dc motor, and thus by altering the duty
ratio of the buck chopper, the speed of the motor can be controlled. The buck chopper has an
input voltage of 53 Vdc and an output voltage range of 0 to 53 Vdc. The step down dc-dc
converter used in this system costs approximately $500.

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Figure 6: Basic PWM IC DC motor controller schematic

Implementation Process Description


This design team did not do any actual implementation of the power drive system that was
designed. However, as previously mentioned a simulation was made of the power drive system
to make sure that the parts and design were compatible and could meet the requirements.
As mentioned under the technical approach section the project was implemented using Simulink
in MATLAB as a basis for the simulations. The team made extensive use of the SimPower
library, which was purchased for this purpose. The model for the gas engine and the dc machine,
which were used, were found as built in models. Values for this specific project are needed as
parameters of those devices for the simulation. A model for the buck chopper was not available
and therefore was built by the team. The specifics of this model are described in the detailed
design section.
Throughout the simulation, several problems were encountered. The first problem that was
encountered was the acquisition of the SimPower software. The software took longer to obtain
and install than initially planned. This prompted the design team with a time problem by
shortening the time the design team had to do the simulation. This problem was taken care of by
splitting up sections of the simulation among the team members in order to get the simulation
done more quickly. A second problem was in the use and functionality of SimPower, which was
not quite what the design team had in mind when it was purchased. The software contained built
in power drive system models with controls and all, but they were not used due to the fact that
the team could not modify the existing models enough to properly simulate this design teams
power drive system. This problem was overcome by researching SimPower and building some of
its own models, as mentioned above. Another problem was the lack of help for Simulink and
SimPower. Whenever the design team ran into a small problem or was unsure how to do

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something related to the simulation there was no outside help. The team could not find another
individual within the University that was well enough acquainted with these software libraries to
guide them through the problem/question. This was probably the most difficult problem faced by
the design team and was overcome by many hours of online research and going through online
tutorials.
The process may have been improved in several ways. The first would to be to speak with other
people that have done work in this area or had experience with different simulation software.
This would help to ensure adequate resources or expertise when working on the project. The
second major way that would help implementation would be to start the process of getting the
simulation software sooner. Valuable time was lost waiting for the software and trying to get it
installed onto a computer that the whole team could use. Research was placed in other simulation
software, namely Simplorer and Advisor. These software simulators are often used in the
industry for simulation of hybrid vehicles. Unfortunately, the design team was unable to obtain
either of these due to cost restrictions. For example, a license for Advisor costs 5000.

End-Product Testing Description


The theoretical performance of the hybrid drive was compared to that of past Baja cars through
efficiency and acceleration calculations. It was predicted that the overall engine driveshaft to
motor output shaft efficiency is 82.6% with an output torque of 16.15 N*m and an output power
of 6.00 kW. The fastest-accelerating Baja cars from last years competition only put an average
of 4.32 kW of power to the ground during their top-scoring runs. This suggests several
observations worth noting:
1.
2.

Mechanical drive trains are not ideally efficient with their belt-driven
CVT transmissions and duel chain reductions.
The hybrid-electric car has a strong chance of performing as well as a
mechanically powered car; especially near zero wheel RPM where a
motor displays high torque, but an engine possesses no torque.

The end product was also tested using Simulink and SimPower in MATLAB. Values for
parameters that correspond to real life available components were entered and used in the
simulation runs.
The team first simulated a dc-dc generator (step down) or a buck chopper. The design team used
an Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) switch along with a pulse generator. These two
work as a switch, which opens and closes at given rate. A diode, capacitor, inductor and resistor
were used from the SimPower library. SimPower does not have independent registers or
capacitors. It only has series and parallel RLC circuits. Thus, the team had to set certain values at
zero and infinity to obtain independent L, C and R parts.
Figure 7 shows the simulation diagram for a buck chopper. When the simulation is run with a
duty ratio of 0.5, an output as shown in Figure 8 is attained. Make notice of the very little ripple
in the output voltage.

