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Lecture 30

1. Present a direct method of calculating the loop gain
2. Give examples with systematic procedure to find the loop gain
3. Explain the relationship between loop gain value and stability
4. Discuss the relationship between stability and pole locations
5. Introduce the concept of sinusoidal oscillations
At the end of this lecture you will be able to:
1. Determine the loop gain of any amplifier directly without the need of circuit-A
and circuit-
2. Recognize the effect of loop gain value on stability of amplifiers
3. Comprehend the relationship between pole locations and stability
4. Understand the basic concepts associated with sinusoidal oscillations
Direct Calculation of Loop Gain:
You have seen that the loop gain A is one of the most important factors in characterizing
feedback amplifiers. In this lecture you will see that the loop gain decides the stability
(opposite to oscillation) of a given feedback amplifier.

Fig. 1: Conceptual circuit for direct calculation of the loop gain

Previously, A and were calculated from circuit-A and circuit-, respectively. In this
lecture, you will be introduced to a method for calculating the loop gain directly as one
shot. As it will be evidence, this method usually simpler to apply compare with
calculating A and separately.
The procedure to determine A is as follows:
1) Set the input to zero (i.e. voltage source=short circuit and current source=open circuit)
2) Break a given feedback loop at suitable XX as shown in the conceptual loop of
Fig.1 (a). Then, find the equivalent impedance Zt as seen to the left of XX.
3) Apply a test voltage Vt to the left of the cut. Connect impedance Zt to the right of
the cross-section as shown in Fig. 1(b). In fact, the most suitable location to break the
loop is at a point where Zt is infinity (open circuit). Why?
(Note that you may also chose to apply Vt to the right of XX. Then, you need to
connect Zt to the left of XX. Here Zt is the impedance seen previously at the right of
the cut).
4) By definition, the loop gain of the negative feedback amplifier is given by
A = Vr/Vt, where Vr is stand for the returned voltage.
Using Thevenin theorem, it can be shown that A can alternative be determined by
finding the open-circuit transfer function Toc, as in (c), and the short-circuit transfer
function Tsc, as in (d). Then combine them as follows:
A =
Tos Tsc
Example 1: Now consider the basic structure of the negative feedback circuit show in
Fig. 2 and let us apply the explained procedure to find the loop gain.

Fig. 2: General structure of a negative feedback amplifier (Same as below but with the
loop connected and Vi be a voltage source)

1. Set the input source to zero as shown in Fig. 2.

2. For example, break the loop at the negative input of the summing device. You may
practice breaking the loop at any point and check the result.
3. A test source Vx is inserted at the point where feedback loop is broken. Assume the
resistance associated with the negative input of the summing device is RIS. Add RIS to
load the right side of the cut.
4. Find the loop gain as follows:

v = v = A(0 v ) = Av
r = A
Example 2: For the circuit shown in Fig. 4, find the loop gain if you break the loop
between v- and ground.

Fig. 4: The non-inverting amplifier (Add vid)

Fig. 5: Equivalent circuit to find the loop gain (Add vid, change vx to vt))
1. Set the input vi to zero (short circuit)
2. If we chose to apply a test voltage to the left. Then, the impedance between v- and
ground to the left of the cut is Zt=Rid
3. Connect Rid to right of the cut in parallel with R1
4. Now, the loop gain can be determined as follows:

Vt + Vid = o Vid = Vt
Since Vo = AVid Vo = AVt ,
Vr =

R1 & Rid
( R1 & Rid ) + R2

A =

R1 & Rid
R1 & Rid
( A) = A
( R1 & Rid ) + R2
( R1 & Rid ) + R2

In general, transfer function of a negative feedback amplifier when the forward gain A
and feedback factor are frequency dependent is given by:
Af ( s) =

A( s )
1 + A( s ) B( s )

Or for physical frequencies:

Af ( j ) =

A( j )
1 + A( j ) B( j )

The loop gain L( j ) A( j ) B( j ) = A( j ) B( j ) e j ( )

Now consider the special frequency 180 ,
feedback becomes positive.


( ) = 180 D e j ( ) = 1

There are three cases for L( j ) = 1

1) L( j ) = 1 A f ( j ) =
Or amplifier will have an output for zero input Oscillator
In fact, the oscillation will start and sustain
2) L( j ) < 1 A f ( j ) > A( j )
But the feedback amplifier will be stable.
3) L( j ) > 1
In general, the circuit will oscillate. At the beginning, oscillations will grow in amplitude.
But, until some sort of nonlinearities (for example the power supply limitation on the
output signal) reduce the loop gain to unity.
To explain these results consider the basic feedback structure with the input set to zero as
shown in Fig. 6. Assume a signal xi (some noise) appeared momentarily at the input of
the amplifier.

Fig. 6: Relation between the magnitude of loop gain and stability

1) If the magnitude of the loop gain is unity then xf will equal to the momentary
signal and the circuit will keep regenerating it again and again (i.e output will
appeared with no input or oscillation)
2) If the magnitude of the loop gain is less than unity, xf will be reduced version of
the momentary signal. The cycle will repeat until the signal is reduced to zero (i.e
output will be zero)
3) If the magnitude of the loop gain is more than unity, xf will be magnified version
of the momentary signal and it will be repeatedly increased indefinitely.

Stability and Pole Locations

In fact, there is direct relation between the magnitude of the loop gain and the pole
locations for a given amplifier.
Consider an amplifier with a pole pair at s = o j n . If any disturbance, due for
example to the closure of supply switch, occurs, the transient response of the amplifier
will contain terms of the form
u (t ) = e ot [e j nt + e j nt ] = 2e ot cos( n t )

Hence, three cases can be observed:

1. If o is positive (poles are in the left half plane) the sinusoidal signal will
diminish with time as shown in Fig. 7(a)
2. If o is negative (poles are in the right half plane) the sinusoidal signal will
exponentially increase with time as shown in Fig. 7(b)
3. If o is zero (poles are pure complex) the response will be pure sinusoidal signal
as shown in Fig. 7(c)
S plane

S plane

S plane

Fig. 7: Relationship between transient response and pole locations (8.29)

Sinusoidal Oscillation:
From the above discussion, you can observe the following important issues regarding
generation of sinusoidal oscillators:
1. Poles of closed-loop amplifier should be at frequency o on j axis.
2. Use positive feedback through frequency-selective feedback network to ensure
sustained oscillation at o.
3. The main components for sinusoidal oscillator circuit are:
(a) An active element (op amp or transistor) to compensate for the loss in the feedback
network and make the magnitude of the loop gain unity.
(b) At least two storage elements to generate two complex conjugate poles.
4. For sinusoidal oscillations,

1 L jo = 0 L jo = +1

5. This result leads to what is known as Barkhausens criteria of oscillation:

It states that for oscillation to start and sustain:

L jo = 0

L j

o =1

Or even multiples of 3600

This means for positive feedback, the magnitude of loop gain must be unity and the
phase shift around feedback loop should be zero degrees. Whereas, the phase shift
should be 180 for negative feedback.
6. Loop gain greater than unity causes distorted oscillations.