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The maximum and minimum values accepted by the buck chopper as duty ratios are .99 and .1.In
the practical sense a 0 duty ratio would mean no voltage and a 1 duty ratio would correspond to
the maximum voltage
The parameters that were used in the above simulation are as follows:
L= 400 uH
C= 100 uF
R= 20 ohm

Figure 7: Model for dc-dc buck chopper in SimPower

Figure 8: Output plot of dc-dc buck chopper given in Figure 7

The above figure shows the Vout when the duty ratio is set at 0.5. Thus, an input voltage of 50V
is reduced to an output Voltage of 25 V. The successful simulation of the buck-chopper made it
possible for the design team to go ahead with the simulation of the entire system, including the
dc motor, since the buck chopper would now function as a controller for the motor.
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The team then designed a subsystem, which consisted of a dc motor connected to an external
reference load torque. The simulation of this subsystem enabled the design team to study the
change of motor speed with respect to change in the load torque.

Figure 9: Model of DC motor with variable load in SimPower

During the simulation of this system, the team varied the torque at different intervals and
obtained the results in the following graph.

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Figure 10: Simulation Result for motor with different loads

The graph clearly shows the change in speed with change in torque. The team set the initial
torque at 10 Nm, then changed it to 5 Nm and then finally changed it to 40 Nm. The speed
increases when the torque changes from 10 Nm to 5 Nm and then decreases when the torque
suddenly increases to 40 Nm as seen in the top graph.
The next test was to run the complete system together with the controllers and the motor to test if
the model was accurate. Dr. Ajjarapu asked the team to simulate the system with a given set of
values to obtain a speed of 12.7 radians per second. This test was basically to determine the

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correctness of the system. The simulation model attained a speed of 12.709 radians per second,
which was very close to the theoretical values.

Figure 11: Buck chopper and motor together running off generator idealized as a voltage source

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Figure 12: Simulation of Figure 11 with no load

The above graph shows that at the end of 0.5 seconds the system attains a speed of 12.709
radians per second.
The next test performed by the design team was done to check the controls used to control the
speed of the motor. The objective was to vary the duty ratio of the buck chopper, which in turn
varied the voltage going into the motor. This change in the input voltage of the motor in turn
varied the speed of the motor. The simulation diagram is the same setup as in Figure 11.
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The team started the simulation with a duty ratio of 0.99. The duty ratio was then changed to 0.2
and finally 0.7. The results are as follows:

Figure 13: Simulation of Figure 11 with varying duty ratio on buck chopper

The graphs show that as the duty ratio in the buck chopper changes from 0.99 to 0.2 the motor
gradually stops increasing in speed and gradually starts to decelerate. However, the change is
only for 0.05 seconds. The duty ratio is again changed to 0.7 and the speed starts to stabilize in
accordance with the corresponding voltage from the buck chopper. One may note that there is not
much change in the speed after 0.2 seconds. This is because when the duty ratio is brought down
to 0.2, the voltage suddenly changes and the system starts to loose speed, but soon thereafter the
duty ratio is increased to 0.7. The speed still falls, as it has not reached the minimum point

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corresponding to the duty ratio of 0.2. It appears to fall a little bit, as there is not much difference
between the output voltages produced at duty ratios of 0.99 and 0.7.
The next test was to check if the system responded to the change in load. The same simulation
diagram was used. The only difference was that torque was varied. The results are shown in
Figure 14.

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Figure 14: Simulation of Figure 11 with varying load

The diagram clearly indicates that as the load torque increases the speed of the motor decreases.
During this test the torque was changed three times from 20 Nm to 2 Nm and finally to 40
Nm. In the above graph, the speed suddenly increases when the torque reduces from 20 Nm
to 2 Nm, but as soon as the torque is changed to 40 Nm the system starts to decelerate.
The above test clearly indicates that our model is able to simulate an electric drive .The design
team has the option of changing the parameters of any component it wants depending upon the
specification of the component.

Project End Results


The first phase of the Baja hybridization project is almost completed.
The design stage of this phase is finished. The block diagram design, shown in Figure 2, will
successfully meet the requirements set by the client. The SimPower modeling is done, with
models for the buck chopper and motor simulated and tested. The generator, as previously
mentioned in the Assumptions section, is being modeled as an ideal voltage source for the time
being.
Work continues on producing additional simulations with more accurate, real-world component
parameters. Components that should work in this design have been found, but some specific
parameters about these components are not yet known. Specifically, this is true for several
parameters for the DC motor required by SimPower, which were not listed on the motors
datasheet.
Because the DC-DC buck chopper model created for simulation is a simplification of the actual
commercial controller design, parameter values are approximate. However, the end result should
prove accurate, with the primary difference being the internal complexity of the two devices, as
seen in Figures 5 and 6 above.
With simulations boding well for the future performance of the hybrid system, the team will now
begin to work on extensive product documentation to ease the construction process for the Baja
team.

Resources and Schedules


The project proceeded while keeping the following requirements in mind:

Personnel effort requirements


As shown in Table 3, group members Daniel Robinson and Jeremy Boon worked 87 and 85
hours respectively. These hours are about half as much as the other members because they only
22

worked with the project for one semester instead of a full year. Group members Godwin Itteera,
Doug Milewsky, Nicholas Olson, and Rajdeep Wadhwa worked 158, 161, 164 and 170 hours for
the academic year. Chris Zach joined for the second semester and worked 92 hours. Like
Robinson and Boon, Zach is only working on this project for one semester.

Other resource requirements


The team had access to the SAE shop, free of charge, as needed. The team used SimPower to
simulate the hybrid drive system.

Financial requirements
As shown in Table 9, the estimated total cost of the project, including student labor, is
$11628.50.

Personnel effort requirements


The project is divided into 8 different tasks:
Task 1 Project Plan
Plan Project
Revise Project

9/6/2004-9/17/2004
9/20/2004-10/5/2004

12 days
11 days

Task 2 Paper Work


Weekly Reports
Unbound Design Report
Status Report
Revised Design Report
Final Design Report

10/18/2004- 11/9/2004
10/18/2004-11/9/2004
11/15/2004 -12/15/2004
3/11/2005 4/1/2005

18 days
18 days
22 days
16 days

Task 3 Component selection


Research
Set specification
Select Components

9/6/2004-10/4/2004
9/27/2004-10/8/2004
10/25/2004-3/18/2005

20 days
10 days
93 days

Task 4 Map power and efficiency thru drive


Block diagram
9/27/2004-10/8/2004
Mathematical Diagram
10/4/2004-10/15/2004

10 days
10 days

Task 5 Circuit diagram


Research
Define system
Design
Error check and Compatibility

20 days
10 days
85 days
55 days

9/6/2004-10/4/2004
9/27/2004-10/8/2004
10/25/2004-3/4/2005
1/24/2005-4/1/2005

23

Task 6 Control System


Research
Design Control system

9/6/2004-10/4/2004
9/27/2004-10/22/2004

20 days
20 days

Task 7 Simulation
Develop model
Test specifications

10/18/2004-3/25/2004
1/24/2005-4/1/2005

90 days
44 days

Task 8 Design poster


Design poster

11/15/2004-12/15/2004

18 days

Table 1: Original Group Schedule. Breakdown of hours by team-member by task

Group
member

Task Task Task Task Task Task Task Task Task


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Total

Godwin
Itteera

10

20

40

40

20

20

155

Doug
Milewsky

10

20

20

104

159

Nick
Olson

11

20

100

20

156

Jeremy
Boon
Daniel
Robinson

20

25

25

84

20

20

20

20

85

Rajdeep
Wadhwa

14

11

40

68

20

158

24

Total Hrs

66

111

60

45

180

20

172

30

105

Table 2: Revised Group Schedule. Breakdown of hours by team-member by task

Group
member

Task Task Task Task Task Task Task Task


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Total

Godwin
Itteera

10

28

25

40

34

20

162

Doug
Milewsky

10

20

36

33

65

169

Nick
Olson

11

20

24

42

32

30

164

Jeremy
Boon
Daniel
Robinson

20

26

25

85

20

20

22

20

87

Rajdeep
Wadhwa

14

13

22

35

77

166

Total Hrs

74

121

155

45

82

134

192

30

833

Table 3: Final Group Schedule. Breakdown of hours by team-member by task

Group
member

Task Task Task Task Task Task Task Task


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Total

Godwin
Itteera

10

28

25

38

32

20

158

Doug
Milewsky

10

22

36

33

57

161

Nick
Olson

11

26

24

36

28

29

10

164

Jeremy
Boon
Daniel
Robinson

20

26

25

85

20

20

22

20

87

Rajdeep
Wadhwa

14

19

22

35

74

170

Chris
Zach

33

26

10

23

92

25

797

Total Hrs

74

154

181

45

90

132

216

30

922

As shown in Tables 1, 2, and 3, there are several tasks designated throughout the year. The hours
specific to each task and team member can easily be seen in the right most and bottom most
column and row respectively. The total number of hours is in the lower right corner.

Other resource requirements


Upon completion of the design phase, the design team has been focusing on the
simulation/testing of the electric drive. The power lab, which is a part of the electrical
engineering department, is where the simulation software has been installed and all the
simulation hours as indicated in Table 6 have been spent. The Baja team is also willing to let the
senior design team use their shop facilities.
Table 4: Original Other Resources. This table shows other resources that will be utilized

Item
Poster
Power lab
Baja Shop
Totals

Team hours
12
40
35
87

Other hours
0
0
0
0

Cost
$50
0
0
$50

Table 5 Revised other Resources. This table shows other resources that will be utilized

Item
Poster
Power lab
Baja Shop
Totals

Team hours
12
130
35
177

Other hours
0
0
0
0

Cost
$50
0
0
$50

Table 6 Final other Resources. This table shows other resources that were utilized

Item
Poster
Power lab
Baja Shop
Totals

Team hours
12
200
35
247

26

Other hours
0
0
0
0

Cost
$50
0
0
$50

Financial Requirements
The financial budget is presented in Tables 7, 8 and 9. The SAE Mini Baja team funded a major
part of the project. The costs for the poster were covered by the student design team. The design
teams advisor, Dr. Ajjarapu provided some reference materials.
Table 7. Initial cost estimates

Item
Parts and Materials
Poster
Motors ( two)
Briggs and Stratton engine
Rectifier unit
Alternator
Subtotal

W/o labor

With labor

$50
$418
Donated
$40
$25
$533

$50
$418
Donated
$40
$25
$533

Labor at & 10.50/hr


Godwin Itteera
Doug Milewsky
Nick Olson
Jeremy Boon
Daniel Robinson
RajdeepWadhwa
Subtotal

Totals

27

$1627.50
$1669.50
$1638.00
$882.00
$808.00
$1659.00
$8284.00

$533

$8817.00

Table 8. Revised cost estimates

Item
Parts and Materials
Poster
Generator
Motor
Briggs and Stratton engine
DC-DC Buck Chopper
Testing Equipment
Misc.
Subtotal

W/o labor

With labor

$50
$10000
$8000
Donated
$3500
$500
$250
$22300

$50
$10000
$8000
Donated
$3500
$500
$250
$22300

Labor at & 10.50/hr


Godwin Itteera
Doug Milewsky
Nick Olson
Jeremy Boon
Daniel Robinson
RajdeepWadhwa
Subtotal

Totals

$1701.00
$1774.50
$1722.00
$892.50
$913.50
$1743.00
$8746.50

$22300

$31046.50

Table 9. Final cost estimates

Item
W/o labor
Parts and Materials
Poster
$50
Generator
$400
Motor
$400
Briggs and Stratton engine Donated
DC-DC Buck Chopper
$500
Testing Equipment
$400
Misc.
$250
Subtotal
$2000
Labor at & 10.50/hr
Godwin Itteera
Doug Milewsky
Nick Olson
Jeremy Boon
Daniel Robinson
RajdeepWadhwa
Chris Zach
Subtotal

Totals
28

With labor
$50
$400
$400
Donated
$500
$400
$250
$2000
$1659.00
$1690.50
$1722.00
$892.50
$913.50
$1785.00
$966.00
$9628.50

$2000

$11628.50

Schedules
These schedules show the transition of how progress was made on different tasks. All the lines
represent one of the eight tasks listed above. Except for the removable of battery task, the
schedule has stayed close to the original. This means that not much change was needed to the
schedule was needed and the original timetables were adhered to closely. The table showing the
deliverable schedule is listed after the charts. It shows that the deliverables will be on time.

Figure 15: Original Gantt Chart. The chart above shows the necessary order of operation graphically

29

Figure 16: Revised Gantt Chart. The chart above shows the necessary order of operation graphically

30

Figure 17: Final Gantt Chart. The chart above shows the necessary order of operation graphically
Table 10. Deliverable Schedule
Deliverables
Bound final report due
Simulation for client
Report for client

Date Due
5/3/2005
5/5/2005
5/5/2005

Date
Delivered
5/3/2005
*5/5/2005
*5/5/2005

*Will be delivered on that date

31

Closure Material
Project Evaluation
In order to evaluate the success of the project as a whole, measurable milestones were first
identified and briefly described. These milestones were assigned a relative importance of high,
medium, or low. This importance rating was converted into a percentage of the total project's
success, as shown in Table 10.
Table 10. Evaluation process
Number

Milestone

Description

Rating

Score Product

Problem
definition

Define project goals, scope,


description, structure, and
deliverables

High

17.00%

Met

100% 17.00%

Research

Investigate current state-of-the art


regarding technologies employed

High

17.00%

Exceeded

100% 17.00%

Technology
selection

Choose the best technologies and


components to employ in the design

Medium

11.00%

Met

100% 11.00%

Design
Simulation

Simulate the system architecture

Medium

11.00%

Met

100% 11.00%

Performance
comparison

Compare theoretical performance of


hybrid Baja car to past mechanical
versions

Low

6.00%

Partially met 80%

End-product
design

Overall result of the project in


meeting the goals of the definition

High

17.00%

Almost met 90% 15.30%

Medium

11.00%

Partially met 80%

Medium

10.00%

Importance Importance %

Create a comprehensive report with


End-product
all specifications necessary for client
documentation
to construct system
Project
reporting

Communicate weekly the progress of


the project with the advisor and client

Total

100%

Met

4.80%

8.80%

100% 10.00%
94.90%

The research milestone was rated as exceeded because of the number of hours spent thoroughly
investigating all options for component technologies and simulation software. The performance
comparison milestone was ranked partially met because, although complete calculations were
made, no physical hybrid car was tested to verify these predictions. The end-product design
milestone was rated almost met, with the one shortcoming being that no CAD drawings were
created to assist the team in building. The end-product documentation milestone was ranked

32

partially met for a similar reason: no engineering drawings were created to document the
system layout at a highly detailed level.
Next, the milestones were evaluated non-numerically to determine to what degree they were
completed, and these values were then converted to percentages (see). The first scoring method,
with no ratings over 100%, was used for this project. The weighted rating for each milestone was
calculated by multiplying the importance and score percentages.
Table 11. Milestone success scoring
Rating
Score I
Score II
Greatly exceeded
100%
120%
Exceeded
100%
110%
100%
100%
Met
Almost met
90%
90%
Partially met
80%
80%
Did not meet
40%
40%
Did not attempt
0%
0%

The total project evaluation resulted in a score of 94.9%, so the project was considered a success.

Commercialization
Commercialization is not a logical future path for the hybrid drive system, at least in its current
form. The product was designed specifically to comply with SAE rules for the Mini Baja
competition. If a similar product were developed for the commercial market, many changes
would need to be made to increase its competitive advantage. In fact, a hybrid drive system
provides a negligible advantage, in any form, in the commercial recreational vehicle market.
Unlike the automotive market, the sale of motorcycles and ATVs is rarely driven by fuel
consumption figures. Hybrid drive adds to the sale price of a machine, and there are no
government tax breaks to subsidize its purchase as with a hybrid automobile. For reference,
the hybrid system in the Baja car would add approximately $2000 to the purchase price of
the vehicle. With the original target price of a Baja car being only $3000, this is a price
increase of 67%, enough to remove the purchase from the reach of most buyers.

Additional Work
Three general paths exist for the future of this project. First, if another design team or the client
desires to continue pursuing a hybrid drive system for use in competition, a prototype car can be
built for testing. Second, some of the same technologies utilized in the hybrid system could be
employed in a unique manner to create a different vehicle propulsion method. Alternatively, the
project could be closed and no further activity be conducted.
A full-scale prototype is the next milestone in this project for a team wishing to continue along
the current path. Before a prototype can be a built, however, the decision must be made whether
to integrate an ultra capacitor pack into the car. If this is desired, then the system design should
be modified and an ultra capacitor-based energy storage system inserted between the generator

33

and motor controller. Additionally, protection circuits, such as maximum and minimum voltage
levels and maximum current draw, would need to be engineered to protect the ultra capacitor
pack from damage.
The most efficient and cost-effective way to build a prototype hybrid Baja car would require
converting a previous year's car rather than constructing a new one specifically for this purpose.
In addition to saving money and time, this approach would allow for a direct comparison of
performance figures between the original configuration and the new hybrid configuration. If a
new car was built, it would undoubtedly differ in many aspects from any previous car, since the
car is completely redesigned for each competition season. Once the Etek motors and Alltrax
controller were obtained, conversion of the car could begin.
After completion of prototype construction, extensive testing would be necessary before the car
would be used in any competitions. This testing would be divided between performance- and
endurance-type. The former involves acceleration and top speed runs and lap timing around a
motocross track. The latter is composed of tests with longer duration, the minimum test length
being four hours, or the length of the endurance race during competition. During this endurance
test, temperature-based data acquisition would be desired from the motor, generator, controller,
and ultra capacitor pack (if present). A post-test teardown would also be recommended to
investigate for any problematic wear issues.
Other unique drive train possibilities exist for the team if they wish to create a car for a purpose
other than competitive use. The most obvious of these is to employ a battery-based energy
storage system and create a hybrid more similar to urban bus-types. Another possibility is an allelectric, plug-in Baja car which provide smooth and quiet propulsion in areas where gas engines
are not approved.
The alternative to the additional work suggestions above is to suspend any further engineering
and close the project, either temporarily or permanently. Several arguments could be made for
this approach. First, the integration of such a hybrid system in the Baja car, while innovative,
would be nearly impossible in accordance with the cost outlines included in the SAE rules. The
intention of the team, according to the rulebook, is to produce a car that could be mass-produced
at a cost under $3000, as mentioned earlier. Even in a mass-production environment, achieving
this low of a product cost is highly unlikely. The addition of an ultra capacitor pack, because of
their especially high cost, would make this goal impossible. Since the energy storage ability of
the ultra capacitors is necessary to give the hybrid design any performance advantage over
traditional cars, the only reason to implement the storage-less design would be for engineering
points at competition.

Lessons Learned
Like any challenging project, the teams success in its work varied up and down, but many
important lessons were learned, both technical and non-technical.
The design of the drive system concept progressed very smoothly and successfully for the team.
After some research, the design team discovered there were two primary options for how the

34

drive system could be built, series or parallel. The design team decided to employ a series setup
because a parallel hybrid would be useless without energy storage capabilities. The design team
selected all the pertinent parts and laid out a fairly straightforward design for the power drive
system. Since the first design there have only been a couple changes made, most of which were
minimal and only for protection purposes, like the overload circuit.
As mentioned in the Implementation Process Description, the first and primary problem was the
acquisition of the MATLAB software library of SimPower. Acquiring this software did not
proceed smoothly because it took much longer to obtain the software than the design team had
anticipated. Then, once the software was obtained, new problems emerged with getting the
software installed.
Technical knowledge gained while completing this project included the latest in hybrid
technology and a working knowledge of power electronics simulation software. Some specific
parts, such as the buck chopper and DC motor, were most challenging and provided the most
valuable experiences. The design team learned how buck choppers functioned, how they are
used, and how they are controlled. The design team learned how to derive values from the motor
equations and how to evaluate DC motor efficiency, cost, performance, and loads. The team also
gained in-depth knowledge of the Simulink and SimPower software libraries and their
limitations.
Along side all the technical knowledge that was gained was also some non-technical knowledge.
This knowledge was in the form of learning about the format of good reports and a little bit on
how to deal with real world clients. For writing reports, the design team learned what a project
plan, design document, and final document were, what goes into each of them and what
importance they play. As far as dealing with clients goes the design team has talked to a member
of the Mini Baja team several times in order to make sure we had the correct requirements for the
project.
If this project were repeated, the design team would desire clearer initial design requirements and
would begin acquisition work sooner. Early in this project, the problem statement was very
muddled and the first few weeks were spent trying to meet with the Mini Baja team to clarify
their goals in this project. Acquiring materials sooner would help prevent a lack of work
available later in the project, as team members sit and wait for necessary tools to arrive.

Risks and Management


The risks encountered in this project can be divided into two groups for analysis: those that were
anticipated and managed in advance, and those that were unanticipated and were dealt with upon
occurrence. These categories are shown below in Tables 12 and 13, respectively, along with the
management outcome from each risk.

35

Table 12. Anticipated risks


Anticipated Risks
Full-scale prototype is too costly to
manufacture
Real world reliability of the system
is unknown because no prototype
is tested
Software for virtual development is
not present and expensive to
purchase
The cost of the system exceeds the
budget of the customer
The customer is unable to support
and troubleshoot the system
independently
The hybrid system fails to
outperform the Baja car's current
drive system
Replacement of team members
results in lost knowledge and a
duplication of effort

Table 13. Unanticipated risks


Unanticipated Risks
SimPower took longer to acquire
than expected
SimPower capabilities more
limited than anticipated
Lack of expertise in SimPower
available

Planned Management
Consider scale model to allow for
hardware development at a
reasonable cost
Select components that have been
widely used by others with
demonstrated reliability

Outcome
Scale model also proved too
expensive to develop
Components chosen have been
used in many electric vehicles

Have ISU acquire SimPower


software

Dr. Ajjarapu acquired SimPower


early in second semester

Keep costs as low as possible to


increase affordability for customer

Relatively inexpensive components


were eventually identified after
high estimates initially found

Leave client detailed


design/schematic/documentation

System documentation is currently


in progress

Inform team thoroughly prior to


any expenditures of realistic
expected system performance
Share information with all team
members, no one member works
on any major task alone

Adopted Management
Relied initially on hand
calculations
and some use of Simulink
Some blocks were created
manually rather than pulled from
existing library
Spoke with experienced graduate
student and referred to Internet for
support

36

Unlikely that team will proceed to


build full-scale prototype
Smooth transition between team
members achieved

Outcome
Able to progress on design despite
lacking desired software tools
Able to use a combination of
existing and custom blocks to
model system
Eventually became fluent with
software after education and
practice

Project Team Information

Acting client:

Team members:

Ethan Slattery
Project Manager 2004-2005
ISU SAE Mini Baja
1306 Iowa Cir
Ames, IA 50014
Cell: (641) 821-0202
ejslap@iastate.edu

Chris Zach
Mechanical Engineering
119 Stanton Ave. #605
Ames, IA 50013
Home: (515) 708-1135
clz@iastate.edu
Godwin Itteera
Electrical Engineering
4290 Birch Lange
Ames, IA 50013
Home: (515) 572-3559
gitteera@iastate.edu

Faculty advisor:

Douglas Milewsky
Computer Engineering
3218 Lincoln Way
Ames, IA 50014
Home: (515) 268-1569
dmilewsk@iastate.edu

Dr. Venkataramana Ajjarapu


Office: 1122 Coover
Ames, IA 50011
Home: 2704 Valley View Rd
Ames, IA 50014
Office: (515) 294-7687
Home: (515) 292-3887
Fax: (515) 294-4263
vajjarap@iastate.edu

Nicholas Olson
Electrical Engineering
4138 Fredericksen Ct
Ames, IA 50010
Home: (515) 572-7880
nolson1@iastate.edu
Rajdeep Wadhwa (Team leader)
Electrical Engineering
4112 Lincoln Swing #216
Ames, IA 50014
Home: (515) 441-0284
rajdeep@iastate.edu

37

Closing Summary
Two semesters ago, the ISU SAE Mini Baja team desired a modern, innovative drive system for
one of its future cars. For this task, they turned to a senior design team composed of electrical,
computer, and mechanical engineering students. The team was posed the challenge of integrating
a hybrid-electric drivetrain into an off-road racecar typically powered by an automatic beltdriven transmission and chain reductions.
A series hybrid drivetrain concept was chosen as the best solution to this project. In this layout,
the gas engine spins a DC generator whose output current is routed through a controller and on to
the DC traction motor. This system has been researched, its components selected, and its
performance both predicted through calculations and through simulations. Next, the design team
will hand over full documentation of the system to the client, the Baja team, so that they can
examine the project results and decide whether to pursue a prototype in the next year.
The design team believes that a hybrid-electric drivetrain integrated into a Mini Baja car, if built
as engineered in this project, would provide a valuable distinction amongst a sea of similar
vehicles at competition. The Iowa State car would possess unique powertrain architecture and
could profess itself as one of a kind. However, the cars engineering design is not the only
feature that would win it points. Its performance on the track would be point deserving, also,
impressing spectators and sending other teams running for their textbooks as they rushed to catch
up with the innovations at Iowa State.

38

References
Hart, Daniel. Introduction to Power Electronics. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1997
http://students.sae.org/competitions/minibaja/
http://www.4qdtec.com/pwm-01.html#simple
http://www.briggsandstratton.com
http://www.maxwell.com/ultracapacitors/index.html
http://www.public.iastate.edu/~isusae/Baja/
http://www.thunderstruck-ev.com/
Pearman. Electrical Machinery & Transformer Technology. Orlando: Saunders College
Publishing, 1994.

39